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  1. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  2. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

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    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  3. Calcium intake in the United States from dietary and supplemental sources across adult age groups: new estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

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    Mangano, Kelsey M; Walsh, Stephen J; Insogna, Karl L; Kenny, Anne M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2011-05-01

    Adequate lifelong calcium intake is essential in optimizing bone health. Recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used to quantify variation in calcium intake across adult age groups and to relate age-associated changes in calcium intake with energy intake. Additional goals were to assess differences in dietary calcium intake between supplemental calcium users and nonusers and to evaluate associations between age and calcium density in the diet. This cross-sectional analysis determined calcium and energy intake for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey respondents during 2003-2006. Diet was assessed with 24-hour recall and supplement use via questionnaire. Trends in median intakes for dietary calcium, total calcium, and energy across age categories were assessed using survey analysis methods. Nutrient density was represented using calcium to energy intake ratios. The analyses included data from 9,475 adults. When compared to the 19- to 30-year age group, median dietary calcium intake was lower in the ≥81-year age group by 23% in men (Pcalcium supplement use increased (Pcalcium intake was greater than in nonusers (P=0.02). Calcium density in the diet significantly increased relative to age in men and women (Pcalcium to energy ratios were insufficient to meet target ratios inferred by adequate intake standards after age 50 years. Although supplemental calcium use and calcium density were highest in older age groups, they were not sufficient in meeting recommended levels. New approaches to increasing the frequency and level of calcium supplement use to enhance calcium density in diets may be necessary to reduce osteoporosis risk among older Americans. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

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    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  5. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

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    Sebbar El-houcine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  6. Calcium intake of rural Gambian infants: a quantitative study of the relative contributions of breast milk and complementary foods at 3 and 12 months of age.

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    Jarjou, L M A; Goldberg, G R; Coward, W A; Prentice, A

    2012-06-01

    There is a paucity of information from developing countries on total calcium intake during infancy, and potential consequences for growth and bone development. Observational longitudinal study of rural Gambian infants (13 males and 17 females) at 3 and 12 months of age. Breast-milk intake and calcium concentration, weighed dietary intake, anthropometry, midshaft radius bone mineral content (BMC) and bone width (BW). At 3 and 12 months (mean ± s.d.) calcium intake from breast milk was 179 ± 53 and 117 ± 38, and from other foods 12 ± 38 and 73 ± 105 mg/day. There was no difference in total calcium intake; 94% and 62% of calcium came from breast milk. At 3 and 12 months, weight s.d.-scores were -0.441 ± 1.07 and -1.967 ± 1.06; length s.d.-scores were -0.511 ± 1.04 and -1.469 ± 1.13. Breast-milk calcium intake positively predicted weight (P = 0.0002, P ≤ 0.0001) and length (P = 0.056, P = 0.001). These relationships were not independent of breast-milk intake, which positively predicted weight (P ≤ 0.002) and length (P = 0.06, P = 0.004). At 3, but not 12 months, weight and length correlated with total calcium intake. There were no relationships between total calcium intake and breast-milk intake with BW or BMC. The combination of low calcium intake from breast milk and complementary foods resulted in a low total calcium intake close to the estimated biological requirement for bone mineral accretion. Relationships between calcium intake and growth were largely accounted for by breast-milk intake, suggesting that low calcium intake per se was not the limiting factor in the poor growth. These findings have potential implications for deriving calcium requirements in developing countries.

  7. Dairy products and total calcium intake at 13 years of age and its association with obesity at 21 years of age.

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    Marabujo, Tiago; Ramos, Elisabete; Lopes, Carla

    2018-01-25

    Dairy products and specifically calcium have been suggested to play a role in obesity development but more longitudinal evidence is still needed. The objective of this study was to assess the association between dairy products and total calcium intake at age 13 and body mass index at age 21. This longitudinal study included 2159 individuals from the Epidemiological Health Investigation of Teenagers cohort (EPITeen), Porto, Portugal, evaluated at ages 13 and 21. Assessment consisted of anthropometrics measurements and structured questionnaires namely a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to appraise food consumption in the past 12 months. Linear regression models were run in 941 individuals with complete information of confounders: gender, follow-up period, parents' education, physical activity, energy, and total calcium intake. Negative association was found on total calcium intake at age 13 with BMI at age 21 (model 0: β = -0.059 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.004) and model 1: -0.057 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.002)), however, no statistically significant association was found when adjusting for energy intake (model 2: β = -0.031 (95% CI: -0.110, 0.047). There were no associations between milk, yogurt, and cheese consumption at age 13 and BMI at age 21 when adjusting for confounders. This study did not support an independent effect of dairy products or total calcium intake in adolescence on later early adulthood adiposity.

  8. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

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    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  9. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

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    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  10. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

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    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  11. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

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    Keast, Debra R.; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Albertson, Ann M.; Gugger, Carolyn K.; Holschuh, Norton M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children. PMID:25742042

  12. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

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    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  13. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

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    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  14. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

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    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  15. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

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    Hye-Sung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97, but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20 nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21 was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  16. Estimated intake and food sources of vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, iron, and zinc for Guamanian children aged 9 to 12.

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    Pobocik, Rebecca S; Richer, Jennifer J

    2002-09-01

    This study describes the nutrient intake and food sources of select vitamins and minerals for children on Guam. Food records (n = 954) from public school students aged nine to twelve of all regions on Guam were analyzed for nutrient content and compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Individual foods were condensed into 194 food aggregates and food lists representing 84% to 91% of the major vitamins and minerals in the diet of the children were developed by frequency analysis. Median intake of calcium, vitamin E, folate were less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and mean intake of these nutrients was 60% RDA or less. Mean and median vitamin A intake was 107% and 76% RDA, respectively. Both mean and median intake of Vitamin C, iron and zinc were present at levels above 100% RDA. Rice, meat, fruit drink from powder, milk, and fortified cereals are foods that provide substantial contributions to the vitamin and mineral content of the diets. Traditional, nutrient dense foods, such as fish, yams, papaya, and mango had minor contributions because of low frequently of consumption. Information from this study can be used to develop specific diet assessment instruments and culturally appropriate nutrition education.

  17. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children.

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    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-02-01

    Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable.

  18. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

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    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  19. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

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    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

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    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  1. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

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    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  2. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers.

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    Huybrechts, I; Lin, Y; De Keyzer, W; Sioen, I; Mouratidou, T; Moreno, L A; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Vandevijvere, S; De Backer, G; De Henauw, S

    2011-09-01

    Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers. Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% boys) were used (66% of 1052 collected diaries). Contribution of 58 food groups to calcium and vitamin D intake were computed. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors. Mean calcium intake (844 mg per day) was above, and mean vitamin D intake (2.0 μg per day) largely below the Belgian recommendations. Milk, sweetened milk drinks and cheese were the main sources of calcium intakes (26, 25 and 11%, respectively). Butter and margarine were the main vitamin D sources (26%), followed by growth milk (=fortified milk) (20%) and fish (15%). Calcium and vitamin D intake were negatively associated with participants' age, and calcium positively with parental education and family size. The child's gender, supplement use and physical activity level, and the employment status and smoking behaviour of the parents were not associated with calcium or vitamin D intake. Flemish preschoolers had too low vitamin D intakes while most had adequate calcium intakes. Milk (including sweetened, fortified/growth milk) was the main food source of calcium intake and the second important source of vitamin D intake after butter and margarine. Calcium intake was positively associated with parental education, while vitamin D intake was not.

  3. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

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    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2).Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors.Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk.Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other dairy

  4. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

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    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  5. Girls' Calcium Intake Is Associated with Bone Mineral Content During Middle Childhood1

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Laura M.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined longitudinally the association between calcium intake and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in 151 non-Hispanic white girls. Intakes of dairy, energy, and calcium were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls in girls at ages 5, 7, 9, and 11 y. We assessed their total-body bone mineral content with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 9 and11 y. Dairy foods comprised the major contributor (70%) to calcium intake over the 6-y period; 28% of calcium came from other foods,...

  6. Dietary calcium intake by a group of 13 18-year-old Costa Rican teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, R; Nuñez, H P

    2001-06-01

    Calcium intake is one of the most important predictors of the amount of bone mass gained during growth. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the dietary calcium intake of Costa Rican urban and rural adolescents ages 13-18 years old. Calcium dietary intake was determined using prospective 3-d diet records. Two-thirds (or 66.7%) or less of the Adequate Intake (AI) was used as the criterion for inadequate calcium intake as suggested by several authors. Reported mean daily calcium intake was 573 mg +/- 290. On average 82% of the adolescents did not meet two-thirds of the Al for calcium. A higher percentage of rural than urban youngsters reported inadequate calcium intake (92% and 75% respectively, p = 0.000). Likewise a higher percentage of girls (91%) than boys (77%) reported marginal calcium intake. This study shows evidence that nutritional interventions and educational strategies are urgent for increasing calcium consumption among adolescents in order to reduce the future burden of osteoporosis in old age.

  7. Content Validity of a Short Calcium Intake List to Estimate Daily Dietary Calcium Intake of Patients with Osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, L.A.; Schueren, de van der M.A.E.; Tuyl, van L.H.D.; Bultink, I.E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Calcium supplements are prescribed for prevention of osteoporotic fractures, but there is controversy whether excess of calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular events. While an accurate estimation of dietary calcium intake is a prerequisite to prescribe the adequate amount of

  8. REAL INTAKE AND PROVISION WITH VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN OSTEOPOROSIS: ASSESSMENT BY MEASURING INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Khodyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim:  To assess the providing an organism with vitamins (А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium in osteoporosis patients by measuring their intake and plasma concentrations. Materials and methods: 108 pairs “osteoporosis patient – healthy volunteer” aged 64.29±9.73 years were formed using a “case-control” method. Real intake of vitamins and calcium was studied defining the frequency of food taking for a month using questionnaire method. Daily intake of vitamins А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium was calculated based on the analysis of the frequency of food taking. Among the basic group, using randomized method, 60% of osteoporosis patients were selected who underwent definition of plasma levels of vitamins А, В2, С, and Е. The same study was performed in 60 control volunteers. Results: Correlation of the intake of vitamins A, C, and β-carotene with their plasma levels wasn’t noted. It may reveal an increased need in these nutrients in osteoporosis. According to the calcium intake, every osteoporosis patient can be attributed to a population category with deep insufficiency of calcium intake (less than 500 mg a day. Conclusion: The data obtained need further investigation and, first of all, in clinical and biochemical fields (enzymatic non-provision for calcium uptake, clinical manifestations of insufficient provision with nutrients. Solution of these problems would enable regulation of food intake concerning calcium uptake in osteoporosis.

  9. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  10. CALCIUM INTAKE AS A FACTOR OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION AMONG TEENAGERS IN CELJE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo K. Fokter

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is a critical time for bone mineral acquisition and is as such the crucial period for the prevention of osteoporosis. The purpose of the study was to find whether adolescents’ calcium intake in Celje region is high enough to attain peak bone mass.Methods. 217 pupils attending primary school and 434 students attending secondary school participated in an anonymous survey regarding their calcium intake. The acquired data were statistically analysed.Results. Only 77 (11.8% among 651 teenagers had an optimal daily intake of calcium (≥ 1300 mg. The average calcium intake was 828.9 mg per day. The average daily calcium intake for girls was 777.6 mg and for boys 910.0 mg. Calcium intake decreased with the age of the adolescents. The lowest calcium intake was found in those adolescents who were concerned that drinking milk would make them fat.Conclusions. Because of adolescents’ sub-optimal intake of calcium there is a probability that osteoporosis will break out in the future. To avoid that, it would be necessary to start inexpensive education programs aimed at teenagers about the importance of the prevention of osteoporosis in adolescence.

  11. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  12. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-12-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  13. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  14. Association between CASR Polymorphisms, Calcium Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kyee-Zu Kim; Aesun Shin; Jeongseon Kim; Ji Won Park; Sung Chan Park; Hyo Seong Choi; Hee Jin Chang; Dae Yong Kim; Jae Hwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The current study aimed to assess the effect of dietary calcium intake and possible interactions with calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: A total of 420 colorectal cancer cases and 815 controls were included in the analysis. Calcium intake was investigated using a 103 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CASR, rs10934578, rs12485716, rs2270916, and rs4678174, were...

  15. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tao Fan,1 Gonzalo Nocea,2 Ankita Modi,3 Leah Stokes,1 Shuvayu S Sen1 1Global Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 2Department of Outcomes Research, Merck, Sharp and Dohme Spain, Madrid, Spain; 3Global Human Health, Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods: We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Results: Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day, thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day. Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥75 years (120 IU/day and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion: These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with

  16. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B

    2011-01-01

    and 1988 through 1993 and 1994. Total calcium intake, estimated by a 7-d food record or a a diet history interview, was divided into dairy and non-dairy forms of calcium. RESULTS: In men, a 10-fold increase in dairy calcium intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of tooth loss (incidence......-rate ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.68) even after an adjustment for tooth count in 1987 and 1988, age, education, and civil status (model 1), smoking, alcohol consumption, sucrose intake, and use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements (model 2), time since last dental visit and the presence...

  17. The importance of breakfast in meeting daily recommended calcium intake in a group of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; Requejo, A M; López-Sobaler, A M; Andrés, P; Quintas, M E; Navia, B; Izquierdo, M; Rivas, T

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the breakfast intake of calcium and milk products and to determine whether these correlate with total intake of both calcium and milk products. Food taken at breakfast and throughout the day was recorded using a 7 consecutive day food record in 200 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 13 years. 65.3% of boys and 80.5% of girls showed intakes of calcium which were lower than recommended. Milk products were the foods most frequently included in breakfast (95.5% of subjects included them in this meal). A relationship was seen between energy provided by breakfast and the quantities of milk products (r = 0.5735) and calcium (r = 0.6908) taken at this meal. A relationship was also seen between energy provided by breakfast and daily intake of milk products (r = 0.4633) and calcium (r = 0.4954). The percentage of intakes of calcium lower than those recommended decreased when breakfast provided > or = 20% of total energy intake, and when the consumption of milk products at breakfast was greater than the 50th percentile (200 ml). Subjects with breakfast milk product intakes > or = 200 ml showed higher intakes of the same over the rest of the day (233.3 +/-140.4 g) than did those who took lesser quantities of these foods at breakfast (161.5 +/- 100.6 g). Further, those who took > or = 25% of the recommended intake of calcium at breakfast showed greater intakes of the same over the rest of the day (600.4 +/- 213.8 mg compared to 510.8 +/- 200.7 mg in subjects with lower calcium intakes). The intake of milk products (r = 0.7587) and calcium (r = 0.7223) at breakfast correlates with the consumption of these foods in the whole diet. However, the total daily intake of milk products and calcium does not depend solely on breakfast intake. Subjects with the greatest intakes at breakfast also showed greater intakes over the rest of the day (r = 0.3953 for milk products and r = 0.4122 for calcium).

  18. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  19. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  20. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Bolland, Mark J

    2015-09-29

    To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) in participants aged over 50 with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, total body, or forearm as an outcome. We identified 59 eligible randomised controlled trials: 15 studied dietary sources of calcium (n=1533) and 51 studied calcium supplements (n=12,257). Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources increased BMD by 0.6-1.0% at the total hip and total body at one year and by 0.7-1.8% at these sites and the lumbar spine and femoral neck at two years. There was no effect on BMD in the forearm. Calcium supplements increased BMD by 0.7-1.8% at all five skeletal sites at one, two, and over two and a half years, but the size of the increase in BMD at later time points was similar to the increase at one year. Increases in BMD were similar in trials of dietary sources of calcium and calcium supplements (except at the forearm), in trials of calcium monotherapy versus co-administered calcium and vitamin D, in trials with calcium doses of ≥ 1000 versus 500 mg/day, and in trials where the baseline dietary calcium intake was calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD, which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture. © Tai et al 2015.

  1. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800-1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥ 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis.

  2. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  3. Relationship between milk and calcium intake and lipid metabolism in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju; Chang, Namsoo; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  5. Dietary and total calcium intakes are associated with lower percentage total body and truncal fat in young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Megan L; Simpson, Janis A Randall; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between different sources of calcium intake (dairy [milk products only], dietary [all dietary sources including dairy], nondairy dietary [all dietary sources excluding dairy], and total [dietary + supplemental]) and fat mass in young adults. One hundred ninety-seven healthy Caucasian men and women aged 18 to 28 years from southwestern Ontario underwent whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to determine total body fat mass (%FM) and truncal fat (%TF). Calcium intakes, determined using a food frequency questionnaire, were divided into quartiles for each of dairy, dietary, nondairy dietary, and total sources. Physical activity scores were collected on a subset of subjects (n = 167). Mean %FM and %TF were compared between the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) quartiles of calcium consumers for each calcium source. Calcium intakes between subjects with %FM ≥ 50th and regardless of calcium source (dairy, dietary, and total). When adjusted for physical activity, lower %FM and %TF persisted (P ≤ 0.05) for subjects in Q4 (1113-1595 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes) vs Q1 (116-393 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes). Calcium intakes from dairy, dietary, and total sources for subjects with a %FM ≥ 50th percentile were significantly lower (all P ≤ 0.05); when adjusted for physical activity, dietary (P = 0.025) and total (P = 0.060) calcium intakes remained lower. Our findings support a relationship, even after adjusting for physical activity, between higher dietary and total calcium intakes and lower total body and truncal fat in young adults. Results suggest an intake of approximately 1500 mg/d calcium could aid in the management of body and truncal fat. We recommend that young adults be encouraged to increase their total calcium intakes to at least the recommended daily allowance of 1000 mg/d for reasons extending beyond bone health.

  6. [Evaluation of the calcium intake in population of Marrakesh and its region: 1000 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Ouazar, M; Amine, M; Harifi, G; Ouilki, I; Younsi, R; Belkhou, A; El Bouchti, I; El Hassani, S

    2010-02-01

    The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in population of Marrakesh and its region by the translated version in Moroccan Arabic dialect of Fardellone questionnaire. The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 1000 subjects. The subjects aged less than 15 years accounted for 30.9% (n=309), those aged 15 to 59 62% (n=620) and those aged over 60 years 7.1% (n=71). The distribution by age group is calculated on the distribution of the Moroccan population. The study population includes 60.6% women (n=606), 39.4% of men (n=394). The mean calcium intake was respectively 5875 mg by week (that means 839 mg/day), 4899 mg by week (that means 699 mg/day), 3053 mg by week (that means 436 mg/day), in subjects aged less than 15, those aged 15 to 59, and those aged over 60 years. The average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for the three age groups. Patients aged over 60 years is the age group most under nourished calcium. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium intake, polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor, and recurrent/aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Shui, Irene M; Wilson, Kathryn M; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kibel, Adam S

    2015-12-01

    To assess whether calcium intake and common genetic variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) are associated with either aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) or disease recurrence after prostatectomy. Calcium intake at diagnosis was assessed, and 65 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASR were genotyped in 886 prostatectomy patients. We investigated the association between calcium intake and CASR variants with both PCa recurrence and aggressiveness (defined as Gleason score ≥4 + 3, stage ≥pT3, or nodal-positive disease). A total of 285 men had aggressive disease and 91 experienced recurrence. A U-shaped relationship between calcium intake and both disease recurrence and aggressiveness was observed. Compared to the middle quintile, the HR for disease recurrence was 3.07 (95% CI 1.41-6.69) for the lowest quintile and 3.21 (95% CI 1.47-7.00) and 2.97 (95% CI 1.37-6.45) for the two upper quintiles, respectively. Compared to the middle quintile, the OR for aggressive disease was 1.80 (95% CI 1.11-2.91) for the lowest quintile and 1.75 (95% CI 1.08-2.85) for the highest quintile of calcium intake. The main effects of CASR variants were not associated with PCa recurrence or aggressiveness. In the subgroup of patients with moderate calcium intake, 31 SNPs in four distinct blocks of high linkage disequilibrium were associated with PCa recurrence. We observed a protective effect of moderate calcium intake for PCa aggressiveness and recurrence. While CASR variants were not associated with these outcomes in the entire cohort, they may be associated with disease recurrence in men with moderate calcium intakes.

  8. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  9. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, V; Ekanayake, L; Silva, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing and the associations between dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and gingival bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschool children. A cross-sectional study. 784 children aged 48-72 months attending preschools in the Kegalle district and their mothers/carers. The prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing was 52.9%. A Poisson logistic regression model revealed that children with a high daily dietary intake of calcium were less likely to have gingival bleeding on probing than those with low intake (PR=0.80; 95%CI 0.64,0.98). Also prevalence of gingival bleeding was higher in children: with plaque on their teeth; whose mothers were not employed; or, were from families with three or more children. The prevalence of gingivitis was high in the children and the findings suggest that high levels of dietary calcium intake are associated with reduced gingival bleeding in preschool children.

  10. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  11. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  12. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  13. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  14. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  15. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. Interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density or bone geometry in a low calcium intake population (KNHANES IV 2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Sang Wan; Jang, Hak Chul; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone strength parameters in populations or areas with low calcium intake. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) or bone geometry in an Asian population with low calcium intake. This was a cross-sectional study of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010. A total of 3448 men and 3812 women older than 50 years were stratified by daily dietary calcium intake: less than 400 mg/d, 400-799 mg/d, 800-1199 mg/d, and 1200 mg/d or greater. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the geometric index was calculated. Mean daily calcium intake was 470 mg/d in this population. BMD in the lumbar spine (both sexes) and femoral neck (women) was significantly lower only when calcium intake was less than 400 mg/d. In men, femoral neck and total hip BMD was positively related to calcium intake up to 1200 mg/d. Calcium intake less than 400 mg/d was negatively related to femoral cortical thickness and buckling ratio. These interactions disappeared when the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 30 ng/mL or greater in men and 20 ng/mL or greater in women. Low calcium intake was significantly related with low BMD and increased risk of osteoporosis. However, the association between calcium and BMD was not consistently linear, and a sufficient vitamin D level appears to compensate for the negative influences of low calcium intake on bone.

  17. Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women

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    Geoffrey C. Nicholson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (< 800 mg/day, 386 (60% had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644 consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

  18. Vitamin D deficiency and calcium intake in reference to increased body mass index in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musharaf, Sara; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Yusuf, Deqa S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Moharram, Osama; Yakout, Sobhy; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to several chronic diseases in adults. Studies focusing on children and adolescents, however, are limited. In this randomized cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with childhood obesity and dietary calcium intake among a population of healthy urban Saudi children and adolescents. To achieve this, 331 randomly selected Saudi children (53.8% females and 46.2% males) aged 6-17 years were included. Demographic, medical, and dietary information were collected; anthropometrics were measured. Levels of serum fasting glucose, lipid profile, 25(OH) D, and for albumin corrected calcium were analyzed. Vitamin D deficiency was noted in all subjects, with girls having significantly lower vitamin D levels than boys. Mean calcium intake was found to be 60% of the required dietary allowance (RDA), while the mean vitamin D intake was 23% of RDA. Vitamin D status and calcium intake were comparable in both normal and overweight/obese children and adolescents. Vitamin D status was highest among children who had calcium intake >800 mg/day. In adolescents there was insignificant but decreasing trend in BMI, which was observed to be highest among those whose calcium intake was 800 mg/day. results from this study suggest the importance of vitamin D fortification and increased dietary calcium in the Saudi diet to meet RDA requirements and avoid onset of vitamin D deficiency-related diseases in Saudi children and adolescents.

  19. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Daniele Lazzarotto; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Dibi, Raquel Papandreus; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Vanin, Carla Maria De Martini

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Women (n = 155) of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  20. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lazzarotto Harter

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Women (n = 155 of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  1. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  2. A systematic review of behavioural interventions to increase maternal calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Stork, Matthew J; Stapleton, Jessica; Bourne, Jessica E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are a time when adequate calcium consumption is essential for the development of the fetus and to ensure the health of the mother. Over 50% of Canadian women of childbearing and rearing age fail to meet the recommended daily intake of calcium. Identification of effective behavioural intervention strategies for increasing calcium intake is needed within this specific population. This paper brings together all published behavioural interventions designed to increase calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating or post-partum mothers in a systematic review. Relevant studies were obtained through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library with no date restrictions. Studies were evaluated using previously published criteria for evaluating calcium behaviour change interventions. This systematic literature review identified five behavioural calcium interventions conducted within this population. Three interventions aimed to improve overall dietary behaviours, the fourth aimed to promote breastfeeding (including increasing calcium consumption) and the fifth aimed to increase daily servings of yoghurt. Only one of the five interventions yielded large effect sizes, with a mean change of 954 mg of calcium per day post-intervention. The number of behavioural change techniques did not appear to be related to intervention efficacy. Only one study used a theoretical framework to guide the intervention. This review highlights the lack of research examining behaviour change interventions aimed at increasing calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating and post-partum women and provides practical suggestions for researchers wishing to intervene with this population in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Inadequate intake of calcium in adults from the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Jiménez Talamantes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: mineral calcium is essential for bone health throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake in adults from the Valencian Community. Material and methods: the Autonomous Community of Valencia Nutrition Survey 2010-2011, a cross-sectional population study, was used as the data source, which collected data on calcium intake using one 24-h recall. The final sample was 1206 (597 men and 609 women subjects older than 18 years. Results: an average calcium intake of 741.4 mg/person/day (SD= 334.9, 757.8 mg/person/day (SD= 350.0 in men and 725.3 mg/person/day (SD= 319.0 in women was estimated. The results of insufficient intake obtained according to the levels of the estimated average requirements were 70.6% (95%CI: 68.0-73.2, 75.4% higher in women (95%CI: 72.0-78.2 than in men 65.7% (95%CI: 61.9-69.5. The prevalence was 83.8% (95%CI: 81.7-85.9 for the recommended dietary allowances and the differences by sex were significant (p<0,05. The estimated prevalence was highest by age group in those older than 70 years in both cases, 85.5% (95%CI: 80.0-91.0 and 94.3% (95%CI: 90.7-97, 9 respectively. Conclusions: there is evidence of a high prevalence of inadequate calcium intake in adult population from the Autonomous Community of Valencia. Studies should be carried out to evaluate the influence of these findings on related pathologies (osteoporosis, osteoporotic fracture.

  4. The influence of breakfast and dairy products on dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in postpubertal adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B S E; Verly, E; Marchioni, D M L; Fisberg, M; Martini, L A

    2012-02-01

    Given the importance of both calcium and vitamin D for bone health and the high prevalence of vitamin D from around the world, the present study aimed to evaluate calcium and vitamin D intake in a group of healthy Brazilian adolescents and young adults and to examine the influence of breakfast and dairy products in the total intake of these nutrients.   One hundred and sixty adolescents and young adults, aged 16-20 years old, from a public school, participated in the present study. Three-day dietary records were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intakes. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. The results were expressed as the mean (SD). Only 3.8% of the subjects met the daily adequate intake recommendation for calcium, and none for vitamin D [682.2 (132.2)mg day(-1) and 124.0 (28.0)IU day(-1) , respectively]. 25(OH)D serum levels were insufficient in 51.5% and deficient in 9.7% of the individuals [72.5 (22.3) nmol L(-1) ]. There was a significant positive correlation between dairy product intake with both calcium and vitamin D (r=0.597 and r =0.561, respectively; P=0.000). Adolescents who ate breakfast had a significant higher mean calcium, vitamin D and dairy product intake than adolescents who did not report this meal. The majority of adolescents and young adults did not consume recommended intakes of calcium and vitamin D and also presented 25(OH)D insufficiency. The results indicate that a regular breakfast and the consumption of dairy products represent important strategies in improving calcium and vitamin D intake in the diet. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  6. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  7. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ruth E; Williams, Sheila M; Jones, Ianthe E; Goulding, Ailsa

    2002-09-01

    Information concerning the adequacy of bone mineralization in children who customarily avoid drinking cow milk is sparse. The objective was to evaluate dietary calcium intakes, anthropometric measures, and bone health in prepubertal children with a history of long-term milk avoidance. We recruited 50 milk avoiders (30 girls, 20 boys) aged 3-10 y by advertisement. We measured current dietary calcium intakes with a food-frequency questionnaire and body composition and bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared the results with those of 200 milk-drinking control children. The reasons for milk avoidance were intolerance (40%), bad taste (42%), and lifestyle choice (18%). Dietary calcium intakes were low (443 +/- 230 mg Ca/d), and few children consumed substitute calcium-rich drinks or mineral supplements. Although 9 children (18%) were obese, the milk avoiders were shorter (P milk is associated with small stature and poor bone health. This is a major concern that warrants further study.

  8. [Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kelly Aparecida da; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: "children" and "calcium" or "children" and "vitamin D" associated with the descriptors: "obesity", "adiposity" or "body fat" for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium intake is associated with decreased prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Hanioka, Takashi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-11-24

    We investigated the relationships between calcium intake and the prevalence of periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study included 1162 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on dietary factors was collected using a diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. Oral examinations were performed between one and twelve months postpartum. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a pocket depth of 4.0 mm or deeper. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, smoking status, toothbrushing frequency, use of an interdental brush, household income, and education. Compared with the lowest quartile of calcium intake, the highest quartile was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of periodontal disease; however, the inverse linear trend fell just short of the significance level: the adjusted odds ratio was 0.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.94, P for trend =0.07). Our findings suggest that higher calcium intake may be inversely associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease.

  10. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  11. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  12. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  13. Effectiveness of a Theory-Driven Nutritional Education Program in Improving Calcium Intake among Older Mauritian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishnee Bhurosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n=189 aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG (n=98 participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM. The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P<0.001 at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P<0.05 after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P<0.001. Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.

  14. Effect of training mode and calcium intake on bone mineral density in female master cyclist, runners, and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshgetoor, D; Nichols, J F; Rego, I

    2000-09-01

    The focus of this prospective, observational study was to determine the effect of sport-specific training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) in female master cyclists, runners and non-athletes. Thirty women (12 cyclists, 9 runners, 9 controls), mean age of 49.6 +/- 7.9 years, were assessed at baseline and 18 months for calcium intake (4-day records), current exercise activity (recall questionnaire), and BMD of the lumbar spine and hip (DXA). A three (cyclists, runners, controls) by two (0 and 18 months) repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant interaction effect of sport and time at the femoral neck (p cyclists and runners but declined in controls (p cyclists (p <.007) and in controls (p <.03), while trochanteric BMD declined in all groups (p <.01). No significant interaction effect of sport and dietary calcium intake was noted for BMD at any site.

  15. Worldwide trends in dairy production and consumption and calcium intake: is promoting consumption of dairy products a sustainable solution for inadequate calcium intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Shiru

    2008-09-01

    Adequate calcium intake is critical for good health. Inadequate calcium intake is a worldwide problem and is more serious in countries where consumption of dairy products is low. To analyze worldwide trends in production and consumption of dairy products and in calcium intake. Data were taken from Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets, from published studies, and from surveys of four countries with large populations and large dairy production (China, India, the United States, and Russia). Linear regression models were fitted to estimate average annual changes and to project future trends. Overall global dairy production and supply (total and per capita) have increased since 1980, especially in developing countries. There are large between-region and between-country differences in the levels of production, supply, and consumption and in the trends. In 1997 India surpassed the United States to become the largest dairy producer. Consumption of dairy products in China has more than tripled since 1982 and has increased sevenfold among urban residents. The increase has been more dramatic during recent years. In spite of increases in dairy production and consumption in China and India, calcium intake has decreased in these countries. The average daily per capita consumption of dairy products was more than 200 g in the United States in 1999-2004 but less than 27g in China in 2002; the average daily per capita intake of calcium was 962 mg in US men and 756 mg in US women in 1999-2004, but less than 400 mg in China in 2002. Global production and supply of dairy products have been increasing since 1980, which has an impact on the environment. Dairy consumption and calcium intake remain low in most countries examined as compared with recommended amounts of dairy products and calcium. Promotion of consumption of dairy products does not necessarily increase total calcium intake.

  16. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  18. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingxing; Li, Zongyao; Ji, Xinqiang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99) and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies. PMID:28665326

  19. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89 for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98 for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24 for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99 and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89. In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88 and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

  20. CALCIUM AND IRON INTAKE BY OLD PEOPLE LIVING IN GERIATRIC INSTITUTIONS IN FORTALEZA, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciana Nobre de Menezes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and iron intake by 152 old people living in geriatric institutions in Fortaleza, CE was analyzed. The methodology used consisted of weighing food first and then its remainder after meals in order to calculate food consumption. The results showed that 93% of the old people studied presented inadequate intake of calcium. Regarding iron, 72% of men and 41% of women presented intakes above the recommended levels. However, 12% of women presented iron intakes below the recommended levels. According to such results, it is concluded that this population is under a nutritional risk of osteoporosis (considering the large proportion of individuals with inadequate intake of calcium as well as ferroprivous anaemia, especially concerning women. Thus, interventions to prevent and correct such deficiencies are necessary. Key words: old people in geriatric institutions, food intake, food direct weighing.

  1. Blood pressure in relation to dietary calcium intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead, and blood cadmium in female nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizent, A; Jurasovie, J; Telisman, S

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationship of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), age, and body mass index (BMI) to blood pressure was examined in 267 peasant women 40-85 years of age. They were residents of two rural areas in Croatia and differed with regard to dietary Ca intake: 100 women with low Ca intake (approximately 450 mg/day) and 167 women with relatively high Ca intake (approximately 940 mg/day). All of the women were nonsmokers and consumed very little or no alcohol. Median and range BPb values were 74 (29-251) microg/L in women with low Ca intake and 59 (21-263) microg/L in women with high Ca intake (p 0.10). Results of multiple regression showed a significant (p women with low Ca intake), and marginally with BCd, and alcohol consumption (multiple r = 0.38, p women with different Ca intake were subdivided into consumers and nonconsumers of alcohol, BPb was related positively to alcohol consumption and inversely to Ca intake. The highest BPb was found in the subgroup of alcohol consumers with low Ca intake, and the lowest BPb in the subgroup of nonconsumers with high Ca intake: 78 (42-251) microg/L and 51 (22-192) microg/L, respectively (p < 10(-8)). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the former subgroup as compared to the latter: 95 (72-130) mm Hg and 90 (60-120) mm Hg, respectively (p < 0.05). This cannot be explained by age, BMI, or BCd, which were comparable in the two subgroups. The results indicate that alcohol consumption and low Ca intake can increase BPb, which may significantly contribute to an increase in diastolic blood pressure in female nonsmokers even at relatively low-level Pb exposure.

  2. Intake of dairy products and calcium and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between the intake of dairy products and calcium and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study (KOMCHS). A cohort of 1745 pregnant Japanese women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale denoted depressive symptoms. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, and body mass index. In our analyses regarding dairy products in general, adjustment was also made for fish intake; in our analysis regarding calcium, adjustment was also made for the intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Higher intake levels of yogurt and calcium were independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles were 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99, P for trend = 0.03) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.88, P for trend = 0.006), respectively. No relationships were observed between the intake of all dairy products, milk, or cheese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current results suggest that a higher intake of yogurt and calcium may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. [Food sources and average intake of calcium in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Jiménez Ortega, A I; Navia Lombán, B; Ruiz-Roso Calvo de Mora, B; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; López Plaza, B

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy about the adequacy of calcium intake to that recommended in Spanish schoolchildren. Some studies indicate that the intake is inadequate in a variable percentage of children, while others insist on the danger of an excessive intake in a huge percentage of this population. To assess calcium intake and food sources of this nutrient in a representative sample of Spanish children and to judge the adequacy of its contribution to the coverage of recommended intakes. 903 schoolchildren (7 to 11 years) from 10 Spanish provinces (Tarragona, Caceres, Burgos, Guadalajara, Valencia, Salamanca, Cordoba, Vizcaya, Lugo and Madrid) were studied. They constituted a representative sample of the Spanish schoolchildren population. The energy and nutrient intake was determined using a "Food record questionnaire" for 3 days, including a Sunday. Calcium intake was compared with the recommended intakes (RI) for the mineral. Weight and height were recorded and body mass index (BMI) calculated. In the studied group (55.3% girls and 44.7% of children), 30.7% had an excess body weight (23.3% overweight and 7.4% obesity). Calcium intake was 859.9 ± 249.2 mg / day (79.5% of the recommendations). 76.7% of children had intakes below 100% of those recommended and 40.1% below of 67% of RI. The ratios calcium/phosphorus (0.74 ± 0.21) and calcium/protein (10.1 ± 2.8) and the index of nutritional quality for calcium (0.78 ± 0.29) were lower than recommended in 91.6%, 99.8% and 81.1% of children, respectively. Dietary calcium came from dairy products (64.7%), dietetic products and infant formulae (7.6%), cereals (7.3%), vegetables (3.5%), fruits (3.4%), pre-cooked meals (3.3%), meats (2.8%), fishes (2.8%) and pulses (2.2%), with no differences by gender. Calcium intake was lower than recommended in 76.7% of the children and 40.1% had insufficient intake (calcium source was dairy products (64.7%), increase consumption of this food group is recommended, especially in the 37.1% of

  4. Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Madani, Farzaneh; Mir, Elham; Larijani, Bagher

    2006-10-01

    Poor maternal vitamin D status affects fetal and infant skeletal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between newborn outcomes and maternal calcium and vitamin D intakes. Four hundred and forty-nine pregnant women, healthy at the point of delivery, and their newborns were enrolled in the study, which was performed in three university hospitals in Tehran in March 2004. Maternal anthropometric data and energy, protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes were collected, and newborn outcomes (weight, length, head circumference and 1-min Apgar score) were determined. Almost two-thirds of the mothers (64.3%) took no supplements during pregnancy. Only one-third of the mothers (33.8%) had adequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D (from supplements and foods) compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Mean length at birth and 1-min Apgar score were higher in newborns whose mothers had adequate calcium and vitamin D intake than in newborns whose mothers had inadequate intake (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Significant correlations were found between adequate maternal calcium and vitamin D intake and both appropriate birth weight and 1-min Apgar score of newborns and weight gain of mothers during pregnancy. Informing mothers of the critical importance of consuming adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D seems necessary.

  5. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, D; Cobbold, C; Dimitrakakis, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of calcium supplements for the prevention of complications of osteoporosis has significantly increased during the last years. The effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiovascular events are controversial. Even though transient beneficial effects of calcium supplementation have been reported, especially in women with low dietary calcium intake, their long-term outcomes are inconclusive. Only a very few studies investigating serum lipids in postmenopausal women have been described and these showed significant increases in high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein ratio. With regards to cardiovascular events in this population group adverse effects have been reported on the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke with increased calcium intake by some authors, however, others described no effects or even beneficial outcomes. We present a review of the current literature which provides a balanced summary of the possible beneficial and adverse effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters. Taking into account the modest effect of calcium supplementation in reducing fracture rates, a reassessment of the role, benefits and adverse effects of calcium supplements should be conducted in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  7. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  8. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiftyone per cent of participants had not been given any information relating to calcium and its benefits. Teachers and parents are the most noted sources of information and 31% of the participants knew that adolescence was the most important period for calcium absorption and bone building. Conclusions. Adolescents ...

  9. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001. After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001. After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  10. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  11. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level.

  12. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Aune, Dagfinn; Greenwood, Darren C; Ju, Woong; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2014-10-15

    Mechanistic and epidemiologic studies provide considerable evidence for a protective association between calcium intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC). While the relationship has not been substantiated by short-duration randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CRC, trials do show a benefit on adenomas, a precursor to CRC. To address some of this inconsistency, we conducted dose-response meta-analyses by sources of calcium intake, based on prospective observational studies published up to December 2013 identified from PubMed, Embase, and BIOSIS. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. For total calcium intake, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 8% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89-0.95, I(2)  = 47%, 15 studies with 12,305 cases, intake = 250-1,900 mg/day, follow-up = 3.3-16 years). While the risk decreased less steeply in higher range of total calcium intake (P(non-linearity)  = 0.04), the degree of curvature was mild and statistical significance of non-linearity was sensitive to one study. For supplementary calcium, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 9% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.98, I(2)  = 67%, six studies with 8,839 cases, intake = 0-1,150 mg/day, follow-up = 5-10 years). The test for non-linearity was not statistically significant (P(non-linearity)  = 0.11). In conclusion, both dietary and supplementary calcium intake may continue to decrease CRC risk beyond 1,000 mg/day. Calcium supplements and non-dairy products fortified with calcium may serve as additional targets in the prevention of CRC. RCTs of calcium supplements with at least 10 years of follow-up are warranted to confirm a benefit of calcium supplements on CRC risk. © 2014 UICC.

  13. Protective effects of low calcium intake and low calcium absorption vitamin D receptor genotype in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2013-01-01

    High calcium intake is consistently associated with increased prostate cancer risk in epidemiologic studies. We previously reported that the positive association between calcium intake and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CDX-2 binding site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, among African American men. We expanded our previous study to include White men, a population with a higher calcium intake and a higher prevalence of the low absorption allele. We also examined VDR polymorphisms at other loci unrelated to calcium absorption. The study included 1,857 prostate cancer cases (1,140 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 717 with localized stage) and 1,096 controls. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Among both Blacks and Whites, we observed a threshold for calcium intake (604 mg/d) below which prostate cancer risk declined sharply. Low calcium intake was most strongly associated with decreased risk among men with the VDR Cdx2 low calcium absorption genotype (P for interaction = 0.001 and P = 0.06 for Whites and African Americans, respectively). Among all men with this genotype, those in the lowest quartile of calcium intake (≤604 mg/d) had a 50% reduction in risk as compared with those in the upper three quartiles [OR = 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.67]. The association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk was not modified by genotype at other VDR loci. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of calcium absorption influence prostate cancer risk. The differences between African Americans and Whites in calcium absorption and dietary calcium intake may contribute to racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  14. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Mark J Bolland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled tria...

  15. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  16. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  17. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    imperative to develop awareness of the importance of calcium consumption during childhood and adolescence in order to minimise ... Anthropometry. Height was measured to the nearest 5 mm with a tape measure placed against a perpendicular wall. Participants stood erect without shoes looking forward with the head in ...

  18. Calcium Intake From Diet and Supplements and the Risk of Coronary Artery Calcification and its Progression Among Older Adults: 10-Year Follow-up of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J B; Kruszka, Bridget; Delaney, Joseph A C; He, Ka; Burke, Gregory L; Alonso, Alvaro; Bild, Diane E; Budoff, Matthew; Michos, Erin D

    2016-10-11

    Recent randomized data suggest that calcium supplements may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Using a longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the association between calcium intake, from both foods and supplements, and atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC). We studied 5448 adults free of clinically diagnosed CVD (52% female; aged 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Baseline total calcium intake was assessed from diet (using a food frequency questionnaire) and calcium supplements (by a medication inventory) and categorized into quintiles. Baseline CAC was measured by computed tomography, and CAC measurements were repeated in 2742 participants ≈10 years later. At baseline, mean calcium intakes across quintiles were 313.3, 540.3, 783.0, 1168.9, and 2157.4 mg/day. Women had higher calcium intakes than men. After adjustment for potential confounders, among 1567 participants without baseline CAC, the relative risk (RR) of developing incident CAC over 10 years, by quintile 1 to 5 of calcium intake, were 1 (reference), 0.95 (0.79-1.14), 1.02 (0.85-1.23), 0.86 (0.69-1.05), and 0.73 (0.57-0.93). After accounting for total calcium intake, calcium supplement use was associated with increased risk for incident CAC (RR=1.22 [1.07-1.39]). No relation was found between baseline calcium intake and 10-year changes in log-transformed CAC among those participants with baseline CAC >0. High total calcium intake was associated with a decreased risk of incident atherosclerosis over long-term follow-up, particularly if achieved without supplement use. However, calcium supplement use may increase the risk for incident CAC. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  20. The influence of calcium intake and physical activity on bone mineral content and bone size in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, B. Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted......Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted...

  1. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  2. Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Chon, S J; Noe, E B; Roh, Y H; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2017-01-01

    Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women. The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean men and women, especially postmenopausal women. The study was performed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) and included 14,705 participants (5953 men, 4258 premenopausal women, and 4494 postmenopausal women). Clinical and other objective characteristics, presence of metabolic syndrome, and the BMD of the femur neck and lumbar spine were evaluated according to dietary calcium intake. There was a higher tendency for metabolic syndrome in men with a dietary calcium intake of >1200 mg/day than with ≤400 mg of calcium intake; >400 and ≤800 mg of calcium intake was helpful for postmenopausal women to decrease risk for metabolic syndrome. Overall, the group with calcium intake >400 and ≤800 mg daily had significantly increased BMD in both femoral neck and lumbar spine from both men and postmenopausal women. From both femoral neck and lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women significantly decreased in the group whose calcium intake was >400 and ≤800 mg daily. Excessive dietary calcium may increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men. For postmenopausal women, calcium intake does not increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, but modest amount decreases the risk. It may increase the BMD in men and postmenopausal women, and also reduce the prevalence of both osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  3. Development and Testing of a Mobile Phone App for Self-Monitoring of Calcium Intake in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ilona; Garland, Suzanne; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2017-03-07

    Interventions to prevent osteoporosis by increasing dairy intake or physical activity in young women have been limited to increasing osteoporosis knowledge and awareness. However, findings have shown that this does not always lead to a change in behaviors. Self-monitoring using mobile devices in behavioral interventions has yielded significant and positive outcomes. Yet, to our knowledge, mobile self-monitoring has not been used as an intervention strategy to increase calcium intake, particularly in young women, for better bone health outcomes. As development and testing of mobile app-based interventions requires a sequence of steps, our study focused on testing the acceptability and usability of Calci-app, a dietary app to self-monitor calcium consumption, before it is used in a behavioral change intervention in young women aged 18-25 years. Calci-app development followed 4 steps: (1) conceptualization, (2) development and pretesting, (3) pilot testing, and (4) mixed methods evaluation. We present the development process of Calci-app and evaluation of the acceptability and usability of the app in young women. Overall, 78% (31/40) of study participants completed the 5-day food record with high compliance levels (defined as more than 3 days of full or partial completion). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants completing all meal entries over the 5 days (P=.01). Participants generally found Calci-app easy and convenient to use, but it was time-consuming and they expressed a lack of motivation to use the app. We present a detailed description of the development process of Calci-app and an evaluation of its usability and acceptability to self-monitor dietary calcium intake. The findings from this preliminary study demonstrated acceptable use of Calci-app to self-monitor calcium consumption. However, for regular and long-term use the self-monitoring function in Calci-app could be expanded to allow participants to view their total daily

  4. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  5. Calcium intakes in individuals on diets for the management of cows' milk allergy: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, M; Gibney, M J

    1993-09-01

    Three hundred and twenty-three individuals with self-reported food allergy were recruited by media advertisements. Questionnaire information was collected on all respondents. Chocolate (57%), milk (47%), wheat (36%) and food additives (35%) were the most frequently implicated foods. The most frequently reported symptoms were itching (43%), skin rash (43%) and tiredness (43%). Food avoidance was the most common form of food allergy diagnosis (33%) with only 8% of respondents reporting food challenge in food allergy diagnosis. Self-diagnosis was reported by 34% of respondents with 29% and 24% reporting diagnosis by a general practitioner or a homeopath, respectively. Twenty-four per cent of respondents 'always' avoided and a further 57% 'nearly always' avoided the implicated food(s). A group of 38 adults with self-reported 'milk allergy' was selected for further study. Dietary assessments, using the dietary history method, were carried out on this subgroup and on age-, sex- and occupation-matched controls. The results of the dietary assessments revealed that the 'milk allergy' group had significantly higher intakes of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and folic acid (P allergy' group took calcium-containing supplements. Even after calcium supplementation, the mean calcium intake of those who completely avoided milk was unacceptably low (441 mg/d).

  6. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  7. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Rehmani Ghobadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  8. Calcium intake and bone mineral density as an example of non-linearity and threshold analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, L P

    2015-04-01

    Non-linearity is a likely phenomenon in bone metabolism, but is often ignored in pertinent epidemiological studies. Using NHANES III data on calcium intake and bone mineral density, the most important non-linear methods are introduced and discussed. The results should motivate researchers to consider non-linearity in this field more frequently. Many relationships in bone metabolism and homeostasis are likely to follow non-linear patterns. Detailed dose-response analyses allowing for non-linear associations nonetheless remain scarce in this field. A detailed analysis of NHANES III data on dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density was used to demonstrate the application and some of the challenges of the most important dose-response methods, including LOESS, categorical analysis, fractional polynomials, restricted cubic splines, and segmented regression. The spline estimate suggested increasing bone mineral density up to a calcium intake of about 1 g/day and a plateau thereafter. In segmented regression, the break-point marking the beginning of the plateau was placed at an intake of 0.58 (95 % confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.82) g/day. Sensitivity analyses suggested a less curved dose-response in women. Knowing about the possibilities and limitations of non-linear dose-response approaches should encourage researchers to consider these methods more frequently in studies on bone health and disease. The example analysis suggested bone mineral density to reach a plateau slightly below current calcium intake recommendations, with fairly pronounced differences of the dose-response shape by sex and menopausal status.

  9. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: Results from the nurses' health study and health professionals follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Keum, NaNa; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between calcium intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remains inconclusive. We conducted this study to evaluate whether the association between calcium intake and CRC risk differs by anatomic subsite and determine the dose-response relationship for this association, as well as assess when in carcinogenesis calcium may play a role. We assessed calcium intake every 4 years and followed 88,509 women (1980-2012) in the Nurses' Health Study and 47,740 men (1986-2012) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We documented 3,078 incident CRC cases. Total calcium intake (≥1,400 vs. cancer (multivariable relative risk: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.65-0.95). Similar results were observed by different sources of calcium (from all foods or dairy products only). The inverse association was linear and suggestively stronger for distal colon cancer (0.65, 0.43-0.99) than for proximal colon cancer (0.94, 0.72-1.22, p-common effects  = 0.14). Additionally, when comparing different latencies, the overall pattern suggested that the inverse association appeared to be stronger with increasing latency and was strongest for intakes 12-16 years before diagnosis. Comparing total calcium intakes of ≥1,400 vs. calcium intake was associated with a lower risk of developing colon cancer, especially for distal colon cancer. Overall inverse association was linear and did not differ by intake source. Additionally, calcium intake approximately 10 years before diagnosis appeared to be associated with a lower risk of CRC. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Oudshoorn (Christian); K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); E.M. Colin (Edgar); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional

  11. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  12. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  13. The effect of dairy products choice on calcium dietary intake in female university students of nutritional faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika; Lange, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products provide the most important source of calcium in a typical human diet, being of particular significance to women. To determine dietary calcium intakes in a group of female students studying human nutrition at a Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW through analysing the selections made of dairy products. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess average consumption of dairy products. Total daily calcium intakes were then estimated by adding the intakes obtained from such dairy products to an average non-dairy calcium value obtained from other foodstuffs and taken to be 250 mg. Varied choices were made of dairy foodstuffs, with most subjects consuming milk, milk beverages, cottage cheese and rennet cheese. Calcium intakes were thus dependent on the dietary assortment of such selected dairy products made. Whenever cheeses were avoided in the diet, then low calcium intakes became more common. When compared to dietary recommendations, calcium intakes in this group of young women were inadequately low especially for those not eating cheese and despite supposedly having sufficient knowledge through studying this subject area.

  14. Dairy food, calcium and vitamin D intake in pregnancy, and wheeze and eczema in infants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Y; Sasaki, S; Tanaka, K; Hirota, Y

    2010-01-01

    The present prospective study examined the association between maternal consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in the infants aged 16-24 months...

  15. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences.

  16. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  17. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise. PMID:21487497

  18. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  19. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Brouns, F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) has been shown to improve mineral absorption in the short term, but no long-term effects were studied in girls with a low calcium intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that short- and long-term consumption of short-chain FOS (sc-FOS) improves calcium and

  20. Parental influences on dairy intake in children, and their role in child calcium-fortified food use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H; Chung, Kimberly R; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. A convenience sample of Asian (n = 56), Hispanic (n = 61), and white (n = 74) parents of children 10-13 years old, including boys (n = 86) and girls (n = 105). VARIABLES MEASURED AND ANALYSIS: Cluster analysis to identify groups with similar coded parental influences and chi-square analysis to determine associations between these groups and calcium-fortified food use. Two dominant patterns of parental influences: Cluster 1 (n = 128), with positive parental influences related to availability of dairy, milk, and cheese; positive health beliefs for dairy, and child preferences for dairy and cheese, included parents whose children were more likely to use calcium-fortified food. Cluster 2 (n = 63), with positive influences for availability of dairy and milk, included parents whose children were equally likely to be either users or nonusers of calcium-fortified food (P influence on children's dairy intake might also encourage calcium-fortified food intake and improve calcium nutriture.

  1. Nutritional intake in soccer players of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Fátima; Irazusta, Amaia; Gil, Susana; Irazusta, Jon; Casis, Luis; Gil, Javier

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dietary practices of soccer players of different ages. The diets of the members of four soccer teams (mean ages of 14.0, 15.0, 16.6 and 20.9 years, respectively) were examined. Our results show that the caloric intake per kilogram of body mass was significantly higher among the youngest players when compared with the adult players (P carbohydrates to total energy intake was lower than that recommended for athletes. This contribution decreased with age from 47.4% of total energy intake for the 14-year-olds to 44.6% for the adult players. No significant differences in protein or total fat intake were detected among the teams examined. Overall, our results show that the nutritional intake of the soccer players was not optimal, and that this intake was poorer among the adult players than among the adolescents. On the basis of our results, we recommended that nutritional education should be given to soccer players at an early age and should continue throughout adolescence, not only with a view to improving performance but also to promoting more healthy dietary practices in the long term.

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Parent calcium-rich-food practices/perceptions are associated with calcium intake among parents and their early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Degeneffe, Dennis; Ghosh, Koel; Bruhn, Christine; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Auld, Garry; Ballejos, Miriam; Boushey, Carol; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Wong, SiewSun; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2012-02-01

    The study aimed to (i) segment parents of early adolescents into subgroups according to their Ca-rich-food (CRF) practices and perceptions regarding early adolescent CRF intake and (ii) determine whether Ca intake of parents and early adolescents differed by subgroup. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 509 parents and their early adolescent children completed a questionnaire in 2006-2007 to assess parent CRF practices and perceptions and to estimate parent and child Ca intakes. Self-administered questionnaires were completed in community settings or homes across nine US states. Parents self-reporting as Asian, Hispanic or non-Hispanic White with a child aged 10-13 years were recruited through youth or parent events. Three parent CRF practice/perception segments were identified, including 'Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers' (49 %), 'Water Regulars' (30 %) and 'Sweet-Drink-Permissive Parents' (23 %). Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers were somewhat older and more likely to be non-Hispanic White than other groups. Ca intakes from all food sources, milk/dairy foods and milk only, and milk intakes, were higher among early adolescent children of Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers compared with early adolescents of parents in other segments. Soda pop intakes were highest for early adolescents with parents in the Water Regulars group than other groups. Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers scored higher on culture/tradition, health benefits and ease of use/convenience subscales and lower on a dairy/milk intolerance subscale and were more likely to report eating family dinners daily than parents in the other groups. Parent education programmes should address CRF practices/perceptions tailored to parent group to improve Ca intake of early adolescent children.

  4. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g/d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same tooth) and ≥1 inter-proximal site with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Since vitamin D influences Ca absorption, models were stratified by lower and higher (periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were inversely associated with periodontitis. Consumption of foods rich in Ca, casein and whey (e.g. dairy foods) should be promoted, as they may contribute to the prevention of periodontitis. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these associations.

  5. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. A 51-item calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire is a reliable tool to assess dietary calcium intake in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Goltzman, David; Whiting, Susan J; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Morin, Suzanne N

    2017-07-01

    Given the lack in a valid biomarker to assess dietary calcium intake (dCai), reproducible estimation of usual dCai is crucial for better understanding of its interaction with health outcomes in specific populations. This study tested the hypothesis that a calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be used to estimate dCai of women ≥50 years residing in a multicultural environment (Montreal, Canada). One hundred and eight women (age, 63.1±7.7 years; 98% postmenopausal) completed the FFQ twice and 4 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (24HRs) over 1 month. Medians of dCai were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Reproducibility and relative validity of the FFQ were assessed by Spearman correlation (rs) and Cohen's weighted kappa (κw). Agreement was further assessed by cross-classification by quartiles, Bland-Altman plot, and sensitivity and specificity analyses. The median (interquartile range) dCai estimated by the FFQ and 24HRs were 723 (524-1033) mg/d and 854 (666-1068) mg/d, respectively (P<.001). The FFQs had a strong correlation (rs=0.72, P<.001) and moderate agreement (κw=0.55). The FFQ and 24HRs were moderately correlated (rs=0.65, P<.001). Cross-classification showed moderate agreement (κw=0.42), with 85% of the participants classified into identical or contiguous quartiles and 2.8% into extreme opposite quartiles. According to the Bland-Altman plot, the FFQ underestimated dCai with a bias of 99 mg/d (95% limits of agreement, -677 to +480 mg/d). Sensitivity and specificity of identifying intakes <1000 mg/d were 90% and 57%, respectively. This FFQ is a useful tool to discriminate dCai <600 and ≥1000 mg/d in postmenopausal women and to rank dCai in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  8. Micronutrient intakes among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong H Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. METHODS: The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. RESULTS: Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively. The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with

  9. Impact of a nutrition education program to increase intake of calcium-rich foods by Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Brown, J Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Chinese-American women have a high risk of osteoporosis. However, their calcium intake has been reported previously as considerably below the Dietary Reference Intake. Increasing consumption of calcium-rich foods, many of which are also fortified with vitamin D, is a safe way to increase their calcium and vitamin D intake. This study's objective was to pilot-test an intervention to help Chinese-American women incorporate calcium-rich foods into their diet. This intervention was evaluated using a quasi-experimental study with a nested design and pre-, immediate post-, and 3-month follow-up assessments. Calcium and vitamin D intake, Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, and knowledge were measured at three time points. First-generation Chinese-American mothers between 35 and 55 years old (n=141) were recruited from six weekend Chinese schools. Three Chinese schools each were randomly assigned to the experimental (n=71) or control group (n=70). The experimental group received a free heel scan and six weekly interactive lessons designed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The control group received six weekly nonrelated financial lessons by mail. Changes for each measure were assessed by linear mixed model with repeated measures adjusted for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, the experimental group improved all measures considerably, except two subjective norm constructs (normative belief and motivation to comply) at post-assessments. The experimental group significantly increased its baseline calcium (t=7.898, P<0.001) and vitamin D intake (t=6.609; P<0.001) at posttest and this increase was retained at follow-up. Results suggest that this theory-based intervention is effective for increasing the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake of Chinese-American women. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the efficacy and external validity of interventions promoting calcium or dairy intake in young adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, Anika S; Grech, Amanda; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-06-29

    Calcium and dairy products have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases and attainment of peak bone mass, during adolescence to young adulthood. However, intakes are often suboptimal and interventions to improve consumption of food sources are needed. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy and external validity of interventions promoting calcium or dairy foods among young adults. Eight databases were searched from inception to identify relevant studies. Inclusion criteria included those aged 18 to 35 years in an intervention promoting calcium or dairy food intake. The mean age of the participants was 19.9 ± 1.4 years. Of the 16 studies that met the selection criteria, five studies were included in the meta-analyses for calcium (pooled effect size 0.35, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.67) and three studies for dairy (pooled effect size 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.50). The quality of the body of evidence was determined using the GRADE system, and was of overall low quality with high risk of bias. Our review suggests young adults respond favorably to interventions but the effect size is small.

  11. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  12. The effect of prolonged breast-feeding on the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in population with insufficient calcium intake and vitamin D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B H; Chon, S J; Choi, Y S; Cho, S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2016-09-01

    Breast-feeding affects bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis, and prolonged breast-feeding may influence the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, particularly in highly susceptible populations. The study determined that breast-feeding may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in people with low calcium intakes and vitamin D deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast-feeding is a risk factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in highly susceptible population. The study was performed using data from the 2010 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and it included 1231 postmenopausal women who were aged between 45 and 70 years. Osteoporosis was defined using the World Health Organization's T-score criteria, namely, a T-score of ≤-2.5 at the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. The patients' ages, body mass indexes, daily calcium intakes, serum vitamin D levels, exercise levels, smoking histories, and reproductive factors relating to menarche, menopause, delivery, breast-feeding, hormone treatment, and oral contraceptive use were evaluated. Comparisons between the osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis groups were undertaken using Student's t test and the chi-square test, and logistic regression models were built. A significant increase in the risk of osteoporosis was apparent in postmenopausal women with prolonged breast-feeding histories (≥24 months) (model 1: odds ratio [OR] = 2.489; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.111 to 5.578, p = 0.027; model 2: OR = 2.503; 95 % CI = 1.118 to 5.602, p = 0.026; model 3: OR = 2.825; 95 % CI = 1.056 to 7.56, p = 0.039), particularly in those with inadequate serum vitamin D levels and calcium intakes (Breast-feeding seems to increase the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, its impact may not be definitive in women with sufficient vitamin D levels and calcium intakes

  13. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  14. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  15. Reduced maternal calcium intake through nutrition and supplementation is associated with adverse conditions for both the women and their infants in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xinjia; Tian, Yue; Yang, Zhixin; Lin, Li; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Zhonghao; Li, Li

    2017-05-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for pregnant women in China are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary nutrition on the health condition of pregnant women and infants in China.In total, 331 pregnant women who had prenatal examinations were included in this study. Data, including dietary nutrition questionnaires, the weight, height, age, and health condition of the pregnant women as well as the health condition of the infants, were recorded.The average intake of milk, poultry and meat, fish and prawns, eggs, and bean products were 297.28 ± 129.67 mL/day, 123.34 ± 52.04 g/day, 157.31 ± 70.04 g/day, 67.34 ± 45.28 g/day, and 1.21 ± 0.62 per day, respectively. Among the 331 pregnant women, the intake rates of supplemental calcium and VD were 86.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The intake of milk, bean products, and meats was obviously lower (all P pregnant women with systremma compared to those without it. In addition, the body weight before and after delivery was higher (all P pregnant women with systremma. The calcium intake of the pregnant women and the infants' BMD were remarkably lower in the infants with pillow baldness or a wider anterior fontanelle (P pregnant women should be monitored, and in particular, the proper intake of milk, bean products, and meats, as well as calcium supplements, might decrease the occurrence of systremma in pregnant women and reduce the rate pillow baldness and a wider anterior fontanelle in infants.

  16. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  17. Adequate calcium intake during long periods improves bone mineral density in healthy children. Data from the Childhood Obesity Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Ferré, Natàlia; Luque, Veronica; Grote, Veit; Koletzko, Berthold; Verduci, Elvira; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Escribano, Joaquin

    2017-03-16

    Bone mineralization can be influenced by genetic factors, hormonal status, nutrition, physical activity and body composition. The association of higher calcium (Ca) intake or Ca supplementation with better bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial. Furthermore, it has been speculated that maintaining long-term adequate Ca intake rather than having a brief supplementation period is more effective. The aim of the study was to prospectively analyse the influence of adequate Ca intake on BMD at 7 years of age in European children. Data from the Childhood Obesity Project were analysed in a prospective longitudinal cohort trial. Dietary intake was recorded using 3-day food records at 4, 5 and 6 years of age. The probability of adequate intake (PA) of Ca was calculated following the American Institute of Medicine guidelines for individual assessments, with FAO, WHO and United Nations University joint expert consultation dietary recommendations. Children were categorised as having high Ca PA (PA >95%) or not (PA BMD were measured in the Spanish subsample by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Internal BMD z-scores were calculated; BMD below -1 z-score were considered to indicate osteopenia, and BMD z-scores below -2, "low bone mineral density for age". BMD was measured in 179 children. Ca intake at 6 years was positively correlated with LS BMD at 7 years (R = 0.205, p = 0.030). A Ca increase of 100 mg/day explained 19.4% (p = 0.011) of the LS BMD z-score variation, modifying it by 0.089 (0.021, 0.157) units. Children with Ca PA >95% at 5 and 6 or from 4 to 6 years of age showed higher BMD z-scores at the LS and WB levels than children with Ca PA BMD, respectively). Ca PA >95% maintained over 2 years explained 26.3% of the LS BMD z-score variation (p 95% maintained over 3 years explained 24.9% of the LS BMD z-score variation, increasing it by 0.773 (0.282, 1.264). The effects of Ca adequacy on WB BMD were similar. Children with PA >95% over 2 years had an

  18. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    /day for adults, including pregnant and lactating women), which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number...... diet and supplements and increased risk of nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease or prostate cancer. No new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for calcium for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, of 2,500 mg. No new data have become available which would...... allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents. Data from European populations indicate that intakes of calcium in high consumers among adult males can be close to the UL. Although available data do not allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents, no risk has been...

  20. Dairy product consumption, calcium intakes, and metabolic syndrome-related factors over 5 years in the STANISLAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anastasia; Herbeth, Bernard; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Fumeron, Fréderic; Billod, Stéphanie; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the associations of total dairy products; milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese; cheese; and calcium with 5-y changes in components of the metabolic syndrome. Two hundred eighty-eight men and 300 women 28 to 60 y of age from the suivi temporaire annuel non invasif de la santé des lorrains assurés sociaux (STANISLAS) cohort completed at baseline a 3-d dietary record. Statistics were performed using multivariate regression analysis. In men, no relation was found between the four dietary indices and components of the metabolic syndrome measured at baseline. Conversely, the consumption of milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese at entry was inversely associated with 5-y changes in glucose levels (P ≤ 0.05, P ≤ 0.01 for sex interaction) and positively with 5-y changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P ≤ 0.05). Higher calcium intakes were significantly related to a lower 5-y increase of the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in men (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05 for sex interaction). In addition, changes in diastolic blood pressure were inversely associated with the consumption of milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese only in men with a normal BMI (P ≤ 0.05 for BMI interaction). In women, unlike men, associations were shown for some components measured at baseline: total dairy positively related to BMI and waist circumference; total dairy, milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese, and calcium were positively related to triacylglycerols and negatively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, no significant association was found for any 5-y-changes. In men only, a higher consumption of dairy products was associated with positive changes in the metabolic profile in a 5-y period; a higher calcium consumption was associated with a lower 5-y increase of the BMI and waist circumference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin on bone metabolism in girls with low calcium intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical study, the effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin was studied on bone metabolism in girls from 9 to 12 years old, with low habitual calcium intakes, who attended public schools. Two calcium-enriched formulations, supplemented with oligofructose-enriched inulin (test drink or without (standard drink were made. Sixty pre-pubertal girls were randomized into a double-blind and crossover design, divided into three groups and received one daily portion of either the standard drink (group 1 or test drink (group 2 during 11 weeks, followed by a three-week washout period. Group control did not receive any supplementation. Biochemical evaluations of serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone - iPTH - and bone alkaline phosphatase - BAP - were performed at baseline and after 4, 8 and 11 weeks of each intervention period. In group 1, a significant increase in serum calcium and BAP and a reduction of iPTH were observed after consumption of the test drink.No presente ensaio clínico, o efeito de oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina foi estudado no metabolismo ósseo de meninas de 9 a 12 anos com baixa ingestão habitual de cálcio, matriculadas em escolas públicas. Duas formulações foram suplementadas ou não (bebida padrão com oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina (bebida teste. Sessenta meninas pré-púberes foram aleatorizadas em estudo duplo cego crossover e divididas em três grupos e receberam uma porção diária da bebida padrão (grupo 1 ou teste (grupo 2 durante 11 semanas, seguidos por um período de intervalo de três semanas. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma suplementação. As avaliações bioquímicas de cálcio sérico, paratormônio intacto - PTHi e fosfatase alcalina fração óssea - FAO foram executadas ao início e após 4, 8 e 11 semanas de cada período de intervenção. No grupo 1, um aumento significante no cálcio sérico e FAO e uma redução no PTHi foram observadas após o consumo da bebida teste.

  2. Associations Between Vitamin D Intake and Progression to Incident Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Silver, Rachel E; Rosner, Bernard; Seddon, Johanna M

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence of the importance of nutrition in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but no prospective studies have explored the impact of vitamin D. We evaluated the association between vitamin D intake and progression to advanced AMD. Among 2146 participants (3965 eyes), 541 (777 eyes) progressed from early or intermediate AMD to advanced disease (mean follow-up: 9.4 years) based on ocular imaging. Nutrients were log transformed and calorie adjusted. Survival analysis was used to assess associations between incident advanced disease and vitamin D intake. Neovascular disease (NV) and geographic atrophy (GA) were evaluated separately. Combined effects of dietary vitamin D and calcium were assessed based on high or low consumption of each nutrient. There was a lower risk of progression to advanced AMD in the highest versus lowest quintile of dietary vitamin D intake after adjustment for demographic, behavioral, ocular, and nutritional factors (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.83; P trend = 0.0007). Similar results were observed for NV (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.39-0.89; P trend = 0.005) but not GA (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.53-1.30; P trend = 0.35). A protective effect was observed for advanced AMD among participants with high vitamin D and low calcium compared to the group with low levels for each nutrient (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50-0.88; P = 0.005). When supplement use was considered, the effect was in the protective direction but was not significant. A diet rich in vitamin D may prevent or delay progression to advanced AMD, especially NV. Additional exploration is needed to elucidate the potential protective role of vitamin D and its contribution to reducing visual loss.

  3. Calcium intake and osteoporosis O consumo de cálcio e a osteoporose

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    Elizeu Antonio Rossi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by the reduction of bone mass and damage of the microarchitecture of bone tissue, with a consequent increase of bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In women, osteoporosis is associated with menopause, as the reduction of estrogens accelerates bone loss. Apart from the hormonal component, this illness can have other causes, amongst them: mechanical, genetic and nutritional. One of the nutritional components of great importance is calcium. About 99% of the corporeal calcium content is found in the skeleton, conferring rigidity and being a readily available source for the maintenance of the normal levels of plasma calcium concentration. Therefore, calcium is the most studied nutrient in the area of bone health and it is considered important for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Some studies have shown a positive relation between calcium supplementation and reduction of bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, some doubts concerning this effect still persist. The objective of this work is to revise the relation between calcium intake and bone health, focusing on osteoporosis prevention and/or treatment in women.   A osteoporose é caracterizada pela redução de massa óssea e prejuízo da microarquitetura do tecido ósseo, com um conseqüente aumento da fragilidade óssea e susceptibilidade à fratura. Nas mulheres, a osteoporose está associada à menopausa, uma vez que a diminuição de estrógenos acelera a perda óssea. Além do componente hormonal, essa doença pode apresentar outras causas, dentre elas: mecânicas, genéticas e nutricionais. Um dos componentes nutricionais de grande importância é o cálcio. Cerca de 99% do conteúdo de cálcio corpóreo se encontra no esqueleto, conferindo rigidez, e representando uma fonte prontamente disponível para a manutenção dos níveis normais de sua concentração plasmática. Por essa razão, o cálcio é o nutriente mais estudado na

  4. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Bandera, Elisa V; Moore, Dirk F; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2008-04-01

    In response to a recent ecologic study of UV exposure and endometrial cancer incidence, we present the epidemiologic evidence on the relation between intake of vitamin D and its metabolically related nutrient, calcium, and the occurrence of endometrial cancer. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of vitamin D and calcium in relation to endometrial cancer, including peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to May 2007. Random and fixed effects summary estimates were computed. Pooled analyses of the three case-control studies of dietary vitamin D and endometrial cancer uncovered heterogeneous results that were not significant in random or fixed effects analyses. Cut-points for the highest vitamin D intakes ranged from >244 to >476 IU/day. Qualitatively similar findings were observed for dietary calcium. Only two studies provided estimates for calcium supplements (random effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99; fixed effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93, for top vs. bottom category, p for heterogeneity=0.25). The limited epidemiological evidence suggests no relation between endometrial cancer in the ranges of dietary vitamin D examined, and suggests a possible inverse association for calcium from supplements. Prospective studies, ideally including plasma 25(OH) D to estimate vitamin D input from diet and sun exposure, are needed to further explore these hypotheses.

  5. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  6. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE.The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%.Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  7. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  8. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 100 Turnip greens, boiled, ½ cup 99 Broccoli, raw, 1 cup 90 Ice cream, vanilla, ½ cup 85 Soy or rice milk, fortified with calcium, 1 cup 80–500 (varies) Calcium Culprits Although a balanced diet aids calcium absorption, high levels of protein and ...

  10. Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Thoresen, Magne; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-11-01

    To study the association between consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer risk according to menopausal status. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 64,904 Norwegian women followed from 1996/1999 through 2006, we examined total dairy consumption and consumption of various dairy products in relation to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We also examined breast cancer in relation to calcium intake and to milk consumption during childhood and performed additional analyses corrected for measurement errors in the dietary data. In total, 218 premenopausal and 1,189 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up. Total dairy, adult, and childhood milk consumption was not associated with either pre- or postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Premenopausal women with the highest consumption of white cheese had half the risk of breast cancer compared to those with the lowest consumption (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.87). Total calcium intake tended to be inversely related to premenopausal (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.39-1.08) and postmenopausal breast cancer (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.04). Correcting for measurement errors did not alter the results substantially, nor did exclusion of early cancer cases. Dairy consumption is not strongly related to breast cancer risk in this prospective study. A non-significant negative association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk was seen, particularly among premenopausal women.

  11. Aging, longevity, and diet: historical remarks on calorie intake reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The link between longevity and diet is of great interest to biological and gerontological research. The fact that relevant knowledge has generally been available for many centuries is often not remarked upon. This article examines three aspects of early modern Western medicine which thematize the following links between the elderly, longevity and caloric intake: (1) the question of a diet specifically tailored to old age as background to certain theories of aging; (2) the transfer of these dietetic concepts to younger patients in order to improve health and extend life, and (3) the promotion of dieting in order to avoid the consequences of plethora and to retard the aging process. A number of Latin texts from premodern medical and health literature will be examined and their contents will be analyzed for material relating to diet for the elderly and longevity in their historic contexts. We will clearly indicate fundamental parallels as well as differences between historic and modern scientific thought. We will thereby show that although a modern understanding of hormones and molecular genetics was obviously lacking, basic knowledge of the influence of nutrition on old age was prevalent. In contrast, the early modern lay concept of longevity through calorie reduction was based on coincidental observation. These premodern, but nonetheless rational ideas must be integrated into the socio-cultural setting and the question must be raised as to the link between contemporary research aims and social reality. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Eating and aging: trends in dietary intake among older Americans from 1977-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R; Poti, J M; Popkin, B M

    2014-03-01

    We examined trends from 1977-2010 in calorie, macronutrient, and food group intake among US adults 55 and older. Cross-sectional time series. A nationally representative sample of the US non-institutionalized population. Older Americans aged ≥55 years (n=18,603) from four surveys of dietary intake in 1977-1978, 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 2005-2010. Dietary intake was assessed using one 24-hour recall. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine adjusted per capita mean energy and macronutrient intake for each survey year. Interactions were used to examine differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and generation. The top five food group contributors to total calorie intake were identified for each year. Mean total calorie intake increased significantly among older Americans from 1977-2010. Increases in carbohydrate intake (43% to 49% of total calories) were coupled with decreases in total fat intake (from 40% to 34%) while saturated fat (11%) remained constant. Corresponding shifts in food group intake were observed, as red meat intake greatly declined while bread and grain desserts became dominant calorie sources. Calorie intake was significantly higher for whites compared to blacks from 1994-2010. Cohort analysis indicated a shift from decreasing caloric intake with age to relatively stable calorie intake despite increasing age in more recent cohorts. Increases in total calorie intake from 1977-2010, coupled with the finding that more recent generations did not show the expected age-related decrease in caloric consumption, raise concerns about obesity risk among older Americans. Additionally, despite declines across time in total fat intake, saturated fat intake continues to exceed recommendations, and shifts toward increased consumption of grain-based desserts suggest that high discretionary calorie intake by older Americans might make it difficult to meet nutrient requirements while staying within energy needs.

  13. Eating and aging: Trends in dietary intake among older Americans from 1977–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rachel; Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined trends from 1977–2010 in calorie, macronutrient, and food group intake among US adults 55 and older. Design Cross-sectional time series. Setting A nationally representative sample of the US non-institutionalized population. Participants Older Americans aged ≥55 years (n=18,603) from four surveys of dietary intake in 1977–1978, 1989–1991, 1994–1996, and 2005–2010. Measurements Dietary intake was assessed using one 24-hour recall. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine adjusted per capita mean energy and macronutrient intake for each survey year. Interactions were used to examine differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and generation. The top five food group contributors to total calorie intake were identified for each year. Results Mean total calorie intake increased significantly among older Americans from 1977–2010. Increases in carbohydrate intake (43% to 49% of total calories) were coupled with decreases in total fat intake (from 40% to 34%) while saturated fat (11%) remained constant. Corresponding shifts in food group intake were observed, as red meat intake greatly declined while bread and grain desserts became dominant calorie sources. Calorie intake was significantly higher for whites compared to blacks from 1994–2010. Cohort analysis indicated a shift from decreasing caloric intake with age to relatively stable calorie intake despite increasing age in more recent cohorts. Conclusion Increases in total calorie intake from 1977–2010, coupled with the finding that more recent generations did not show the expected age-related decrease in caloric consumption, raise concerns about obesity risk among older Americans. Additionally, despite declines across time in total fat intake, saturated fat intake continues to exceed recommendations and shifts toward increased consumption of grain-based desserts suggest that high discretionary calorie intake by older Americans might make it difficult to meet

  14. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in school-age children are inconsistently associated with increased calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Hicks, Penni D; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2009-07-01

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). There are few similar pediatric data leading to uncertainty about the optimal target for 25-OHD to maximize Ca-abs. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between 25-OHD and Ca-abs in a large cohort of school-age children and adolescents. We evaluated data from 439 Ca-abs measurements performed using dual-tracer stable isotope techniques conducted at our center over a 15-yr period in 251 healthy children, 4.9-16.7 yr of age. Serum 25-OHD ranged from 28 to 197 nmol/liter (mean 85 +/- 2 nmol/liter) (sem). Total Ca-abs (intake times fractional absorption) were significantly correlated to 25-OHD in the whole population (r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This relationship was closer in the 197 studies in early puberty (Tanner 2 or 3, r = 0.35, P < 0.001) and not significant in pre- or late pubertal subjects. For the whole population, fractional Ca-abs adjusted for calcium intake were slightly but significantly higher at 25-OHD of 28-50 nmol/liter (0.344 +/- 0.019) compared with 25-OHD of 50-80 nmol/liter (0.280 +/- 0.014) or 25-OHD greater than 80 nmol/liter (0.297 +/- 0.015, P < 0.01 for each), suggesting adaptation to moderately low 25-OHD values. There is no consistent pattern of relationship between 25-OHD and either fractional or total calcium absorption in school-age children. However, there appears to be a modest calcium absorptive response to higher 25-OHD during early puberty.

  15. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  16. Calcium intake and the associations with faecal fat and energy excretion, and lipid profile in a free-living population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-01-01

    registration (days 1–7), a 5-d faeces collection (days 3–7), a 2-d urine collection (days 5–7), and anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample (day 8) were collected. Analyses showed that dietary Ca intake (g/10 MJ per d) was positively associated with excretion of faecal fat (P = 0·004) and energy...... (P = 0·031) when adjusted for BMI, age, sex and intake of Ca-containing supplements. However, after adjustment for intake of fibre, the effect of Ca intake disappeared. Nevertheless, total cholesterol (CHOL) and LDL-CHOL concentrations were associated negatively with Ca intake (β −0·62 (95 % CI −0...

  17. Calcium and cell death signaling in neurodegeneration and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Smaili

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient increase in cytosolic (Cac2+ and mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca m2+ are essential elements in the control of many physiological processes. However, sustained increases in Ca c2+ and Ca m2+ may contribute to oxidative stress and cell death. Several events are related to the increase in Ca m2+, including regulation and activation of a number of Ca2+ dependent enzymes, such as phospholipases, proteases and nucleases. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER play pivotal roles in the maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of cell death. Several lines of evidence have shown that, in the presence of some apoptotic stimuli, the activation of mitochondrial processes maylead to the release of cytochrome c followed by the activation of caspases, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic cell death. The aim of this review was to show how changes in calcium signaling can be related to the apoptotic cell death induction. Calcium homeostasis was also shown to be an important mechanism involved in neurodegenerative and aging processes.Aumentos transientes no cálcio citosólico (Ca c2+ e mitocondrial (Ca m2+ são elementos essenciais no controle de muitos processos fisiológicos. No entanto, aumentos sustentados do Ca c2+ e do Ca m2+ podem contribuir para o estresse oxidativo ea morte celular. Muitos eventos estão relacionados ao aumentono Ca c2+, incluindo a regulação e ativação de várias enzimas dependentes de Ca2+ como as fosfolipases, proteases e nucleases. A mitocôndria e o retículo endoplasmático têm um papel central na manutenção da homeostase intracellular de Ca c2+ e na regulação da morte celular. Várias evidências mostraram que, na presença de certos estímulos apoptóticos, a ativação dos processos mitocondriais pode promover a liberação de citocromo c, seguida da ativação de caspases, fragmentação nuclear e morte celular por apoptose. O objetivo desta revisão é mostrar como aumentos na sinalização de

  18. The Effects in the Rat of Varying Intakes of Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Hydrogen Ion on Hyperparathyroidism Due to Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Renal failure of 4 wk duration in rats led to parathyroid enlargement, increased bone resorption, and decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate by the remnant kidney. The degree of hyperparathyroidism was influenced by each of the three dietary factors investigated. In the first study increasing calcium intake reduced the size of the parathyroids by increasing calcium and reducing phosphate absorption. In the second study phosphate intake was linearly related to parathyroid gland size in the uremic animals and associated with rising plasma phosphate levels. In the last study acidosis led directly to increased bone resorption but small parathyroid glands associated with elevated ionized calcium levels. Alkalosis lowered the serum ionized calcium and led to parathyroid enlargement and the expected associated findings. It was shown that parathyroid weight reflected both metabolic activity as judged by amino acid uptake, and the content of immunoassayable parathyroid hormone. In all studies gland weight was inversely related to serum ionized calcium. PMID:4808640

  19. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  20. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  1. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Martha M. Téllez-Rojo

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  2. Dietary magnesium and calcium intake and risk of depression in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingrong; Lv, Jing; Wang, Weijing; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-03-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) intake and the risk of depression. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore these associations and to investigate the possible dose-response relationship between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression. MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan fang databases and Databases of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals were searched for eligible publications up to September 2016. Pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects model. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline functions. A total of 17 epidemiological studies from 12 articles were included in the present meta-analysis. Among these studies, 11 studies evaluated the association between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression and 6 studies evaluated the association between dietary Ca intake and risk of depression. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled relative risks of depression were 0.81 (95% confidence interval = [0.70, 0.92]) for Mg and 0.66 (95% confidence interval = [0.42, 1.02]) for Ca. Dietary Mg intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of depression among studies conducted in Asia (relative risk  = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = [0.44, 0.74]) and in studies adjusting for energy intake (relative risk  = 0.73; 95% confidence interval = [0.58, 0.92]). For dose-response analysis, evidence of a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression, and the largest risk reductions were observed for 320 mg/day. This meta-analysis indicated that moderate Mg intake may be inversely associated with the risk of depression, which

  3. [Effects of intake of heated mixtures of glucose-lysine and glucose-methionine on bone calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, C; Seiquer, I; Navarro, Maria P

    2005-01-01

    During food thermal treatment Maillard's reaction may occur, which implicates mainly the carbonyl groups of reductory sugars and amino protein groups. Maillard's reaction products (MRP) may interfere with mineral bioavailability because of modifications of their physical-chemical moiety in the food or the lumen, disrupting the absorption process or its normal metabolism. In this study, we sought to investigate MRP influence on issues related to Ca bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Equimolar mixtures of glucose-lysine (GL) and glucose-methionine (GM) (40% moisture) were heated at 150 degrees C for 90 minutes (samples GL90 and GM90, respectively). In vitro solubility was measured by additioning each samples to a 3.75 mM Ca solution at intestinal pH and ionic strength; after shaking and centrifugation, soluble and insoluble calcium was determined. Three percent of GL90 and GM90 were individually added to the AIN93-G diet to obtain D-GL90 and D-GM90 diets. Three Wistar rats groups were fed for 21 days with both diets and with AIN93-G as control, carrying out calcium balance during last week and extirpating various organs after sacrifice. GM90 did not affect calcium solubility; GL90 reduced it slightly, remaining in both cases more than 94% soluble. D-GL90 and D-GM90 did not modify calcium bioavailability, with as effective usage as with the control diet (57.6 +/- 1.3%, 57.8 +/- 2.3% and 63.9 +/- 2.6% in control diet, D-GL90 and D-GM90, respectively). MRP intake produced, however, metabolic changes that decreased bone calcium, accumulating compensatorily in other organs.

  4. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  5. Long-Term Low Intake of Dietary Calcium and Fracture Risk in Older Adults With Plant-Based Diet: A Longitudinal Study From the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aiping; Li, Keji; Guo, Meihan; He, Jingjing; Li, He; Shen, Xin; Song, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate long-term associations between low dietary calcium intake and fracture risk in older adults with plant-based diet. Data of self-reported first fracture events of any type from 6210 Chinese men and women, aged 50 years or older and free from fracture at baseline, in a subcohort based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), were analyzed. Diet was repeatedly assessed by a combination of three consecutive 24-hour individual dietary recalls and a weighing and measuring of household food inventory in each round. The older men and women habitually ingested mean (SD) of 415 (147) mg/d and 373 (140) mg/d of calcium from plant-based diet, respectively. During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 127 men (4.34%) and 232 women (7.06%) experienced first fracture events. The crude rates were 4.88, 2.55, and 6.83 per 1000 person-years at risk for men, and 6.72, 7.10, and 11.0 per 1000 person-years at risk for women in the lowest, third, and highest quintile of dietary calcium intake. In nonlinear regressions, an increased risk of fracture was associated with dietary calcium intake more than 778 mg/d (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-4.41) or lower than 275 mg/d (1.74, 95% CI 1.00-3.01) for men and more than 651 mg/d for women (1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38). A nonsignificant trend of increase in fracture risk was found below 248 mg/d (1.00, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) in women using restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A relatively low fracture risk is observed in men with dietary calcium intakes of 275 to 780 mg/d and in women with intakes of 250 to 650 mg/d, and higher intakes may have no further benefit for fracture prevention. The patterns of dietary calcium with fracture risk are U-shaped in men and possibly in women. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  7. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...... (55%) than males (45%; P education, smoking, alcohol and sucrose consumption, subjective...

  8. Whole-grain intake of British young people aged 4-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thane, C W; Jones, A R; Stephen, A M; Seal, C J; Jebb, S A

    2005-11-01

    Inverse associations between whole-grain food consumption and risk of CVD, some cancers and type 2 diabetes have been reported. However, there are few reports of whole-grain intake, particularly among young people. The objective of the present study was to estimate whole-grain intake in a nationally representative sample of young people aged 4-18 years living in Great Britain. Whole-grain intake was estimated using 7 d weighed dietary records from 1583 young people who participated in the cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey in 1997. Whole-grain intake was quantified from the consumption of all foods containing > or =10 % whole-grain content. Median whole-grain intake was 7 g/d (interquartile range 0-19 g/d), with a corresponding mean of 13 (sd 18) g/d. Intake was significantly lower among young people whose head of household had a manual occupation, but did not differ significantly by sex, age, region or season. There was no whole-grain intake for 27 % of participants. The percentages for less than one and less than three 16 g amounts of whole-grain intake per d were 70 and 94, respectively, while corresponding percentages based on 20 g amounts were 76 and 97. Foods with whole-grain content provided 28 % of whole-grain intake overall, with a higher percentage in older adolescents. The main sources of whole-grain intake were breakfast cereals (56 %) and bread (25 %). The present study provides the first quantification of absolute whole-grain intake from all significant food sources in any representative age group in the UK. Although there is some debate regarding the quantity of whole grains required for good health, whole-grain intake among British young people is low.

  9. Status of serum vitamin D and calcium levels in women of reproductive age in national capital territory of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem, associated with lack of sunlight exposure in spite of abundant sunshine usually accompanied by reduced dietary intake. In women of reproductive age, Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Aims: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the levels of serum Vitamin D 25(OH D and calcium in women of reproductive age from India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried on a total of 224 healthy nonpregnant and nonlactating women in the reproductive age group of 20–49 years. Materials and Methods: Demographic, socioeconomic class, and biochemical parameters for the estimation of serum 25(OHD and calcium levels in women of reproductive age were studied. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was utilized for conducting the statistical analysis of the data. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml was present in 88% of women. Women from middle socioeconomic class had the lowest mean serum 25(OH D levels (9.6 ± 6 ng/ml as compared to women from upper middle (11.4 ± 8 ng/ml, lower (11.2 ± 8 ng/ml, and upper (10 ± 8.6 ng/ml socioeconomic class. Serum calcium levels were found in the normal range of 8.5–10.5 mg/dl for all the study subjects. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among women of reproductive age. These women may possibly have a higher risk of development of osteoporosis and pregnancy-related complications in future life.

  10. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (pschool meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake

  11. Relationship between Sugar Intake and Obesity among School-Age Children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ting-Chun; Chen, Wen-Lee; Doong, Jia-Yau; Shikanai, Saiko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence and problem of overweight and obesity in Taiwanese children have increased. There are many reports that the excessive intake of sugar increases the risk of lifestyle-related disease. However, sugar intake in Taiwanese children is not known. In this study, we investigated sugar intake from sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts among school-age children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. We also tried to determine the relationship between sugar intake and body mass index (BMI). We contacted all the public elementary schools (10 schools) in a district, Kaohsiung, and obtained permission from 3 schools. The survey subjects were 410 (210 boys, 200 girls) school-age children (7, 10 and 12 y old). A nutrition survey was conducted using 3 non-consecutive days of the 24 h dietary recall method for sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts. Height and weight were measured. Sugar intakes were not significantly different among the different genders or ages (p>0.05) and average intake of all was 51.6 g/d. Percentages of each sugar in total intake were sucrose 60%, glucose 18%, fructose 16%, and lactose 6%. The intake of glucose and fructose may have come from isomerized sugar. Contributions of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks (desserts) were 83.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Among the sugar-sweetened beverages the top 3 sources were tea (22%), milk tea (19%) and milk beverages (18%). A relationship between sugar intake and BMI was not observed. In conclusion, sugar intake of the children was higher than the WHO recommendation due to the high intake from beverages; however, sugar was not the cause of the high obesity rate.

  12. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6-23 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Kok Leong; Chan, Pauline S; Amarra, Maria Sofia V

    2016-12-01

    The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group ( N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) ( p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  13. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geok Lin Khor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119 of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%; (ii minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%; (iii consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%; and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%. While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4% and iron (71.4%, lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3% and energy (56.3%. The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87 (p = 0.000 among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  14. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Kok Leong; Chan, Pauline S.; Amarra, Maria Sofia V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) (p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated. PMID:27916932

  15. Protein intake in early childhood and cardiometabolic health at school age: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Trudy; van den Hooven, Edith H; Tielemans, Myrte J; Hofman, Albert; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-09-01

    High protein intake in infancy has been linked to obesity. We aimed to examine the associations of protein intake in early childhood with cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes at school age. This study was performed in 2965 children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Protein intake at 1 year was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was adjusted for energy intake. At the children's age of 6 years, we measured their body fat percentage (BF%), blood pressure (BP), and insulin, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride serum levels. These measures were incorporated into a cardiometabolic risk factor score, using age- and sex-specific SD scores. In covariate-adjusted models, higher protein intake was associated with a higher BF%, lower diastolic BP, and lower triglyceride levels. We observed a significant interaction of protein intake with child sex on metabolic outcomes. Stratified analyses showed that protein intake was positively associated with BF% [0.07 SD (95 % CI 0.02; 0.13) per 10 g/day] and insulin levels in girls, but not in boys. In boys, but not in girls, higher protein intake was associated with lower triglyceride levels [-0.12 SD (95 % CI -0.20; -0.04) per 10 g/day] and a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. Protein intake was not consistently associated with systolic BP or HDL cholesterol levels. Protein intake in early childhood was associated with a higher BF% and higher insulin levels at 6 years in girls and with lower triglyceride levels in boys. Further studies are needed to explore these sex differences and to investigate whether the observed changes persist into adulthood.

  16. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  17. Food items in the food intake of children aged seven to ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnig, Patrícia de Fragas; Hinnigi, Patrícia de Fragas; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimental

    2012-06-01

    To describe the most representative food items regarding the total intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in children with ages between 7 and 10 years. A list was prepared with all food intake and quantities, and the diet composition in relation to energy and macronutrients was calculated. The list was based on information provided by a 3-day-Food Diary completed by 85 schoolchildren ranging from seven to ten years old and enrolled in a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. After dividing the food into 129 items, we calculated the percentage in which each item contributed to diet nutrient intake and identified those which contributed to up to 95% of the total intake of calories and selected nutrients. The items "White rice, Greek rice, rice with vegetables" and "Brown, black and white beans, lentils" contributed significantly to the total intake of energy and carbohydrates. The item "Whole milk, powdered milk" had a significant participation in the total intake of lipids, protein and energy. We emphasize the importance of carbohydrates and energy intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas and processed juices) in the total diet intake of the children. the contribution of rice in the total food intake of energy and carbohydrates; of beans in energy, carbohydrates and proteins; of milk and meat in energy, protein and lipids; and bread in energy and carbohydrates is noticeable. The participation of sugar-sweetened beverage in the total intake in energy and carbohydrates and of candies in the total intake of lipids is also evident.

  18. Age-associated reduction of stimulatory effect of ghrelin on food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Yosuke; Kanai, Setsuko; Ohta, Minoru; Akimoto, Saeko; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decrease in appetite and food intake. We focused on the age-associated changes of the stimulatory effect of the appetite-regulating peptide, ghrelin. Food intake and the concentrations of acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin in the plasma and in the stomach were measured with and without overnight fasting in young and old mice. Moreover, the food intake in response to the intraperitoneal administration of graded doses of acyl ghrelin was compared between young and old mice. Fasting drives food intake in young mice, but not in old mice. The concentrations of acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin in the plasma and in the stomach were higher in the old mice than in the young mice. Food intake did not increase in old mice when stimulated by the administration of 1-3 nmol of acyl ghrelin, which could produce a significant increase in food intake in young mice. In conclusion, food intake did not increase in old mice after either overnight fasting or the administration of acyl ghrelin. The release and synthesis of ghrelin seem to be rather higher in old mice compared to young mice. These increases might be the results of compensation for the decline of receptor (and/or post-receptor) functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal protein intake at 12 months is associated with growth factors at the age of six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Palsson, Gestur Ingvi; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-05-01

    To study the associations between protein intake from different sources with anthropometry and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in infancy and childhood. Children (n = 199) born in Iceland were followed up to six years of age. Their intake of various animal proteins and vegetable protein was calculated from weighed food records at 12 months and 6 years. Information about their weight and height at birth, 12 and 18 months, and 6 years was gathered. Serum IGF-1 was measured at 12 months and 6 years. At the age of six, children in the highest quartile for animal protein intake at 12 months (≥12.2% of total energy) had 0.8 kg/m(2) (95% CI = 0.1, 1.5) higher body mass index (BMI) than children in the lowest quartile (protein intake as a percentage of total energy was associated with IGF-1 in six-year-old girls, β = 5.4 μg/L (95% CI = 2.5, 8.2). High animal protein intake in infancy, but not vegetable protein intake, was associated with accelerated growth and higher BMI in childhood. Dairy protein intake in infancy may be positively associated with linear growth and also with IGF-1 in six-year-old girls. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Food Intake of Kansans Over 80 Years of Age Attending Congregate Meal Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisha M. Weeden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the United States continues to age, it has become increasingly more important to recognize the food intake and eating habits of older adults. The objective of this study was to describe the food group intake, factors predicting food group intake, and the food choices of community-dwelling Kansans, 80 years of age and older who participate in congregate meal programs. Participants completed a short questionnaire querying demographic information, current health status, and dietary supplement use. Participants (n = 113 were then followed up via telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls. Data were analyzed to determine adequacy of food group intake and mean intake. Regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting intake and frequency analysis established food typically consumed. Female participants were significantly more likely to consume more fruit servings than males. Intake was low for all five of the food groups, especially dairy. Chronic health conditions and dietary supplement use were consistently predictive factors of the amount of each food group consumed.

  1. Fish consumption, intake of fats and cognitive decline at middle and older age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; van Gelder, Boukje M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2017-01-01

    To get insight in the impact of fish and fat intake in the prevention of accelerated cognitive decline with ageing, we tested associations between fish and different fat intakes and 5-year change in cognitive functions.

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID

  3. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  4. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe fluorosis. PMID

  6. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-07-31

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1-6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1-6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children's anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children's micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children. PMID:28758956

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Hau Chong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia, a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7% and vegetables (15.8%. Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  9. Calcium signaling alterations, oxidative stress, and autophagy in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureshino, Rodrigo Portes; Rocha, Katiucha Karolina; Lopes, Guiomar Silva; Bincoletto, Cláudia; Smaili, Soraya Soubhi

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that may be associated with several functional and structural deficits which can evolve into degenerative diseases. In this review, we present data that may depict an expanded view of molecular aging theories, beginning with the idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major effectors in this process. In addition, we have correlated the importance of autophagy as a neuroprotective mechanism and discussed a link between age-related molecules, Ca(2+) signaling, and oxidative stress. There is evidence suggesting that alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, including mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and alterations in electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, which increase cell vulnerability, are linked to oxidative stress in aging. As much as Ca(2+) signaling is altered in aged cells, excess ROS can be produced due to an ineffective coupling of mitochondrial respiration. Damaged mitochondria might not be removed by the macroautophagic system, which is hampered in aging by lipofuscin accumulation, boosting ROS generation, damaging DNA, and, ultimately, leading to apoptosis. This process can lead to altered protein expression (such as p53, Sirt1, and IGF-1) and progress to cell death. This cycle can lead to increased cell vulnerability in aging and contribute to an increased susceptibility to degenerative processes. A better understanding of Ca(2+) signaling and molecular aging alterations is important for preventing apoptosis in age-related diseases. In addition, caloric restriction, resveratrol and autophagy modulation appear to be predominantly cytoprotective, and further studies of this process are promising in age-related disease therapeutics.

  10. People with the major alleles of ATP2B1 rs17249754 increases the risk of hypertension in high ratio of sodium and potassium, and low calcium intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, J W; Kim, B C; Liu, M; Park, S

    2017-12-01

    It is important to understand what genetic risk factors lead to hypertension and how genotype-specific dietary and lifestyle modification can mitigate the risk of developing hypertension. The ATP2B1 rs17249754 gene, which encodes a calcium pump expressed in vascular smooth muscle was identified as having variants that conferred higher or lower risk of hypertension-with the major allele carriers being increased at risk. However, the effects of dietary intakes on risk of hypertension among carriers of the different alleles have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated ATP2B1 rs17249754 and its interaction with dietary intakes of sodium (Na), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on the risk of developing hypertension using the Ansan/Ansung (n=8842) and City-Rural (n=5512) cohorts from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Carriers of the major allele of ATP2B1 rs17249754 were at greater risk of developing hypertension and high Na intake and low Ca increased the risk more in major allele than among minor allele carriers. High potassium intake was more protective against hypertension in the subjects expressing minor alleles and a low Na/K intake ratio was the most consistently beneficial to the subjects expressing the minor allele. When controlling for Na and K, low Ca intake was associated with a substantially higher risk for high systolic blood pressure in the major allele carriers compared with minor allele, suggesting good calcium status is especially important for the major allele carriers. In conclusion, people with the major allele of ATP2B1 rs17249754 are susceptible to hypertension especially in low intake of Ca and high ratio of Na and K.

  11. Sodium intake and physical activity impact cognitive maintenance in older adults: the NuAge Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, Alexandra J; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine; Payette, Hélène; Belleville, Sylvie; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, José A; Greenwood, Carol E

    2012-04-01

    This study examines the association between sodium intake and its interaction with physical activity on cognitive function over 3 years in older adults residing in Québec, Canada. We analyzed a subgroup from the NuAge cohort (aged 67-84 years) with nutrient intake data, including sodium, from a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Baseline physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE; high-low). Modified Mini Mental State Examination (3MS) was administered at baseline and annually for 3 additional years. Controlling for age, sex, education, waist circumference, diabetes, and dietary intakes, analyses showed an association between sodium intake and cognitive change over time in the low PASE group only. Specifically, in the low PASE group, elders in the low sodium intake tertile displayed better cognitive performance over time (mean decline in 3MS over years: mean [M] = -0.57, standard error [SE] = 0.002) compared with the highest (M = -1.72, SE = 0.01) and mid sodium intake (M = -2.07, SE = 0.01) groups. This finding may have significant public health implications, emphasizing the importance of addressing multiple lifestyle factors rather than a single domain effect on brain health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ELITE MEXICAN TEENAGERS SOCCER PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT AGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo y Teran Elizondo, Roberto; Martín Bermudo, Francisco Manuel; Peñaloza Mendez, Ricardo; Berná Amorós, Genoveva; Lara Padilla, Eleazar; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco José

    2015-10-01

    nutritional intake and status of soccer players has attracted not much research attention. Many soccer players follow an inadequate nutritional intake and have a poor nutritional status. This is relevant in youngsters soccer players, in order to improve performance and promote healthy dietary practices. analyze anthropometric characterizes, evaluate nutritional intake and status, dietary habits and pre- and post-exercise meals in elite teenagers soccer players. seventy-two young male soccer players (15-20 years) from four junior teams of a soccer Club from the Mexican National Soccer League were measured for height, seat height, weight, 6 skinfolds, 6 diameters and 7 circumferences, height-for-age and BMI-for-age values. Skin, adipose, muscle, bone and residual tissue masses were calculated with the Ross and Kerr equation. Resting energy expenditure and intake was also measured. Daily dietary intake was self-recorded for 4 consecutive days (excluding the match day) using a digital food-weighing scale and a food record questionnaire. Dietary analysis was performed using the NutriBase 7 Clinical software. Several biochemical values were determined. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc testing was performed using t-tests with a Bonferroni correction. all soccer players were within the normal range values for anthropometric parameters studies, when compared with other adolescent elite soccer teams. Values of plasma glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and total proteins were within normal range for young adult population, although albumin levels were high. Moreover, 14% and 20% of soccer players presented hyperuricemia and elevated total cholesterol levels respectively. Energy expenditure and intake were within normal range for all teenager elite soccer players. However, two teams shower significant lower intakes than demands. All macronutrient intakes were within recommendations, except protein that was higher. Micronutrient intake exceeded

  13. Infant nutrition in relation to eating behaviour and fruit and vegetable intake at age 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, Lisanne M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Infant nutrition may influence eating behaviour and food preferences in later life. The present study explores whether exclusive breast-feeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods are associated with children's eating behaviour and fruit and vegetable intake at age 5 years. Data were

  14. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  15. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  16. Impact of portion size and energy density on snack intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Shannon M; Raynor, Hollie A

    2011-03-01

    The influence of dietary environmental factors on child weight status may be important in the battle against childhood obesity. Portion size and energy density are factors shown to impact entrée energy intake in children. However, the influence of these factors on child snack energy intake has not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of portion size on intake of a lower energy-dense and higher energy-dense snack in preschool-aged children. A 2×2 crossover design (within-subject factors of portion size and energy density) was conducted on Wednesdays in a preschool setting on the University of Tennessee campus from October 2008 to November 2008. Seventeen children had complete data (age 3.8±0.6 years; 10 of 17 were female; 14 of 17 were white). Foods were applesauce (lower energy dense=0.43 kcal/g) and chocolate pudding (higher energy dense=1.19 kcal/g), and portion sizes were 150 g (small) and 300 g (large). Measures included anthropometrics, hunger, liking of foods, and caretakers' child-feeding practices using validated instruments. Mixed factorial analyses of covariance, with order controlled, analyzed gram and energy snack intake across conditions. There was no significant main effect of energy density on snack intake, but the main effect of portion size on snack intake (small portion size 84.2±30.8 kcal, large portion size 99.0±52.5 kcal; P<0.05) was significant. Results indicate increased energy intake when snacks are offered in larger portion size, regardless of energy density. Snack portion size may be an environmental strategy that can reduce excessive energy intake in children. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of Mutation, Cancer, and Other Age-Associated Diseases by Optimizing Micronutrient Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce N. Ames

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I review three of our research efforts which suggest that optimizing micronutrient intake will in turn optimize metabolism, resulting in decreased DNA damage and less cancer as well as other degenerative diseases of aging. (1 Research on delay of the mitochondrial decay of aging, including release of mutagenic oxidants, by supplementing rats with lipoic acid and acetyl carnitine. (2 The triage theory, which posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies (common in much of the population accelerate molecular aging, including DNA damage, mitochondrial decay, and supportive evidence for the theory, including an in-depth analysis of vitamin K that suggests the importance of achieving optimal micronutrient intake for longevity. (3 The finding that decreased enzyme binding constants (increased Km for coenzymes (or substrates can result from protein deformation and loss of function due to an age-related decline in membrane fluidity, or to polymorphisms or mutation. The loss of enzyme function can be compensated by a high dietary intake of any of the B vitamins, which increases the level of the vitamin-derived coenzyme. This dietary remediation illustrates the importance of understanding the effects of age and polymorphisms on optimal micronutrient requirements. Optimizing micronutrient intake could have a major effect on the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases of aging.

  18. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, and systemic vasculitis: relationship to disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, calcium intake, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Khayriah A; Ortiz-Alvarez, Olivia; Cabral, David A; Tucker, Lori B; Petty, Ross E; Nadel, Helen; Malleson, Peter N

    2005-04-01

    To describe the frequency of abnormal bone mineralization in a population of children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and systemic vasculitis; and to investigate the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD) to cumulative corticosteroid dose, disease duration, Tanner stage, calcium intake, and exercise in these patients. A retrospective chart review of children attending the pediatric rheumatology clinic at British Columbia's Children's Hospital was conducted to obtain demographic data (sex, ethnicity, disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, and mean daily corticosteroid dose). All patients had at least one BMD measurement by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at lumbar spine, hip, and total body. BMD was expressed as g/cm2 and Z scores; an abnormal Z score was defined as calcium intake was calculated. Physical activity was scored using a validated 7 day physical activities questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were studied. Twenty-five patients had SLE, 7 had JDM, and 4 had systemic vasculitis. Fourteen subjects were Caucasian, 13 Asian, 6 East Indian, and 3 Canadian First Nations. An abnormal Z score at one or more sites was found in 10/25 (40%) with JSLE, and in 3/11 (27%) JDM/vasculitis patients. The mean Z scores (+/- SD) for lumbar spine were -1.02 (+/- 1.2), for hip -0.88 (+/- 1.3), and for total body -0.77 (+/- 1.5). Compared to children with normal bone densities, those with lower bone density tended to be younger (13.5 +/- 2.2 vs 15.5 +/- 1.7 yrs), received higher corticosteroid dosages at the time of the study (0.78 +/- 0.6 vs 0.35 +/- 0.2 mg/kg), and were more often prepubertal (OR for total body scores 5, 95% CI 0.7-46). Decreased bone density is common in children with SLE and other systemic rheumatic diseases. Age, corticosteroid dose, and pubertal stage all appear to have some influence on bone mass in these children.

  19. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and FODMAP Intake of Aged-Care Residents from Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathsala S. Nanayakkara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides as well as polyols (FODMAPs intake in older adults are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and FODMAPs in aged care residents. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Score questionnaire modified for patients with IBS (GSRS-IBS was used to identify participants with IBS-like symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed for a subgroup of participants with highest total GSRS-IBS score (symptomatic cases and age, sex, and level of care matched participants with low total GSRS-IBS score (asymptomatic controls. Seventy-four participants with a mean (SD age of 86 (6.6 years completed the GSRS-IBS questionnaire and dietary data were collected using food diaries from a subsample of 27 symptomatic and 27 asymptomatic participants. The study found many older adults with functional gut symptoms. There were no differences between the groups for FODMAP intake and no significant relationship was found between FODMAP intake and total GSRS-IBS score. Lactose from milk and milk-based desserts was the biggest FODMAP contributor (16 g/day and a significant relationship between total FODMAP intake and diarrhoea was found. A larger study sample in future studies is required to better capture symptomatic cases and manipulation of dietary FODMAPs may assist with the management of IBS in the elderly.

  20. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and FODMAP Intake of Aged-Care Residents from Christchurch, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Wathsala S; Gearry, Richard B; Muir, Jane G; O'Brien, Leigh; Wilkinson, Tim J; Williman, Jonathan A; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2017-09-29

    Studies on fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides as well as polyols (FODMAPs) intake in older adults are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and FODMAPs in aged care residents. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Score questionnaire modified for patients with IBS (GSRS-IBS) was used to identify participants with IBS-like symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed for a subgroup of participants with highest total GSRS-IBS score (symptomatic cases) and age, sex, and level of care matched participants with low total GSRS-IBS score (asymptomatic controls). Seventy-four participants with a mean (SD) age of 86 (6.6) years completed the GSRS-IBS questionnaire and dietary data were collected using food diaries from a subsample of 27 symptomatic and 27 asymptomatic participants. The study found many older adults with functional gut symptoms. There were no differences between the groups for FODMAP intake and no significant relationship was found between FODMAP intake and total GSRS-IBS score. Lactose from milk and milk-based desserts was the biggest FODMAP contributor (16 g/day) and a significant relationship between total FODMAP intake and diarrhoea was found. A larger study sample in future studies is required to better capture symptomatic cases and manipulation of dietary FODMAPs may assist with the management of IBS in the elderly.

  1. Calcium supplementation and prevention of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Dall'asta, Andrea; Gizzo, Salvatore; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Piantelli, Giovanni; Jasonni, Valerio Maria; Modena, Alberto Bacchi

    2012-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological evidence has suggested a connection between low calcium intake and preeclampsia The purpose of this meta-analysis is to summarize current evidence regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy in predicting preeclampsia and associated maternal-fetal complications. Literature revision of all RCT (random allocation of calcium versus placebo) available in MEDLINE/PUBMED up to 2/29/2012 regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing preeclampsia. We used the Mantel-Haenszel's Method for four subgroup of patients: Adequate calcium intake; Low calcium intake; Low risk of preeclampsia; High risk of preeclampsia. We considered p prevention of preeclampsia, (2) other/adverse/long-term effects of calcium supplementation in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is likely to be a multifactorial disease. However, inadequate calcium intake represents a factor associated with an increased incidence of hypertensive disease. The results of our meta-analysis demonstrate that the additional intake of calcium during pregnancy is an effective measure to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia, especially in populations at high risk of preeclampsia due to ethnicity, gender, age, high BMI and in those with low baseline calcium intake.

  2. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  3. The association of trajectories of protein intake and age-specific protein intakes from 2 to 22 years with BMI in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Melecia; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda

    2017-03-01

    No study has analysed how protein intake from early childhood to young adulthood relate to adult BMI in a single cohort. To estimate the association of protein intake at 2, 11, 15, 19 and 22 years with age- and sex-standardised BMI at 22 years (early adulthood), we used linear regression models with dietary and anthropometric data from a Filipino birth cohort (1985-2005, n 2586). We used latent growth curve analysis to identify trajectories of protein intake relative to age-specific recommended daily allowance (intake in g/kg body weight) from 2 to 22 years, then related trajectory membership to early adulthood BMI using linear regression models. Lean mass and fat mass were secondary outcomes. Regression models included socioeconomic, dietary and anthropometric confounders from early life and adulthood. Protein intake relative to needs at age 2 years was positively associated with BMI and lean mass at age 22 years, but intakes at ages 11, 15 and 22 years were inversely associated with early adulthood BMI. Individuals were classified into four mutually exclusive trajectories: (i) normal consumers (referent trajectory, 58 % of cohort), (ii) high protein consumers in infancy (20 %), (iii) usually high consumers (18 %) and (iv) always high consumers (5 %). Compared with the normal consumers, 'usually high' consumption was inversely associated with BMI, lean mass and fat mass at age 22 years whereas 'always high' consumption was inversely associated with male lean mass in males. Proximal protein intakes were more important contributors to early adult BMI relative to early-childhood protein intake; protein intake history was differentially associated with adulthood body size.

  4. Human milk intake in preterm infants and neurodevelopment at 18 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi-Polishook, Talia; Collins, Carmel T; Sullivan, Thomas R; Simmer, Karen; Gillman, Matthew W; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-10-01

    The effect of human milk intake on neurodevelopment in preterm infants is uncertain. We analyzed data from 611 participants in the DHA for Improvement of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes study, enrolled at ≤33 wk gestation from five Australian perinatal centers. The main exposures were (i) average daily human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization and (ii) total duration of human milk intake before and after discharge. Outcomes were Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition Mental (MDI), and Psychomotor (PDI) Development Indexes. Adjusting for confounders in linear regression, human milk intake was not associated with higher MDI (0.2 points per 25 ml/kg/d; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.6, 1.0) or PDI (-0.3 points; 95% CI: -1.1, 0.4). Longer duration of human milk intake was also not associated with MDI (0.1 points per month; 95% CI: -0.2, 0.3) or PDI (-0.2 points per month; 95% CI: -0.5, 0.01) scores, except in infants born 29-33 wk gestation (n = 364, MDI 0.3 points higher per additional month, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6). We found no associations of human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization with neurodevelopment at 18 mo corrected age.

  5. A Simplified Regimen Compared with WHO Guidelines Decreases Antenatal Calcium Supplement Intake for Prevention of Preeclampsia in a Cluster-Randomized Noninferiority Trial in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotayo, Moshood O; Dickin, Katherine L; Pelletier, David L; Mwanga, Erick O; Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2017-10-01

    Background: To prevent preeclampsia, the WHO recommends antenatal calcium supplementation in populations with inadequate habitual intake. The WHO recommends 1500-2000 mg Ca/d with iron-folic acid (IFA) taken separately, a complex pill-taking regimen. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that simpler regimens with lower daily dosages would lead to higher adherence and similar supplement intake. Methods: In the Micronutrient Initiative Calcium Supplementation study, we compared the mean daily supplement intake associated with 2 dosing regimens with the use of a parallel, cluster-randomized noninferiority trial implemented in 16 primary health care facilities in rural Kenya. The standard regimen was 3 × 500 mg Ca/d in 3 pill-taking events, and the low-dose regimen was 2 × 500 mg Ca/d in 2 pill-taking events; both regimens included a 200 IU cholecalciferol and calcium pill and a separate IFA pill. We enrolled 990 pregnant women between 16 and 30 wk of gestation. The primary outcome was supplemental calcium intake measured by pill counts 4 and 8 wk after recruitment. We carried out intention-to-treat analyses with the use of mixed-effect models, with regimen as the fixed effect and health care facilities as a random effect, by using a noninferiority margin of 125 mg Ca/d. Results: Women in facilities assigned to the standard regimen consumed a mean of 1198 mg Ca/d, whereas those assigned to the low-dose regimen consumed 810 mg Ca/d. The difference in intake was 388 mg Ca/d (95% CI = 341, 434 mg Ca/d), exceeding the prespecified margin of 125 mg Ca/d. The overall adherence rate was 80% and did not differ between study arms. Conclusions: Contrary to our expectation, a simpler, lower-dose regimen led to significantly lower supplement intake than the regimen recommended by the WHO. Further studies are needed to precisely characterize the dose-response relation of calcium supplementation and preeclampsia risk and to examine cost effectiveness

  6. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  7. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Caroline E; Gillman, Matthew W; Hughes, Michael D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-06-15

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 to 2008-2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years.

  8. Calcium from plant sources is beneficial to lowering the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Moo; Heo, Jumi; Park, Yongsoon

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis, which has become a serious public health concern, is influenced by diet, especially calcium intake. Dairy products are a good source of calcium, but plant calcium may also be important in populations that do not consume a large amount of milk. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that calcium from vegetable sources is associated with osteoporosis risk and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women with osteoporosis and age-matched controls (N = 144). The results of multivariate-adjusted regression analyses indicated that the intake of calcium, plant calcium, potassium, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin B(1), niacin, vitamin E, vitamin C, and vegetables was associated with significantly reduced risk of osteoporosis after adjusting for age, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, and energy intake. In addition, intake of vegetables alone, as well as calcium, plant calcium, potassium, and antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene), which are abundant in vegetables, was significantly and positively associated with bone mineral density. However, in this population of low-dairy consumers, intake of calcium from meat and dairy products was not related to risk of osteoporosis and bone mineral density. Our results suggest that high dietary intake of calcium, especially plant calcium, reduces the risk of osteoporosis and increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women. Vegetables may be an important source of calcium and may also provide vitamins and minerals that exert additional beneficial effects on the bone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Caffeine intake from carbonated beverages among primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna; Siuba-Strzelińska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess caffeine intake from cola beverages and energy drinks, as well as the consumption frequency among primary-school-age children in relation to other dietary habits. The study included 329 children (aged 11-13 years) from five randomly selected schools in Warsaw. Caffeine intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire. The face-to-face interview method was selected. 89.7% of the children consumed carbonated beverages whom caffeine, of which nearly 24% consumed energy drinks. The median caffeine intake from carbonated beverages was 0.12 mg/kg body weight/day, accounting for 4.8% of the recommended maximum daily intake from all dietary sources. Frequent consumers of cola drinks were often found to eat fast foods, as well as salty snacks. Caffeine intake in the studied group of children turned out to be at a safe level. The safe dose of caffeine does not mean that consumption of carbonated drinks should not raise any concerns. The recently established legal ban on selling unhealthy foods at school is a good idea, since the school should not be a place for improper dietary models.

  10. Dietary intake and metabolic control of children aged six to ten with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the dietary intake and metabolic control of children with type 1 diabetes. Design: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out. Subjects: A total of 30 subjects whose ages ranged from six to ten years were included in the study. Setting: The study was conducted at ...

  11. Calcium dysregulation in relation to Alzheimer-type pathology in the ageing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, C; Faizullabhoy, A; Wharton, S B; Ince, P G; Heath, P R; Shaw, P J; Baxter, L; Gelsthorpe, C; Forster, G; Matthews, F E; Brayne, C; Simpson, J E

    2013-12-01

    Calcium dyshomeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. However, much of the previous research has focused on changes in neuronal calcium signalling. In a recent microarray study we identified dysregulation of several key signalling pathways including the Ca(2+) signalling pathway in astrocytes as Alzheimer-type pathology developed. In this study we sought to determine the expression of calpain-10 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase alpha (CamKIIα) in relation to Alzheimer-type pathology in a population-based study. Using post mortem temporal cortex samples derived from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC-CFAS) ageing brain cohort we examined calpain-10 and CamKIIα gene and protein expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that astrocytic expression of calpain-10 is up-regulated, and CamKIIα down-regulated with increasing Braak stage. Using immunohistochemistry we confirm protein expression of calpain-10 in astrocytes throughout the temporal cortex and demonstrate that calpain-10 immunoreactivity is correlated with both local and global measures of Alzheimer-type pathology. In addition, we identify a subpopulation of calpain-10 immunoreactive interlaminar astrocytes that extend processes deep into the cortex. CamKIIα is predominantly neuronal in localization and is associated with the presence of diffuse plaques in the ageing brain. Dysregulated expression of key calcium signalling molecules occurs with progression of Alzheimer-type pathology in the ageing brain, highlighting the need for further functional studies of astrocytic calcium signalling with respect to disease progression. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  12. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  13. Dietary intake in Australian children aged 4-24 months: consumption of meat and meat alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Chelsea Emma; Perry, R A; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2015-06-14

    Meat/meat alternatives (M/MA) are key sources of Fe, Zn and protein, but intake tends to be low in young children. Australian recommendations state that Fe-rich foods, including M/MA, should be the first complementary foods offered to infants. The present paper reports M/MA consumption of Australian infants and toddlers, compares intake with guidelines, and suggests strategies to enhance adherence to those guidelines. Mother-infant dyads recruited as part of the NOURISH and South Australian Infants Dietary Intake studies provided 3 d of intake data at three time points: Time 1 (T1) (n 482, mean age 5·5 (SD 1·1) months), Time 2 (T2) (n 600, mean age 14·0 (SD 1·2) months) and Time 3 (T3) (n 533, mean age 24 (SD 0·7) months). Of 170 infants consuming solids and aged greater than 6 months at T1, 50 (29%) consumed beef, lamb, veal (BLV) or pork on at least one of 3 d. Commercial infant foods containing BLV or poultry were the most common form of M/MA consumed at T1, whilst by T2 BLV mixed dishes (including pasta bolognaise) became more popular and remained so at T3. The processed M/MA increased in popularity over time, led by pork (including ham). The present study shows that M/MA are not being eaten by Australian infants or toddlers regularly enough; or in adequate quantities to meet recommendations; and that the form in which these foods are eaten can lead to smaller M/MA serve sizes and greater Na intake. Parents should be encouraged to offer M/MA in a recognisable form, as one of the first complementary foods, in order to increase acceptance at a later age.

  14. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    were included. The participation was 66%. Dietary information: A 7-day dietary record. Results: The estimated median intake of ruminant TFA was 1.4 g/day with the 80% central range being from 0.9 to 2.1 among children aged 1 - 6 years and 1.6 g/day ( 1.0 - 2.4) among children aged 7 - 14 years...

  15. Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Gano, Lindsey B; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults. In 127 men and women aged 48-77 yr, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was positively related to dietary niacin intake [%change (Δ): r = 0.20, P niacin intake (≥ 22 mg/day, NHANES III), FMD was 25% greater than in subjects with below-average intake (P niacin intake (above vs. below average) was an independent predictor of FMD (%Δ: β = 1.8; mmΔ: β = 0.05, both P niacin intake (r = -0.23, P niacin intake (48 ± 2 vs. 57 ± 2 mg/dl, P niacin intake (P 0.05, n = 20). In endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery of a subgroup, dietary niacin intake was inversely related to nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage (r = -0.30, P niacin intake [nitrotyrosine: 0.39 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.07; NADPH oxidase: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs. 0.53 ± 0.05 (ratio to human umbilical vein endothelial cell control), both P niacin intake is associated with greater vascular endothelial function related to lower systemic and vascular oxidative stress among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

  16. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Micronutrients may protect against prostate cancer. However, few studies have had high-quality assessment of both dietary and supplemental consumption of micronutrients, rendering possible different source-specific effects difficult to discern. This study evaluates associations between...... intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years...... was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, notably on a continuous scale [HR 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.98) per 100 µg increase/day]. The risk reduction was largely confined to non-aggressive tumors [HR 0.71 (0.55-0.93) per 100 µg increase/day]. No influence on prostate cancer risk was observed for dietary...

  17. Ingestão do cálcio na obesidade de mulheres atendidas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde Calcium intake in obese women treated at Sistema Único de Saúde, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Candido Silva

    2010-06-01

    determine the calcium intake of 177 hypertensive and/or diabetic women. This was a case-control study. The study group consisted of 102 obese women and 75 normal weight women (control. Intake data were compared with the dietary reference intakes and with the animal-source food portions, which are the sources of calcium recommended by the Brazilian food pyramid. The Pearson correlation coefficient with a significance level of 5% of experimental error probability was used for the statistical analysis of both groups according to age groups. RESULTS: Calcium intake was similar between the groups and both failed to reach the recommended intake levels. Analysis of the intake frequency of calcium-rich foods showed that both groups consumed less than 3 portions a day. The high percentage of women who reported hardly ever eating such foods is worthy of notice. CONCLUSION: An association between obesity and calcium intake was not found in this population. Calcium intake failed to reach the recommended levels, which was a relevant finding. Considering the age of the studied women and the diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension, there is a clear need for nutrition education activities that encourage the intake of calcium-rich foods, which aid in the control of hypertension, as well as in the prevention of important diseases, such as obesity and osteoporosis.

  18. Feed intake, growth, and body and carcass attributes of feedlot steers supplemented with two levels of calcium nitrate or urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, R S; Miller, J; Oelbrandt, N; Li, L; Luijben, J P M; Robinson, D L; Nolan, J V; Perdok, H B

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A feedlot study was conducted to assess the effects of supplementing 0.25 or 0.45% NPN in dietary DM as either urea (Ur) or calcium nitrate (CaN) on DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass attributes of feedlot steers ( = 383). The levels of NPN inclusion were selected as those at which nitrate has previously achieved measurable mitigation of enteric methane. The higher level of NPN inclusion reduced ADG as did replacement of Ur with CaN ( nitrate-supplemented cattle to have a slower rate of eating (g DMI/min) than Ur-supplemented cattle. When adjusted for BW, neither NPN source nor inclusion level affected cross-sectional area of the LM or fatness measured on the live animal. Similarly, there were no significant main effects of treatments on dressing percentage or fat depth or muscling attributes of the carcass after adjustment for HCW ( > 0.05). Analysis of composited meat samples showed no detectable nitrates or nitrosamines in raw or cooked meat, and the level of nitrate detected in meat from nitrate-supplemented cattle was no higher than for Ur-fed cattle ( > 0.05). We conclude that increasing NPN inclusion from 0.25 to 0.45% NPN in dietary DM and replacing Ur with CaN decreased ADG in feedlot cattle without improving G:F.

  19. Intake of DDT and its metabolites through food items among reproductive age women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rehnuma; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Ahmad, Akhtar Sk; Ueno, Daisuke

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to make clear the major intake route of DDT in Bangladesh people to develop strategy and policy that could lead to a reduction in body burden especially in the reproductive age women. The concentrations of several POPs (DDT, PCBs, chlordanes, HCHs, HCB, and PeCB) were quantified in food items, human breast milk and house dust collected in Bangladesh in 2011-2012. Among the POPs analyzed in this study, DDT and its metabolites (ΣDDT) showed the highest concentration. The highest median ΣDDT concentration was found in meat (1.3-1100 ng g -1 wet weight) and house dust (30-1100 ng g -1 dry weight), and followed by human breast milk (20-55 ng g -1 wet weight). Estimated daily intake (EDI) was calculated using the DDT concentrations in food items. The highest intake of DDT was found in an infant and 99% of it was via breast milk feeding. DDT intake via consumption of beef accounted for 69% and 72% of that found in children and adults, respectively. The total EDI of DDT did not exceed the tolerable daily intake proposed by the WHO, but the EDI of p,p'-DDT exceeded the oral reference dose proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Further research is required to clarify the reason for the high levels of DDT in beef, which seems to be the major intake route of DDT for women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  1. Effects of a Japan Diet Intake Program on Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Nakano, Rena; Shima, Mitsuha; Mae, Asumi; Shijo, Yuri; Nakamura, Eri; Okabe, Yuuna; Park, Sunmi; Kameyama, Noriko; Hirai, Satomi; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Uchida, Kagehiro; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-03

    We conducted a pilot study to clarify the effects of the Japan Diet nutritional education program on metabolic risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men who were brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan. Thirty-three men, 30-49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class to learn food items and recommended volumes comprising the Japan Diet (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, mushrooms and unrefined cereals, and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks), and were encouraged to consume the Japan Diet for 6 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured and 3-day weighted dietary records were kept before and at completion of the intervention. Ninety-one percent of participants showed improvements in more than one cardiovascular risk factor after 6 weeks. Body weight, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, malondialdehyde modified (MDA)-LDL and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol was unchanged. Fish, soy, and sum of seaweed, mushrooms and konjak intakes doubled, and green and yellow vegetable intakes also increased as compared to baseline. Meanwhile, intakes of refined cereals, meat and poultry, sweets, desserts and snacks, and margarine and shortening decreased. Total energy, lipid, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes decreased, while n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, dietary fiber, beta-carotene, vitamins D and K, potassium, and magnesium increased, with no change in sodium intake. The Japan Diet is suggested to improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Japanese men.The clinical trial registration number: UMIN000020639.

  2. Assessing Initial Validity and Reliability of a Beverage Intake Questionnaire in Hispanic Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Davy, Brenda; Hedrick, Valisa; Ferris, Ann M; Anderson, Michael P; Wakefield, Dorothy

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between high-calorie beverage consumption and weight gain requires an accurate report of dietary intake. A critical need exists to develop and test the psychometrics of brief quantitative tools for minority pediatric populations. To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for Hispanic preschool-aged children (BEVQ-PS) and test its validity and test-retest reliability in children aged 3 to 5 years. Cross-sectional. The modified quantitative 12-beverage category questionnaire assessed consumption of water, fruit juice, sweetened juice drinks, whole milk, reduced-fat milk, low-fat milk, flavored milk, carbonated sweetened drinks, diet carbonated drinks, sweet tea, tea with or without artificial sweetener, and sport drinks consumed during the past month. Hispanic mothers (n=109) recruited from day-care centers provided one 4-day food intake record (FIR) and completed two BEVQ-PS surveys during a 2-week period for their preschool-aged child. Data collection was conducted through one-on-one interviews in Spanish. Validity was assessed by comparing amounts (in grams) and energy intake (in kilocalories) for each beverage category between the first BEVQ-PS and the mean of the FIRs using paired t tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Criteria for validity were nonsignificant mean differences in grams and kilocalories from the first BEVQ-PS and mean of the FIRs beverage categories, and significant correlation coefficients between beverage categories. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing grams and kilocalories for each beverage category in the first BEVQ-PS with those from the second BEVQ-PS using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The criterion for reliability was a significant correlation coefficient between beverage categories. Significance was set at Pchildren. Additional modifications should be evaluated to assess total beverage intake. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by

  3. Estradiol Reverses a Calcium-Related Biomarker of Brain Aging in Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Lawrence D.; Dowling, Amy L.S.; Curran-Rauhut, Meredith A.; Landfield, Philip W.; Porter, Nada M.; Blalock, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    An increase in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LTCC) current is a prominent biomarker of brain aging and is believed to contribute to cognitive decline and vulnerability to neuropathologies. Studies examining age-related changes in LTCCs have focused primarily on males, even though estrogen (17β-estradiol, E2) affects calcium-dependent activities associated with cognition. Therefore, to better understand brain aging in females, the effects of chronic E2 replacement on LTCC current activity in hippocampal neurons of young and aged ovariectomized rats were determined. The zipper slice preparation was utilized to expose CA1 pyramidal neurons for recording LTCC currents using the cell-attached patch-clamp technique. We found that an age-related increase in LTCC current in neurons from control animals was prevented by E2 treatment. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed that within stratum pyramidale of the CA1 area, mRNA expression of the Cav1.2 LTCC subunit, but not the Cav1.3 subunit, was decreased in aged E2-treated rats. Thus, the reported benefits of E2 on cognition and neuronal health may be attributed, at least in part, to its age-related decrease in LTCC current. PMID:19439583

  4. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Scholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acid (TFA intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793. TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day intake (β 45.5 and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3. Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  5. Associations of sodium intake with obesity, metabolic disorder, and albuminuria according to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Won; Koo, Ho Seok; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Sang Youb; Chin, Ho Jun

    2017-01-01

    Sodium intake is associated with obesity and metabolic disorder in the general population. However, sodium intake is significantly reduced according to the decrease of energy intake in older adults although the prevalence of obesity is higher than younger adults. We evaluate the association of sodium excretion (UNa) with blood pressure, obesity, metabolic disorders, and albuminuria according to age. An observational study using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V (2008-2011) was performed (N = 18,146). The 24 hour UNa was estimated from a single fasting urine sample.Participants aged≥75 years showed the highest risk for hypertension (HTN) in the highest quartile of UNa (1.769, 95% CI, 1.174-2.665), and the risks for HTN increased with advancing age. Obesity was not associated with UNa in participants aged≥75 years, and hypertriglyceridemia and body fat were not related to UNa in participants aged≥65 years, although these values were significantly associated with UNa in participants agedalbuminuria in those aged 20-39 years (95% CI, 1.130-12.630), and a 1.885 fold increased risk (95% CI, 1.156-3.075) among participants aged 40-64 years. In participants aged≥65 years, albuminuria was not associated with UNa. In contrast with HTN, UNa was not associated with albuminuria, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, IFG, and IR in older adults despite a strong association in younger adults.

  6. Fat intake and weight development from 9 to 16 years of age: the European youth heart study - a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fat...... intake and weight development among a cohort of children aged 9-10 years at baseline and 15-16 years at follow-up, and, further, at investigating whether parents' obesity is modifying the association. METHOD: Among 384 subjects aged 9 years, data on dietary intake, BMI z-score, physical activity...

  7. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal antioxidant intakes in pregnancy, and child temperament at age 30 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, L R; Brunst, K J; Kannan, S; Ni, Y-M; Ganguri, H B; Wright, R J; Bosquet Enlow, M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet. When the children were 30 months of age, mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short form, which provides scores on child Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Surgency/Extraversion. Linear regressions tested associations between maternal prenatal negative life events and child temperament, and effect modification by maternal prenatal antioxidant intakes (vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, zinc, selenium, β-carotene). Analyses revealed that increased maternal prenatal negative life events were associated with higher child Negative Affectivity (β=0.08, P=0.009) but not with child Effortful Control (β=-0.03, P=0.39) or Surgency/Extraversion (β=0.04, P=0.14). Prenatal intakes of zinc and selenium modified this effect: Maternal exposure to prenatal negative life events was associated with higher child Negative Affectivity in the presence of lower intakes of zinc and selenium. Modification effects approached significance for vitamins A and C. The results suggest that the combination of elevated stress exposures and lower antioxidant intakes in pregnancy increases the likelihood of heightened child temperamental negative affectivity. Increased antioxidant intakes during pregnancy may protect against influences of prenatal stress on child temperament.

  8. CALCIUM, CREATININE AND URINARY PHOSPHATE/CREATININE RATIO CONCENTRATIONS IN NEONATES OF VARIOUS GESTATIONAL AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Fomina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: specify peculiarities of calcium and phosphates excretion in neonates of various gestational ages and types of feeding in neonatal period. Patients and methods. Calcium-creatinine (Ca/Cr and phosphate-creatinine (P/Cr ratio concentrations were determined in 96 healthy neonates of 38-40 weeks of gestational age and 146 premature infants of 28-37 weeks of gestational age of various types of feeding. Results. The Ca/Cr ratio concentration in healthy term infants in the early neonatal period amounted to 0.9-2.2 (median – 1.8, the P/Cr ratio concentration – 0.8-2.1 (median – 1.6. The Ca/Cr ratio concentration in premature infants (28-37 weeks of gestational age amounted to 0.9-2.4 (median – 1.9, which is comparable to this parameter’s value in term infants. The P/Cr ratio concentration amounted to 0.7-3.1 (median – 2.4, which exceeds this parameter’s value in term infants. The lesser the gestational age and birth weight, the higher the Ca/Cr and P/Cr ratio concentrations. The authors revealed hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia in premature infants with a very low body weight fed with specialized formulas. Conclusions. Use of specialized formulas in small premature infants (gestational age < 33 weeks with VLBW results in excessive calcium and phosphates excretion. It is reasonable to monitor their concentrations using a non-invasive and informative method of determining Ca/Cr and P/Cr ratios. Feeding of premature infants with BW > 1,500 g with breast milk only (in case of the mother’s adequate lactation allows avoiding hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia and preventing risk of a renal pathology. 

  9. Age-Related Loss of Calcium Buffering and Selective Neuronal Vulnerability in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, David; de Leon, Dianne; Baker-Nigh, Alaina; Nicholas, Alexander; Yukhananov, Rustam; Bu, Jing; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Geula, Changiz

    2011-01-01

    The reasons for the selective vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations in neurodegenerative disorders are unknown. The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain are vulnerable to pathology and loss early in Alzheimer’s disease and in a number of other neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly. In the primate, including man, these neurons are rich in the calcium buffer calbindin-D28K. Here we confirm that these neurons undergo a substantial loss of calbindin in the course of normal aging and report a further loss of calbindin in Alzheimer’s disease both at the level of RNA and protein. Significantly, cholinergic neurons that had lost their calbindin in the course of normal aging were those that selectively degenerated in Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, calbindin containing neurons were virtually resistant to the process of tangle formation, a hallmark of the disease. We conclude that the loss of calcium buffering capacity in these neurons and the resultant pathological increase in intracellular calcium are permissive to tangle formation and degeneration. PMID:21874328

  10. Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Derks, M.; Laar, van H.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran

  11. Perceived threat predictor of calcium-rich foods in the women of premenopausal age Isfahan - Iran in 2013-2014

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Hoseini, Marjan; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    ... and make them more susceptible to osteoporosis and related complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the health belief model constructs and consuming calcium-rich foods in menopausal age women...

  12. Dietary intake and the indicators of dietary change for females of reproductive age

    OpenAIRE

    Murayama, Nobuko; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Phonglusa, Khampheng; Sithideth, Dalaphone

    2006-01-01

     The objectives of this study are to understand amount of food consumption and nutrients intake, and changing dietary pattern for females of reproductive age in Lowland of Laos, Lahanam zone in Sonkhon district, Savannakhet province. We randomly selected 113 women aged 19-40 years in 5 villages. The period of the data collection is August to September, 2005. One subjects was visited for 3 days with 4 days interval. The mean of 3 days dietary records was used as the person’s dietary data. The ...

  13. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training.

  14. [The effect of high fat intake in rats of different age categories on protein utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dibák, O

    1984-10-01

    Male rats of the Wistar strain, age 30, 75, 90 and 150 days, were given high-fat feeds (45%, 36.5%, 33% and 30%) ad libitum for 14 days. The net protein ratio (NPR), net protein utilization (NPU), and liver protein utilization (LPU) of the biological value of proteins were determined in comparison with diets considered as optimum for each age category. The specific activity of phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK (E.C..4.1.1.32) was measured in the liver of the animals. As demonstrated by the significantly reduced parameters of the biological value of proteins and the activated process of gluconeogenesis, a high intake of fats adversely affected the utilization of proteins in the organisms of 75 to 90 days old animals. The decrease in the NPR and NPU of the weanlings is insignificant; the increase in PEPCK is at the level of significance, which testifies to a good tolerance to the intake of fats by the animals after weaning, with respect to a similar composition of mothers' milk. In the animals with the slower growth and higher protein requirement for the maintenance of the organism (150 days old rats) the reduction of protein utilization and the increase in PEPCK activity as a result of a high fat intake are not so significant as in animals old 75 and 90 days. As suggested by the results, it is necessary to state another length of high-fat administration than 14 days.

  15. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  17. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  18. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  19. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets.

  20. Factors associated with sugar intake and sugar sources in European children from 1 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, I; Grote, V; Theurich, M; Closa-Monasterolo, R; Stolarczyk, A; Verduci, E; Xhonneux, A; Koletzko, B

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends to limit intake of free sugars to 5% of total energy per day because of the great impact of high sugar intake on body fat deposition, adiposity and dental caries. However, little data exist about total intake and sources of sugar in European children. Therefore, this paper aims to describe sugar intake and dietary sugar sources and associated factors. Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at eight time points from children 1 to 8 years of age (n=995) in five European countries. Food items were classified into subgroups according to food composition. Linear mixed models were used to examine associated factors. Total sugar intake increased from 65 g/day (30.0% of energy intake (E%)) at 12 months of age to 83 g/day (20.9 E%) at 96 months of age. Around 80% of children's sugar intake was derived from the following sources: milk and dairy products, fruits and fruit products, confectionary and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB). Total sugar intake and dietary sugar sources varied significantly by country of residence. Boys had a significantly (P=0.003) higher total sugar consumption than girls.SSB consumption was significantly higher in children from young mothers while sugar intake from fruit products was lower in children from mothers with lower educational status and those with higher birth order. Sugar intake in our population was lower than in other studies. Total sugar intake was associated with country of residence and gender, while dietary sugar sources varied by country of residence, maternal age, education and birth order.

  1. Sodium Intake among US School-Aged Children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Zerleen S; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah A; Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Burdg, Jinee P; Moshfegh, Alanna; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Gunn, Janelle P; Mugavero, Kristy; Cogswell, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake, which occurs among 90% of US school-aged children. To describe major food sources, places obtained, and eating occasions contributing to sodium intake among US school-aged children. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A nationally representative sample of 2,142 US children aged 6 to 18 years who completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Population proportions of sodium intake from major food categories, places, and eating occasions. Statistical analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling. Wald F tests and t tests were used to examine differences between subgroups. Average daily sodium intake was highest among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (3,565±120 mg), lowest among girls (2,919±74 mg). Little variation was seen in average intakes or the top five sodium contributors by sociodemographic characteristics or weight status. Ten food categories contributed to almost half (48%) of US school-aged children's sodium intake, and included pizza, Mexican-mixed dishes, sandwiches, breads, cold cuts, soups, savory snacks, cheese, plain milk, and poultry. More than 80 food categories contributed to the other half of children's sodium intake. Foods obtained from stores contributed 58% of sodium intake, fast-food/pizza restaurants contributed 16%, and school cafeterias contributed 10%. Thirty-nine percent of sodium intake was consumed at dinner, 31% at lunch, 16% from snacks, and 14% at breakfast. With the exception of plain milk, which naturally contains sodium, the top 10 food categories contributing to US schoolchildren's sodium intake during 2011-2012 comprised foods in which sodium is added during processing or preparation. Sodium is consumed throughout the day from multiple foods and locations, highlighting the importance of sodium reduction across the US food supply. Published by Elsevier

  2. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish among US children 12-60 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Branum, Amy M

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate intake of individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), identify major dietary sources of PUFAs and estimate the proportion of individuals consuming fish among US children 12-60 months of age, by age and race and ethnicity. The study employed a cross-sectional design using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Representative sample of US population based on selected counties. 2496 US children aged 12-60 months. Mean daily intake of n-6 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) varied by age, with children 12-24 months of age having lower average intakes (mg or g day(-1) ) than children 49-60 months of age and the lowest n6 : n3 ratio, upon adjustment for energy intake. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was low (20 mg day(-1) ) compared to typical infant intake and did not change with age. Compared to non-Hispanic white children, Mexican American children had higher DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) intake. In the previous 30 days, 53.7% of children ever consumed fish. Non-Hispanic black children were more likely than non-Hispanic white children to have consumed fish (64.0% vs. 53.0%). Results indicate low prevalence of fish intake and key n-3 PUFAs, relative to n-6 fatty acids, which suggests room for improvement in the diets of US children. More research is needed to determine how increasing dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs like DHA could benefit child health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-08-30

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  4. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaëlle M. A. van Gijssel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS. These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042, and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003, but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  5. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  6. Effect of a combination GOS/FOS® prebiotic mixture and interaction with calcium intake on mineral absorption and bone parameters in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Gabriel; Coronel, Magalí Zeni; Pellegrini, Gretel; Mandalunis, Patricia; Rio, María Ester; de Portela, María Luz Pita Martín; Zeni, Susana Noemí

    2015-09-01

    Increasing calcium intake is the most effective strategy for avoiding Ca deficit. However, if intake remains inadequate, improving Ca absorption becomes an important tool to optimize Ca homeostasis and bone health. The effect of a mixture of GOS/FOS(®) 9:1 added to a normal- or low-Ca diets on Ca absorption and bone mineralization, density and structure was investigated, in a model of growing rats. Several colonic parameters to help support the findings were also evaluated. Weanling Wistar rats received one of the four experimental AIN-93G diets: C5: 0.5% Ca; C3: 0.3% Ca; P5: 0.5% Ca + 5.3% GOS/FOS(®); P3: 0.3% Ca + 5.3% GOS/FOS(®) until 50 days (T = 50). At T = 50, lactobacillus and cecum weights were higher, whereas cecum pH was lower in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p bone mineral content, trabecular bone mineral density, tibia length, bone volume, osteoblast surface, stiffness and elastic modulus were higher in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p bone mineralization, density and structure due to an increase in Ca, P and Mg absorptions. Thus, this prebiotic mixture may help to improve bone development in a period of high calcium requirements.

  7. Relationship between alcohol intake and lipid accumulation product in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Lipid accumulation product (LAP), defined as a product of waist circumference and triglycerides, has recently been proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how LAP is associated with alcohol drinking. Subjects were 21,378 men aged 35-60 years and they were divided by alcohol intake into non-, light (levels in light drinkers and very heavy drinkers were significantly (P level in non-drinkers, and the levels were comparable in non- and heavy drinkers (non-drinkers, 1.335 ± 0.005; light drinkers, 1.290 ± 0.009; heavy drinkers, 1.348 ± 0.005 and very heavy drinkers, 1.414 ± 0.006). The inverse association of alcohol intake with LAP was more prominent in smokers and subjects without regular exercise than in non-smokers and subjects with regular exercise, respectively, while the positive association of alcohol with LAP was more prominent in non-smokers than in smokers. Odds ratio for hyperglycemia of subjects with vs. subjects without high LAP was significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00, and this association was not different among the four alcohol groups. There is a J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and LAP, which is confounded by smoking and habitual exercise.

  8. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth, and body fat distribution at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Gaillard, Romy

    2016-05-01

    The associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns and body fat and insulin levels at school age were examined. In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onward. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Compared to children whose mothers consumed pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years, and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. These results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. Analysis of oxytocin in milk samples and intake pattern in different age groups of Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manjari; Ali, Shakir; Das, Mukul

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) injections have been indiscriminately used to milk cattle in dairy industries. There is no study available regarding surveillance of OT in market milk samples. OT from milk samples was extracted by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and passed through the solid phase extraction column. OT was eluted and evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was either dissolved in milli Q water or buffer for analysis through HPLC or EIA. The intake assessment of OT through milk was assessed through the Food Frequency Recall method employing a Food Frequency Questionnaire. On the basis of milk consumption and the values of OT in milk, the actual intake of OT was calculated. In the present study, a total of 55 milk samples (39 milkman and 16 branded) were analyzed for occurrence of OT by EIA and UV-HPLC from different locations of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India). OT contamination in milkman samples was found to be 21 pg/mL to 18.9 ng/mL with the mean value of 8.9 ng/mL. The average daily intake of OT in terms of µg/day/person was highest (2.3-2.4 µg/day/person) in 1-3-year age group. Since there is no prescribed level of OT in milk and the intake of OT through this commodity is quite high there is need to implement regulatory laws so that non-physiological OT exposure may not occur in children which may have deleterious effects.

  10. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATION OF BREAST MILK IN RELATION WITH AGE AND PARITY OF NURSING WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Goc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determination of the concentration of calcium and magnesium in human milk (n=150 taken from nursing women who lived permanently in Malopolska district (South Poland. Milk samples were classified into groups taking into account women’ age and parity. According to the various age of the women milk samples were segregated into three groups: 20-25 years old, 26-31 years old and 32-37 years old. Included parity milk samples were spitted into two groups: the first group consisted of women who were primiparous (1 baby, the second group included women who were multiparous (≥2 babies. Milk samples were taken between the 7th and 14th day of the postpartum in each age group. The samples were taken by manual expression every morning. The analyses of metals were done by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS, after all samples had been collected. The mean concentration of cooper in milk taken from women of first age group (20-25 years old was 209.44±15.10 mg/L, in second group (26-31 years old was 238.65±13.34 mg/L and in the oldest group (32-37 years old was 261.44±17.16 mg/L. The mean concentration of magnesium in the same group of age was 42.12±3.793 mg/L, 47.51±2.728 mg/L and 45.43±3.840 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration of calcium in milk taken from primiparous was 223.17±10.50mg/L, in multiparous was 266.37±16.20 mg/L. Whereas, the mean concentration of magnesium in transitional milk taken from the same group was 44.12±2.58 mg/L and 47.412±3.16 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that there were statistically significant differences between calcium level in milk taken from the youngest group and the concentration of this metal in milk from the oldest group (p=0.032. Also, when comparing women’s parity, significant differences were found in the concentration of calcium (p=0.022. However, the differences in magnesium levels between tested groups were no statistically significant

  11. [Fruit and vegetables intake among the Chinese migrant population aged 18 to 59 years old in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Linhong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Li, Yichong; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To describe the intake of fruit and vegetables among employed migrant population aged 18 to 59 year-olds in China. Data from the Migrant Population Survey related to China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that conducted in 170 counties/districts in 31 provinces, 2012, was used. Information on non-communicable diseases and related risk factors among migrant population were collected through face-to-face questionnaire interview, physical measurement and lab tests. A total of 48 704 subjects aged 18 to 59 years old were included in our study. Sample was standardized by age and sex. Information on average daily fruit and vegetables intake, prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake, grouped by sex, age, industries, and education level were analyzed. The average daily intakes of vegetables and fruits were 353.7 (95%CI:351.3-356.2) g and 125.1 (95%CI:123.4-126.9) g respectively, among the employed migrant population aged 18-59 years old in China. Prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake was 44.1% (95% CI:43.5%-44.6% ) among employed migrant population, 46.2% (95% CI: 45.5%-47.0%)for males and 41.2% (95% CI:40.3%-42.0%)for females (χ(2) = 82.19, P fruit and vegetables intake was the highest among people working in accommodation and restaurants (46.2%, 95%CI:45.0%-47.3%) while the lowest seen among those working in social services (42.5%, 95%CI:41.4%-43.7%,χ(2) = 15.81, P fruit and vegetables intake showed a decrease along with the increase of education levels (χ(2) = 22.29, P fruit and vegetables intake. Being male and with low education level were risk factors linked with the higher prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake.

  12. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided...... milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist...

  13. High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Campanozzi

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9 who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g and 36 mmol (1.40 g, respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

  14. Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2014-05-01

    Concern has recently been expressed about Pb levels in Pb-shot game meat. Our aim was to determine the consumption of game birds in a representative sample population in the UK, and in children and women of childbearing age in particular. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. Data from 4 d diet diaries from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS; 2008-2010) were extracted to analyse data on game bird consumption in the sample population, in women of childbearing age (15-45 years old) and in children ≤6 years old. Home-based study in representative areas of the UK. Participants in the NDNS (2008-2010; n 2126, age 1·5 to >65 years). Fifty-eight participants (2·7 %) reported eating game birds. The mean intake was 19·5 (sd 18·1) g/d (median 15·6, range 1·3-92·9 g/d). In women of childbearing age (15-45 years), 11/383 (2·9 %) reported eating game birds, with a mean intake of 22·4 (sd 25·8) g/d (median 15·6, range 2·0-92·9 g/d). In children aged ≤6 years old, 3/342 (0·9 %) were reported as eating game birds, with a mean intake of 6·8 (sd 9·7) g/d (median 2·4, range 1·3-23·2 g/d). The prevalence of consumption of game birds by women of childbearing age and children ≤6 years old was relatively low and intakes were small. However, any exposure to Pb in these two groups is undesirable. As are uncertainties about the ability of the diet diary method to capture the consumption of food items that are infrequently consumed, alternative methods of capturing these data should be used in future studies.

  15. The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2006-11-01

    To examine the extent to which television (TV) and video viewing is associated with consumption of fast food by preschool-age children. In a cross-sectional study of 240 parents of children ages 2.0 to 5.9 years, parents reported the number of hours their child watched TV/videos on an average weekday and weekend day in the past month; a daily, weighted average of TV/video viewing was then calculated. The main outcome was parents' report of their children's fast food intake, using the question, "How many times a week does your child eat at fast food restaurants such as McDonald's, Burger King, or Kentucky Fried Chicken?" dichotomized to (never/ or =1 time/wk). The association of TV/video viewing with fast food intake was evaluated by multiple logistic regression before and after adjusting for several potential confounders. Twenty-two percent of parents reported that their child ate at fast food restaurants at least once per week. After adjusting for parents' age, race/ethnicity, and household income as well as child's age and sex, for each 1-hour increase of TV/video watched per day, the odds ratio (OR) for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 2.49). After further adjustment for socio-environmental factors that might serve as proxies for the availability of healthy food options, such as parental time constraints and the availability and high cost of fresh fruits and vegetables in their neighborhoods, the OR for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was minimally attenuated (OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.31). TV/video viewing was correlated with fast food consumption among preschool children in this study. Our findings raise the possibility that greater exposure to TV and videos may influence preschool children's consumption of unhealthful foods.

  16. Food and nutrient intake in African American children and adolescents aged five to 16 years in Baltimore City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Butler, Jennie L.; Christiansen, Karina; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Sheehy, Tony; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe food and nutrient intake for low-income, urban African American children and adolescents to highlight the need for further nutrition intervention programs and appropriate tools to address overweight and obesity. Methods This was a cross sectional study using interviewer-administered single 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants were low income African American boys and girls aged 5–16 years or their caregivers in Baltimore City. Frequency of food consumption and dietary intakes were analysed by gender and age groups. Results Eighty-one participants were included for analysis. Mean daily energy intakes exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from 10 to 71% across all gender-age groups: 2,304 kcal for children aged 5–8 years; 2,429 kcal and 2,732 kcal for boys and girls aged 9–13 years, respectively; and 3,339 kcal and 2,846 kcal for boys and girls aged 14–16 years, respectively. The most frequently reported consumed foods were sweetened drinks, chips, candies, and milk across all age groups. The majority of participants (79–100%) did not meet the DRIs for dietary fiber and vitamin E across all gender-age groups. Milk accounted for 14%, 17%, and 21% of energy, fat, and protein intake, respectively, among children 5–8 years of age, while pizza was the top source of energy, fat, and protein (11%, 13%, and 18%, respectively) among 14–16 year old adolescents. Sweetened drinks and sweetened juices were major sources of sugar, contributing 33% for 5–8 year olds, 29% for 9–13 year olds and 35% for 14–16 year olds. Conclusions Mean daily energy intake exceeded dietary recommendations across all gender-age groups. This study has provided previously unavailable information on diet and highlights foods to be targeted in nutrition intervention programs. PMID:25856051

  17. Food and Nutrient Intake in African American Children and Adolescents Aged 5 to 16 Years in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Butler, Jennie L; Christiansen, Karina; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Sheehy, Tony; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe food and nutrient intake for low-income, urban African American children and adolescents, to highlight the need for further nutrition intervention programs and appropriate tools to address overweight and obesity. This was a cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered single 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants were low-income African American boys and girls aged 5-16 years or their caregivers in Baltimore City. Frequency of food consumption and dietary intakes were analyzed by gender and age groups. Eighty-one participants were included for analysis. Mean daily energy intakes exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from 10% to 71% across all gender-age groups: 2304 kcal for children aged 5-8 years; 2429 kcal and 2732 kcal for boys and girls aged 9-13 years, respectively; and 3339 kcal and 2846 kcal for boys and girls aged 14-16 years, respectively. The most frequently reported consumed foods were sweetened drinks, chips, candies, and milk across all age groups. The majority of participants (79-100%) did not meet the DRIs for dietary fiber and vitamin E across all gender-age groups. Milk accounted for 14%, 17%, and 21% of energy, fat, and protein intake, respectively, among children 5-8 years of age, while pizza was the top source of energy, fat, and protein (11%, 13%, and 18%, respectively) among 14-to 16-year-old adolescents. Sweetened drinks and sweetened juices were major sources of sugar, contributing 33% for 5-8 year olds, 29% for 9-13 year olds, and 35% for 14-16 year olds. Mean daily energy intake exceeded dietary recommendations across all gender-age groups. This study has provided previously unavailable information on diet and highlights foods to be targeted in nutrition intervention programs.

  18. Age-dependent changes of calcium related activity in the central auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschel, Moritz; Hubert, Nikolai; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2014-10-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) represents one of the most common chronic health problems that faces an aging population. In the peripheral auditory system, aging is accompanied by functional loss or degeneration of sensory as well as non-sensory tissue. It has been recently described that besides the degeneration of cochlear structures, the central auditory system is also involved in ARHL. Although mechanisms of central presbycusis are not well understood, previous animal studies have reported some signs of central neurodegeneration in the lower auditory pathway. Moreover, changes in neurophysiology are indicated by alterations in synaptic transmission. In particular, neurotransmission and spontaneous neuronal activity appear to be affected in aging animals. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to determine the neuronal activity within the central auditory pathway in aging mice over their whole lifespan compared to a control group (young adult animals, ~3months of age) using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced MRI technique. MRI signal strength showed a comparable pattern in most investigated auditory brain areas. An increase in activity was particularly pronounced in the middle-aged groups (13 or 18 months), with the largest effect in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus. In higher auditory structures, namely the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body and auditory cortex, the enhancement was much less expressed; while a decrease was detected in the superior olivary complex. Interestingly, calcium-dependent activity reduced to control levels in the oldest animals (22 months) in the cochlear nucleus and was significantly reduced in higher auditory structures. A similar finding was also found in the hippocampus. The observed changes might be related to central neuroplasticity (including hyperactivity) as well as neurodegenerative mechanisms and represent central nervous correlates of the age-related decline in auditory processing and perception

  19. Rejuvenating activity of salidroside (SDS): dietary intake of SDS enhances the immune response of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linlin; Yuan, Jiangshui; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-06-01

    It is well known that immune response decreases with aging. Salidroside (SDS), an antioxidant component isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine roseroot Rhodiola rosea, has been demonstrated to possess potent anti-aging and health-promoting activities. However, the mechanism underlying these activities is poorly understood. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that (1) dietary intake of SDS induced a considerable increase in total T cells (CD3(+)) and T helper cells (CD4(+)) in aged (21 months old) Wistar male rats; (2) SDS supplementation significantly increased the DTH response, a T cell-mediated immune response, in aged rats; and (3) SDS supplementation remarkably promoted the production of total anti-KLH IgG, anti-KLH IgG1, and anti-KLH IgG2α in aged rats without disturbing immune homeostasis. These indicate that SDS is able to counteract immunosenescence, thereby resulting in rejuvenation. Practically, SDS may be used to help the elderly to generate an improved response to vaccine with stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

  20. Relationship between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract in middle-aged and elderly patients in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Quan Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the association between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract (ARC in middle-aged and elderly men.METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from December 2009 to November 2011. Cases (n=360 were patients with cataract aged 45-85 years old, and controls (n=360 were patients who had been admitted to the same hospital for diseases not related with cataract. All subjects were interviewed using a structured interviewer-administrated questionnaire that included information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and detailed medical history, simultaneously, the dietary intakes of nutrients were collected via a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI of three types of ARC were estimated using multiple logistic regression models.RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, total dietary intake of carbohydrate was positively associated with cortical cataract, compared to controls in the lowest quartile, and the OR for cases in the highest quartile of intake was 2.471 (95%CI:1.348-6.043, P=0.027. Higher dietary intakes of protein were protective for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC (OR=0.528, 95%CI:0.148-0.869, P=0.023. Dietary fat intake was not associated with any type of cataract, however, participants in the highest quartile of polyunsaturated fatty acids intake had 2.7 times the risk of nuclear cataract as did those in the lowest quartile (OR=2.742, 95%CI:1.790-4.200, P=0.033.CONCLUSION: A high intake of carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fatty acid may increase the odds of cortical and nuclear cataract, respectively, whereas high intake of protein, especially animal protein, may protect against PSC cataract. It is possible that dietary changes of target population may reduce the risk of ARC.

  1. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    Weaned Nellore bulls ( = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE () [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP-]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn-]). The factor CaP- was formulated without the addition of limestone and dicalcium phosphate, and the factor CuMnZn- was formulated without inorganic supplementation of microminerals (premix). The diets were isonitrogenous (13.3% CP). Intake was individually monitored every day. Indigestible NDF was used as an internal marker for digestibility estimates. The bulls were slaughtered (84 or 147 d on feed), and then carcass characteristics were measured and liver and rib samples were collected. Feed, feces, rib bones, and liver samples were analyzed for DM, ash, CP, ether extract (EE), Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu. There were no significant interactions ( ≥ 0.06) between macro- and micromineral supplementation for any variables in the study. Calcium, P, and micromineral concentrations did not affect ( ≥ 0.20) intake of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CP, TDN, and nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). Calcium and P intake were affected ( < 0.01) by macromineral factor. Animals fed without Ca and P supplementation consumed less of these minerals. Dry matter and nutrient fecal excretion (OM, NDF, EE, CP, and NFC) were similar ( ≥ 0.23) among all factors. Performance and carcass characteristics were similar ( ≥ 0.09) among diets. The content of ash in rib bones was not affected by diets ( ≥ 0.06). Plasma P and phosphatase alkaline concentrations were similar (

  2. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  3. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-21

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71-2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331-4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73-782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0-74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  4. Influence of sodium borate on the early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Dhoury, Mélanie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Cau Dit Coumes, Céline, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Mercier, Cyrille [LMCPA, Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambrésis, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Revel, Bertrand [Centre Commun de Mesure RMN, Université Lille1 Sciences Technologies, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Le Bescop, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Damidot, Denis [Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-GCE, 59508 Douai (France)

    2015-04-15

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are potential candidates for the conditioning of radioactive wastes with high sodium borate concentrations. This work thus investigates early age hydration of two CSA cements with different gypsum contents (0 to 20%) as a function of the mixing solution composition (borate and NaOH concentrations). Gypsum plays a key role in controlling the reactivity of cement. When the mixing solution is pure water, increasing the gypsum concentration accelerates cement hydration. However, the reverse is observed when the mixing solution contains sodium borate. Until gypsum exhaustion, the pore solution pH remains constant at ~ 10.8, and a poorly crystallized borate compound (ulexite) precipitates. A correlation is established between this transient precipitation and the hydration delay. Decreasing the gypsum content in the binder, or increasing the sodium content in the mixing solution, are two ways of reducing the stability of ulexite, thus decreasing the hydration delay.

  5. Feed intake, growth, and body and carcass attributes of feedlot steers supplemented with two levels of calcium nitrate or urea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegarty, R.S.; Miller, J.; Oelbrandt, N.; Li, L.; Luijben, J.P.M.; Robinson, D.L.; Nolan, J.V.; Perdok, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A

  6. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level mercury (Hg exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24 µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99 µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001 and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015, the duration (months of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001, and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033. In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles, dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001 and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017, were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg

  7. Excitation-calcium release uncoupling in aged single human skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbono, O; O'Rourke, K S; Ettinger, W H

    1995-12-01

    The biological mechanisms underlying decline in muscle power and fatigue with age are not completely understood. The contribution of alterations in the excitation-calcium release coupling in single muscle fibers was explored in this work. Single muscle fibers were voltage-clamped using the double Vaseline gap technique. The samples were obtained by needle biopsy of the vastus lateralis (quadriceps) from 9 young (25-35 years; 25.9 +/- 9.1; 5 female and 4 male) and 11 old subjects (65-75 years; 70.5 +/- 2.3; 6 f, 5 m). Data were obtained from 36 and 39 fibers from young and old subjects, respectively. Subjects included in this study had similar physical activity. Denervated and slow-twitch muscle fibers were excluded from this study. A significant reduction of maximum charge movement (Qmax) and DHP-sensitive Ca current were recorded in muscle fibers from the 65-75 group. Qmax values were 7.6 +/- 0.9 and 3.2 +/- 0.3 nC/muF for young and old muscle fibers, respectively (P charge inactivation or interconversion (charge 1 to charge 2) were found. The peak Ca current was (-)4.7 +/- 0.08 and (-)2.15 +/- 0.11 muA/muF for young and old fibers, respectively (P muscle fibers, respectively. Caffeine (0.5 mM) induced potentiation of the peak calcium transient in both groups. The decrease in the voltage-/Ca-dependent Ca release ratio in old fibers (0.18 +/- 0.02) compared to young fibers (0.47 +/- 0.03) (P skeletal muscle and, the reduction of Ca release is due to DHPR-ryanodine receptor uncoupling in fast-twitch fibers. These alterations can account, at least partially for the skeletal muscle function impairment associated with aging.

  8. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Dietary intake of soluble fiber and risk of islet autoimmunity by 5 y of age: results from the TEDDY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Liu, Xiang; Uusitalo, Ulla M; Harsunen, Minna; Norris, Jill M; Foterek, Kristina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Rewers, Marian J; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Lernmark, Åke; Hagopian, William; Akolkar, Beena; Ziegler, Anette-G; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Hummel, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Deficient soluble fiber intake has been suggested to dysregulate the immune response either directly or through alterations of the microbial composition in the gut. We hypothesized that a high intake of dietary soluble fiber in early childhood decreases the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated islet autoimmunity. We analyzed 17,620 food records collected between age 9 and 48 mo from 3358 children from the United States and Germany prospectively followed in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. HRs for the development of any/multiple islet autoantibodies (242 and 151 events, respectively) and T1D (71 events) by soluble fiber intake were calculated in Cox regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. There were no statistically significantly protective associations observed between a high intake of soluble fiber and islet autoimmunity or T1D. For example, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for high intake (highest compared with lowest quintile) at age 12 mo were 0.90 (0.55, 1.45) for any islet autoantibody, 1.20 (0.69, 2.11) for multiple islet autoantibodies, and 1.24 (0.57, 2.70) for T1D. In analyzing soluble fiber intake as a time-varying covariate, there were also no short-term associations between soluble fiber intake and islet autoimmunity development, with adjusted HRs of 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) for high intake and development of any islet autoantibody, for example. These results indicate that the intake level of dietary soluble fiber is not associated with islet autoimmunity or T1D in early life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Cortical and cancellous bone: age-related changes in morphologic features, fluid spaces, and calcium homeostasis in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, W.T.; Bronk, J.T.; Pinto, M.R.; Williams, E.A.; Meadows, T.H.; Kelly, P.J.

    1988-02-01

    The changes in cortical and cancellous bone that occur with aging were studied by measuring morphologic and physiologic variables for both types of bone in dogs. The percentage area of cortical and cancellous bone, rate of bone formation, vascular volume, bone water, and volume of distribution of calcium tracer all showed statistically significant changes at the time of bone maturity. Canine cortical bone cell volume progressively decreased with advancing age, and cancellous bone cell volume significantly decreased between adult and old dogs. The volume of distribution technique can be used to determine the relative contributions of cortical and cancellous bone to the total body exchangeable calcium ion pool.

  11. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  12. ASUPAN KALSIUM DAN VITAMIN D PADA ANAK INDONESIA USIA 2 – 12 TAHUN [Calcium and Vitamin D Intake of Indonesian Children 2-12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valentina*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is playing an important role for nutritional status of children 2-12 years old. During growth and development phase, body needs macro and micro nutrients even more than later phase. The process can not be catched up at later stage therefore it is very important to pay attention to food consumption during this phase. This study used secondary data of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS 2011-2012 which was covered recapitulation profile data of 300 children age 2-12 years old representative of 48 districts in Indonesia. The study showed that Indonesian children consuming less calcium and vitamin D-rich foods than the recommended daily allowance (RDA. It does not reflects on the result of anthropometry data, vitamin D on the blood and bone mass density since the dietary recall 24 hours shows only food consumption in that specific day while nutritional status shows a result of longer process. However, vitamin D in blood has a significant correlation with bone mass density of tibia bone (p<0.05. Deficiency of calcium and mainly vitamin D is a new finding at this time. Therefore, the study showed that fortification of calcium and vitamin min D in food become important to improve nutritional status of Indonesian children. 20% of RDA per serving size twice a day is recommended as well for fortification level of Calcium and Vitamin D.

  13. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and calcium intake on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and feed intake of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Ayrshire and eight Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic diet and calcium (Ca intake on Ca metabolism, acid-base status and feed intake of grass silage based diets during the dry period. Four diets provided either 34 g or 74 g total dietary Ca/day, and were either anionic or cationic. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was -247 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +34 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (0.9 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.6 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. The results indicate that the reduction of cation-anion balance induced mild metabolic acidosis and increased the ability of the cow to maintain blood Ca concentration. However, DCAB should be higher since urinary pH decreased markedly (< 6 and so remarkable changes in some blood electrolyte concentrations were noticed.;

  14. Association between caffeine intake and age at onset in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Clémence; Duru, Cécile; Salleron, Julia; Hincker, Pascale; Charles, Perrine; Delval, Arnaud; Youssov, Katia; Burnouf, Sylvie; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Verny, Christophe; Scherer, Clarisse; Tranchant, Christine; Goizet, Cyril; Debruxelles, Sabrina; Defebvre, Luc; Sablonnière, Bernard; Romon-Rousseaux, Monique; Buée, Luc; Destée, Alain; Godefroy, Olivier; Dürr, Alexandra; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Richard, Florence; Blum, David; Krystkowiak, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Habitual consumption of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist, has been suggested to be beneficial in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Experimental evidence support that ARs play a role in Huntington's disease (HD) raising the hypothesis that caffeine may be a life-style modifier in HD. To determine a possible relationship between caffeine consumption and age at onset (AAO) in HD, we retrospectively assessed caffeine consumption in 80 HD patients using a dietary survey and determined relationship with AAO. Following adjustment for gender, smoking status and CAG repeat length, caffeine consumption greater than 190mg/day was significantly associated with an earlier AAO. These data support an association between habitual caffeine intake and AAO in HD patients, but further studies are warranted to understand the link between these variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A five-patient satisfaction pilot study of calcium hydroxylapatite injection for treatment of aging hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmur, Ellen S; Al Quran, Hanadi; De Sa Earp, Ana Paula; Yoo, Jane Y

    2009-12-01

    The process of skin aging is not limited to the face but involves every part of the body, including the hands. A common manifestation of aging of the hands is the loss of volume, which occurs as the skin loses its subcutaneous fat. Injectable dermal fillers have surfaced as a popular method to address such deficiencies. To report the use of calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) to address lost volume. Five female subjects with soft tissue deficiency of the dorsa of the hands were enrolled at Mount Sinai Medical Center. A solution of CaHA with 2% lidocaine in amounts of 0.3 to 1.0 mL was injected interdigitally at each of three to five insertion sites; the sites were massaged and molded up to three times to ensure an optimal cosmetic end point. Subjects were seen for a follow-up visit after 1, 4, 16, and 24 weeks. With a single injection, all subjects reached their correction goals without requiring any touch-ups. At the 24-week visit, the subjects retained the filling effect, with no adverse events and high patient satisfaction. CaHA, a new, easily injectable, safe dermal filler, has emerged as an excellent option for soft tissue augmentation in aging hands.

  16. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p 1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p exposure through breastfeeding and fish intake as a complementary food did not directly affect anthropometry in this population. If prolonged breastfeeding is expected, however, the Hg exposure through fish intake may need to be monitored for both mothers and infants.

  17. Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers and neonatal low birth weight and premature births. In this cohort, the target population was 225 pregnant women, randomly selected from different geographical areas of the city of Isfahan, Iran (from April to September, 2012). The main variables in the study were weight and gestational age of the neonates and the type and amount of different food groups used by the mothers. All nutritional variables were compared according to different groups of infants (normal, premature, and low birth weight). In the multivariate analysis, multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to identify those different food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) variables independently associated with the newborn's weight and gestational age, adjusted by maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy. A total of 214 (47.7% boys) infants with complete information were included. They had a mean gestational age of 38.72 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean birth weight was 3.11 ± 0.384 kg. The percentages of premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants were 7 and 5%, respectively. At multiple logistic regression controlling for potentially confounding factors that were significantly associated with prematurity and LBW at univariate analysis (maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy), type of nutritional groups containing dairy products, proteins, fish, and shrimp group, as well as fruits and vegetables, had a significant positive association with increasing the gestational age (P group that consumed proteins, fish, and shrimp, as well as fruits and vegetables had a significant positive association with the newborn's weight (P < 0.05). This study indicated the importance of proper nutrition on reducing the rates of LBW and premature births. Comprehensive educational programs at individual

  18. Major food sources contributing to energy intake--a nationwide survey of Brazilians aged 10 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Araújo, Marina Campos; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2015-05-28

    Identification of major sources of energy in the diet helps to implement dietary recommendations to reduce obesity. To determine the food sources of energy consumed by Brazilians, we used the traditional method of ranking energy contribution of selected food groups and also compared days with and without consumption of specific food groups. Analysis was based on two non-consecutive days of dietary record from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted among 34,003 Brazilians (aged 10 years or more), taking into account the complex design of the survey. Comparison of days with and without consumption gave more consistent results, with sweets and cookies as the most important contributors to energy intake, increasing 992 kJ/d (95% CI 883, 1096) for those days when consumption of cakes, cookies and desserts was reported compared to days without their consumption. Savoury snacks, cheese and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) also increase energy intake by about 600 kJ. The only group associated with decreased energy intake was vegetable (-155 kJ; 95% CI -272, -37). Consumption of beans, milk and fruits increased the energy intake by about 210 kJ. In total, the mean energy intake of the group was 8000 kJ. Except for the consumption of vegetables, all of the other ten food groups analysed were associated with increased energy intake. Sweets and cookies may increase the energy intake by 12% and SSB by 7%, indicating that these two groups are major targets for improving healthy eating by reducing energy intake; whereas vegetable intake is associated with the reduction of energy content of the diet.

  19. Effects of various calcium antagonists in isolated perfused hearts from diabetic and age-matched control rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnis, J. B.; Mathy, M. J.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of several calcium antagonistic drugs on left ventricular contraction (isovolumetric) and coronary flow in isolated perfused hearts from streptozotocin diabetic rats compared to age-matched controls, thereby hoping to throw further light on the

  20. Total and specific dietary polyphenol intakes and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged general population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriouch, S; Kesse-Guyot, E; Feuillet, T; Touvier, M; Olié, V; Andreeva, V; Hercberg, S; Galan, P; Fezeu, L K

    2017-09-20

    Dietary polyphenols are suggested antiobesogenic agents. Prospective evidence in general population of an association between polyphenol intakes and anthropometry is lacking. To assess the associations between dietary polyphenol intakes and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) over a 6-year period. Individual intakes of 264 different polyphenols (mg day -1 ) were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database and the mean of 6-17 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996. BMI in kg m -2 and WC in cm were measured in 1995-1996, 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. Linear mixed-effect models allowed for the assessment of longitudinal associations between energy-adjusted quartiles of total polyphenol intake as well as intake of 15 polyphenol classes and changes of these respective polyphenol classes in anthropometry over the 6 years of follow-up. Adjustment variables included sex, age, socio-economic status, lifestyle, dietary intakes and health status. Participants in the highest quartile of intake of flavanones (BMI change: -0.28 (-0.43; -0.13), P=0.009), flavones (BMI change: -0.29 (-0.44; -0.14), P=0.008) and lignans (BMI change: -0.28 (-1.63; -0.09), P=0.01) experienced a less notable increase in BMI over time compared with their counterparts in the bottom quartile of intake of the respective polyphenol classes. Participants in the highest quartile of intake of flavanones (WC change: -1.39 (-2.02; -0.92), P=0.001), flavones (WC change: -1.57 (-2.32; -0.92), P=0.001), hydroxycinnamic acids (WC change: -1.27 (-1.92; -0.63), P=0.01), lignans (WC change: -1.16 (-1.80; -0.51), P=0.006) and total polyphenol intake (WC change: -1.39 (-2.05; -0.74), P=0.001) experienced a less notable increase in WC over time compared with their counterparts in the bottom quartile of intake of the respective polyphenols. Dietary polyphenol intakes may help reduce weight gain over time in the general population. This could have important public health implications because

  1. The potential of flavanol and procyanidin intake to influence age-related vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Roberta R; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Keen, Carl L

    2012-01-01

    Advancing age is an independent major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Age-associated impairments in the control of inflammation, excessive oxidative stress, and reduced cellular repair can all contribute to the development and progression of CVD. Current recommendations for both the primary and secondary prevention of CVD promote lifestyle modifications that include the adoption of healthy dietary patterns, such as the consumption of diets rich in plant foods, as these have been associated with a lower lifetime risk for the development of CVD. The potential for a diet rich in plant foods to be cardiovascular protective is also supported by prospective studies that suggest the intake of foods providing high amounts of certain phytochemicals, in particular flavanols and procyanidins, reduce the risk for CVD. These observations are further supported by a number of dietary intervention trials that show improvements in vascular function and reduced platelet reactivity following the consumption of high flavanol foods. In the current article we review a selection of these studies, and comment on some of the potential mechanisms that have been postulated to underlie the health effects of flavanol and procyanidin-rich foods.

  2. Increased Snacking and Eating Occasions Are Associated with Higher Energy Intake among Mexican Children Aged 2-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Afeiche, Myriam C; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the dietary behaviors of Mexican children with regard to frequency, amount, and quality of foods consumed at eating occasions and their impact on total daily energy intake. The objectives were to 1) describe foods consumed across eating occasions and 2) examine whether the number or type of total eating occasions was associated with increased total daily energy intake and differed between 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old Mexican children. A nationally representative sample of 5031 children from the 2012 ENSANUT (Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición) was used to examine the percentage of meals and snacks consumed, mean energy intake from meals and snacks, and the top food groups contributing to meals and snacks. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between meals, snacks, and total eating occasions with daily energy intake for 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old children. Eating patterns were similar across age groups (per capita mean intake of 3 meals and 1.4-1.6 snacks/d). Each additional snack was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+191-289 kcal/d; P eating occasion was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+323 kcal/d; P eating occasion was linked to even greater increases in total daily energy intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. The association between dietary selenium intake and diabetes: a cross-sectional study among middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Zeng, Chao; Gong, Qian-yi; Yang, Hao-bin; Li, Xiao-xiao; Lei, Guang-hua; Yang, Tu-bao

    2015-02-18

    Selenium is an important trace element for human health. Although numerous epidemiological and interventional studies have examined the association between selenium and diabetes, their findings have been inconclusive. Moreover, no research has specifically focused on the association between dietary selenium and diabetes in the Asian population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary selenium and diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. A cross-sectional study including 5,423 subjects was carried out. The basic characteristics, biochemical test results, and dietary intake were collected from each subject for analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to determine the relationship between dietary selenium intake and diabetes through logistic regression. The prevalence of diabetes in the study population was 9.7%, and the average level of dietary selenium intake was 43.51 μg/day. The multivariate adjusted OR was 1.52 (95% CI: 1.01 to 2.28, P = 0.04) for the highest quartile of dietary selenium intake in comparison with the lowest quartile. There was a significant positive association between dietary selenium intake and diabetes (P for trend = 0.03). There was a significant positive correlation between dietary selenium intake and the prevalence of diabetes.

  4. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  5. Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhang, Yiyi; Ahn, Jiin; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic men and women. This cross-sectional study included 25 138 men and women (mean age 41.3 years) without clinically evident cardiovascular disease who underwent a health screening examination that included a validated food frequency questionnaire and a multidetector CT to determine CAC scores. We used robust Tobit regression analyses to estimate the CAC score ratios associated with different levels of coffee consumption compared with no coffee consumption and adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 13.4% (n=3364), including 11.3% prevalence for CAC scores 1-100 (n=2832), and 2.1% prevalence for CAC scores >100 (n=532). The mean ±SD consumption of coffee was 1.8±1.5 cups/day. The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% CIs) comparing coffee drinkers of coffee drinkers were 0.77 (0.49 to 1.19), 0.66 (0.43 to 1.02), 0.59 (0.38 to 0.93), and 0.81 (0.46 to 1.43), respectively (p for quadratic trend=0.02). The association was similar in subgroups defined by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, status of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia. In this large sample of men and women apparently free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease, moderate coffee consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Mitochondrial protein Fus1/Tusc2 in premature aging and age-related pathologies: critical roles of calcium and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzhachenko, Roman; Boyd, Kelli; Olivares-Villagomez, Danyvid; Zhu, Yueming; Goodwin, J Shawn; Rana, Tanu; Shanker, Anil; Tan, Winston J T; Bondar, Tanya; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Ivanova, Alla V

    2017-03-26

    Decreased energy production and increased oxidative stress are considered to be major contributors to aging and aging-associated pathologies. The role of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis has also been highlighted as an important factor affecting different pathological conditions. Here, we present evidence that loss of a small mitochondrial protein Fus1 that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis results in premature aging, aging-associated pathologies, and decreased survival. We showed that Fus1KO mice develop multiple early aging signs including lordokyphosis, lack of vigor, inability to accumulate fat, reduced ability to tolerate stress, and premature death. Other prominent pathological changes included low sperm counts, compromised ability of adult stem cells to repopulate tissues, and chronic inflammation. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that mitochondria of Fus1 KO cells have low reserve respiratory capacity (the ability to produce extra energy during sudden energy demanding situations), and show significantly altered dynamics of cellular calcium response.Our recent studies on early hearing and memory loss in Fus1 KO mice combined with the new data presented here suggest that calcium and energy homeostasis controlled by Fus1 may be at the core of its aging-regulating activities. Thus, Fus1 protein and Fus1-dependent pathways and processes may represent new tools and targets for anti-aging strategies.

  7. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  8. Association of TAS2R38 variants with sweet food intake in children aged 1-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, Ingrid; Grote, Veit; Rzehak, Peter; Xhonneux, Annick; Verduci, Elvira; Stolarczyk, Anna; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-12-01

    We aimed at studying whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 gene are associated with energy intake from sweet tasting foods, total energy and macronutrient intake and body weight in children. Children (n = 691) from five European countries were genotyped for the first variant site rs713598 of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor gene. Three-day dietary records were obtained yearly from one to six years of age. Foods were categorized in sweet and non-sweet-tasting. Mixed models were used to describe group differences in food and nutrient intake and BMI z-score over time. TAS2R38 genotype was related to energy intake from sweet tasting foods: Children with PP and PA genotype consumed an average 83 kJ/d (95% CI 21 to 146; p = 0.009) more sweet tasting foods than children with AA genotype and a mean 56 kJ/d (95% CI 15 to 98; p = 0.007) more energy from energy dense sweet products. Intake of sweet tasting foods was lower in girls than boys and differed between countries. TAS2R38 genotype was not associated with the intake of energy, macronutrients, sugar, single food groups and BMI z-score. Despite many other factors influencing food preference and intake in children, actual intake of sweet food items is associated with TAS2R38 genotype. Children with PP or PA genotype consume more (energy dense) sweet tasting foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-Epileptic Drugs Delay Age-Related Loss of Spiral Ganglion Neurons via T-type Calcium Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Debin; Gao, Xia; Perez, Philip; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Chen, Chien-Chang; Campbell, Kevin P.; Hood, Aizhen Yang; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Loss of spiral ganglion neurons is a major cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Despite being the third most prevalent condition afflicting elderly persons, there are no known medications to prevent presbycusis. Because calcium signaling has long been implicated in age-related neuronal death, we investigated T-type calcium channels. This family is comprised of three members (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3), based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. In the present study, we report a significant delay of age-related loss of cochlear function and preservation of spiral ganglion neurons in α1H null and heterozygous mice, clearly demonstrating an important role for Cav3.2 in age-related neuronal loss. Furthermore, we show that anticonvulsant drugs from a family of T-type calcium channel blockers can significantly preserve spiral ganglion neurons during aging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of drugs capable of diminishing age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID:21640179

  10. Dietary magnesium intake alters age-related changes in rat adipose tissue cellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, Sylvie; Adrian, Markus; Laurant, Pascal; Berthelot, Alain; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown the beneficial effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) supplementation on cardiovascular disease in rats. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of an Mg-deficient or supplemented diet on adipose tissue cellularity changes during aging, and on blood pressure (BP), in rats. Male rats received for one (young adult) or 22 months (old), an Mg-deficient (Def) (150 mg/kg), standard (Std) (800 mg/kg) or Mg-supplemented (Sup) (3200 mg/kg) diet. Adipose tissue development and cellularity, BP and leptinemia were evaluated. In rats fed a standard diet, the large increase in adipose tissue weight observed during aging was related to an increase in both size and number of adipocytes. In young adult rats, although adiposity was unchanged, Mg supplementation resulted in a shift of the frequency distribution of adipocytes toward greater sizes, adipose cell weight increasing by 62%. Mg deficiency did not modify adipocyte size, but increased their number (30% more than for the standard or Sup-diet). In old rats, the Def-diet led to relative adipocyte hypotrophy, which was counterbalanced by an increase in the number of adipocyte. Conversely, adipocyte size and number were similar in the Sup-diet and standard diet-fed rats. BP was modified in old rats according to dietary Mg, whereas it remained unchanged young adult rats regardless of the diet received. This study suggests that Mg intake may affect age-related changes in rat adipose tissue lipid storage capacity.

  11. Association between protein intake and 1-y weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 3-11 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Orav, J; Willett, W; Chen, L

    1994-09-01

    We examined 1-y weight and height gains among 238 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3-11 y old to address the hypothesis that dietary protein composition is associated with growth velocity. Energy-adjusted total protein and energy-adjusted protein from sources other than cereal (animal, pulses, and vegetables) were associated with higher weight gains, after adjustment for age, sex, land ownership, diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, other fevers, nutritional status at the beginning of the study, and average body mass index of the mother [daily intake of energy-adjusted noncereal protein (beta +/- SE): 14.2 +/- 6.4 g.y-1.g-1, P = 0.03; total protein: 13.1 +/- 6.3 g.y-1.g-1, P = 0.04; and protein as percent of energy intake: 39.5 +/- 20.2 g.y-1.% of energy from protein-1, P = 0.05]. These findings are compatible with the hypotheses that protein intake may be a limiting factor for weight gain in this population, or that higher protein intake from animal sources (mostly fish) and legumes (lentils and peas) may be accompanied by higher intakes of limiting micronutrients.

  12. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  13. Dietary Zinc and Incident Calcium Kidney Stones in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Ross, Michelle E; Song, Lihai; Grundmeier, Robert W; Massey, James; Denburg, Michelle R; Copelovitch, Lawrence; Warner, Steven; Chi, Thomas; Killilea, David W; Stoller, Marshall L; Furth, Susan L

    2017-05-01

    We determined the association between dietary zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones in adolescents. We also examined the relationship between dietary zinc intake and urinary zinc excretion between cases and controls. We conducted a nested case-control study within a large pediatric health care system. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and spot urine chemistry analyses were obtained for 30 participants 12 to 18 years old with a first idiopathic calcium based kidney stone and 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex, race and month of enrollment. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between daily zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones, adjusting for dietary phytate, protein, calcium, sodium and oxalate. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between dietary and urine zinc, adjusting for urine creatinine and dietary phytate and calcium. Cases had lower daily zinc intake (8.1 mg) than controls (10 mg, p = 0.029). Daily zinc intake of boys and girls with calcium stones was 2 mg and 1.2 mg less, respectively, than the daily intake recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Odds of incident stones were reduced by 13% for every 1 mg increase in daily zinc intake (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). There was an estimated 4.5 μg/dl increase in urine zinc for every 1 mg increase in dietary zinc (p = 0.009), with weak evidence of a smaller increase in urine zinc in cases than in controls (interaction p = 0.08). Decreased dietary zinc intake was independently associated with incident calcium nephrolithiasis in this population of adolescents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  15. Sodium intake among persons aged >=2 years – United States, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    High sodium consumption can increase hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure, and population-wide reductions of 40% over 10 years are projected to save at least 280,000 lives. Average U.S. sodium intake remains in excess of He...

  16. Dietary intake and metabolic control of children aged six to ten with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes were being treated at the two sites; 35 of the 200 children had type 1 diabetes and were between the ... no dietary reference method can provide a true measure of dietary intake, relative validation was done by ..... Randecker GA, Smiciklas-Wright H, McKenzie JM, et al. The dietary intake of children with IDDM.

  17. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  18. Study and understanding of the ageing mechanisms in lead-calcium alloys; Etude et comprehension des mecanismes de vieillissement des alliages de plomb-calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F

    2006-12-15

    The data available in the literature about ageing and over-ageing of lead-calcium alloys are often incomplete and inconsistent. It is undoubtedly due to the experimental difficulties encountered to observe the structure transformations which are numerous. As a result there is a certain confusion among the results of the different authors. Moreover, small variations in the process parameters and chemical composition may have some influence on the alloy behaviour. This work enabled us to obtain a set of TTT diagrams, more realistic and accurate than the ones available in the literature. Experimental techniques developed (particularly the preservation of the cold chain with is essential for the guaranty of the results repeatability), enabled particularly the study of the first transformations and better control the five stages of ageing and over-ageing. Our work have enabled to determine precisely the kinetics and the mechanisms of the transformations. This work constitutes a thorough analysis of the ageing and over-ageing of theses alloys. (author)

  19. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  20. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  1. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  2. Guelph Family Health Study's Home-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention Increases Fibre and Fruit Intake in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirotta, Julia A; Darlington, Gerarda A; Buchholz, Andrea C; Haines, Jess; Ma, David W L; Duncan, Alison M

    2018-02-01

    The Guelph Family Health Study (GFHS) pilot was designed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based obesity prevention intervention on health behaviours and obesity risk. The objective of this analysis was to determine the effect of the 6-month intervention on preschool-aged children's dietary intakes. Families with children aged 1.5-5 years old were randomized to receive one of the following: 4 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (4HV; n = 19 children); 2 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (2HV; n = 14 children); or general health advice through emails (control; n = 12 children). Three-day food records were completed by parents for their children before and after the 6-month intervention and analyzed for 3-day average intakes of energy, nutrients, and MyPlate food groups. After the 6-month intervention, the 4HV group had significantly higher fibre intake and the 4HV and 2HV groups had significantly higher fruit intake, both compared with the control group. This study provides support for a home-based intervention approach to improve the diet quality of preschool-aged children.

  3. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K. Chandyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR (<2 μg/day. In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88% also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  4. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2008-01-01

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs, authors studied associations of maternal 2nd trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with child age 3 year scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (SD 1.4) servings/month, and 40 (12%) of mothers consumed > 2 weekly fish servings. Mean (SD) maternal mercury was 3.8 (3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates (95% CI) for fish intake > 2 servings/week vs. never were 2.2 (−2.6, 7.0) for PPVT and 6.4 (2.0, 10.8) for WRAVMA; and for mercury in the top decile, −4.5 (−8.5, −0.4) for PPVT and −4.6 (−8.3, −0.9) for WRAVMA. Fish consumption nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake. PMID:18353804

  5. [Association between hematopoietic nutrient intake and the origin of nutritional anemia in women of childbearing age in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrés, Luz Mariela; Díaz, Abel; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Compare the nutritional origin of anemia by sociodemographic variables and analyze its association with deficient hematopoietic nutrient intake. The database of Colombia's 2005 National Survey of Nutritional Status was used. The data were obtained through complex representative sampling of the population and processed using SPSS v.15. Anemic women of childbearing age were selected and divided into two groups according to serum ferritin levels. Their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake and risk of deficiency were determined. The proportions of anemia types were compared by sociodemographic variables using the F-distribution, the Rao-Scott second order correction (P anemia and classification of the nutrient was analyzed using the odds ratio (OR). 595 women. Non-hypoferric anemia (67.2%) predominated, with no statistical difference by sociodemographic variable, except in the Pacific region (hypoferric anemia, 52.1%). The prevalence of deficiency in the customary intake of hematopoietic nutrients was high. There was no significant association between the deficit in consumption and the origin of the anemia. Non-hypoferric anemia was most common, with no difference by sociodemographic indicators except in the Pacific region. All the women were at high risk of deficiency in their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake, but a statistically significant association between the deficiency and the origin of the nutritional anemia was not observed. Programs to improve nutrient intake and a continued search for causes of nutritional anemia other than iron deficiency are justified.

  6. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  7. Fruit and vegetable intake and related nutrients are associated with oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio José; Oliveira, Alessandro de; Longo, Giana Z; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Santos, Eliziária C dos; Buthers, Jéssica M; Oliveira, Leandro L de; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the potential relationships between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men, with an emphasis on vitamin C, fiber, and magnesium content. The study was conducted with 296 healthy men, age 50.5 ± 5.0 y, and body mass index (BMI) of 25.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2). Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features, and blood and urine biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. The oxidative stress markers selected were plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 α (8-iso-PGF2 α) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The men included in the highest tertile of FV intake (≥341.1 g/d) displayed lower concentrations of ox-LDL, 8-iso-PGF2 α and 8-OHdG (P for trend iso-PGF2 α were lower in men in the highest tertile of fiber (≥6.5 g/d; P for trend = 0.034), vitamin C (≥98.0 mg/d; P for trend = 0.007), and magnesium (≥48.9 mg/d; P for trend = 0.018) from the FV-group intake. Greater FV intake was independently associated with reduced ox-LDL, 8-OHdG, and 8-iso-PGF2 α in middle-aged men. Fiber, vitamin C, and magnesium from FV seem to contribute to this beneficial relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a Japan Diet Intake Program on Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Men: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Rena; Shima, Mitsuha; Mae, Asumi; Shijo, Yuri; Nakamura, Eri; Okabe, Yuuna; Park, Sunmi; Kameyama, Noriko; Hirai, Satomi; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Uchida, Kagehiro; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Aim: We conducted a pilot study to clarify the effects of the Japan Diet nutritional education program on metabolic risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men who were brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan. Methods: Thirty-three men, 30–49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class to learn food items and recommended volumes comprising the Japan Diet (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, mushrooms and unrefined cereals, and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks), and were encouraged to consume the Japan Diet for 6 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured and 3-day weighted dietary records were kept before and at completion of the intervention. Results: Ninety-one percent of participants showed improvements in more than one cardiovascular risk factor after 6 weeks. Body weight, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, malondialdehyde modified (MDA)-LDL and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol was unchanged. Fish, soy, and sum of seaweed, mushrooms and konjak intakes doubled, and green and yellow vegetable intakes also increased as compared to baseline. Meanwhile, intakes of refined cereals, meat and poultry, sweets, desserts and snacks, and margarine and shortening decreased. Total energy, lipid, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes decreased, while n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, dietary fiber, beta-carotene, vitamins D and K, potassium, and magnesium increased, with no change in sodium intake. Conclusions: The Japan Diet is suggested to improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Japanese men. The clinical trial registration number: UMIN000020639. PMID:27667329

  9. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Prickets, significant negative correlations were seen between dietary calcium intake and radiological score (r=-0.28; P=0.03) and PTH (r=-0.26; P=0.02). No correlation was found between serum 25OHD level and radiological score or biochemical parameters of rickets. Rickets develops when low dietary calcium intake coexists with a low or borderline vitamin D nutrition status.

  10. Association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" (Staple food, main dish, and side dish) and intake of nutrients and food groups among Japanese young adults aged 18-24 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakutani, Yuya; Kamiya, Saori; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai" are staple food, main dish, and side dish, respectively. The recommended meal in Japan is a combination of "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai"; however, it remains unclear whether there is an association between the frequency of these meals and intake of nutrients and food groups. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" and intake of nutrients and food groups among 664 Japanese young adults aged 18-24 y. The dietary habits of the subjects during the preceding month were assessed using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" was self-reported according to four categories: "less than 1 d or 1 d/wk," "2 or 3 d/wk," "4 or 5 d/wk," and "every day." In both women and men, there was an association between the higher frequency of these meals and higher intake of the following food groups: pulses, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fish and shellfish, and eggs. Moreover, there was an association with higher intake of protein, polyunsaturated fat, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fat, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, and lower intake of carbohydrate in both women and men. Our findings support the hypothesis that the meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" may be associated with intake of many food groups and nutrients among Japanese young adults.

  11. Food labeling: health claims; calcium and osteoporosis, and calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its labeling regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to include vitamin D so that, in addition to the claim for calcium and osteoporosis, an additional claim can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim list sex, race, and age as specific risk factors for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim does not state or imply that the risk of osteoporosis is equally applicable to the general U.S. population, and that the claim identify the populations at particular risk for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim identify the mechanism by which calcium reduces the risk of osteoporosis and instead make it optional; eliminate the requirement that the claim include a statement that a total dietary intake greater than 200 percent of the recommended daily intake (2,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium) has no further benefit to bone health when the food contains 400 mg or more of calcium per reference amount customarily consumed or per total daily recommended supplement intake; and allow reference for the need of physical activity in either of the health claims to be optional rather then required. This final rule is, in part, in response to a health claim petition submitted by The Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness, LLC.

  12. Intakes of fat and micronutrients between ages 13 and 18 years and the incidence of proliferative benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuefen; Boeke, Caroline E; Collins, Laura C; Baer, Heather J; Willett, Walter C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Connolly, James L; Rosner, Bernard; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary exposures during adolescence may exert important effects on breast development and future breast cancer risk. This study evaluated the associations between high school intakes of fat and micronutrients and the incidence of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD), a marker of increased breast cancer risk. 29,480 women (mean age 43.3 years, range 33.6-52.9) completed a high school food frequency questionnaire in 1998 in the Nurses' Health Study II. Between 1991 and 2001, 682 women (follow-up time: 259,828 person-years) were diagnosed with proliferative BBD whose biopsy slides were reviewed and confirmed by the study pathologists. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, high school intakes of total fat and types of fat were not associated with proliferative BBD. Women in the highest quintile of total retinol activity equivalents (RAEs), which incorporate retinol, α- and β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin intakes, had a 17 % lower risk of proliferative BBD than those in the lowest quintile [multivariate hazard ratio (HR) 95 % CI 0.83 (0.64, 1.07), p trend = 0.01]; however, additional adjustment for high school dietary factors (vitamin D, nuts, and fiber) rendered the association nonsignificant [0.99 (0.73, 1.34), p trend = 0.32]. Results were similar with additional adjustment for adult RAE intake. Intakes of vitamin E and individual carotenoids were not associated with proliferative BBD, although an inverse association cannot be ruled out. In this study, adolescent fat and micronutrient intakes were not associated with risk of proliferative BBD.

  13. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and sodium bridging between osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Soo; Choi, Soo Beom; Rhee, Yumie; Chung, Jai Won; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Deok Won

    2015-05-01

    The coexistence of osteoporosis and hypertension, which are considered distinct diseases, has been widely reported. In addition, daily intake of calcium and sodium, as well as parathyroid hormone levels (PTH), is known to be associated with osteoporosis and hypertension. This study aimed to determine the association of low calcium intake, high sodium intake, and PTH levels with osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women. Data for postmenopausal Korean women aged 50 years or older were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Osteoporosis was diagnosed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, while hypertension was diagnosed using blood pressure data. The odds ratios for osteoporosis and hypertension were calculated using logistic regression analysis for quartiles of the daily calcium intake, daily sodium intake, and PTH levels. Women with hypertension had a high coexistence of osteoporosis (43.6 vs. 36.5 %; P = 0.022), and vice versa (21.1 vs. 16.6 %; P = 0.022). PTH was significantly associated with osteoporosis and hypertension, and a high intake of calcium was strongly correlated with a low incidence of osteoporosis. This is the first study to report the characteristics of postmenopausal Korean women who have high dietary sodium intake and low dietary calcium intake, in association with the incidence of osteoporosis and hypertension. Osteoporosis and hypertension were strongly associated with each other, and PTH appears to be a key mediator of both diseases, suggesting a possible pathogenic link.

  14. Whole soybean supplementation and cow age class: effects on intake, digestion, performance, and reproduction of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J P; Lalman, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Wettemann, R P

    2008-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of whole soybean supplementation on intake, digestion, and performance of beef cows of varying age. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial with 2 supplements and 3 age classes of cows (2-yr-old, 3-yr-old, and mature cows). Supplements (DM basis) included 1) 1.36 kg/d of whole raw soybeans, and 2) 1.56 kg/d of a soybean meal/hulls supplement. Supplements were formulated to provide similar amounts of protein and energy, but a greater fat content with the whole soybeans. Supplements were individually fed on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday mornings. During the treatment period, cows had free choice access to bermudagrass hay [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 8.4% CP; 72% NDF; DM basis]. In Exp. 1, 166 spring-calving Angus and Angus x Hereford crossbred beef cows were individually fed supplements for an average of 80 d during mid to late gestation. During the first 50 d of supplementation, cows fed soybean meal/hulls gained more BW (10 kg; P effect of supplement composition on forage intake and digestion; cows remained on the same supplements, hay, and feeding schedule as Exp. 1. Crude fat digestibility was the only intake or digestibility measurement influenced by supplement composition; fat digestibility was higher for cows fed whole soybeans compared with cows fed the soybean meal/hulls supplement (58.1 vs. 48.8%). Hay intake and DMI averaged 1.63 and 1.92% of BW daily, respectively. Dry matter, NDF, and CP digestibility averaged 54.1, 55.1, and 63.2%, respectively. Compared with supplementation with soybean meal/ hulls, whole soybean supplementation during mid to late gestation resulted in reduced BW weight gain during supplementation, inconsistent effects on reproduction, no effect on calf weaning weight, and no effect on forage intake or digestion.

  15. Nutrient intake of low-income, black families in southwestern Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E T; Caples, V

    1979-12-01

    A dietary intake study for 250 low-income households in Claiborne County in southwestern Mississippi was conducted from June through August 1974. Data were obtained during daily home visits for seven days by trained college students. The adequacy of nutrient intake for individuals was evaluated by comparing the data with the 1974 Recommended Dietary Allowances by age and sex. The data was also compared with those of the Ten-State Nutrition Survey and HANES. Mean intakes of protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, and ascorbic acid for all subjects were above the RDAS; those of energy, calcium, iron, and preformed niacin were below the allowances. Whereas calcium was the nutrient least adequately consumed by all persons, protein was most adequately consumed. Sixty per cent of children had calcium intakes below two-thirds of the allowance. By sex, 66.7 per cent of all males and 73.3 per cent of all females had calcium intakes below two-thirds of the standard. None of children received less than two-thirds of the allowance for protein. Nutrient intake was low for a substantial number of the subjects. Adolescents, ages eleven to eighteen years, of both sexes had the poorest diets for all nutrients. Regarding the sex difference, females had better nutrient intakes than did males for all nutrients except calcium and iron.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation by Glucose Diffusion of Microleakage in Aged Calcium Silicate-Based Open-Sandwich Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the in vitro marginal integrity of open-sandwich restorations based on aged calcium silicate cement versus resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Class II cavities were prepared on 30 extracted human third molars. These teeth were randomly assigned to two groups (=10 to compare a new hydraulic calcium silicate cement designed for restorative dentistry (Biodentine, Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Ionolux, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany in open-sandwich restorations covered with a light-cured composite. Positive (=5 and negative (=5 controls were included. The teeth simultaneously underwent thermocycling and mechanocycling using a fatigue cycling machine (1,440 cycles, 5–55°C; 86,400 cycles, 50 N/cm2. The specimens were then stored in phosphate-buffered saline to simulate aging. After 1 year, the teeth were submitted to glucose diffusion, and the resulting data were analyzed with a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The Biodentine group and the Ionolux group presented glucose concentrations of 0.074 ± 0.035 g/L and 0.080 ± 0.032 g/L, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two groups. Therefore, the calcium silicate-based material performs as well as the resin-modified glass ionomer cement in open-sandwich restorations.

  17. Nutritional condition and food intake in seniors living at home

    OpenAIRE

    CHARVÁTOVÁ, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Bachelor thesis entitled "Nutrition status and intake of food in seniors living at home" deals with nutrition of seniors, food intake and their nutritional status. The theoretical part deals first with the basic concepts of aging, important components of food - the need of energy, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fiber, calcium and vitamin D as well as drinking and eating. Further, the theoretical work describes all changes of gastrointestinal tract from oral to thin and colon and any complicat...

  18. Acute sleep restriction increases dietary intake in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Elsa N; Miller, Alison L; Cherian, Sherin S; Lumeng, Julie C; Wright, Kenneth P; Kurth, Salome; Lebourgeois, Monique K

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest short sleep duration is associated with overweight and obesity across the lifespan. In adults, experimental sleep loss increases caloric intake more than total daily energy needs, thus leading to weight gain. To date, little is known about the relationship between sleep restriction and dietary intake in preschool children. Healthy children (n = 10; 41.2 ± 5.4 months; 5 females) followed a strict sleep schedule for 5 days before each experimental condition: 1 day of baseline sleep (nap and scheduled bedtime/wake time) and 1 day of sleep restriction (no-nap and ~2.3 h bedtime delay). Standardized parent-report dietary intake measures were obtained on baseline, sleep restriction and sleep recovery (ad libitum sleep opportunity in the 24-h following sleep restriction) days. As designed, children slept ~3 h less on the sleep restriction than the baseline day (P sleep between baseline and recovery days (verified with actigraphy). Repeated-measures anovas indicated differences across conditions in total kilocalories, sugar, carbohydrate and fat intake (all P sleep restriction, as well as 14% more kilocalories and 23% more fat on the day of sleep recovery (all P sleep loss increases dietary intake in preschoolers both on the day of and the day after sleep restriction. Increased kilocalorie intake may promote weight gain over time and be a mechanism through which short sleep contributes to childhood obesity risk. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Association of energy intake and physical activity with overweight among Indonesian children 6-12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, Heryudarini; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Soekatri, Moesijanti; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is currently facing double burden malnutrition in children. As overweight and obesity are due to a disturbed energy balance, this study aimed to assess the association of total energy intake and physical activity with the prevalence of overweight among Indonesian children. The data used for this analysis were from 1143 children, 6-12 years old, that participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS). Physical activity (PA) was measured using pedometers for 2 consecutive days and was categorized low, moderate and high. Child nutritional status was categorized based on body mass index for age z-scores (BAZ) into normal weight (-2 SD ≤BAZ≤1 SD) or overweight (BAZ >1 SD). Energy intake was calculated from a one day 24 hour recall and compared to the Indonesian recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for energy. Children with low PA had higher risk (ODDs 3.4, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.0) of being overweight compared to children who had high PA. Children with moderate PA and energy take >100% RDA had higher risk (ODDs 4.2, 95% CI 1.9, 9.3) of being overweight than children with high PA and energy intakes ≤100% RDA. Low physical activity independently or moderate physical activity and high energy intake are risk factors for Indonesian children to get overweight. Program intervention such as increasing physical activity at school and home is needed to reduce overweight among children.

  20. Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Meigs, James B; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Jacques, Paul F; McKeown, Nicola M

    2014-02-01

    To assess 7-year associations between magnesium intake and incident prediabetes and/or insulin resistance (IR), and progression from these states to type 2 diabetes. In 2,582 community-dwelling participants 26-81 years old at baseline, magnesium intake and risk of incident "metabolic impairment," defined as impaired fasting glucose (FG) (≥5.6 to diabetes was estimated among those with baseline metabolic impairment. In participants without incident diabetes, we examined magnesium intake in relation to 7-year changes in fasting and postload glucose and insulin, IR, and insulin sensitivity. After adjusting for age, sex, and energy intake, compared with those with the lowest magnesium intake, those with the highest intake had 37% lower risk of incident metabolic impairment (P trend = 0.02), and in those with baseline metabolic impairment, higher intake was associated with 32% lower risk of incident diabetes (P trend = 0.05). In the combined population, the risk in those with the highest intake was 53% (P trend = 0.0004) of those with the lowest intake. Adjusting for risk factors and dietary fiber attenuated associations in the baseline normal population but did not substantially affect associations in the metabolically impaired. Higher magnesium intake tended to associate with lower follow-up FG and IR, but not fasting insulin, postload values, or insulin sensitivity. Magnesium intake may be particularly beneficial in offsetting risk of developing diabetes among those at high risk. Magnesium's long-term associations with non-steady-state (dynamic) measures deserve further research.

  1. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations in the blood of dairy calves as influenced by age, vaccination stress, weaning, and starter intake including evaluation of BHB and glucose markers of starter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Hu, W; Dennis, T S; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research was to determine how blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose are affected by age, time of day, stress, weaning, forced intake restriction, and voluntary starter intake in calves between 1 and 9 wk of age, and to evaluate if either is an acceptable proxy for starter intake. Holstein calves were fed a 27% crude protein, 17% fat milk replacer at 660 g of dry matter daily along with free-choice starter and water. Calves were weaned on d 42. Jugular blood was sampled at 0800, 1200, and 1600 h, and within 5 min of sampling BHB, and glucose concentrations were estimated using test strips (Nova Max Plus meter, Nova Biomedical Corporation, Waltham, MA). Age effects and time of day were estimated by sampling blood weekly (d 6, 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48). To determine vaccination stress, a Pasteurella vaccine was administered after blood sampling at 0800 h on d 36. Effect of voluntary starter intake was tested by selecting calves for low and high intakes (d 35 to 39) and sampling on d 40, 41, 43, and 44. Starter intake restriction was tested by restricting intake in half of the calves and sampling on d 60 and 61. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements in a mixed model procedure with either within-calf effect (day or week) or within-calf effects (hour, and day or week) included in the model. Time of day did not affect blood BHB and glucose in the first 6 wk. Blood BHB was greater in wk 7 versus wk 1 to 6. Blood glucose was greater in the first 5 wk compared with wk 6 and 7. Blood BHB increased and glucose decreased with increasing starter intake. Blood BHB declined due to vaccination, but glucose was unaffected. Starter intake restriction reduced BHB for 3 d and glucose for 2 d after restriction. Both were affected by time of day. Around weaning (d 40 to 44), BHB and glucose increased with increasing starter intake. In this research, neither blood BHB nor glucose was a good proxy for starter intake. Blood BHB was positively and glucose

  2. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Nachum; Shaltiel, Galit; Daniely, Michal; Meiron, Oren E; Shechter, Assaf; Abrams, Steven A; Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Sagi, Amir

    2014-10-01

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC) using the dual stable isotope technique. The study was conducted in the Unit of Clinical Nutrition, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. The study population included 15 early postmenopausal women aged 54.9 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD) years with no history of major medical illness or metabolic bone disorder, excess calcium intake, or vitamin D deficiency. Standardized breakfast was followed by randomly provided CCC or ACC capsules containing 192 mg elemental calcium labeled with 44Ca at intervals of at least 3 weeks. After swallowing the capsules, intravenous CaCl2 labeled with 42Ca on was administered on each occasion. Fractional calcium absorption (FCA) of ACC and CCC was calculated from the 24-hour urine collection following calcium administration. The results indicated that FCA of ACC was doubled (± 0.96 SD) on average compared to that of CCC (p calcium supplementation. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  4. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in post-menopausal women >/= 50 years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate i...

  5. Dietary intake and metabolic control of children aged six to ten with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991) and the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1983 to 1993) have shown that lowering blood glucose levels could slow or prevent the development of diabetic complications.10,11 Given the lack of data on dietary intake and metabolic control in South African children with type 1 diabetes, the aim of this ...

  6. Dietary intake in asylum seeker children in The Netherlands, strongly related to age and origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.

    Objective: To monitor the dietary intake of energy, macro- and micronutrients in asylum seeker children. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in three asylum seeker centres in The Netherlands. Subjects: Hundred and sixteen children 2-12 years old (86% of the study cohort) provided a dietary

  7. Early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate (synthetic ye'elimite, ) in the presence of gypsum and varying amounts of calcium hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-06-01

    Suspensions of synthetic ye\\'elimite (C4A3S̄) in a saturated gypsum (CS̄H2) and calcium hydroxide (CH) solution were examined in-situ in a wet cell by soft X-ray transmission microscopy and ex-situ by scanning electron microscopy. The most voluminous hydration product observed was ettringite. Ettringite commonly displayed acicular, filiform, reticulated, and stellate crystal habits. Additionally, pastes with C 4A3S̄, 15% CS̄H2, and varying amounts of CH were prepared and examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isothermal calorimetry. The XRD experiments showed that increasing CH content caused more solid solution (SO4 2 -/OH-) AFm phases to form at early ages (< 1 d) and more monosulfate to form at later ages (> 1 d). Calorimetry indicated that the increased production of solid solution AFm was accompanied with an increase in the initial (< 30 min) rate of heat evolution, and increasing CH generally reduced the time till the second maximum rate of heat evolution due to the formation of ettringite and monosulfate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  9. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Oh, Sohee

    2017-04-06

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children's development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5-12.0), the median levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 1.2 μg/L, 0.05 μg/L, 0.8 μg/L, and 0.83 μg/dL, respectively. In adjusted linear regression models, post-birth weight gain (Pb) and current head circumference (As, Pb) were negatively associated with toxic metal levels. In multiple linear regression or logistic regression analysis, the duration of breastfeeding (all four metals), perceived adequacy of rice-based food intake (As), regular fish intake (As, Hg), and iron deficiency with/without anemia (Cd, Pb) were associated with increased toxic metal levels. Although levels of toxic metals may not usually be high in this population, individual exposure risk may need to be assessed after considering the type of feeding or intake of complementary foods and the iron/anemia status while evaluating growth status during late infancy.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TWO FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS GLUTEN INTAKE IN CHILDREN UP TO 36 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Escobar, Paula; Calvo Lerma, Joaquim; Hervas Marin, David; Donat Aliaga, Ester; Masip Simó, Etna; Polo Miquel, Begoña; Ribes Koninckx, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    precise information on gluten consumption is crucial for specifically studying the impact of gluten introduction and gluten intake in celiac disease development. Our aim was to develop and validate tools (food frequency questionnaires, FFQs) for the assessment of gluten consumption in Spanish children aged 7-36 months. a total of 342 children, who attended primary healthcare centers for routine health surveys or La Fe Hospital for minor health problems as well as healthy children (recruited in nurseries and primary schools) participated in this survey. We have developed two different FFQs (one for 7-12 months and other for 13-36 months). For validation, results from two FFQs were compared with results of 2-day food records and also with the gold standard 7-day records. The mean gluten intake obtained by the 2DR vs. FFQ and the 7DR vs. FFQ, were compared using the Bland Altman plot method and also Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. we found a good agreement between our FFQs and the 2DR and 7DR according to the results of both the Bland-Altman plots and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. our two new FFQs are therefore the only validated questionnaires available to determine gluten consumption in Spanish children. They are user-friendly and offer excellent instruments to assess gluten intake in children up to 36 months of age. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a food-based diet quality score for Japanese: associations of the score with nutrient intakes in young, middle-aged and older Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Nozomi; Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown that a diet score based on the Japanese food guide Spinning Top (the original score) is associated with both favourable and unfavourable dietary intake patterns. We developed a food-based diet quality score (the modified score) and examined associations with nutrient intakes. Subjects were 3963 young (all aged 18 years), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 47·7 (sd 3·9) years) and 2211 older (mean age 74·4 (sd 5·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using comprehensive (for the young and middle-aged) and brief-type (for the older) diet history questionnaires. The original score was calculated based on intakes of grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, fruits, and snacks/alcoholic beverages. The modified score was similarly calculated, but included Na from seasonings and without applying the upper cut-off values for dietary components where increased consumption is advocated for Japanese women (grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, and fruits). The original score was positively associated with intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and all the vitamins and minerals examined including Na and inversely with intakes of fats and alcohol in young and middle-aged women. In older women, the original score was inversely associated with intakes of all nutrients except for carbohydrate and vitamin C. However, the modified score was associated positively with intakes of protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, vitamins A, C and E, and folate and inversely with intakes of fats, alcohol and Na in all generations. In conclusion, the modified diet score was positively associated with favourable nutrient intake patterns in Japanese women.

  12. Soft drink intake at age six and nine and the association with BMI three and seven years later - A follow-up study based on the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Wang; Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Husby, Ida

    . Mean intake of soft drinks was 0.14 l/d at age 6 and 0.12 l/d at age 9 (difference p=0.08). No associations were found between intake of soft drink at age 6 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.8; p=0.91), or intake at age 9 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.3; p= 0.80). Neither was the change in intake of soft drinks from...... age 6 to 9 associated with BMI at age 13 (b:-0.6; p= 0.46). Conclusion: In young children aged 6 years the intake of soft drinks did not seem to be associated with BMI at age 13. Neither was the change in intake or intake at age 9.1.Conflicts of interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest...

  13. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  14. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-06-22

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  15. An Animal-Source Food Supplement Increases Micronutrient Intakes and Iron Status among Reproductive-Age Women in Rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew G; Ngu, Tu; Nga, Hoang T; Quyen, Phi N; Hong Anh, Pham T; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries. Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam. Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8.9 mg Fe, 2.7 mg Zn, 1050 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 5.5 μg vitamin B-12) or a control snack (mean: 150 kcal, 2.0 mg Fe, 0.9 mg Zn, 0 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 0 μg vitamin B-12) 5 d/wk for 6 mo. Usual nutrient intakes were estimated by repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Because of the relation between nutritional status and inflammation, serum C-reactive protein, α-1-acid-glycoprotein, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were also monitored. Results: Eighty-nine women (47 in the ASF group and 42 controls) completed the study. In the ASF group, intakes of iron and vitamins A and B-12 below the EAR were eliminated, and the prevalence of a low zinc intake was reduced to 9.6% compared with 64.7% in controls ( P vitamin B-12 concentrations did not differ. UTI relative risk was 3.9 ( P Nutrition.

  16. Food patterns of Australian children ages 9 to 13 y in relation to ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, Setyaningrum; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Batterham, Marijka; Charlton, Karen; Meyer, Barbara J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine food patterns of Australian children ages 9 to 13 y in relation to ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 LCPUFA) intake. Secondary analysis was conducted on nationally representative food data of 1110 Australian children ages 9 to 13 y (525 boys and 585 girls) that was obtained using two 24-h recalls. Principle component factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. Discriminant function analysis was used to identify the relationship between the food patterns and total ω-3 LCPUFA intake. Four major food patterns emerged for each sex. For boys these were labeled: "snack foods," "soft drinks," "vegetables," and "pork and meat chops, steak, and mince." For girls they were labeled: "vegetables," "take-away," "tea, coffee, iced coffee drinks" and "canned meals and soup." Fish consumption bought from take-away outlets was more frequently consumed in the "soft drink" (r = 0.577) and take-away (r = 0.485) food pattern in boys and girls, respectively. In contrast, fish prepared at home was more often consumed in "vegetables" in both boys (r = 0.018) and girls (r = 0.106), as well as in the "pork and meat chops, steak and mince" food pattern in boys (r = 0.060). There was a trend that in boys, the "vegetables" group discriminated children who consumed ω-3 LCPUFA levels similar to adequate intakes (AI) (P = 0.067), whereas in girls, the take-away food pattern discriminated for being a fish consumer (P = 0.060). Dietary patterns associated with a high consumption of vegetables and "take-aways" food that include meat and fish are likely to positively influence dietary ω-3 LCPUFA intake in Australian children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  18. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jahns

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001. Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  19. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  20. The inclusion of functional foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, fat-soluble vitamins and n-3 fatty acids in a conventional diet improves the nutrient profile according to the Spanish reference intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Cuervo, Marta; de Las Heras, Arantza Ruiz; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, J Alfredo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2011-03-01

    The growing interest in maintaining good health status through optimal nutrition has boosted the launch of a number of functional foods on the market. The objective of the present study was to theoretically evaluate the nutritional relevance of incorporating selected enriched foods in the diet. A 28 d dietary plan, designed to be balanced under the recommended macronutrients criteria, was used as a basal diet. Some conventional foods were exchanged with foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, vitamins A, D, E or n-3 fatty acids. Nutritional composition of basal and modified diets was derived and compared to the Spanish recommended intakes (RI). The basal diet covered the recommendations for fibre and calcium with mean intake of 28 g and 1241 mg, respectively. The current intake of salt, if iodized, or bread elaborated with this salt, allowed reaching the daily intake of iodine every day, with a mean supply of 216 μg/d and 278 μg/d, respectively. The deficient supply of vitamin E in the basal diet (mean = 8 mg/d) was covered by including enriched margarine and dairy products (mean = 15 mg/d). The low n-3 fatty acids intake in the basal diet (1·1 g/d) increased up to 1·9 g/d after the use of enriched margarine, butter and biscuits and soya drink instead of milk. In order to improve the accomplishment of the RI iodine, vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids, interesting strategies dealing with the incorporation of enriched foods in the diet were successfully initiated.

  1. Reduced dietary intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties negatively impacts muscle health in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Hartog, Anita; van Norren, Klaske; Verlaan, Sjors; van Helvoort, Ardy; Jaspers, Richard T; Luiking, Yvette

    2017-10-16

    Inadequate intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties is common among older adults and has been associated with higher risk of frailty, adverse functional outcome, and impaired muscle health. However, a causal relationship is less well known. The aim was to determine in old mice the impact of reduced dietary intake of vitamins A/E/B6/B12/folate, selenium, and zinc on muscle mass, oxidative capacity, strength, and physical activity (PA) over time. Twenty-one-month-old male mice were fed either AIN-93-M (control) or a diet low in micronutrients with antioxidant properties (=LOWOX-B: 50% of mouse recommended daily intake of vitamins A, E, B6, and B12, folate, selenium, and zinc) for 4 months. Muscle mass, grip strength, physical activity (PA), and general oxidative status were assessed. Moreover, muscle fatigue was measured of m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) during an ex vivo moderate exercise protocol. Effects on oxidative capacity [succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity], muscle fibre type, number, and fibre cross-sectional area (fCSA) were assessed on m. plantaris (PL) using histochemistry. After 2 months on the diet, bodyweight of LOWOX-B mice was lower compared with control (P < 0.0001), mainly due to lower fat mass (P < 0.0001), without significant differences in food intake. After 4 months, oxidative status of LOWOX-B mice was lower, demonstrated by decreased vitamin E plasma levels (P < 0.05) and increased liver malondialdehyde levels (P = 0.018). PA was lower in LOWOX-B mice (P < 0.001 vs. control). Muscle mass was not affected, although PL-fCSA was decreased (~16%; P = 0.028 vs. control). SDH activity and muscle fibre type distribution remained unaffected. In LOWOX-B mice, EDL force production was decreased by 49.7% at lower stimulation frequencies (P = 0.038), and fatigue resistance was diminished (P = 0.023) compared with control. Reduced dietary intake of vitamins A, E, B6, and B12, folate, selenium, and zinc resulted in a

  2. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  3. Adequacy of nutritional intake among older men living in Sydney, Australia: findings from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waern, Rosilene V R; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Le Couteur, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Kendig, Hal; Hirani, Vasant

    2015-09-14

    Previous research shows that older men tend to have lower nutritional intakes and higher risk of under-nutrition compared with younger men. The objectives of this study were to describe energy and nutrient intakes, assess nutritional risk and investigate factors associated with poor intake of energy and key nutrients in community-dwelling men aged ≥75 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - a longitudinal cohort study on older men in Sydney, Australia. A total of 794 men (mean age 81·4 years) had a detailed diet history interview, which was carried out by a dietitian. Dietary adequacy was assessed by comparing median intakes with nutrient reference values (NRV): estimated average requirement, adequate intake or upper level of intake. Attainment of NRV of total energy and key nutrients in older age (protein, Fe, Zn, riboflavin, Ca and vitamin D) was incorporated into a 'key nutrients' variable dichotomised as 'good' (≥5) or 'poor' (≤4). Using logistic regression modelling, we examined associations between key nutrients with factors known to affect food intake. Median energy intake was 8728 kJ (P5=5762 kJ, P95=12 303 kJ), and mean BMI was 27·7 (sd 4·0) kg/m2. Men met their NRV for most nutrients. However, only 1 % of men met their NRV for vitamin D, only 19 % for Ca, only 30 % for K and only 33 % for dietary fibre. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only country of birth was significantly associated with poor nutritional intake. Dietary intakes were adequate for most nutrients; however, only half of the participants met the NRV of ≥5 key nutrients.

  4. Socio-economic differentiation of the growth and the dietary intake of Polish boys aged 7-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta

    2009-01-01

    The period of the constitutional transformation, apart from many advantages, has generated a number of serious problems that may affect the biological state of children and adolescents in Poland. The study documented socio-economic differentiation of growth and dietary intake of boys. The research involved 523 boys aged 7-16; 54.4% of subjects came from Kielce (a city with a population of over 200 000) and 45.6% came from rural areas - from a region underprivileged in terms of economic development, with a majority of its inhabitants living off the land. Height and weight measurements of the subjects were taken, which allowed for computation of BMI. Dietary intake was assessed using the interview method for 24 h dietary recall. A multifactor variance analysis for unequal numbers in subclasses was applied to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors such as place of residence, mother's education and number of children in the family on somatic traits and on nutrient intake. Urban boys whose mothers had experienced higher education were characterized by the greatest height (peducation. The greatest amount of minerals and vitamins was found in the diets of boys whose mothers had higher education and lived in a city. Diets of boys with the greatest body height were also characterized by a greater content of mineral components and vitamins, and a greater percentage of energy derived from protein. The relative body mass of the investigated subjects was probably more influenced by factors other than nutrition, i.e. mostly physical activity.

  5. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

  6. Association between dietary carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index and risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zhang, Huina; Li, Peiwei; Gao, Tao; Lin, Jijian; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua; Ye, Juan

    2014-05-15

    To assess the association of dietary carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index (GI), and risk of age-related cataract (ARC), and quantitatively estimate their dose-response relationships. We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Science Citation Index, ISI Web of Knowledge, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases before October 2013. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. The random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response analyses, subgroup analyses based on ARC subtypes, heterogeneity, and publication bias assessment were also carried out. Seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled ORs of ARC for the highest versus the lowest category of carbohydrate intake and GI were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.38) and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.32), respectively. Further subgroup analyses based on ARC subtypes suggested a marginally significant association between higher carbohydrate intake and cortical cataract risk (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99-1.90), and a statistically significant association between higher GI and nuclear cataract risk (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). In addition, a significant dose-response relationship was observed between carbohydrate intake and the risk of cortical cataract. Our results indicate that higher dietary carbohydrate quantity and GI may be associated with the risk of cortical and nuclear cataract, respectively. The results should be interpreted cautiously and more studies are warranted to clarify this issue. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Vegetable Intake in College-Aged Adults Is Explained by Oral Sensory Phenotypes and TAS2R38 Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E.; Davidson, Andrew C.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Taste and oral sensations vary in humans. Some of this variation has a genetic basis, and two commonly measured phenotypes are the bitterness of propylthiouracil (PROP) and the number of fungiform papillae on the anterior tongue. While the genetic control of fungiform papilla is unclear, PROP bitterness associates with allelic variation in the taste receptor gene, TAS2R38. The two common alleles are AVI and PAV (proline, alanine, valine, and isoleucine); AVI/AVI homozygotes taste PROP as less bitter than heterozygous or homozygous PAV carriers. In this laboratory-based study, we determined whether taste of a bitter probe (quinine) and vegetable intake varied by taste phenotypes and TAS2R38 genotype in healthy adults (mean age=26 years). Vegetable intake was assessed via two validated, complementary methods: food records (Food Pyramid servings standardized to energy intake) and food frequency questionnaire (general intake question and composite vegetable groups). Quinine bitterness varied with phenotypes but not TAS2R38; quinine was more bitter to those who tasted PROP as more bitter or had more papillae. Nontasters by phenotype or genotype reported greater consumption of vegetables, regardless of type (i.e., the effect generalized to all vegetables and was not restricted to those typically thought of as being bitter). Furthermore, nontasters with more papillae reported greater vegetable consumption than nontasters with fewer papillae, suggesting that when bitterness does not predominate, more papillae enhance vegetable liking. These findings suggest that genetic variation in taste, measured by multiple phenotypes or TAS2R38 genotype, can explain differences in overall consumption of vegetables, and this was not restricted to vegetables that are predominantly bitter. PMID:21157576

  8. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  9. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  10. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  11. Is bone equally responsive to calcium and vitamins D intake from food vs. supplements? Use of 41Ca tracer kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few interventions directly compare equivalent calcium and vitamin D from dairy vs. supplements on the same bone outcomes. The radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) holds promise as a tracer method to directly measure changes in bone resorption with differing dietary interventions. Objective: U...

  12. Daily intake of lead in Wistar rats at different ages: Biochemical, genotoxic and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Cássia Regina Bruno; Martinez, Claudia Bueno dos Reis

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the daily intake of feed containing lead (2.0 mg Pb kg(-1)) were evaluated in 45 (Pb45) and 90 (Pb90)-day-old Wistar female rats. Compared to the respective control groups, Pb45 rats consumed more feed and showed greater weight gain, but these parameters returned to control values in Pb90 rats. Higher blood glucose levels were observed in both Pb groups, whereas plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pb45 but lower in the Pb90 group. Liver glycogen content was lower only in the Pb90 rats. There were no changes in plasma cortisol and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain. Hematological alterations were observed only in Pb90 rats, which showed lower hemoglobin levels. In the liver, Pb45 rats showed decreased catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increased glutathione reductase activity, but in the Pb90 group, glutathione levels were higher. Increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the lymphocytes were observed in both Pb groups. These results indicate that the daily intake of Pb for different periods results in metabolic changes and in the establishment of oxidative and genotoxic damage in female rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal neuronal expression of the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin and calbindin D-28k, in aged dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisó, S; Tort, S; Aparici, C; Pérez, L; Vidal, E; Pumarola, M

    2003-01-01

    Disturbances of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system have been implicated in chronic degenerative neurological disease. Cognitive dysfunction and neuron loss are features in older dogs. GABAergic neurons also show immunoreactivity for specific calcium-binding proteins. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the neuronal expression of calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in different areas of the brain in 13 dogs, aged between 2 and 13.5 years. Calbindin expression was found only in the cerebellum. There were significant differences in the quantity and distribution of neurons expressing these proteins between geriatric and adult brains. Parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing neurons are relatively sensitive to degeneration in the cerebellum of older dogs. Parvalbumin labelling was associated with dystrophic structures that are commonly associated with ageing. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. The Absence of the Calcium-buffering Protein Calbindin is Associated with Faster Age-related Decline in Hippocampus Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Nesha S.; Vela-Duarte, Daniel; Masciotti, James; Hua, Fan; Fenton, André A.; Schwaller, Beat; Small, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Although reductions in the expression of the calcium-buffering proteins calbindin D-28K (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) have been observed in the aging brain, it is unknown whether these changes contribute to age-related hippocampal dysfunction. To address this issue, we measured basal hippocampal metabolism and hippocampal structure across the lifespan of C57BL/6J, calbindin D-28k knockout (CBKO) and parvalbumin knockout (PVKO) mice. Basal metabolism was estimated using steady state relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), which is a variant of fMRI that provides the highest spatial resolution, optimal for the analysis of individual subregions of the hippocampal formation. We found that like primates, normal aging in C57BL/6J mice is characterized by an age-dependent decline in rCBV-estimated dentate gyrus metabolism. Although abnormal hippocampal fMRI signals were observed in CBKO and PVKO mice, only CBKO mice showed accelerated age-dependent decline of rCBV-estimated metabolism in the dentate gyrus. We also found age-independent structural changes in CBKO mice, which included an enlarged hippocampus and neocortex as well as global brain hypertrophy. These metabolic and structural changes in CBKO mice correlated with a deficit in hippocampus-dependent learning in the active place avoidance task. Our results suggest that the decrease in CB that occurs during normal aging is involved in age-related hippocampal metabolic decline. Our findings also illustrate the value of using multiple MRI techniques in transgenic mice to investigate mechanisms involved in the functional and structural changes that occur during aging. PMID:21630373

  15. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1-10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Barker, Laurie; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1-10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988-1994 and from the 1950s. We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R(2)=0.005; adjusted: R(2)=0.023). Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature.

  16. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1–10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Methods Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1–10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988–1994 and from the 1950s. Results We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R2=0.005; adjusted: R2=0.023). Conclusion Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature. PMID:26346578

  17. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador, Zaida; Perez-Formigo, Jesus; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Benito, Agustin; Aseffa, Abraham; Custodio, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    A low dietary diversity score (DDS) and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF) are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia). This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors. Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%). In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65) and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38) the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62) and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey. The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  18. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available A low dietary diversity score (DDS and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia.This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF.In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors.Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%. In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65 and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38 the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62 and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey.The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  19. Variation in intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, A. A.; Fransen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tumino, R.; Agnoli, C.; Ericson, U.; Johansson, I.; Ferrari, P.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Lentjes, M.; Key, T.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Larranaga, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Tjonneland, A.; Bjerregaard, L.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Dilis, V.; Linseisen, J.; Noethlings, U.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/objectives: Adequate mineral intake is important for the maintenance of bone health, cellular function and general metabolism, and possibly in the aetiology of cancer and other chronic diseases. This study aimed at investigating variation in intakes of selected minerals across 10 European

  20. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  1. [Relationship between energy intake and catch-up growth in full-term small-for-gestational-age infants under 6 months of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Cheng, Qian; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the relationship between nutrition and catch-up growth in full-term small-for-gestational-age infants under 6 months of age. A prospective cohort study was conducted to collect clinical data of full-term small for gestational-age infants (SGA) and full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants (AGA) from the Department of Health Care of the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. According to inclusion criteria, between February 2014 and April 2015, the infants were divided into three groups: AGA, SGA with catch-up growth (ΔSDS of weight≥0.67), and SGA with no catch-up growth (ΔSDS growth and no catch-up growth groups. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences between the three groups in daily energy intake and protein to energy ratios. Totally 180 SGA infants within 6 months of age were enrolled, among whom 63 were male, 117 were female; and 48 AGA infants were enrolled, among whom 19 were male, 29 were female. There were no significant differences in the feeding patterns (breast feeding, partial breast feeding or full formula feeding) of SGA catch-up and SGA no catch-up groups at 1, 3 or 6 months during the first year (43 (75.4%) vs. 75 (61.0%), 7 (12.3%) vs. 25 (20.3%), 7 (12.3%) vs. 23 (18.7%) at 1 month, 70 (66.7%) vs. 39 (53.4%), 13 (12.4%) vs. 12 (16.4%), 22 (21.0%) vs. 22 (30.1%) at 3 months, 30 (31.6%) vs. 16 (23.5%), 14 (14.7%) vs. 12 (17.6%), 51 (53.7%) vs. 40 (58.8%) at 6 months, χ(2)=3.263, 3.207, 1.308 respectively, all P>0.05). The total daily energy intake (kJ/d) of the SGA no catch-up group was significantly lower than that of the AGA group at 1, 3 and 6 months of age (1 668±350 vs. 1 841±426, 1 889±276 vs. 2 330±379, 2 175±349 vs. 2 556±354, respectively, all Penergy intake of the SGA catch-up group was significantly lower than that of the AGA group at 3 and 6 months (2 118±361 vs. 2 330±379, 2 336±374 vs. 2 556±354, respectively, all Penergy intake (kJ/(kg·d)) of the SGA no catch-up group was

  2. Dairy foods are an important source of calcium and vitamin D among Canadian-born and Asian-born Chinese in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana R; Willows, Noreen D

    2012-03-01

    Low intakes of calcium and vitamin D increase the risk for osteoporosis, bone fracture, and other health problems. This study aimed to examine the calcium and vitamin D intakes of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) in Edmonton, Canada, and to identify usual food sources of these nutrients. We hypothesized that CBC would have higher intakes of calcium and vitamin D than ABC and that the food sources of these nutrients would differ by region of birth (Canada vs Asia). Two in-person multipass 24-hour dietary recalls were administered for 1 weekday and weekend day for 81 healthy ethnically Chinese aged 18 to 58 years. The risks for calcium and vitamin D inadequacy were calculated as were the contributions of specific foods to calcium and vitamin D intakes. Calcium intake was 781 ± 337 mg/d for CBC and 809 ± 369 mg/d for ABC (P = .737). Vitamin D intake was 3.8 ± 3.4 μg/d for CBC and 5.0 ± 3.9 μg/d for ABC (P = .158). Respective risks for calcium and vitamin D inadequacy were 36% and 98% for men and 78% and 100% for women. Dairy contributed most to the calcium (43%) and vitamin D (52%) intake of participants. For ABC, soybean products contributed to 8.1% of calcium, whereas fatty fish contributed to 16.7% of vitamin D. For CBC, red meats contributed to 11.1% of vitamin D. Dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D need to be increased in Chinese Canadians through the promotion of dairy and culturally relevant sources of these nutrients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin B12 status in women of childbearing age in the UK and its relationship with national nutrient intake guidelines: results from two National Diet and Nutrition Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early

  4. Is Shock Index a Valid Predictor of Mortality in Emergency Department Patients With Hypertension, Diabetes, High Age, or Receipt of β- or Calcium Channel Blockers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders K B; Holler, Jon G; Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    differences within subgroups. The adjusted analyses showed similar ORs. CONCLUSION: Shock index is independently associated with 30-day mortality in a broad population of ED patients. Old age, hypertension, and β- or calcium channel blockers weaken this association. However, a shock index greater than......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Shock index is a widely reported tool to identify patients at risk for circulatory collapse. We hypothesize that old age, diabetes, hypertension, and β- or calcium channel blockers weaken the association between shock index and mortality. METHODS: This was a cohort study of all...... first-time emergency department (ED) visits between 1995 and 2011 (n=111,019). We examined whether age 65 years or older, diabetes, hypertension, and use of β- or calcium channel blockers modified the association between shock index and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was 3.0%. For all...

  5. Age-dependent decreases of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc in the cardiac valves of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetti, Federico; Tohno, Setsuko; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Azuma, Cho; Moriwake, Yumi; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Minami, Takeshi; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Oishi, Takao; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2005-09-01

    To elucidate compositional changes of the cardiac valves in monkey with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the four cardiac valves of rhesus and Japanese monkeys and the relationships among elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The four cardiac valves of the aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid valves were resected from 19 rhesus and 11 Japanese monkeys, ranging in age from 10 d to 33 yr. The element contents were determined by ICP-AES. It was found that the Ca, P, S, and Zn contents were high in the four cardiac valves of the monkeys below 1 yr and thereafter decreased significantly with aging, except for Ca in the mitral valve, for which no significant correlation was found between age and Ca content. The Ca and P contents did not increase in the four cardiac valves at old age. This result revealed that calcification scarcely occurred in the four cardiac valves at old age. With regard to the relationships among elements, it was found that there were significant direct correlations among the Ca, P, S, and Zn contents in all of the four cardiac valves of the monkeys, with two exceptions between P and Zn contents in both the aortic and pulmonary valves. Therefore, as Ca decreased in the four cardiac valves, P, S, and Zn decreased simultaneously in the same cardiac valves.

  6. A high energy intake from dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with increased risk of malnutrition 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva T; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Bergkvist, Leif

    2015-09-28

    A higher fat content in the diet could be an advantage for preventing malnutrition among older adults. However, there is sparse scientific evidence to determine the optimal fat intake among older adults. This prospective cohort study examined whether a high energy intake of dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with the risk of malnutrition 10 years later. The study population comprised 725 Swedish men and women aged 53-80 years who had completed a questionnaire about dietary intake and lifestyle factors in 1997 (baseline) and whose nutritional status was assessed when admitted to the hospital in 2008-2009 (follow-up). At the follow-up, 383 (52.8%) participants were identified as being at risk of malnutrition and fifty-two (7.2%) were identified as malnourished. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between previous dietary fat intake and nutritional status later in life. Contrary to what was expected, a high energy intake from total fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat among middle-aged and older adults increased the risk of exhibiting malnutrition 10 years later. However, this applied only to individuals with a BMImalnutrition in older adults should focus on limiting the intake of total fat in the diet by reducing consumption of food with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fat.

  7. Trans Fatty Acid Levels in Foods and Intakes among Population Aged 3 Years and above in Beijing and Guangzhou Cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai Dong; Li, Jian Wen; Liu, Zhao Ping; Zhou, Ping Ping; Mao, Wei Feng; Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    To understand the dietary intake levels of trans fatty acids (TFA) in a Chinese population and establish a basis for health risk assessment of trans fatty acids. The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake. The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68 ± 0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89 ± 2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86 ± 0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83 ± 1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41 ± 0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29% of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and ⋝18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42% demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively. The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Balancing the benefits and costs of traditional food substitution by indigenous Arctic women of childbearing age: Impacts on persistent organic pollutant, mercury, and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnington, Matthew J; Curren, Meredith S; Chan, Hing Man; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    For indigenous Arctic Canadians, traditional food consumption represents a key source of nutrients and environmental contaminants. Particularly, ingestion of marine mammal blubber and meat may lead to persistent organic pollutant levels and mercury intakes that exceed regulatory thresholds for sensitive populations. We investigated whether temporary adjustments to the consumption of traditional food derived from marine mammals appreciably impacted contaminant exposure and nutrient intakes among indigenous women of childbearing age. Such adjustments can be motivated by the desire to lower contaminant exposure or to increase nutrition, or by the diminishing availability of other traditional food sources. We combined the contaminant fate and transport model GloboPOP with the food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-Human Arctic to simulate polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in female 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey participants. We also calculated daily mercury and nutrient intake rates. Our results suggest that a temporary decrease in marine mammal consumption is largely ineffective at reducing exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, because of their long elimination half-lives. In contrast, substitution of marine mammals was highly efficient at reducing mercury intake, but also appreciably lowered intakes of iron, manganese, selenium, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The impact of increasing intake of traditional food derived from marine mammals during childbearing age greatly depended on baseline consumption rates; replacement is ill-advised for those who already consume a lot of traditional food due to greater polychlorinated biphenyl and mercury exposures, while replacement was potentially beneficial for those with very limited marine mammal consumption due to increased nutrient intakes. Our calculations primarily suggest that considering baseline traditional food intake rates is critical to devising reproductive dietary adjustment strategies that maximize nutrient

  9. Aging, chronic alcohol consumption, and low folate intake are determinants of genomic DNA methylation in the liver and colon of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors in the development of colon and liver cancer. Both factors are known to be associated with altered DNA methylation. Inadequate folate intake can also derange biological methylation pathways. We investigated the effects of aging,...

  10. The importance of being subtle: small changes in calcium homeostasis control cognitive decline in normal aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toescu, E.C.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2007), s. 267-273 ISSN 1474-9718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Aging * Ca homeostasis * Cognitive decline Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2007

  11. Calcium antagonists decrease capillary wall damage in aging hypertensive rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, E.; Jong, G.I. de; Apro, E.; Keuker, J.I.H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hypertension during aging is a serious threat to the cerebral vasculature. The larger brain arteries can react to hypertension with an abnormal wall thickening, a loss of elasticity and a narrowed lumen. However, little is known about the hypertension-induced alterations of cerebral capillaries. The present study describes ultrastructural alterations of the cerebrocortical capillary wall, such as thickening and collagen accumulation in the basement membrane of aging spontaneously hype...

  12. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...... and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups; hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0 to 29.9 g/d) 39 to 50, 50 to 59, and >/=60 years of age were 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97) compared...

  13. The influence of habitual protein intake in early childhood on BMI and age at adiposity rebound: results from the DONALD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A L B; Buyken, A E; Kroke, A

    2006-07-01

    To analyse the influence of habitual protein intake in early childhood on age and body mass index (BMI) at adiposity rebound (AR), a potential critical period for the development of obesity. A total of 313 children (161 boys, 152 girls) participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Weighted summary indices were created reflecting habitual, energy-adjusted protein intake (expressed as % of energy) and protein intake per kg reference body weight per day (g/kg RBW/day) between the age of 12 and 24 months. Body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS), age at AR and covariates (mother's BMI, gestational age, breastfeeding and siblings) were included in the final models. After adjusting for potential confounders, girls in the highest tertile (T3) of habitual energy-adjusted protein intake had a significantly higher BMI-SDS at AR than those in T1 (T1: -0.61 (95% CI: -0.90; -0.31), T2: -0.49 (-0.79; -0.20), T3: -0.08 (-0.36; 0.20), P for difference=0.01). A comparable association existed with habitual protein intake expressed as g/kg RBW/day (T1: -0.64 (-0.93; -0.36), T2: -0.22 (-0.52; 0.09), T3: -0.25 (-0.54; 0.04), P=0.04). In boys, there were no differences in BMI-SDS at AR between tertiles of habitual protein intake (% of energy or g/kg RBW/day) (P>0.05). Boys in the lowest tertile of habitual energy-adjusted protein intake tended to experience a later AR (T1: 6.0 (5.6; 6.4), T2: 5.5 (5.1; 5.9), T3: 5.4 (5.0; 5.9) years, P=0.07). But neither in girls nor in boys was age at AR significantly different between tertiles of habitual protein intake (% of energy or g/kg RBW/day) (P>0.05). A higher habitual protein intake between the age of 12 and 24 months was associated with a higher BMI-SDS at AR in girls, but not in boys. There was no consistent relation between habitual protein intake in early childhood and timing of AR.

  14. Association between breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and growth and development among Malawian young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Ulla; Arimond, Mary; Maleta, Kenneth; Prado, Elizabeth L; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per

    2018-01-19

    World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age. The study was nested in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Malawi. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between breast milk intake and growth and development. Mean (SD) breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age was 752 (244) g/day. Mean (SD) length-for-age z-score at 12 months and change in length-for-age z-score between 12 and 18 months were -1.69 (1.0) and -0.17 (0.6), respectively. At 18 months, mean (SD) expressive vocabulary score was 32 (24) words and median (interquartile range) skills successfully performed for fine, gross, and overall motor skills were 21 (19-22), 18 (16-19), and 38 (26-40), respectively. Breast milk intake (g/day) was not associated with either growth or development. Proportion of total energy intake from breast milk was negatively associated with fine motor (β = -0.18, p = .015) but not other developmental scores in models adjusted for potential confounders. Among Malawian infants, neither breast milk intake nor percent of total energy intake from breast milk at 9-10 months was positively associated with subsequent growth between 12 and 18 months, or development at 18 months. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  16. Validation of Nutrient Intake Estimates Derived Using a Semi-Quantitative FFQ against 3 Day Diet Records in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talegawkar, S A; Tanaka, T; Maras, J E; Ferrucci, L; Tucker, K L

    2015-12-01

    To examine the relative validity of a multicultural FFQ used to derive nutrient intake estimates in a community dwelling cohort of younger and older men and women compared with those derived from 3 day (3d) diet records during the same time-frame. Cross-sectional analyses. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) conducted in the Baltimore, MD and District of Columbia areas. A subset (n=468, aged 26 to 95 years (y), 47% female, 65% non-Hispanic white) from the BLSA, with complete data for nutrient estimates from a FFQ and 3d diet records. Pearson's correlation coefficients (energy adjusted and de-attenuated) for intakes of energy and 26 nutrients estimated from the FFQ and the mean of 3d diet records were calculated in a cross-sectional analysis. Rankings of individuals based on FFQ for various nutrient intakes were compared to corresponding rankings based on the average of the 3d diet records. Bland Altman plots were examined for a visual representation of agreement between both assessment methods. All analyses were stratified by sex and age (above and below 65 y). Median nutrient intake estimates tended to be higher from the FFQ compared to average 3d diet records. Energy adjusted and de-attenuated correlations between FFQ intake estimates and records ranged from 0.23 (sodium intake in men) to 0.81 (alcohol intake in women). The FFQ classified more than 70 percent of participants in either the same or adjacent quartile categories for all nutrients examined. Bland Altman plots demonstrated good agreement between the assessment methods for most nutrients. This FFQ provides reasonably valid estimates of dietary intakes of younger and older participants of the BLSA.

  17. Dietary protein intake by meal type in adults aged 51 years and over: WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenly distributing daily protein intake at meals has been suggested to improve muscle mass among older adults. The aim of this research is to evaluate protein intake and its distribution across three meal types (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Nationally representative dietary intake data of adult...

  18. CYP1A2 and coffee intake and the modifying effect of sex, age, and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, E.M.; Eijgelsheim, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Amin, N.; Duijn, van C.M.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Stricker, B.H.; Visser, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The enzyme CYP1A2 (cytochrome 1A2) is involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and caffeine, and its activity can be influenced by factors such as sex, age, and smoking. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs762551A>C, which has also been studied for its modifying effect on

  19. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

  20. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Sarah J.; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate...

  1. Discrepancy between coronary artery calcium score and HeartScore in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Sand, Niels Peter; Nørgaard, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent and incremental risk marker. This marker has previously not been compared to the HeartScore risk model. Design: A random sample of 1825 citizens (men and women, 50 or 60 years of age) was invited for screening. Methods: Using the H...... the HeartScore model, the 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular events based on gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol was estimated. A low risk was defined as......Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent and incremental risk marker. This marker has previously not been compared to the HeartScore risk model. Design: A random sample of 1825 citizens (men and women, 50 or 60 years of age) was invited for screening. Methods: Using...

  2. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis) juice mixture reduces serum cholesterol in middle-aged men: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiso, Izumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Seiyama, Yukiko; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2014-06-24

    Vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals and, dietary fiber and contribute to the prevention and improvement of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruit is a concern in Japan.We therefore produced a juice mixture of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis: B. rapa) with the aim to investigate the effects of this juice mixture on anthropometric data, blood parameters, and dietary intake differences. This study was performed as a single blind and randomized controlled trial. Subjects were 16 men (mean age, 46.4 ± 7.1 years), and they were divided into two groups (control group and intervention group). The intervention group consumed the juice mixture of fresh fruit and B. rapa. The control group consumed commercial vegetable juice. Subjects consumed juice twice a day throughout the weekday, for 4 weeks. We prepared both juices with an equivalent energy balance. Weight and body mass index (BMI) of the control group after 4 weeks were significantly increased compared with baseline values. Serum total cholesterol (T-Chol) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol) of the intervention group after 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Furthermore, intake of total vegetables and fruits were significantly increased compared with baseline values in both groups. Both vegetable juices contributed to improved intake of total vegetables and fruit. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice is highly effective in reducing serum cholesterol. Short-term intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice was shown to enhance cholesterol metabolism.

  3. Calcium antagonists decrease capillary wall damage in aging hypertensive rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, E.; de Jong, G.I.; Apro, E.; Keuker, J.I.H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hypertension during aging is a serious threat to the cerebral vasculature. The larger brain arteries can react to hypertension with an abnormal wall thickening, a loss of elasticity and a narrowed lumen. However, little is known about the hypertension-induced alterations of cerebral

  4. Results from an experimental trial at a Head Start center to evaluate two meal service approaches to increase fruit and vegetable intake of preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnack Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool aged children are needed. Objectives Evaluate the independent effects of the following meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1. Serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items as part of traditional family style meal service; and 2. Serving meals portioned and plated by providers. Methods Fifty-three preschool aged children completed a randomized crossover experiment conducted at a Head Start center in Minneapolis, MN. Over a six week trial period each of the experimental meal service strategies (serving fruits and vegetable first and serving meals portioned by providers was implemented during lunch service for two one-week periods. Two one-week control periods (traditional family style meal service with all menu items served at once were also included over the six week trial period. Childrens lunch intake was observed as a measure of food and nutrient intake during each experimental condition. Results Fruit intake was significantly higher (p Conclusions Serving fruits in advance of other meal items may be a low cost easy to implement strategy for increasing fruit intake in young children. However, serving vegetables first does not appear to increase vegetable intake. Results provide support for current recommendations for traditional family style meal service in preschool settings.

  5. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-05-14

    The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day) might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of "anabolic resistance" in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  6. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  7. Age Related Assessment of Sugar and Protein Intake of Ceratitis capitata in ad libitum Conditions and Modeling Its Relation to Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos A. Kouloussis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the inquiry on the age related dietary assessment of an organism, knowledge of the distributional patterns of food intake throughout the entire life span is very important, however, age related nutritional studies often lack robust feeding quantification methods due to their limitations in obtaining short-term food-intake measurements. In this study, we developed and standardized a capillary method allowing precise life-time measurements of food consumption by individual adult medflies, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae, under laboratory conditions. Protein or sugar solutions were offered via capillaries to individual adults for a 5 h interval daily and their consumption was measured, while individuals had lifetime ad libitum access to sugar or protein, respectively, in solid form. Daily egg production was also measured. The multivariate data-set (i.e., the age-dependent variations in the amount of sugar and protein ingestion and their relation to egg production was analyzed using event history charts and 3D interpolation models. Maximum sugar intake was recorded early in adult life; afterwards, ingestion progressively dropped. On the other hand, maximum levels of protein intake were observed at mid-ages; consumption during early and late adult ages was kept at constant levels. During the first 30 days of age, type of diet and sex significantly contributed to the observed difference in diet intake while number of laid eggs varied independently. Male and female adult longevity was differentially affected by diet: protein ingestion extended the lifespan, especially, of males. Smooth surface models revealed a significant relationship between the age dependent dietary intake and reproduction. Both sugar and protein related egg-production have a bell-shaped relationship, and the association between protein and egg-production is better described by a 3D Lorenzian function. Additionally, the proposed 3D interpolation models produced good

  8. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  9. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)Dchildren enrolled, 390 completed the 18-month follow-up. Rickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnic differences in dietary intake at age 12 and 18 months: the Born in Bradford 1000 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Pinki; Gatenby, Lisa A; Greenwood, Darren C; Bryant, Maria; Robinson, Sian; Wright, John

    2016-01-01

    To compare the intake of key indicator foods at age 12 months and 18 months between infants of Pakistani and White British origin. Logistic regression was used to model associations between ethnicity and consumption of key indicator foods defined by high or low energy density using an FFQ at age 12 and 18 months. Born in Bradford 1000 study, Bradford, UK. Infants (n 1259; 38 % White British, 49 % Pakistani), mean age 12·7 (sd 1·0) months and toddlers (n 1257; 37 % White British, 49 % Pakistani), mean age 18·7 (sd1·0) months. At 12 months, Pakistani infants consumed more commercial sweet baby meals than White British infants, with greater odds for being above average consumers (adjusted OR (AOR)=1·90; 95 % CI 1·40, 2·56), more chips/roast potatoes (AOR=2·75; 95 % CI 2·09, 3·62), less processed meat products (AOR=0·11; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·15), more fruit (AOR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·70, 2·85) and more sugar-sweetened drinks (AOR=1·68; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·18). At 18 months these differences persisted, with Pakistani infants consuming more commercial sweet baby meals (AOR=4·57; 95 % CI 2·49, 8·39), more chips/roast potato shapes (AOR=2·26; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·43), more fruit (AOR=1·40; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·81), more sugar-sweetened drinks (AOR=2·03; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·70), more pure fruit juice (AOR=1·82; 95 % CI 1·40, 2·35), more water (AOR=3·24; 95 % CI 2·46, 4·25) and less processed meat (AOR=0·10; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·15) than White British infants. Dietary intake during infancy and the early toddlerhood period is associated with ethnicity, suggesting the importance of early and culturally adapted interventions aimed at establishing healthy eating behaviours.

  11. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten Joan

    2013-01-01

    loading with OGB-1/AM and SR101. We report that the occurrence of spontaneous waves is 20 times more frequent in the cerebellar cortex of aging as compared with adult mice, which correlated with a reduction in resting brain oxygen tension. In adult mice, spontaneous glial wave activity increased...... on reducing resting brain oxygen tension, and ATP-evoked glial waves reduced the tissue O(2) tension. Finally, although spontaneous Purkinje cell (PC) activity was not associated with increased glia wave activity, spontaneous glial waves did affect intracellular Ca(2+) activity in PCs. The increased wave...... activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology....

  12. Associations of maternal iron intake and hemoglobin in pregnancy with offspring vascular phenotypes and adiposity at age 10: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A Alwan

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring.To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring's arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation, blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index, test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex.Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC, was analysed.2639 (89.2% mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9% reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4% were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (-0.8 mmHg, 99% CI -1.7 to 0, P = 0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and -0.7 mmHg, 99% CI -1.3 to 0, P = 0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed.There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years.

  13. Interaction of BDNF rs6265 variants and energy and protein intake in the risk for glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, James W; Park, Sunmin

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of BDNF variants with type 2 diabetes and the interactions of different BDNF genotypes with dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes in middle-aged adults. The study population included 8840 adults ages 40 to 65 y from the Ansan and Asung areas in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, a cross-sectional study of Korean adults, conducted from 2001 to 2002. Adjusted odd ratios for the prevalence of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes according to BDNF genotypes were calculated after adjusting for age, sex, residence area, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking and stress status. Nutrient intake was calculated from usual food intake determined by semiquantitative food frequencies using the nutrient assessment software. BDNF rs6265 Val/Met and Met/Met variants were negatively associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes after adjusting for covariates. Serum glucose levels after glucose loading and hemoglobin A1c, but not serum insulin levels, also were negatively associated with BDNF Val/Met and Met/Met. In subgroup analysis, sex and stress levels had an interaction with BDNF Val/Met in the risk for type 2 diabetes. Glucose-intolerant and diabetic, but not nondiabetic, patients with BDNF Met/Met had nominally, but significantly higher intakes of energy than those with BDNF Val/Val. BDNF rs6265 had consistent gene-diet interactions with energy and protein intake. With low-energy, low-protein, and high-carbohydrate intake, BDNF Val/Met lowered the risk for type 2 diabetes after adjusting for confounding factors. BDNF Val/Met did not compensate for developing type 2 diabetes with high-energy intake. Additionally, indexes of insulin resistance and insulin secretion showed the same gene-energy interaction as type 2 diabetes. BDNF Val/Met and Met/Met variants (rs6265) decreases the risk for

  14. Calcium antagonists decrease capillary wall damage in aging hypertensive rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, E; De Jong, G I; Apró, E; Keuker, J I; Luiten, P G

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hypertension during aging is a serious threat to the cerebral vasculature. The larger brain arteries can react to hypertension with an abnormal wall thickening, a loss of elasticity and a narrowed lumen. However, little is known about the hypertension-induced alterations of cerebral capillaries. The present study describes ultrastructural alterations of the cerebrocortical capillary wall, such as thickening and collagen accumulation in the basement membrane of aging spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. The ratio of cortical capillaries with such vascular pathology occurred significantly more frequently in hypertensive animals. Nimodipine and nifedipine are potential drugs to decrease blood pressure in hypertension but their beneficial effects in experimental studies reach beyond the control of blood pressure. Nimodipine and nifedipine can alleviate ischemia-related symptoms and improve cognition. These drugs differ in that nifedipine, but not nimodipine reduces blood pressure at the here-used concentration while both drugs can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Here we show that chronic treatment of aging hypertensive stroke-prone rats with nimodipine or nifedipine could preserve microvascular integrity in the cerebral cortex.

  15. The contribution of breakfast cereals to the nutritional intake of the materially deprived UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B A; Kaffa, N; Campbell, K; Sanders, T A B

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast is an important source of micronutrients in the diet and its consumption has been linked to positive health outcomes. The present analysis investigated the contribution that breakfast cereals make to the nutrient intakes of the materially deprived (low income) UK population. Data for 3728 respondents aged 2 years and over from the UK Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (2003-2005) were analysed. Nutrient intakes of consumers and non-consumers of breakfast cereal were compared. Breakfast cereals were consumed by 49% of men, 58% of women, 80% of boys and 80% of girls, and median intakes were: 35, 25, 29 and 21 g/d, respectively. Consumers of breakfast cereals had higher intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), iron and zinc than non-consumers. Breakfast cereal consumption was also related to higher intakes of calcium, attributable to higher milk consumption. The intake of wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals was associated with a higher intake of non-starch polysaccharides. Intakes of niacin, biotin, calcium and zinc were higher but that of vitamin B(6) was lower among consumers of exclusively wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals compared with consumers of other breakfast cereals. There were no significant differences observed in intakes of non-milk extrinsic sugars according to type of breakfast cereal consumed. Breakfast cereals make a significant contribution to the micronutrient intake of the low-income UK population.

  16. Impact of cocoa flavanol intake on age-dependent vascular stiffness in healthy men: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Sansone, Roberto; Karimi, Hakima; Krabbe, Moritz; Schuler, Dominik; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kraemer, Thomas; Cortese-Krott, Miriam Margherita; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte

    2015-06-01

    Increased vascular stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, and isolated systolic hypertension are hallmarks of vascular aging. Regular cocoa flavanol (CF) intake can improve vascular function in healthy young and elderly at-risk individuals. However, the mechanisms underlying CF bioactivity remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of CF intake on cardiovascular function in healthy young and elderly individuals without history, signs, or symptoms of cardiovascular disease by applying particular focus on functional endpoints relevant to cardiovascular aging. In a randomized, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial, 22 young (flavanols to maintain cardiovascular health.

  17. [Delay and cessation of aging processes by manipulation of reproduction, food intake and development in insects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, K-G

    2004-06-01

    Insects can serve as excellent models to show that the genetically determined life span of organisms as well as that of other traits is characterized by high phenotypic plasticity. Depending on different environmental conditions the life cycle strategy can therefore be highly variable. Thus developmental and aging processes are subjected to delaying or accelerating influences or can even be interrupted. Availability of protein to fulfill reproductive requirements, intermittent starvation, and the photoperiodic induction of reproductive diapause were taken as examples for the study of selected abiotic factors which influence the life history of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae and the beetle Gastroidea viridula.

  18. VSNL1 Co-expression networks in aging include calcium signaling, synaptic plasticity, and Alzheimer’s disease pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C W Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visinin-like 1 (VSNL1 gene encodes Visinin-like protein 1, a peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD. Little is known, however, about normal VSNL1 expression in brain and the biologic networks in which it participates. Frontal cortex gray matter from 209 subjects without neurodegenerative or psychiatric illness, ranging in age from 16–91, were processed on Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST and Human SNP Array 6.0. VSNL1 expression was unaffected by age and sex, and not significantly associated with SNPs in cis or trans. VSNL1 was significantly co-expressed with genes in pathways for Calcium Signaling, AD, Long Term Potentiation, Long Term Depression, and Trafficking of AMPA Receptors. The association with AD was driven, in part, by correlation with amyloid precursor protein (APP expression. These findings provide an unbiased link between VSNL1 and molecular mechanisms of AD, including pathways implicated in synaptic pathology in AD. Whether APP may drive increased VSNL1 expression, VSNL1 drives increased APP expression, or both are downstream of common pathogenic regulators will need to be evaluated in model systems.

  19. Sources of vitamin D and calcium in the diets of preschool children in the UK and the theoretical effect of food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, V L; Northstone, K; Hopkins, D; Emmett, P M

    2015-12-01

    Dietary intakes of vitamin D are very low in the UK. Dietary calcium is also necessary to promote bone health. The fortification of foods with vitamin D could be a safe and effective way of increasing intake. Diets of preschool children, 755 at 18 months and 3.5 years, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were assessed using dietary records completed by parents. Energy, vitamin D and calcium intakes were calculated. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for being in the highest/lowest quartile of intake. Intakes were recalculated to test different fortification regimes. Vitamin D intakes were low; all children were below the UK and US dietary recommendations. Calcium intakes decreased between the two ages as a result of reduced milk consumption. Children in the lowest quartile for vitamin D intake at 18 months were twice as likely to remain in that quartile at 3.5 years (odds ratio = 2.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.55). The majority of foods provide no vitamin D with fat spreads and milk as the main sources. The contribution from breakfast cereals increased, from 6% to 12%, as a result of the increased consumption of fortified cereals. Dairy foods provided the highest contribution to calcium at 18 months but were less important at 3.5 years. Theoretical intakes from different fortification regimens suggest that milk fortified at 2 μg 100 g(-1) vitamin D would provide most children with adequate but not excessive intakes. Dietary vitamin D intakes were very low and calcium intakes were mostly adequate. Fortification of milk with vitamin D could be a good way to boost intakes. © 2014 Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.

  20. Association between rice, bread, and noodle intake and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Japanese middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Ryoko; Kimura, Takeshi; Enomoto, Ayaka; Yanoshita, Kaede; Saito, Aki; Kobayashi, Satomi; Masuda, Katsunori; Iida, Kaoruko

    2017-12-01

    Prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through lifestyle modification is an important public health issue. Carbohydrate intake from soft drinks has received particular interest. Owing to differences in dietary habits, however, major contributors to the intake of dietary carbohydrates, such as rice, bread, and noodles, might have more influence on NAFLD prevalence in East Asian countries than consumption of soft drinks. We examined the relationship of the intake of rice, bread, and noodles, as well as overall carbohydrate intake, with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese. This is a cross-sectional study of 977 men and 1467 women aged 40-69 y. Dietary information was obtained using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the following criteria: presence of steatosis on abdominal ultrasound, alcohol intake Consumption of carbohydrates and rice was positively associated with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

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    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  2. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  3. Estimation of salt intake assessed by urinary excretion of sodium over 24 h in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Cuadrado-Soto, E; Navia, B; López-Sobaler, A M; Ortega, R M

    2017-02-01

    High intake of salt is associated with early development of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity). In "developed" countries, individuals frequently exceed dietary recommendations for salt intake. Taking into account the limited data on sodium intake by 24-h excretion in urine in schoolchildren, we wished to determine baseline salt intake in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years. The present study was an observational study involving 205 schoolchildren (109 boys and 96 girls) selected from various Spanish provinces. Sodium intake was ascertained by measuring sodium excretion in urine over 24 h. Creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The correlation between fat-free mass determined by anthropometry and that determined via urinary excretion of creatinine was calculated (r = 0.651; p salt equivalent: 7.8 ± 3.1 g/day). Hence, 84.5 % of subjects aged ≤10 years had intakes of >4 g salt/day, and 66.7 % of those aged >10 years had intakes of >5 g salt/day. Urinary excretion of sodium was correlated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.1574 and r = 0.1400, respectively). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted by sex, showed that a high body mass index (odds ratio = 1.159; 95 % CI 1.041-1.290; p diet is a sound policy to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  4. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  5. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  6. Calcium and vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Cotterchio, Michelle; Green, Roger; Buehler, Sharon; Zhao, Jinhui; Squires, Josh; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Yun; Dicks, Elizabeth; Campbell, Peter T; Mclaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have been suggestive but inconclusive in demonstrating inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D, dairy product intakes with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a large population-based comparison of such associations in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON). A case control study design was used. Colorectal cancer cases were new CRC patients aged 20-74 years. Controls were a sex and age-group matched random sample of the population in each province. 1760 cases and 2481 controls from NL and ON were analyzed. Information on dietary intake and lifestyle was collected using self-administered food frequency and personal history questionnaires. Controls reported higher mean daily intakes of total calcium and total vitamin D than cases in both provinces. In ON, significant reduced CRC risk was associated with intakes of total calcium (OR of highest vs. lowest quintiles was 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.77, p(trend) = 0.03), total vitamin D (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-1.00), dietary calcium (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.97), dietary vitamin D (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.99), total dairy products and milk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.60-1.00), calcium-containing supplements use (OR = 0.76). In NL, the inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D with CRC risk were most pronounced among calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement users (OR = 0.67, 0.68, respectively). Results of this study add to the evidence that total calcium, dietary calcium, total vitamin D, dietary vitamin D, calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement use may reduce the risk of CRC. The inverse associations of CRC risk with intakes of total dairy products and milk may be largely due to calcium and vitamin D.

  7. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  8. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

  9. Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Zhang, Shumin M; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2009-03-01

    Flavonoids may protect against cancer development through several biological mechanisms. However, epidemiologic studies on dietary flavonoids and cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. We prospectively investigated the association between the intake of selected flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancers in the Women's Health Study. A total of 3234 incident cancer cases were identified during 11.5 y of follow-up among 38,408 women aged > or = 45 y. Intake of individual flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin) and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) was assessed from food-frequency questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of total and site-specific cancer across increasing intakes of total and individual selected flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods (tea, apple, broccoli, onion, and tofu). The multivariate RRs of total cancer across increasing quintiles of total quantified flavonoid intake were 1.00, 1.00, 0.93, 0.94, and 0.97 (P for trend = 0.72). For site-specific cancers, the multivariate RRs in the highest quintile of total quantified flavonoid intake compared with the lowest quintile were 1.03 for breast cancer, 1.01 for colorectal cancer, 1.03 for lung cancer, 1.15 for endometrial cancer, and 1.09 for ovarian cancer (all P > 0.05). The associations for the individual flavonoid intakes were similar to those for the total intake. There was also no significant association between intake of flavonoid-rich foods and the incidence of total and site-specific cancers. Our results do not support a major role of 5 common flavonols and flavones or selected flavonoid-rich foods in cancer prevention.

  10. Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Zhang, Shumin M; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids may protect against cancer development through several biological mechanisms. However, epidemiologic studies on dietary flavonoids and cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between the intake of selected flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancers in the Women's Health Study. Design: A total of 3234 incident cancer cases were identified during 11.5 y of follow-up among 38,408 women aged ≥45 y. Intake of individual flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin) and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) was assessed from food-frequency questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of total and site-specific cancer across increasing intakes of total and individual selected flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods (tea, apple, broccoli, onion, and tofu). Results: The multivariate RRs of total cancer across increasing quintiles of total quantified flavonoid intake were 1.00, 1.00, 0.93, 0.94, and 0.97 (P for trend = 0.72). For site-specific cancers, the multivariate RRs in the highest quintile of total quantified flavonoid intake compared with the lowest quintile were 1.03 for breast cancer, 1.01 for colorectal cancer, 1.03 for lung cancer, 1.15 for endometrial cancer, and 1.09 for ovarian cancer (all P > 0.05). The associations for the individual flavonoid intakes were similar to those for the total intake. There was also no significant association between intake of flavonoid-rich foods and the incidence of total and site-specific cancers. Conclusion: Our results do not support a major role of 5 common flavonols and flavones or selected flavonoid-rich foods in cancer prevention. PMID:19158208

  11. Nutrient intakes of children aged 1-2 years as a function of milk consumption, cows' milk or growing-up milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisolfi, Jacques; Fantino, Marc; Turck, Dominique; de Courcy, Geneviève Potier; Vidailhet, Michel

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the nutritional adequacy of diets in early childhood as a function of milk intake, cows' milk (CM) or growing-up milk (GUM). From a cross-sectional food consumption survey, two groups of children aged 1-2 years were defined: group CM fed exclusively on CM ≥ 250 ml/d and group GUM fed on GUM ≥ 250 ml/d. Proportions of children at risk of nutrient excess or insufficiency were estimated relative to the French recommended daily allowances, estimated average requirements or adequate intakes. Parents participating in the survey were recruited from all regions of France by a polling organization. Distribution was adjusted to that of the French population. Sixty-three (group CM) and fifty-five (group GUM) children. Total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in the two groups except protein intake of group CM, which was much higher than the Recommended Daily Allowance and significantly higher than in group GUM. A high percentage of children of Group CM had intake of linoleic acid (51%) and α-linolenic acid (84%) below the lower limit of the adequate intake, and intake of Fe (59%) vitamin C (49%) and alimentary vitamin D (100%) less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Significant differences were observed in the proportions of children with a risk of dietary inadequacy between the two groups for all the mentioned nutrients (P < 0.001). In group GUM, this imbalance was only observed for vitamin D. Intake of foods other than milk and dairy products could not account for these discrepancies. Consumption of CM (≥250 ml/d) entails the risk of insufficiency in α-linolenic acid, Fe, vitamin C and vitamin D. Use of GUM (≥250 ml/d) significantly reduces the risk of insufficiencies in the mentioned nutrients.

  12. Lead content in 70 brands of dietary calcium supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, B P; Evans, D R; Cornett, J R; Lingard, S M; Quattrone, A J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Elevated lead levels in calcium supplements may pose a health risk, particularly to children with milk intolerance who rely on these products to meet their calcium requirement. Earlier reports chiefly focused on the lead content in supplements derived from bonemeal and dolomite. This study undertook to determine the lead levels in the major forms of calcium supplements currently available. METHODS. The lead content was measured in 70 brands of calcium supplements grouped in the following five categories: dolomite, bonemeal, refined and natural source calcium carbonate, and calcium chelates. RESULTS. The lead levels measured in the supplements ranged from 0.03 microgram/g to 8.83 micrograms/g. Daily lead ingestion rates revealed that about 25% of the products exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's "provisional" total tolerable daily intake of lead for children aged 6 years and under. Less than 20% of the supplements had "normalized" lead levels comparable to or lower than that reported for cow's milk. CONCLUSIONS. Children are the most sensitive to the low-level effects of lead. If calcium supplements are to provide an alternate source of calcium to some of these individuals, they should also deliver concomitant lead dosages no greater than those obtained from milk products themselves. PMID:8342726

  13. VALIDITY OF A DIETARY CALCIUM QUESTIONNAIRE MODIFIED TO INCLUDE SUPPLEMENT USE IN ATHLETES

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    Morgan B. Henry

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When conducting research in the area of bone health, accurate measurement of calcium intake is crucial. The rapid assessment method (RAM is one technique that has frequently been used for its measurement of calcium intake. However, the RAM and other currently established questionnaires lack the assessment of dietary supplement use, which is common for athletes. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of a RAM questionnaire designed to assess daily calcium consumption which was further modified to meet the needs of athletes who frequently consume dietary supplements. Usefulness of the modified RAM for athletes and non-athletes was evaluated as well as utility among those who do and do not use supplements. The 47 volunteers (n = 31 women, 16 men were between the ages of 18 and 25 including, 33 athletes and 14 controls. The population also contained 23 supplement users and 24 non-supplement users. Participants completed the modified RAM and were instructed to complete a three-day diet record (3DR, logging food intake for 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. The data collected via the modified RAM was compared with the 3DR. Mean calcium intake was 935mg ± 420mg and 1085mg ± 573mg, for the modified RAM and 3DR respectively. A strong positive correlation (r was found between calcium intake measured with the modified RAM and 3DRs (r(45 = 0.854, p 0.05. We have found the modified RAM to be a valid tool which can be used to estimate calcium intake in the athletes and controls we strive to study. The accuracy of this instrument improved by including assessment of dietary supplement sources of calcium

  14. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

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    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  15. Alpha-linolenic acid intake and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette de Goede

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, could prevent cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. We examined the associations of ALA intake with 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke in the Netherlands. METHODS: Data were collected from a general population of 20,069 generally healthy men and women, aged 20 to 65 years. Habitual diet was assessed at baseline (1993-1997 with a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Incidences of CHD and stroke were assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, lifestyle, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During 8-13 years of follow-up, we observed 280 incident CHD events (19% fatal and 221 strokes (4% fatal. Intakes of energy-adjusted ALA in quintiles ranged from less than 1.0 g/d in the bottom quintile (Q1 to more than 1.9 g/d in the top quintile (Q5. ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD, with HRs varying between 0.89 and 1.01 (all p>0.05 in Q2-Q5 compared with the bottom quintile of ALA intake. For incident stroke, however, participants in Q2-Q5 had a 35-50% lower risk compared with the reference group. HRs were 0.65 (0.43-0.97, 0.49 (0.31-0.76, 0.53 (0.34-0.83, and 0.65 (0.41-1.04 for Q2-Q5 respectively. CONCLUSION: In this general Dutch population, ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD. The data suggested that a low intake of ALA may be a risk factor for incident stroke. These results warrant confirmation in other population-based studies and in trials.

  16. Alpha-linolenic acid intake and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Janette; Verschuren, W M Monique; Boer, Jolanda M A; Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2011-03-25

    Whether intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), could prevent cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. We examined the associations of ALA intake with 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a general population of 20,069 generally healthy men and women, aged 20 to 65 years. Habitual diet was assessed at baseline (1993-1997) with a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Incidences of CHD and stroke were assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, lifestyle, and dietary factors. During 8-13 years of follow-up, we observed 280 incident CHD events (19% fatal) and 221 strokes (4% fatal). Intakes of energy-adjusted ALA in quintiles ranged from less than 1.0 g/d in the bottom quintile (Q1) to more than 1.9 g/d in the top quintile (Q5). ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD, with HRs varying between 0.89 and 1.01 (all p>0.05) in Q2-Q5 compared with the bottom quintile of ALA intake. For incident stroke, however, participants in Q2-Q5 had a 35-50% lower risk compared with the reference group. HRs were 0.65 (0.43-0.97), 0.49 (0.31-0.76), 0.53 (0.34-0.83), and 0.65 (0.41-1.04) for Q2-Q5 respectively. In this general Dutch population, ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD. The data suggested that a low intake of ALA may be a risk factor for incident stroke. These results warrant confirmation in other population-based studies and in trials.

  17. Perceived weight gain as a correlate of physical activity and energy intake among white, black, and Hispanic reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yen-Chi L; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2010-11-01

    To estimate the effects of perception of weight gain on women's physical activity and eating behaviors over time. A total of 608 women self-reported their experience regarding perceived weight gain and physical activity at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 36 months. Data about dietary habits were obtained every 12 months. Longitudinal relationships of perceived weight gain with physical activity and total energy intake were assessed using mixed model regression analysis after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, obesity, and lifestyle variables. Effect of body esteem scores on physical activity and energy intake was also examined. At baseline, of 608 reproductive-aged women, 129 (21.2%) reported perceived weight gain, whereas 479 (78.8%) did not. Perceived weight gain was not associated with changes in physical activity over the period of 36 months (-8.04 min/week, 95% confidence interval [CI] -20.80-4.72 min/week, p = 0.22). A separate mixed model based on annual follow-up data over 36 months showed that those who perceived weight gain were more likely to have higher energy intake over time (112 Kcal/day higher, 95% CI 23-200 Kcal/day, p = 0.01). Body esteem was not associated with changes in physical activity over time (-0.13 min, 95% CI -0.44-0.18 min, p = 0.41) or energy intake over time (esteem was associated with increased physical activity or decreased total energy intake. Rather, increased energy intake was observed among women who perceived weight gain. Future research should look at additional potential cues to action for behavior changes related to physical activity or energy intake.

  18. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  19. Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva Energy and nutrient intake in mexican women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO FLORES

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar el consumo de energía y nutrimentos de mujeres mexicanas de 12 a 49 años de edad. Material y métodos. La información dietética se obtuvo por recordatorio de 24 horas en 9 101 mujeres participantes en la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de 1988 y se contrastó con características sociodemográficas y estado fisiológico. El consumo de nutrimentos se comparó con las recomendaciones de ingestión dietética (RID. Resultados. La mediana del consumo energético fue de 1 568 kcal/día. La dieta estuvo conformada por 15% de proteína, 60% de hidratos de carbono y 25% de grasa. La proporción de mujeres con una ingestión inferior a la mitad de las RID fue de 70% para vitamina A, 75% para B6, 56% para vitamina C, 33% para B12, 69% para folato, 33% para calcio y 22% para hierro. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos muestran deficiencias importantes en la dieta, las cuales son más acentuadas en mujeres embarazadas o nodrizas, en las de menor nivel socioeconómico, en las que habitan en áreas predominantemente rurales o indígenas y en las de la región sur.Objective. To analyze energy and nutrient consumption in Mexican women from 12 to 49 years of age. Material and methods. Dietetic information was gathered by a 24 h recall from 9 101 women who participated in the National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1988. These data were compared with sociodemographic and physiologic characteristics. Nutrient consumption was compared with the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA. Variance analysis and t-test were used to evaluate group differences. Results. Mean energy consumption was 1 721 kcal per day. The diet consisted of 15% protein, 60% carbohydrates and 25% fat. The proportion of women with dietary intakes lower than 50% of the RDA was 70% for vitamin A, 75% for vitamin B6, 56% for vitamin C, 33% for vitamin B12, 69% for folate, 33% for calcium and 22% for iron. Conclusion. Results show important deficiencies in the diet, predominantly in

  20. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein x Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Machado, F.S.; Valadares Filho, S.C.; Trece, A.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves

  1. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.A. van Gijssel (Rafaëlle); K.V.E. Braun (Kim); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.G. Voortman (Trudy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a

  2. Associations between dietary fiber intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health at school age: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.A. van Gijssel (Rafaëlle); K.V.E. Braun (Kim); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.G. Voortman (Trudy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a

  3. Effect of starting weaning exclusively with vegetables on vegetable intake at the age of 12 and 23 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mojet, J.; Graaf, de C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The low vegetable intake in children may be attributed to their low preference for vegetables. During the first year of life, first taste preferences are formed, which may track over time. In a previous study to increase infants' vegetable intake and liking, we found that at the start of

  4. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids in children aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, A. (Alexander); Gimenez-Monzo, D. (Daniel); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Garcia-De-la-Hera, M. (Manuela); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); A. Tardón (Adonina); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto); Irazabal, A. (Amaia); Romaguera, D. (Dora); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); Julvez, J. (Jordi); S. Llop (Sabrina); M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); J. Vioque (Jesus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTrans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated

  5. Validation of the assessment of folate and vitamin B12 intake in women of reproductive age: the method of triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Stegers, M.P.G.; Lindemans, J.; Ursem, N.T.C.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To validate the folate and vitamin B12 intakes estimated by a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to be used in a case-control study on the association between maternal dietary intake and the risk of having a child with a congenital heart defect. Design and subjects: The FFQ was

  6. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other

  7. Assessment of macronutrient and micronutrient intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadigan, C M; Anderson, E J; Miller, K K; Hubbard, J L; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A; Grinspoon, S K

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of diet history compared to observed food intake in the nutritional assessment of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy age-matched controls. One-month diet history was compared to 1-day observed food intake in 30 women with AN and 28 control subjects. Reported intake by diet history was similar to observed intake for macronutrient composition and fat intake for patients with AN. Reported energy intake was higher than observed intake (1,602 +/- 200 kcal vs. 1,289 +/- 150 kcal, p Micronutrient intake by diet history was highly correlated with observed intake in patients with AN. More than one half of the patients with AN failed to meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D, calcium, folate, vitamin B12, zinc, magnesium, and copper when assessed by diet history. In contrast to patients with AN, diet history did not correlate with observed intake of energy, macronutrients, or most micronutrients among the controls. Diet history is an accurate tool to assess fat intake and macronutrient composition in patients with AN and demonstrates significant micronutrient deficiencies in this population. The agreement between total energy intake and predicted energy expenditure supports the overall utility of the diet history in the nutritional assessment of patients with AN. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. A Closer look at calcium absorption and the benefits and risks of dietary versus supplemental calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Anna; Camacho, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    To perform a thorough search of the literature on calcium research and specifically address the topic of calcium absorption. PubMed and Ovid were the main engines used for primary literature searches; textbooks, review articles, and book chapters are examples of the other sources used for supplemental information. Regarding calcium absorption, it seems apparent that the absorption efficiency of all calcium salts, regardless of solubility, is fairly equivalent and not significantly less than the absorption efficiency of dietary calcium. However, dietary calcium has been shown to have greater impact in bone building than supplemental calcium. This is likely due to improved absorption with meals and the tendency of people to intake smaller amounts more frequently, which is more ideal for the body's method of absorption. In addition, the cardiovascular risks of excessive calcium intake appear to be more closely related to calcium supplements than dietary calcium; this relationship continues to be controversial in the literature. We conclude that further studies are needed for direct comparison of supplemental and dietary calcium to fully establish if one is superior to the other with regard to improving bone density. We also propose further studies on the cardiovascular risk of long-term increased calcium intake and on physician estimates of patients' daily calcium intake to better pinpoint those patients who require calcium supplementation.

  9. Age-related decline in activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and kinase CaMK-IV in rat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, M A; Vargas, D M

    1999-12-07

    We have previously shown that the DNA binding activity of the transcription factor NFAT which plays a predominant role in IL-2 transcription decreases with age. Because the transactivation (dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation) of the NFAT-c (cytoplasmic component of the NFAT complex) is mediated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin (CaN), and because Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK-II and IV/Gr) have been shown to play a critical role in calcium signaling in T cells, it was of interest to determine what effect aging has on the activation and the levels of these calcium regulating enzymes. The induction of calcineurin phosphatase activity, and CaMK-II and IV/Gr activities, were studied in splenic T cells isolated from Fischer 344 rats at 6, 15, and 24 months of age. In addition, the changes in the protein levels of these enzymes were measured by Western blot. The calcineurin phosphatase activity and CaMK-II and IV kinase activities were at a maximum after the cells were incubated with anti-CD3 antibody for 5-10 minutes. The induction of calcineurin activity by anti-CD3 and by calcium ionophore (A23187) declined 65 and 55%, respectively, between 6 and 24 months of age. The induction of CaMK-IV activity, but not CaMK-II activity by anti-CD3