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Sample records for calcium insufficiency-related chronic

  1. Calcium and Vitamin D in Obesity and Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Poonam K; Calton, Emily K; Soares, Mario J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pandemic of lifestyle-related diseases. In both developed and lesser developed countries of the world, an inadequacy of calcium intake and low vitamin D status is common. In this chapter, we explore a mechanistic framework that links calcium and vitamin D status to chronic conditions including obesity, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also update the available clinical evidence, mainly from randomized controlled trials, to provide a synthesis of evidence in favor or against these hypotheses. There is consistent data to support calcium increasing whole body fat oxidation and increasing fecal fat excretion, while there is good cellular evidence for vitamin D reducing inflammation. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids and some meta-analysis support an increase in insulin sensitivity following vitamin D. However, these mechanistic pathways and intermediate biomarkers of disease do not consistently transcribe into measurable health outcomes. Cementing the benefits of calcium and vitamin D for extraskeletal health needs a reexamination of the target 25(OH)D level to be achieved and the minimum duration of future trials. PMID:26944102

  2. Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Rasmussen, R A; Handberg, J;

    1998-01-01

    into the study. Calculations based on median doses after 12 weeks showed that the cost of the therapy in Denmark was 10 times higher for calcium ketoglutarate compared with calcium carbonate (US$6.00/d v US$0.65/d). Calcium ketoglutarate may be an effective and safe alternative to treatment with aluminum......The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main...... outcome measurements were plasma ionized calcium levels, plasma phosphate levels, plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, requirements for supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate therapy, patient tolerance, and cost of therapy. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis were treated with a dialysate...

  3. Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro, S; Rasmussen, R A; Handberg, J; Olgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main outcome measurements were plasma ionized calcium levels, plasma phosphate levels, plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, requirements for supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate therapy, patient tolerance, and cost of therapy. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis were treated with a dialysate calcium concentration of 1.25 mmol/L and a fixed alfacalcidol dose for at least 2 months. All had previously tolerated therapy with calcium carbonate. Of the 19 patients included, 10 completed both treatment arms. After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean (+/-SEM) plasma ionized calcium level was significantly lower in the ketoglutarate arm compared with the calcium carbonate arm (4.8+/-0.1 mg/dL v 5.2+/-0.1 mg/dL; P = 0.004), whereas the mean plasma phosphate (4.5+/-0.3 mg/dL v 5.1+/-0.1 mg/dL) and PTH levels (266+/-125 pg/mL v 301+/-148 pg/mL) did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms. Supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate was not required during calcium ketoglutarate treatment, while two patients needed this supplement when treated with calcium carbonate. Five of 17 (29%) patients were withdrawn from calcium ketoglutarate therapy within 1 to 2 weeks due to intolerance (anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, general uneasiness), whereas the remaining 12 patients did not experience any side effects at all. The five patients with calcium ketoglutarate intolerance all had pre-existing gastrointestinal symptoms; four of them had received treatment with cimetidine or omeprazol before inclusion into the study. Calculations based on median doses after 12 weeks showed that the cost of the therapy in Denmark was 10 times higher for calcium ketoglutarate compared with calcium

  4. Clinical observation of calcium dobesilate in the treatment of chronic renal allograft dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xue-yang; Han Shu; Zhou Mei-sheng; Fu Shang-xi; Wang Li-ming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Calcium dobesilate (calcium dihydroxy-2, 5-benzenesulfonate) has been widely used to treat chronic venous insufficiency and diabetic retinopathy, especialy many clinical studies showed that calcium dobesilate as vasoprotective compound ameliorates renal lesions in diabetic nephropathy. However, there are few literatures reported calcium dobesilate in the treatment of chronic renal alograft dysfunction after renal transplantation. OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of calcium dobesilate on chronic renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. METHODS:A total of 152 patients with chronic renal alograft dysfunction after renal transplantation were enroled from the Military Institute of Organ Transplantation, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. They were randomly divided into the treatment group (n=78) and the control group (n=74). Patients in the treatment group received 500 mg of calcium dobesilate three times daily for eight weeks. Al patients were treated with calcineurin inhibitor-based triple immunosuppressive protocols and comprehensive therapies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: For patients receiving calcium dobesilate, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid decreased significantly at two weeks after treatment and maintained a stable level (P 0.05). Administration of calcium dobesilate did not change the general condition of patients with renal insufficiency, nor did it affect blood concentrations of the immunosuppressive agents. Calcium dobesilate may help to delay the progress of graft injury in patients with chronic renal graft dysfunction by conjugating with creatinine, ameliorating the impaired microcirculation and its antioxidant property. The decline in serum creatinine aleviates patients’ anxiety and concern arising from the elevation of creatinine. However, the negative interference with serum creatinine caused by calcium dobesilate should be cautious in order to avoid

  5. The influence of chronic administration of calcium carbonate on the bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, J; Healy, D P; Stotka, J; Polk, R E

    1993-01-01

    Six healthy male volunteers participated in a two-period, two-treatment study to determine the effect of chronic calcium carbonate administration on ciprofloxacin bioavailability. There was a mean reduction of 40% in Cmax and 43% in AUC when calcium carbonate was administered with ciprofloxacin, compared with ciprofloxacin alone (P < 0.05). There were no changes in either half-life or tmax. It is therefore recommended that patients being treated with ciprofloxacin for serious infections refra...

  6. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ben Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcu-taneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadro-parin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calci-phylaxis, outcome is favorable.

  7. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Azzouz, Haifa; Rais, Lamia; Krid, Madiha; Smaoui, Wided; Maiz, Hédi Ben; Béji, Soumaya; Zouaghi, Karim; Zitouna, Moncef; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2014-09-01

    Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin) that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadroparin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calciphylaxis, outcome is favorable. PMID:25193911

  8. Chronic hypocalcemia of vitamin D deficiency leads to lower intracellular calcium concentrations in rat hepatocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Gascon-Barré, M; Haddad, P.; Provencher, S J; Bilodeau, S.; Pecker, F; Lotersztajn, S; Vallières, S

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that calcium deficiency is associated with cellular defects in many tissues and organs. Owing to the large in vivo gradient between ionized extra- and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), it is generally recognized that the prevailing circulating Ca2+ does not significantly affect resting cytosolic Ca2+. To probe the consequences of hypocalcemia on [Ca2+]i, a model of chronic hypocalcemia secondary to vitamin D (D) deficiency was used. Hepatocytes we...

  9. Chronic imaging of cortical sensory map dynamics using a genetically encoded calcium indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Minderer, M; Liu, W.; Sumanovski, L. T.; Kügler, S; Helmchen, F; Margolis, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract  In vivo optical imaging can reveal the dynamics of large-scale cortical activity, but methods for chronic recording are limited. Here we present a technique for long-term investigation of cortical map dynamics using wide-field ratiometric fluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Yellow Cameleon 3.60. We find that wide-field GECI signals report sensory-evoked activity in anaesthetized mouse somatosensory cortex with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal ...

  10. The effect of chronic calcium treatment on thyroid C cells in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, B; Jurjević, B Sosić; Stojanoski, M Manojlović; Nestorović, N; Milosević, V; Sekulić, M

    2005-05-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic calcium treatment on the structure and function of thyroid C cells in ovariectomzed adult female rats. Eighteen 3-month-old, female Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The first group was used as the sham-operated control, and the other two were surgically ovariectomized (Ovx). One month after gonadectomy, one group of Ovx rats was injected with 28.55 mg Ca-glucoheptonate (Ca)/kg b.w., while the other two groups were chronically treated with vehicle alone (Ovx and sham control). Two months after surgery, the animals were killed. In the thyroid C cells, calcitonin (CT) was localized with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Stereology was used to evaluate morphometric changes in the volume of C cells, their nuclei and relative volume density. The number of C cells per unit area was calculated. Serum CT content was determined by radioimmunoassay. After chronic Ca treatment C cells were numerous with darker cytoplasm than in C cells of sham-operated control animals, but more degranulated than the corresponding cells of Ovx rats. Their volume was significantly decreased by 14% (p Calcium treatment of Ovx rats led to a 32% increase of serum CT concentration in relation to untreated Ovx animals. These results suggest that chronic Ca treatment of Ovx female rats positively affected CT release from thyroid C cells, without any significant changes in morphometric parameters.

  11. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  12. Chronic stress and calcium oxalate stone disease: is it a potential recurrence risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoz-Fabregas, Montserrat; Ibarz-Servio, Luis; Edo-Izquierdo, Sílvia; Doladé-Botías, María; Fernandez-Castro, Jordi; Roca-Antonio, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Chronic emotional stress is associated with increased cortisol release and metabolism disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of chronic stress on calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease and its recurrence. A total of 128 patients were enrolled in this case-control study over a period of 20 months. All patients were CaOx stone formers with a recent stone episode (stone formers (FS) and 33 recurrent stone formers (RS). Dimensions of chronic stress were evaluated with self-reported validated questionnaires measuring stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and satisfaction with life. An ad hoc self-reporting questionnaire was designed to evaluate stress-related specifically to stone episodes. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine cortisol levels and urinary composition. In addition, epidemiological data, socioeconomic information, diet and incidences of metabolic syndrome (MS) were reported. Overall, no significant differences were observed in the scores of cases and controls on any of the questionnaires dealing with stress. The number (p incidences of MS (p = 0.07) than FS. Although no differences were observed in cases and controls among any dimension of chronic stress, the number and intensity of stressful life events were higher in RS than in FS. These differences correlate with variations in blood and urinary levels and with metabolic disorders, indicating an association between chronic stress and risk of recurrent CaOx stone formation.

  13. Chronic imaging of cortical sensory map dynamics using a genetically encoded calcium indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderer, Matthias; Liu, Wenrui; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Kügler, Sebastian; Helmchen, Fritjof; Margolis, David J

    2012-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging can reveal the dynamics of large-scale cortical activity, but methods for chronic recording are limited. Here we present a technique for long-term investigation of cortical map dynamics using wide-field ratiometric fluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Yellow Cameleon 3.60. We find that wide-field GECI signals report sensory-evoked activity in anaesthetized mouse somatosensory cortex with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal precision, and furthermore, can be measured repeatedly in separate imaging sessions over multiple weeks. This method opens new possibilities for the longitudinal study of stability and plasticity of cortical sensory representations.

  14. Distribution and Morphology of Calcium-Binding Proteins Immunoreactive Neurons following Chronic Tungsten Multielectrode Implants.

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    Marco Aurelio M Freire

    Full Text Available The development of therapeutic approaches to improve the life quality of people suffering from different types of body paralysis is a current major medical challenge. Brain-machine interface (BMI can potentially help reestablishing lost sensory and motor functions, allowing patients to use their own brain activity to restore sensorimotor control of paralyzed body parts. Chronic implants of multielectrodes, employed to record neural activity directly from the brain parenchyma, constitute the fundamental component of a BMI. However, before this technique may be effectively available to human clinical trials, it is essential to characterize its long-term impact on the nervous tissue in animal models. In the present study we evaluated how chronic implanted tungsten microelectrode arrays impact the distribution and morphology of interneurons reactive to calcium-binding proteins calbindin (CB, calretinin (CR and parvalbumin (PV across the rat's motor cortex. Our results revealed that chronic microelectrode arrays were well tolerated by the nervous tissue, with recordings remaining viable for up to 6 months after implantation. Furthermore, neither the morphology nor the distribution of inhibitory neurons were broadly impacted. Moreover, restricted microglial activation was observed on the implanted sites. On the whole, our results confirm and expand the notion that tungsten multielectrodes can be deemed as a feasible candidate to future human BMI studies.

  15. Evolving therapeutic indications for N-type calcium channel blockers: from chronic pain to alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardetti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Clinical exploitation of the therapeutic potential of calcium channels has long been limited to L-type blockers for cardiovascular diseases. Recently, N-type blockers have been fully validated for the treatment of chronic pain, following approval of the intrathecally active ziconotide (Prialt(®)). This review describes the successful efforts to broaden the therapeutic scope of this mechanism to other major CNS indications, based on the discovery of N-type blockers orally active against pain. In animal models, the N-type blocker and pain-reducing NP078585 is efficacious against key elements of ethanol dependency, including self-administration and relapse. NP078585 moderately stimulates brain dopamine release without inducing reward or hyperlocomotion. N-type blockers may emerge as a novel class of 'dopamine stabilizers' for the treatment of drug dependency and other neuropsychiatric disorders without the side effects of current therapies. PMID:21426203

  16. Chronic calcium pyrophosphate crystal inflammatory arthritis induced by extreme hypomagnesemia in short bowel syndrome

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    Hahn Markus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short bowel syndrome (SBS may induce a plethora of clinical symptoms ranging from underweight to nutrient-, vitamin- and electrolyte deficiencies. The objective of this case report is to illustrate how demanding the management of a 60 year old patient with SBS and recurrent joint attacks was for different medical disciplines. Case presentation The patient with SBS presented with a body mass index of 16.5 kg/m2 after partial jejunoileal resection of the small intestine with a six year long history of recurrent pain attacks in multiple peripheral joints, chronic diarrhoea and food intolerances. Pain attacks occurred 4–5 times a week with a median consumption of 15 mg prednisone per day. The interdisciplinary workup after several gastroenterologic, rheumatologic, radiologic, psychiatric and orthopedic consultations is shown including successful treatment steps. Clinical diagnosis revealed no systemic inflammatory disease, but confirmed extreme hypomagnesemia (0.2 mmol/l after reproducible pathological magnesium resorption tests as causative for chronic calcium pyrophosphate crystal inflammatory arthritis (pseudogout, chondrocalcinosis. Multidisciplinary treatment included application of colchicines, parenteral nutrition and magnesium substitution, antiperistaltic agents and avoidance of intolerant foods. Normalization of magnesium levels and a marked remission of joint attacks were achieved after six months with significant reduction of prednisone to 1.5 mg/day. Conclusion Despite the rarity of this condition, it is important to know that hypomagnesaemia may be associated with calcium pyrophosphate crystal inflammatory arthritis (chondrocalcinosis and that SBS patients may be prone to develop extreme hypomagnesaemia causing recurrent joint attacks without systemic inflammation.

  17. Calcium-dependent expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Hovsepian, Anahit;

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether extracellular calcium may regulate the expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels in patients with chronic kidney disease. Using quantitative in-cell Western assay we compared the expression of TRPC3 channel protein in monocytes from 20...... patients with chronic kidney disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. TRPC3 channels were identified by immunoblotting using specific antibodies and TRPC3 protein was further confirmed by mass spectrometry. We observed a significant increase of TRPC3 channel protein expression...... in patients with chronic kidney disease compared to healthy control subjects (normalized expression, 0.42±0.06 vs. 0.19±0.03; p...

  18. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

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    Pascal Sirvent

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle, as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  19. Chronic myocardial infarction detection and characterization during coronary artery calcium scoring acquisitions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A

    2012-01-05

    Hypoenhanced regions on multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography correlate with myocardial hyperperfusion. In addition to a limited capillary density, chronic myocardial infarction (MI) commonly contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue.

  20. Chronic exposure to paclitaxel diminishes phosphoinositide signaling by calpain-mediated neuronal calcium sensor-1 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmerle, Wolfgang; Zhang, Kun; Sivula, Michael; Heidrich, Felix M; Lee, Yashang; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2007-06-26

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a well established chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors, but it is limited in its usefulness by the frequent induction of peripheral neuropathy. We found that prolonged exposure of a neuroblastoma cell line and primary rat dorsal root ganglia with therapeutic concentrations of Taxol leads to a reduction in inositol trisphosphate (InsP(3))-mediated Ca(2+) signaling. We also observed a Taxol-specific reduction in neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) protein levels, a known modulator of InsP(3) receptor (InsP(3)R) activity. This reduction was also found in peripheral neuronal tissue from Taxol treated animals. We further observed that short hairpin RNA-mediated NCS-1 knockdown had a similar effect on phosphoinositide-mediated Ca(2+) signaling. When NCS-1 protein levels recovered, so did InsP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) signaling. Inhibition of the Ca(2+)-activated protease mu-calpain prevented alterations in phosphoinositide-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and NCS-1 protein levels. We also found that NCS-1 is readily degraded by mu-calpain in vitro and that mu-calpain activity is increased in Taxol but not vehicle-treated cells. From these results, we conclude that prolonged exposure to Taxol activates mu-calpain, which leads to the degradation of NCS-1, which, in turn, attenuates InsP(3)mediated Ca(2+) signaling. These findings provide a previously undescribed approach to understanding and treating Taxol-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:17581879

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of calcium acetate on serum phosphorus concentrations in patients with advanced non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease

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    Ho Chiang-Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue calcification, and increased mortality risk. This trial was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of calcium acetate in controlling serum phosphorus in pre-dialysis patients with CKD. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 110 nondialyzed patients from 34 sites with estimated GFR 2 and serum phosphorus > 4.5 mg/dL were randomized to calcium acetate or placebo for 12 weeks. The dose of study drugs was titrated to achieve target serum phosphorus of 2.7-4.5 mg/dL. Serum phosphorus, calcium, iPTH, bicarbonate and serum albumin were measured at baseline and every 2 weeks for the 12 week study period. The primary efficacy endpoint was serum phosphorus at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were to measure serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Results At 12 weeks, serum phosphorus concentration was significantly lower in the calcium acetate group compared to the placebo group (4.4 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04. The albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration was significantly higher (9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 8.8 ± 0.8; p p Conclusions In CKD patients not yet on dialysis, calcium acetate was effective in reducing serum phosphorus and iPTH over a 12 week period. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00211978.

  2. Chronic ethanol intake modifies pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes under resting and K+ -stimulated conditions: role of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García-López, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2008-07-01

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase (Pcp) is an omega peptidase that removes pyroglutamyl N-terminal residues of peptides such as thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is one of the neuropeptides that has been localized into many areas of the brain and acts as an endogenous neuromodulator of several parameters related to ethanol (EtOH) consumption. In this study, we analysed the effects of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity on mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their corresponding supernatant under basal and K+ -stimulated conditions, in presence and absence of calcium (Ca2+) to know the regulation of Pcp on TRH. In basal conditions, chronic EtOH intake significantly decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+. However, supernatant Pcp activity is also decreased in presence and absence of calcium. Under K+-stimulated conditions, chronic EtOH intake decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+, whereas supernatant Pcp activity was significantly decreased only in presence of Ca2+. The general inhibitory effect of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity suggests an inhibition of TRH metabolism and an enhancement of TRH neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions, which could be related to putative processes of tolerance to EtOH in which TRH has been involved. Our data may also indicate that active peptides and their degrading peptidases are released together to the synaptic cleft to regulate the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions of these peptides, through a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism.

  3. The effect of the calcium antagonist, isradipine, on working capacity, pulmonary function, morbidity and survival rate in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Anders Michael; Graudal, Niels Albert; Petersen, J.R.;

    1991-01-01

    Beneficial effects of calcium antagonists on the pulmonary haemodynamics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been observed in several studies. Such effects include a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance, an increase in cardiac output, and an increase in oxygen ...... to these parameters. It is concluded that the existing evidence does not justify the introduction of calcium antagonists as part of the routine treatment of COPD....

  4. Effects of calcium-activated chloride channels on proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in rats under chronic hypoxic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yang; Zhenxiang Zhang; Yongjian Xu; Tao Wang; Dan Ma; Tao Ye

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of calcium-activated chloride (C1Ca) channels on proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells(PASMCs) in rats under chronic hypoxic condition. Methods:The cultured PASMCs were placed under normoxic and chronic hypoxic conditions:The cells were observed by light and electron microscope; The cell cycles were observed by flow-cytometry; Immunocytochemistry staining was used to detect the expressions of PCNA, c-los and c-jun of PASMCs; Cytoplasmic free Ca2+ con-centration ([Ca2+]) in PASMCs was investigated by fluorescent quantitation using fluorospectrophotometer. Results:The PASMCs were contractile phenotype under normoxic conditions. Observation by transmission electron microscope: In kytoplasm of contractile phenotype cells, myofilament bundles were abundant and the content of cell organs such as Golgi's bodies were rare. The PASMCs were synthetic phenotype under chronic hypoxic condition. There were inereased free ribosomes, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulums, highly developed Golgi complexes, decreased or disappeared thick filaments and dense body in kytoplasm of synthetic phenotype cells. After NFA and IAA-94, the situations were reversed The number of S4,GzM PASMCs were significantly increased in chronic hypoxic condition; The NFA and IAA-94 were shown to significantly decrease them from (28.6±1.0)% to (16.0±1.6)% and the number of G0G1 PASMCs significantly increased from (71.4 ±1.9)% to (83.9±1.6)% (P< 0.01). In chronic hypoxic conditions, the expression of proliferating cell nucleus antigen was significantly increased; The NFA and IAA-94 were shown to significantly decrease it from (81±6)% to (27±7)%(P<0.01). The expression of c-los and c-jun were significantly increased in-chronic hypoxic conditions; The NFA and IAA-94 were shown to significantly decrease them from 0.15 ± 0.02, 0.32 ± 0.05 to 0.05 ± 0.01, 0.12±0.05, respectively (P< 0.01); Under chronic hypoxic conditions, [Ca2+]. Was increased

  5. The hemodynamic effect of calcium ion concentration in the infusate during predilution hemofiltration in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamperis, N.; Sloth, E.; Jensen, Jens Dam

    2005-01-01

    (1.25 mmol/L; low-calcium session [L-HF]) or 3.5 mEq/L (1.75 mmol/L; high-calcium session [H-HF]) during 4.5 hours of predilution HF with a volume of 1.24 +/- 0.09 L/kg dry body weight and a temperature of 37 degrees C. Ultrafiltration was kept constant in each patient. Blood pressure (mean, systolic...... with the H-HF group. CONCLUSION: iCa concentration of 3.5 versus 2.5. mEq/L (1.75 versus 1.25 mmol/L) in the infusate during predilution HF stabilized blood pressure, possibly because of greater peripheral resistance rather than through changes in cardiac performance Udgivelsesdato: 2005/9...... on hemodynamic stability during predilution hemofiltration (HF). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover, blinded, controlled trial with 12 stable long-term hemodialysis patients without diabetes. Each patient was randomly assigned to substitution fluid with a calcium ion (iCa) concentration of 2.5 mEq/L...

  6. Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in open-field behavior and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ expression in nucleus accumbens of rats: naloxone reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei-liang BIAN; Gui-qin XIE; Sheng-zhong CUI; Mei-ling WU; Yue-hua LI; Ling-li QUE; Xiao-ru YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol intake on the locomotor activity and the levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ (CaM kinase Ⅳ) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Simultaneously, the effects of non-selective opioid antagonist (naloxone) on the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the NAc and ethanol consumption of rats were also observed. Methods: Ethanol was administered in drinking water at the concentrations of 6% (v/v), for 28 d. The locomotor activity of rats was investigated in the open-field apparatus. CaM kinase Ⅳ levels in the NAc were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Rats consuming ethanol solution exhibited a significant decrease of ambulation activity, accompanied by a reduced frequency of explorative rearing in an open-field task on d 7 and d 14 of chronic ethanol ingestion, whereas presumed adaptation to the neurological effects of ethanol was observed on d 28. Chronic ethanol intake elicited a significant decrease of the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the nuclei, but not in the cytoplasm of the NAc on d 28. Naloxone treatment significantly attenu-ated ethanol intake of rats and antagonized the decrease of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the nuclei of NAc neurons. The cytosolic CaM kinase Ⅳ protein levels of the NAc also increased in rats exposed to ethanol plus naloxone. Conclusion: Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in explorative behavior is mediated at least partly by changes in CaM kinase Ⅳ signaling in the nuclei of the NAc, and naloxone attenuates ethanol consumption through antagonizing the downregulation of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the NAc.

  7. The Intron 4 Polymorphism in the Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene in Diabetes Mellitus and its Chronic Complications, Diabetic Nephropathy and Non-Diabetic Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Železníková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR significantly affects calcium-phosphate metabolism in kidneys, and it is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM due to its expression in pancreatic F-cells. The role of CaSR as one of the players in pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has been speculated. Methods: 158 Type 2 diabetic patients divided into three groups according to occurrence and type of kidney complications, 66 nondiabetic patients CKD, and 93 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study to analyze the role of two CaSR polymorphisms (in the codon 990 and in the intron 4 in ethiopathogenesis of DM and CKD. The Type 2 diabetic groups consisted of 48 patients without any kidney abnormalities, 58 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN, and 52 patients with nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies was studied using PCR with the TaqMan Discrimination Assay or followed by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism method, respectively. Results: We have found that the intron 4 polymorphism is a risk factor for the development of DM and CKD, except DN, while the codon 990 does not show any disease association. Conclusion: We conclude that CaSR is a general factor in pancreas and kidney pathologies. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. [Control of generalized chronic periodontitis combined with calcium-antagonist-related gingival overgrowth by a complex periodontal-endodontic-prosthodontic treatment. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szánto, Erika; Gera, István

    2011-12-01

    To day a relatively high percentage of elderly population of the industrialized world suffers with different cardiovascular diseases and are on permanent antihypertensive therapy. One of the most frequently used drugs is the calcium channel blockers prescribed against high blood pressure. The most common oral side effect of these drugs is the gingival enlargement that might develop even on otherwise healthy gingiva. The incidence of chronic periodontitis in this age group is also high and the Ca antagonist medication in those individuals might substantially modify the clinical course of periodontal inflammation leading to gingival enlargement and hypertrophic pocket wall. The case presented here is a 52 years old hypertonic woman with a long history of Ca-antagonist therapy and generalized chronic periodontitis combined with gingival hyperplasia. After the change of medication the 1,5 years comprehensive periodontal endodontic and prosthodontic therapy restored patient's periodontal health and provided complex dental rehabilitation. Nevertheless, only regular periodontal supportive therapy could ensure predictable outcome and guarantee long lasting periodontal health.

  9. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  10. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  11. A comparison of the long-term effects of lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate on the course of chronic renal failure in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Takashima

    Full Text Available Lanthanum carbonate (LA is an effective phosphate binder. Previous study showed the phosphate-binding potency of LA was twice that of calcium carbonate (CA. No study in which LA and CA were given at an equivalent phosphate-binding potency to rats or humans with chronic renal failure for a long period has been reported to date. The objective of this study was to compare the phosphate level in serum and urine and suppression of renal deterioration during long-term LA and CA treatment when they were given at an equivalent phosphate-binding potency in rats with adriamycin (ADR-induced nephropathy. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated group (ADR group, a CA-treated (ADR-CA group and a LA-treated (ADR-LA group. The daily oral dose of LA was 1.0 g/kg/day and CA was 2.0 g/kg/day for 24 weeks. The serum phosphate was lower in the ADR-CA or ADR-LA group than in the ADR group and significantly lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR group at each point, but there were no significant differences between the ADR and ADR-LA groups. The serum phosphate was also lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR-LA group, and there was significant difference at week 8. The urinary phosphate was significantly lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR or ADR-LA group at each point. The urinary phosphate was also lower in the ADR-LA group than in the ADR group at each point, and significant difference at week 8. There were no significant differences in the serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen among the three groups. In conclusion, this study indicated the phosphate-binding potency of LA isn't twice as strong as CA, and neither LA nor CA suppressed the progression of chronic renal failure in the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, compared to the untreated group.

  12. A study of abnormal Calcium Phosphorus Product in Chronic Kidney Disease in Kerala population and its correlation with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Jadhav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the cutoff value for Calcium Phosphorus Product (CPP in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD patients, above which there is a high risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome(ACS. Methods: Ninety five CKD patients on maintenance dialysis [2 to 3 sessions weekly] were followed up at AIMS, Kochi for a period of 2 years and any new onset acute coronary event during the following period were diagnosed and noted. All the relevant biochemical tests were performed including ECG and 2D Echocardiography. Standard statistical tests with multivariate regression analysis and ROC were performed to arrive at conclusion. Results: Out of 95 patients, 28 patients (29.5% had ACS, with majority number of patients above 50 years of age [27(96.4%]. Out of 95 patients 25(26.3% were females and 70(73.7% males. Out of 25 female patients 6(24% had ACS. Out of 70 male patients, 22(31.4% had ACS. The mean CPP was calculated for each patient and grouped into 4 groups [70]. Patients with CPP>70mg2/dl2 had highest incidence of ACS with 92.3% patients involved [Pvalue55mg2/dl2 had odds ratio of 18.214 after multivariate regression analysis. ROC curve for CPP showed a cutoff point of 51.4mg2/dl2 with sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 73.1% for predicting ACS. Conclusion: This study shows that the cutoff value for CPP above which ACS is common is 51.49mg2/dl2 for the local population, which is quite less than the recommended KDOQI guidelines. Therefore a stricter control among the local population is recommended.

  13. Association between calcium sensing receptor gene polymorphisms and chronic pancreatitis in a US population: Role of serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1type and alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkata Muddana; David C Whitcomb; Janette Lamb; Julia B Greer; Beth Elinoff; Robert H Hawes; Peter B cotton; Michelle A Anderson; Randall E Brand; Adam Slivka

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that calcium sensing receptor (CASR) polymorphisms are associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and to determine whether serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1type (SPfNK1) N34S or alcohol are necessary co-factors in its etiology.METHODS: Initially, 115 subjects with pancreatitis and 66 controls were evaluated, of whom 57 patients and 21 controls were predetermined to carry the high-risk SP/NK1 N34S polymorphism. We sequenced CASR gene exons 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7, areas containing the majority of reported polymorphisms and novel mutations. Based on the initial results, we added 223 patients and 239 controls to analyze three common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisrns (SNPs) in exon 7 (A986S, R990G, and Q1011E).RESULTS: The CASR exon 7 R990G polymorphism was significantly associated with CP (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.12-3.59; P = 0.015). The association between CASR R990G and CP was stronger in subjects who reported moderate or heavy alcohol consumption (OR,3.12; 95% CI, 1.14-9.13; P = 0.018). There was no association between the various CASR genotypes and SPINK1 N34S in pancreatitis. None of the novel CASR polymorphisms reported from Germany and India was detected.CONCLUSION: Our United States-based study confirmed an association of CASR and CP and for the first time demonstrated that CASR R990G is a significant risk factor for CP. We also conclude that the risk of CP with CASR R990G is increased in subjects with moderate to heavy alcohol consumption.

  14. Electroconvulsive stimulations prevent chronic stress-induced increases in L-type calcium channel mRNAs in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maigaard, Katrine; Pedersen, Ida Hageman; Jørgensen, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Although affective disorders have high prevalence, morbidity and mortality, we do not fully understand disease etiopathology, nor have we determined the exact mechanisms by which treatment works. Recent research indicates that intracellular calcium ion dysfunction might be involved. Here we use...

  15. Reduced dental calcium expression and dental mass in chronic sleep deprived rats: Combined EDS, TOF-SIMS, and micro-CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The growth of teeth is closely regulated by the circadian rhythmicity. • Sleep deprivation significantly disrupts the circadian regulation. • Sleep deprivation reduces the dental calcium level and impairs dental intensity. • This study highlights for the first time that sleep is essential for dental structure. • Establishing satisfactory sleep behavior may be a helpful strategy to prevent dental disability. - Abstract: Teeth are the hardest tissue in the body. The growth of teeth is closely regulated by circadian rhythmicity. Considering that sleep deprivation (SD) is a severe condition that disrupts normal circadian rhythmicity, this study was conducted to determine whether calcium expression (the major element participating in teeth constitution), and dental mass would be significantly impaired following SD. Adolescent rats subjected to 3 weeks of SD were processed for energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses. The EDS and TOF-SIMS results indicated that high calcium intensity was detected in both the upper and lower incisors of untreated rats. Micro-CT analysis corresponded closely with spectral data in which an enhanced dental mass was calculated in intact animals. However, following SD, both calcium expression and the dental mass were remarkably decreased to nearly half those of the untreated values. Because SD plays a detrimental role in impairing dental structure, establishing satisfactory sleep behavior would therefore serve as a crucial strategy for preventing or improving prevalent dental dysfunctions

  16. Reduced dental calcium expression and dental mass in chronic sleep deprived rats: Combined EDS, TOF-SIMS, and micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Yi-Jie [Department of Orthopedics, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Pai, Man-Hui; Lee, Ai-Wei [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Mai, Fu-Der [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hung-Ming, E-mail: taiwanzoo@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • The growth of teeth is closely regulated by the circadian rhythmicity. • Sleep deprivation significantly disrupts the circadian regulation. • Sleep deprivation reduces the dental calcium level and impairs dental intensity. • This study highlights for the first time that sleep is essential for dental structure. • Establishing satisfactory sleep behavior may be a helpful strategy to prevent dental disability. - Abstract: Teeth are the hardest tissue in the body. The growth of teeth is closely regulated by circadian rhythmicity. Considering that sleep deprivation (SD) is a severe condition that disrupts normal circadian rhythmicity, this study was conducted to determine whether calcium expression (the major element participating in teeth constitution), and dental mass would be significantly impaired following SD. Adolescent rats subjected to 3 weeks of SD were processed for energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses. The EDS and TOF-SIMS results indicated that high calcium intensity was detected in both the upper and lower incisors of untreated rats. Micro-CT analysis corresponded closely with spectral data in which an enhanced dental mass was calculated in intact animals. However, following SD, both calcium expression and the dental mass were remarkably decreased to nearly half those of the untreated values. Because SD plays a detrimental role in impairing dental structure, establishing satisfactory sleep behavior would therefore serve as a crucial strategy for preventing or improving prevalent dental dysfunctions.

  17. Rational use of calcium and active vitamin D in the management of chronic kidney disease%钙片和活性维生素D在慢性肾脏病中的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林珊; 贾俊亚

    2014-01-01

    钙片及维生素D是治疗普通人群骨质疏松的基础用药,也是治疗慢性肾脏病矿物质骨代谢障碍(CKD-MBD)的常用药。然而,它们在CKD人群中的用药原则及方法与普通人群有明显差别。钙片除了补充元素钙,还主要作为磷结合剂而被广泛应用。碳酸钙及醋酸钙由于元素钙含量高、胃酸中溶解度大、价格较低等特点而成为磷结合剂的首选。钙片的主要弊端在于机体钙负荷的增加,使血管钙化及心血管疾病的风险增大。同样,与普通人群服用的维生素D制剂不同,CKD中晚期患者须服用活性维生素D,它不仅可以补充维生素D的不足与缺乏,还可有效抑制继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进,调节免疫、减轻蛋白尿、改善胰岛素抵抗、减少心血管事件的作用,并有可能延缓肾衰竭的进展。%Calcium and active vitamin D are useful in the management of osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD).However,it is important to realize the difference between their uses in general population and in CKD patients.In addition to supplementing calcium,calcium agent,as phosphate binder,is also widely used.Due to their high calcium content and high solubility in gastric acidic environment with lower prices,calcium carbonate and calcium acetate have become the first choice as phosphate binders.The main disadvantage of calcium tablet is that it can increase the body's calcium load,and increase the risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease.Similarly, while the general population take vitamin D supplements,patients with CKD at moderate to severe stage must take active vitamin D.Active vitamin D can not only complement the vitamin D deficiency,but also effectively suppress secondary hyperparathyroidism,regulate immunity,reduce proteinuria,improve insulin resistance,and reduce cardiovascular events,and may have a role to delay the progression of renal

  18. Chronic deficit in nitric oxide elicits oxidative stress and augments T-type calcium-channel contribution to vascular tone of rodent arteries and arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howitt, Lauren; Kuo, Ivana Y; Ellis, Anthie;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: As cardiovascular disease is characterized by reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, our aim was to determine the impact of this change on the mechanism underlying vascular tone of pressurized arteries in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used pressurized cerebral and mesenteric......, by regulating the bioavailability of reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase. Our data provide evidence for a novel causal link between nitric oxide deficit, oxidative stress, and T-type calcium channel function....

  19. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  20. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  1. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  2. Exocrine pancreatic enzyme and calcium secretion in health and pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Clain, J E; Barbezat, G O; Marks, I N

    1981-01-01

    Calcium, enzyme, and total protein secretion were measured in secretin stimulated pancreatic juice in health, "early" chronic pancreatitis, and in chronic calcific pancreatitis. Increased concentrations of trypsin, total protein, and calcium, and increased outputs of calcium and protein were shown to be present in the "early" stages of the disease, indicating that an environment conducive to the formation of protein plugs and possibly later calcification already exists.

  3. CT coronary angiography is feasible for the assessment of coronary artery disease in chronic dialysis patients, despite high average calcium scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály K de Bie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD is common in asymptomatic dialysis patients. Identifying these high risk patients is warranted and may improve the prognosis of this vulnerable patient group. Routine catheterization of incident dialysis patients has been proposed, but is considered too invasive. CT-angiography may therefore be more appropriate. However, extensive coronary calcification, often present in this patient group, might hamper adequate lumen evaluation. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of CT-angiography in this patient group. METHODS: For this analysis all patients currently participating in the ICD2 trial (ISRCTN20479861, with no history of PCI or CABG were included. The major epicardial vessels were evaluated on a segment basis (segment 1-3, 5-8, 11 and 13 by a team consisting of an interventional and an imaging specialist. Segments were scored as not significant, significant and not interpretable. RESULTS: A total of 70 dialysis patients, with a mean age of 66±8 yrs and predominantly male (70% were included. The median calcium score was 623 [79, 1619]. Over 90% of the analyzed segments were considered interpretable. The incidence of significant CAD on CT was 43% and was associated with cardiovascular events during follow-up. The incidence of cardiovascular events after 2-years follow-up: 36% vs. 0% in patients with no significant CAD (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Despite the high calcium scores CT-angiography is feasible for the evaluation of the extent of CAD in dialysis patients. Moreover the presence of significant CAD on CT was associated with events during follow-up.

  4. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  5. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  6. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  7. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  8. Chronic hypoxia reduces adenosine A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of calcium current in rat PC12 cells via downregulation of protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Beitner-Johnson, D; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1998-10-15

    1. Adenosine has been shown to decrease Ca2+ current (ICa) and attenuate the hypoxia-induced enhancement of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in oxygen-sensitive rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. These effects are mediated via the adenosine A2A receptor and protein kinase A (PKA). The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of adenosine on Ca2+ current and hypoxia-induced change in [Ca2+]i during chronic hypoxia. 2. Whole cell patch-clamp studies revealed that the effect of adenosine on ICa was significantly reduced when PC12 cells were exposed to hypoxia (10 % O2) for 24 and 48 h. 3. Ca2+ imaging studies using fura-2 revealed that the anoxia-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was significantly enhanced when PC12 cells were exposed to 10 % O2 for up to 48 h. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of adenosine on anoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was significantly blunted in PC12 cells exposed to hypoxia for 48 h. 4. Northern blot analysis revealed that mRNA for the A2A receptor, which is the only adenosine receptor subtype expressed in PC12 cells, was significantly upregulated by hypoxia. Radioligand binding analysis with [3H]CGS21680, a selective A2A receptor ligand, showed that the number of adenosine A2A receptor binding sites was similarly increased during exposure to 10% O2 for 48 h. 5. PKA enzyme activity was significantly inhibited when PC12 cells were exposed to 10% O2 for 24 and 48 h. However, we found that hypoxia failed to induce change in adenosine- and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase enzyme activity. Chronic hypoxia also did not alter the immunoreactivity level of the G protein Gsalpha, an effector of the A2 signalling pathway. 6. Whole cell patch-clamp analysis showed that the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP, an activator of PKA, on ICa was significantly attenuated during 48 h exposure to 10% O2.7. We conclude therefore that the reduced effect of adenosine on ICa and [Ca2+]i in PC12 cells exposed to chronic hypoxia is due to hypoxia

  9. Combined chronic blockade of hyper-active L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors ameliorates HIV-1 associated hyper-excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Christina E; Chen, Lihua; Dave, Sonya; Al-Harthi, Lena; Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces neurological and neuropsychological deficits, which are associated with dysregulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other vulnerable brain regions. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection in the mPFC and the therapeutic potential of targeting over-active voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (L-channel) and NMDA receptors (NMDAR), as modeled in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to assess the membrane properties and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) potentials (Ca(2+) influx) in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Neurons from HIV-1 Tg rats displayed reduced rheobase, spike amplitude and inwardly-rectifying K(+) influx, increased numbers of action potentials, and a trend of aberrant firing compared to those from non-Tg control rats. Neuronal hyper-excitation was associated with abnormally-enhanced Ca(2+) influx (independent of NMDAR), which was eliminated by acute L-channel blockade. Combined chronic blockade of over-active L-channels and NMDARs with open-channel blockers abolished HIV effects on spiking, aberrant firing and Ca(2+) potential half-amplitude duration, though not the reduced inward rectification. In contrast, individual chronic blockade of over-active L-channels or NMDARs did not alleviate HIV-induced mPFC hyper-excitability. These studies demonstrate that HIV alters mPFC neuronal activity by dysregulating membrane excitability and Ca(2+) influx through the L-channels. This renders these neurons more susceptible and vulnerable to excitatory stimuli, and could contribute to HIV-associated neuropathogenesis. Combined targeting of over-active L-channels/NMDARs alleviates HIV-induced dysfunction of mPFC pyramidal neurons, emphasizing a potential novel therapeutic strategy that may effectively decrease HIV-induced Ca(2+) dysregulation in the mPFC.

  10. Combined chronic blockade of hyper-active L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors ameliorates HIV-1 associated hyper-excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Christina E; Chen, Lihua; Dave, Sonya; Al-Harthi, Lena; Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces neurological and neuropsychological deficits, which are associated with dysregulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other vulnerable brain regions. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection in the mPFC and the therapeutic potential of targeting over-active voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (L-channel) and NMDA receptors (NMDAR), as modeled in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to assess the membrane properties and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) potentials (Ca(2+) influx) in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Neurons from HIV-1 Tg rats displayed reduced rheobase, spike amplitude and inwardly-rectifying K(+) influx, increased numbers of action potentials, and a trend of aberrant firing compared to those from non-Tg control rats. Neuronal hyper-excitation was associated with abnormally-enhanced Ca(2+) influx (independent of NMDAR), which was eliminated by acute L-channel blockade. Combined chronic blockade of over-active L-channels and NMDARs with open-channel blockers abolished HIV effects on spiking, aberrant firing and Ca(2+) potential half-amplitude duration, though not the reduced inward rectification. In contrast, individual chronic blockade of over-active L-channels or NMDARs did not alleviate HIV-induced mPFC hyper-excitability. These studies demonstrate that HIV alters mPFC neuronal activity by dysregulating membrane excitability and Ca(2+) influx through the L-channels. This renders these neurons more susceptible and vulnerable to excitatory stimuli, and could contribute to HIV-associated neuropathogenesis. Combined targeting of over-active L-channels/NMDARs alleviates HIV-induced dysfunction of mPFC pyramidal neurons, emphasizing a potential novel therapeutic strategy that may effectively decrease HIV-induced Ca(2+) dysregulation in the mPFC. PMID:27326669

  11. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  12. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  13. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  14. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  15. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  16. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  17. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  18. Coronary artery calcium score using electron beam tomography in the patients with acute obstructive coronary arterial disease : comparative study within asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive coronary arterial disease group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seok Jong; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To compare, through analysis of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the risk factors for atherosclerosis, the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome between an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients and a chronic coronary arterial obstructive disease(CAOD) group. The CAC scores of an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients (group I, n=284), a chronic CAOD croup (group II, n=39) and an acute coronary syndrome group (group III, n=21) were measured by electron beam tomography. Forty-seven patients with CAOD from groups II and III underwent coronary angiography, and we scrutinized age, sex and risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and low high-density lipoproteinemia. The numbers of stenotic coronary arterial branches and degree of stenosis revealed by coronary angiography were also recorded. We determined the differences between the three groups in terms of CAC score and the risk factors, the relationship between CAC score and risk factors, and the characteristic features of each type of CAOD group. The mean CA score of group III (135.1) was not statistically different from that of group I (135.7) or group II (365.8). Among patients aged below 50, the mean CAC score of group III (127.4) was significantly higher than that of group I (6.2), (p=0.0006). The mean CAC score at the sixth decade was also significantly different between group I(81.5) and group II (266.9). The mean age of group III (54.2 years) was significantly lower than that of group I (58.1 years) (p=0.047) and of group II (60.1) (p=0.022). There was significant correlation between the number of stenotic coronary arterial branches and log(CAC +1) (p<.01). The square root of the CAC score and the maximal degree of stenosis was also well correlated (p<.01). There was no difference in the mean number of risk factors among the three groups, though the incidence of smoking in group III was significantly

  19. Coronary artery calcium score using electron beam tomography in the patients with acute obstructive coronary arterial disease : comparative study within asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive coronary arterial disease group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare, through analysis of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the risk factors for atherosclerosis, the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome between an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients and a chronic coronary arterial obstructive disease(CAOD) group. The CAC scores of an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients (group I, n=284), a chronic CAOD croup (group II, n=39) and an acute coronary syndrome group (group III, n=21) were measured by electron beam tomography. Forty-seven patients with CAOD from groups II and III underwent coronary angiography, and we scrutinized age, sex and risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and low high-density lipoproteinemia. The numbers of stenotic coronary arterial branches and degree of stenosis revealed by coronary angiography were also recorded. We determined the differences between the three groups in terms of CAC score and the risk factors, the relationship between CAC score and risk factors, and the characteristic features of each type of CAOD group. The mean CA score of group III (135.1) was not statistically different from that of group I (135.7) or group II (365.8). Among patients aged below 50, the mean CAC score of group III (127.4) was significantly higher than that of group I (6.2), (p=0.0006). The mean CAC score at the sixth decade was also significantly different between group I(81.5) and group II (266.9). The mean age of group III (54.2 years) was significantly lower than that of group I (58.1 years) (p=0.047) and of group II (60.1) (p=0.022). There was significant correlation between the number of stenotic coronary arterial branches and log(CAC +1) (p<.01). The square root of the CAC score and the maximal degree of stenosis was also well correlated (p<.01). There was no difference in the mean number of risk factors among the three groups, though the incidence of smoking in group III was significantly

  20. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  1. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  2. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  3. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  4. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  5. 慢性肾功能不全患者血清甲状旁腺素、 钙、磷之间的关系%Relationship among serum parathormone,calcium and phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 刘子栋

    2001-01-01

    为了解慢性肾功能不全患者血清中钙、磷、甲状旁腺素(PTH)水平变化,藉以推测继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进的原因,观察了92例不同阶段肾功能不全患者的血清、钙、磷、PTH水平。结果显示,PTH与内生肌酐清除(Ccr)呈负相关(P<0.05),与血清磷水平呈正相关(P<0.05),与血清钙水平无相关性。慢性肾功能不全早期,随着Ccr降低,PTH逐渐升高,但血磷、血钙水平并无显著改变;慢性肾功能不全后期(肾功能衰竭期)血磷水平才明显升高,血钙水平明显降低。%To investigate the relationship among calcium and phosphate andparathyroid hormone(PTH)in the renal patients with varying degree of chronic renal failure.The serum calcium and phosphate and PTH level were examined in patients with varying degree of chronic renal failure.The result showed that the serum PTH was inversely correlated to creatinine clearance(Ccr),and directly correlated to phosphate.However the calcium level were not related to PTH in early renal failure.PTH increased with declining Ccr,without any significant variation in calcium and phosphate levels in patients with mild renal failure.Ccr was only independent variable related to PTH.The phosphate levels increased and calcium decreased with declining renal function in the groups of patients with moderate and severe renal failure,there was a significant inverse relationship between PTH and serum phosphate and Ccr and direct relationship between PTH and phosphate.

  6. The Clinical Effect Assessment of Jinhoujian Spry Mixing Calcium Hydroxide Paste for Chronic Periapical Periodontitis%金喉健喷雾剂混合氢氧化钙糊剂用于慢性根尖周炎的临床疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莲; 杨艳玲; 吉宁

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价金喉健喷雾剂混合氢氧化钙糊剂用于慢性根尖周炎的临床疗效.方法 选择慢性根尖周炎的患牙196颗,随机分为两组,常规根管预备后,实验组根管内封入金喉健喷雾剂混合氢氧化钙糊剂,对照组根管内封入氢氧化钙糊剂,封药2~4周后评价疗效.结果 实验组与对照组相比,实验组有效率91.0%,明显高于对照组81.21%.实验组封药无效率为9.0%,明显低于对照组的19.79%(P< 0.05).结论 金喉健喷雾剂混合氢氧化钙糊剂能有效控制慢性根尖周炎的炎症状态,是一种较理想的根管消毒剂.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of Jinhoujian spry mixing calcium hydroxide paste on chronic periapical periodontitis. Methods 196 teeth with chronic periapical periodontitis were selected, and randomly divided into two groups: experimental group and control group. After root canel preparing, the root canels of teeth in the experimental group were enveloped with Jinhoujian spry mixing calcium hydroxide paste and the control group were enveloped with calcium hydroxide paste. The clinical effects were evaluated 1-2 week after treatment. Results The effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (91.0% vs 81.21%, P<0.05). The inefficiency in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (9.0% vs 19.79%, P< 0.05). Conclusion Jinhoujian spry mixing calcium hydroxide paste is a kind of ideal root canal disinfectant, and can effectively control the inflammation of chronic periapical periodontitis

  7. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  8. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  9. Effects of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate on toxicity in ICR mice and on bone mineral density in an ovariectomized mice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Sherry; Chen, Jin Ching; Hsu, Chin Wei; Chang, Walter H, E-mail: whchang@cycu.edu.t [Center for Nano Bioengineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-16

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In the present study, we examined whether the bioavailability of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate can be improved by reducing the particle size. The morphology of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate was characterized by dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurements obtained from DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were comparable. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests were performed to establish the safety of these products after oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate were 1.3 and 2.3 g kg{sup -1} body weight, respectively. The results of our in vivo studies indicate that administering nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate can enhance the serum calcium concentration and maintain the whole-body bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice. These data suggest that nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate are more bioavailable than micro calcium carbonate and micro calcium citrate, respectively.

  10. Effects of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate on toxicity in ICR mice and on bone mineral density in an ovariectomized mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sherry; Chen, Jin Ching; Hsu, Chin Wei; Chang, Walter H.

    2009-09-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In the present study, we examined whether the bioavailability of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate can be improved by reducing the particle size. The morphology of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate was characterized by dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurements obtained from DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were comparable. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests were performed to establish the safety of these products after oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate were 1.3 and 2.3 g kg-1 body weight, respectively. The results of our in vivo studies indicate that administering nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate can enhance the serum calcium concentration and maintain the whole-body bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice. These data suggest that nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate are more bioavailable than micro calcium carbonate and micro calcium citrate, respectively.

  11. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  12. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  13. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  14. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  15. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  16. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  17. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  18. Hypertension in Chronic Glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Chun-Gyoo

    2015-12-01

    Chronic glomerulonephritis (GN), which includes focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and proliferative forms of GN such as IgA nephropathy, increases the risk of hypertension. Hypertension in chronic GN is primarily volume dependent, and this increase in blood volume is not related to the deterioration of renal function. Patients with chronic GN become salt sensitive as renal damage including arteriolosclerosis progresses and the consequent renal ischemia causes the stimulation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS). Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system also contributes to hypertension in chronic GN. According to the KDIGO guideline, the available evidence indicates that the target BP should be ≤140mmHg systolic and ≤90mmHg diastolic in chronic kidney disease patients without albuminuria. In most patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/24 h (i.e., those with both micro-and macroalbuminuria), a lower target of ≤130mmHg systolic and ≤80mmHg diastolic is suggested. The use of agents that block the RAAS system is recommended or suggested in all patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/ 24 h. The combination of a RAAS blockade with a calcium channel blocker and a diuretic may be effective in attaining the target BP, and in reducing the amount of urinary protein excretion in patients with chronic GN. PMID:26848302

  19. Comparative evaluation of clinical efficacy of β-tri calcium phosphate (Septodont-RTR TM alone and in combination with platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyostna Pinipe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the clinical outcome by comparing β-tri calcium phosphate (Septodont RTR TM along with platelet rich plasma (PRP and β-tri calcium phosphate (β-TCP alone in intrabony defects, by clinical evaluation in a 6-month analysis. Methodology: Ten patients participated in the study. Using a split-mouth design, interproximal bony defects were surgically treated with either platelet rich plasma (PRP combined with β-tri calcium phosphate (β-TCP or β-TCP alone. Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth (PPD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL were recorded 6 months after surgery. Results: At 6 months after therapy, the PRP combined with β-TCP group showed mean PPD reduction of 2.50, CAL mean gain of 2.60 + 1.43. The β-TCP group showed mean PPD reduction of 2.80 mm, mean CAL gain of 2.60 mm. On intra-group comparison, there was greater PPD reduction and CAL gain at 6 months in both the groups. In intergroup comparison of PRP/β-TCP and β-TCP alone, there was no statistical significant difference observed. (P = 0.55, and 0.87 for PPD and CAL gain. Conclusion: Both therapies resulted in significant PPD reduction, CAL gain. The present study shows that treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with combination of PRP and β-TCP does not have additional improvements when compared with β-TCP alone within 6 months follow-up.

  20. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  1. Application value of calcium hydroxide agent in root canal disinfection of patients with chronic periapical periodontitis%探讨氢氧化钙剂用于慢性根尖周炎患者根管内消毒的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许元元; 孙维平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value of calcium hydroxide agent in root canal disinfection of patients with chronic periapical periodontitis in stomatology department.Methods 108 cases patients with chronic periapical periodontitis from June 2013 to June 2014 in Cixi Guanhaiwei Zhen Health Centers were randomly divided into study group (n =54) and control group (n=54).The control group received camphor phenol cotton for root canal disinfection, and study group received calcium hydroxide agent.The clinical curative effect between two groups was compared.Results After 7 days’ treatment, the total effective rate was 98.15%in study group, which was significantly higher than 79.63%in control group (χ2 =9.375,P<0.05).After follow up 6 months, the total effective rate was 94.44%in study group, which was significantly higher than 77.78%in control group (χ2 =6.271,P<0.05).The incidence of endodontic interappointment pain (EIP) in study group was 11.11%, which was significantly lower than 25.93%of control group (χ2 =3.93,P<0.05).Conclusion Calcium hydroxide agent has a significant efficacy on in root canal disinfection of patients with chronic periapical periodontitis in stomatology department, could reduce the incidence of EIP and promote healing of chronic periapical periodontitis, which is the first disinfectant in the stomatology department of primary hospital.%目的:探讨氢氧化钙剂用于口腔科慢性根尖周炎患者根管内消毒中的应用价值。方法选择2013年6月~2014年6月浙江省慈溪市观海卫镇卫生院收治的慢性根尖周炎患者108例,随机分成研究组与对照组,每组54例。对照组运用樟脑酚棉球根管内消毒,研究组采用氢氧化钙剂根管内消毒,比较分析2组患者的临床治疗效果。结果治疗7d后,研究组治疗总有效率为98.15%,显著高于对照组的79.63%(χ2=9.375,P<0.05)。根管治疗结束后随访6个月时研究

  2. Calcium regulation in frog peripheral nerve by the blood-nerve barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this research were: (a) to investigate the characteristics of calcium transport across the perineurium and the endoneurial capillaries, and (b) to gain a better understanding of the extent of calcium homeostasis in the endoneurial space. To study the nature of calcium transport across the perineurium, the flux of radiotracer 45Ca was measured through the perineurial cylinder, isolated from the frog sciatic nerve, and through the perineurium into the nerve in situ. To study the nature of calcium transport across the endoneurial capillaries, the permeability-surface area product (PA) of 45Ca was determined as a function of the calcium concentration in the blood. To study calcium homeostasis, the calcium content of the frog sciatic nerve was determined as a function of chronic changes in plasma [Ca

  3. Update on calcium pyrophosphate deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek; Doherty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) associates with ageing, osteoarthritis (OA), uncommon metabolic diseases, mutations and polymorphisms in the ankylosis human gene (ANKH). CPPD is frequently polyarticular, occurs due to a generalised articular predisposition, and the association between CPPD and OA is joint specific, for example CPPD associates with knee OA, but not with hip OA. Other recently identified associations include knee malalignment (knee CC), low cortical BMD and soft-tissue calcification. CPPD is generally asymptomatic. A recent study reported that knees with OA plus CC at the index joint, or at distant joints (in absence of index joint CC), were more likely to have attrition. CPPD can cause acute CPP crystal arthritis, chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis, and is frequently present in joints with OA. Joint aspiration remains the gold standard for diagnosing CPPD, although other promising techniques are emerging. Patients with polyarticular or young onset CPPD should be screened for underlying metabolic abnormalities, however, such testing can be unrewarding. The treatment of CPPD is symptomatic. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is treated with rest, local application of ice-packs, joint aspiration, colchicine and/or intra-articular corticosteroid injection (once infection is excluded). Colchicine, low-dose corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and radiosynovectomy are recommended for the treatment of chronic or recurrent acute CPP crystal arthritis. Recent RCTs did not confirm any benefit from methotrexate, and although there is increasing interest in the use of anti-IL1 agents for acute or chronic CPP crystal arthritis, their efficacy has not been formally examined. Unlike gout, currently there are no treatments to eliminate CPP crystal deposits. PMID:27586801

  4. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  5. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport...

  6. 慢性肾功衰患者骨密度与钙调节激素和胱抑素C的变化和关系%The relationship among bone mineral density, calcium regulation hormones, and cystatin C in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛达勇; 赵娟; 喻飞; 李文兵; 张吉才

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性肾功能衰竭患者的骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD)与钙调节激素和胱抑素C的变化和关系。方法 用双能X线吸收测量法(DEXA)检测75例慢性肾功衰患者(简称为CRF组)和50例正常对照组的骨密度(BMD),并测定各自的生化指标:血钙(Ca)、血磷(P)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、胱抑素C(Cys C)和钙调节激素指标:甲状旁腺素(PTH)、降钙素(CT)、骨钙素(BGP),做统计分析。结果 CRF组BMD较对照组显著降低(P<0.01);P、ALP、PTH、BGP和CT显著升高(P<0.01),Ca降低(P<0.01)。BMD与Cys C、PTH和BGP呈负相关,r分别是-0.39、-0.43、-0.32,与血Ca、P、CT和ALP无相关性。Cys C与PTH和BGP呈正相关(r分别是0.38、0.25)。结论 CRF患者BMD显著下降,可能与肾脏损伤程度和钙调节激素紊乱有关。%Objective To investigate the relationship among bone mineral density (BMD), calcium regulation hormones, and cystatin C in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure BMD of 75 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and SO normal control people. Individual biochemical parameters, including serum calcium ( Ca) , phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cystatin C (Cys C) and calcium regulation hormones, including parathyroid hormone ( PTH) , calcitonin ( CT) , bone gal protein ( BCP) , were measured and analyzed statistically. Results BMD of the patients in CRF group were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0. 01). P, ALP, PTH, BGP, and CT increased significantly (P < 0. 01). Ca decreased significantly (P<0. 01). BMD was negatively associated with Cys C, PTH, and BGP (r= - 0. 39, -0. 43, and -0. 32, respectively). No correlation was found among BMD and Ca, P, CT, and ALP. Cys C was positively correlated with PTH and BGP ( r = 0. 38 and 0. 25, respectively). Conclusion BMD decreased significantly in CRF patients, which was probably associated with the

  7. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  8. The Use of Calcium Channel Blockers in Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Uzun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers are a group of drugs often used to treat cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, angina, peripheral vascular disorders and some arrhythmias. These drugs may suppress the growth and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, and inhibit the synthesis of extracellular-matrix proteins,such as collagen, fibronectin, proteoglycans. Some calcium channel blockers also have immunomodulatory or dysregulatory effects on lymphocytes and can suppress superoxide generation and phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Moreover, mast cell degranulation and platelet aggregation may also be impaired. On account of these properties, calcium channel blockers have also been used for the prevention and treatment of various dermatologic diseases. In this review, we evaluated the use of calcium channel blockers in various dermatologic diseases, such as Raynaud’s phenomenon, chilblains, chronic anal fissures, vulvodynia, keloids and burn scars, calcinosis cutis, and leiomyoma.

  9. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  10. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  11. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  12. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  13. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  14. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  15. Arterial Stiffness and Dialysis Calcium Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Mac-Way

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness is the major determinant of isolated systolic hypertension and increased pulse pressure. Aortic stiffness is also associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and general population. Hemodynamically, arterial stiffness results in earlier aortic pulse wave reflection leading to increased cardiac workload and decreased myocardial perfusion. Although the clinical consequence of aortic stiffness has been clearly established, its pathophysiology in various clinical conditions still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present paper is to review the studies that have looked at the impact of dialysis calcium concentration on arterial stiffness. Overall, the results of small short-term studies suggest that higher dialysis calcium is associated with a transient but significant increase in arterial stiffness. This calcium dependant increase in arterial stiffness is potentially explained by increased vascular smooth muscle tone of the conduit arteries and is not solely explained by changes in mean blood pressure. However, the optimal DCa remains to be determined, and long term studies are required to evaluate its impact on the progression of arterial stiffness.

  16. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk for osteoporosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2012-10-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis may be at an increased risk of low bone density because of malabsorption of vitamin D and calcium, poor diet, pain, alcoholism, and smoking. We investigated the rates of osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis compared to matched controls.

  17. Chronic use of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine effected on bone metabolism in elder with coronary heart disease%老年冠心病患者长期应用硝苯地平对骨代谢及功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌

    2013-01-01

    目的:硝苯地平(NIF)临床广泛用于调节心率,本文主要研究年冠心病患者长期应用NIF对骨代谢及功能的影响。探讨NIF应用1年后对碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性、骨钙蛋白(OCN)和钙离子水平的影响,为治疗骨代谢性疾病提供理论性的依据。方法:本研究筛选160名老年冠心病患者,均参加NIF治疗临床跟踪随访1年,观测并评价NIF的疗效及对骨代谢及功能。结果:本研究所有病例用药前与用药后,男性和女性体内的钙离子水平均显著升高(P0.05)。结论:对于长期使用NIF的老年患者,应当及时监测骨骼代谢水平以及骨骼发育状况评价指标,提前预防骨质疏松。%Calcium channel blockers have been reported to have such diverse effects as reduction in protein synthesis, diminished incorporation of proline into new col agen, and decreased hormone release in vitro. The study screened 160 elderly patients with coronary heart disease, are members of nifedipine treatment of clinical fol ow-up 1 year, observation and evaluation of nifedipine and its effect on bone metabolism and function. Results: In this study, al cases before treatment and after treatment, the average male and female body calcium ion water was significantly higher (P 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with long-term use of nifedipine should be timely monitoring of bone metabolism and bone development status evaluation, prevention of osteoporosis in advance. In summary, chronic nifedipine use in males is associated with adverse effect on bone metabolism in elder with coronary heart disease.

  18. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  19. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  20. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  1. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  2. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  3. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G.; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinician...

  4. Deletion of N-type calcium channels alters ethanol reward and reduces ethanol consumption in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, P. M.; Orr, C J; Wallace, M J; Kim, C.; Shin, H. S.; Messing, R O

    2004-01-01

    N-type calcium channels are modulated by acute and chronic ethanol exposure in vitro at concentrations known to affect humans, but it is not known whether N-type channels are important for behavioral responses to ethanol in vivo. Here, we show that in mice lacking functional N-type calcium channels, voluntary ethanol consumption is reduced and place preference is developed only at a low dose of ethanol. The hypnotic effects of ethanol are also substantially diminished, whereas ethanol-induced...

  5. Dietary Fructose Inhibits Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Induces Vitamin D Insufficiency in CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Douard, Veronique; Asgerally, Abbas; Sabbagh, Yves; Sugiura, Shozo; SHAPSES, SUE A.; Casirola, Donatella; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2010-01-01

    Renal disease leads to perturbations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism. Dietary fructose aggravates chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether it also worsens CKD-induced derangements in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is unknown. Here, we fed rats diets containing 60% glucose or fructose for 1 mo beginning 6 wk after 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats had markedly greater kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen, and serum levels of creatinine, phos...

  6. Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Mario J; Kaveri Pathak; Emily K Calton

    2014-01-01

    There is a pandemic of obesity and associated chronic diseases. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have many extra-skeletal roles in human health. In this review we have summarized the current understanding of their influence on human energy balance by examining the epidemiological, clinical, animal, cellular and molecular evidence. We opine that while calcium and vitamin D are functional nutrients in the battle against obesity, there is a need for prospective human trials to tilt the balance of e...

  7. A novel series of pyrazolylpiperidine N-type calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Nalin L; Wall, Mark J; Winters, Michael P; Qin, Ning; Lubin, Mary Lou; Finley, Michael F A; Brandt, Michael R; Neeper, Michael P; Schneider, Craig R; Colburn, Raymond W; Flores, Christopher M; Sui, Zhihua

    2012-06-15

    Selective blockers of the N-type calcium channel have proven to be effective in animal models of chronic pain. However, even though intrathecally delivered synthetic ω-conotoxin MVIIA from Conus magnus (ziconotide [Prialt®]) has been approved for the treatment of chronic pain in humans, its mode of delivery and narrow therapeutic window have limited its usefulness. Therefore, the identification of orally active, small-molecule N-type calcium channel blockers would represent a significant advancement in the treatment of chronic pain. A novel series of pyrazole-based N-type calcium channel blockers was identified by structural modification of a high-throughput screening hit and further optimized to improve potency and metabolic stability. In vivo efficacy in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain was demonstrated by a representative compound from this series. PMID:22608964

  8. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  9. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  11. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  12. [Phosphorus-calcium metabolism in patients with malabsorption syndrome on diets with various ratios of calcium and phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedova, E B; Shakhovskaia, A K; Dubtsov, G G; Konoplenko, E I; Isaeva, V A

    1988-01-01

    Phosphorus-calcium metabolism was studied in 74 patients with malabsorption syndrome that had developed as a result of chronic enteritis or after resection of the small intestine. The results of the treatment of 21 patients who received diets with Ca/P ratio--1:1.5 (bread enriched with Ca was included into the ration) have shown that dietotherapy led to the correction of the initial hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. PMID:3232347

  13. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  14. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  15. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  16. Calcium inhibits bap-dependent multicellular behavior in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizubieta, María Jesús; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Amorena, Beatriz; Penadés, José R; Lasa, Iñigo

    2004-11-01

    Bap (biofilm-associated protein) is a 254-kDa staphylococcal surface protein implicated in formation of biofilms by staphylococci isolated from chronic mastitis infections. The presence of potential EF-hand motifs in the amino acid sequence of Bap prompted us to investigate the effect of calcium on the multicellular behavior of Bap-expressing staphylococci. We found that addition of millimolar amounts of calcium to the growth media inhibited intercellular adhesion of and biofilm formation by Bap-positive strain V329. Addition of manganese, but not addition of magnesium, also inhibited biofilm formation, whereas bacterial aggregation in liquid media was greatly enhanced by metal-chelating agents. In contrast, calcium or chelating agents had virtually no effect on the aggregation of Bap-deficient strain M556. The biofilm elicited by insertion of bap into the chromosome of a biofilm-negative strain exhibited a similar dependence on the calcium concentration, indicating that the observed calcium inhibition was an inherent property of the Bap-mediated biofilms. Site-directed mutagenesis of two of the putative EF-hand domains resulted in a mutant strain that was capable of forming a biofilm but whose biofilm was not inhibited by calcium. Our results indicate that Bap binds Ca2+ with low affinity and that Ca2+ binding renders the protein noncompetent for biofilm formation and for intercellular adhesion. The fact that calcium inhibition of Bap-mediated multicellular behavior takes place in vitro at concentrations similar to those found in milk serum supports the possibility that this inhibition is relevant to the pathogenesis and/or epidemiology of the bacteria in the mastitis process.

  17. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...

  18. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  19. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  20. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  1. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  2. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  3. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  4. [Chronic hypocalcemia due to anti-calcium sensing receptor antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro; Santos, Rita; Cavaco, Branca; Leite, Valeriano

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O hipoparatiroidismo cursa com hipocalcemia e é mais frequentemente registado após cirurgia cervical. A etiologia autoimune é mais rara e difícil de diagnosticar. Caso clínico: Mulher, 52 anos, sem antecedentes pessoais, medicamentosos ou familiares relevantes, referenciada por hipocalcemia e calcificação dos núcleos da base, detetados no decurso de investigação de quadro de mialgias. Além de hipocalcemia (4,6 mg/dL), foi verificada hiperfosfatemia (8,7 mg/dL), hormona paratiroideia indetetável, calciúria, fosfatúria e magnesúria baixas. A análise molecular do gene CaSR excluiu mutações germinais. A pesquisa de anticorpos anti-receptor sensível do cálcio (anti-CaSR) foi positiva. Atualmente está assintomática e normocalcémica sob terapêutica com cálcio e vitamina D. Discussão: Embora rara, a hipocalcemia por hipoparatiroidismo autoimune deve ponderar-se em adultos sem antecedentes de cirurgia cervical, medicação hipocalcemiante, história familiar ou fenótipo sugestivo de doença genética. Hormona paratiroideia diminuída ou indetetável exclui pseudohipoparatiroidismo e a positividade para anti-CaSR confirma o diagnóstico.

  5. Role of Bone Biopsy in Stages 3 to 4 Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Sprague, Stuart M.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops relatively early in chronic kidney disease as a consequence of impaired phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D homeostasis. The disease state in chronic kidney disease, which includes the histologic features of bone disease, defined as renal osteodystrophy, and the hormonal and biochemical disturbances, have recently been redefined as a disease syndrome and is referred to as “chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder.” As chronic kidney disease progres...

  6. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  7. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  8. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  9. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness. PMID:7488645

  10. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  11. Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions  Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

  12. Dental Problems in Calcium Metabolism Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium metabolism disorders can be acute or chronic and chronic disorders can cause different disease states such as dental problems. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study done in Children's Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2005-2009, all (93 patients with hypoparathyroidism, nutritional rickets, hypophosphatemic rickets and renal osteodysthrophy from the endocrinology and nephrology departments of the Center were referred to a dentist there for orodental examination. Subsequently, the frequency of dental problems including taurodontism, enamel hypoplasia, dental abscess, dental caries and gingivitis were recorded and analyzed. Results: Nutritional rickets was the most common disorder in this study and delay in dentition was the most frequent dental problem in the patients (61.9%. Most cases of taurdontism and enamel hypoplasia were seen in patients with hypoparathyroidism (33% and 50%, respectively. Dental abscess, dental caries and gingivitis were more common in patients with renal osteodysthrophia (50%, 90% and 20%, respectively. In addition, dental caries and delay in dentition were the most prevalent disorders in this study (69.8% and 49.5%, respectively. Conclusion: According to the above findings, it seems that effective screening, regular periodic examinations, proper diagnosis and timely treatment of dental diseases are the main principles of prevention of orodental problems. Moreover, dentists as well as pediatricians should be aware of the features of the aforesaid disorders which lead to dental problems so that early intervention could prevent subsequent serious and more invasive dental problems.

  13. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  15. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  16. Role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsei; Lee, Min Goo

    2014-06-01

    Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion plays a key role in the maintenance of fluid and protein secretion from epithelial cells and the protection of the epithelial cell surface from various pathogens. Epithelial bicarbonate secretion is mainly under the control of cAMP and calcium signaling. While the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of cAMP-induced bicarbonate secretion are relatively well defined, those induced by calcium signaling remain poorly understood in most epithelia. The present review summarizes the current status of knowledge on the role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion. Specifically, this review introduces how cytosolic calcium signaling can increase bicarbonate secretion by regulating membrane transport proteins and how it synergizes with cAMP-induced mechanisms in epithelial cells. In addition, tissue-specific variations in the pancreas, salivary glands, intestines, bile ducts, and airways are discussed. We hope that the present report will stimulate further research into this important topic. These studies will provide the basis for future medicines for a wide spectrum of epithelial disorders including cystic fibrosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and chronic pancreatitis.

  17. Effect of an oily calcium hydroxide suspension on early wound healing after nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasaj, A.; Willershausen, B.; Berakdar, M.; Tekyatan, H.; Sculean, A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate clinically the effect of an oily calcium hydroxide suspension on early wound healing after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. A total of 19 patients with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the study. Each subject had three sites in each of two contr

  18. Chronic pain - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  19. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  20. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  1. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  2. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  3. Mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J

    2013-06-25

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  4. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  5. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA; RATH, MATTHIAS

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition...

  6. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesi...

  7. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  8. Role of hippocampal neuronal intracellular calcium overload in modulating cognitive dysfunction and the neuronprotective effect of mematine in a mouse model of chronic intermittent hypoxia%海马神经元细胞内钙超载对慢性间歇低氧小鼠认知功能的损伤及盐酸美金刚的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明红; 陈锐; 王婧; 琚静美; 孙丽; 张国兴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of hippocampal intracellular calcium overload in modulating cognitive dysfunction and the neuronprotective effect of mematine in a mouse model of chronic intermittent hypoxia.Methods 45 ICR male mice were randomly divided into 3 groups:the unhandled control group (UC group,n =15),the chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH group,n =15) and the pretreatment memantine group (MEM group,n =15).CIH and MEM mice were subjected to intermittent hypoxia while UC mice to room air for 8 h per day during 4 weeks.Mice in the MEM group were pretreated with memantine (5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection before the cycle started,and those in the UC group and the CIH group were treated with same volume of physiological saline.Neurobehavioral assessments were performed by Open filed and Morris water maze,[Ca2+] i in hippocampal neurons was evaluate by flow cytometry,and the expression of cleaved caspase-3,phospho-ERK1/2 in hippocampus were detected by Western blotting.Results Compared with the UC group,CIH mice displayed markedly more locomotor activity (P < 0.05) in Open filed test,longer mean escape latency (P < 0.05),less number of times of crossing the platform (P <0.01) and less percentage of time in target quadrant (P <0.01).Furthermore,exposure to CIH enhanced [Ca2+]i (vs.UC mice,155 ±12 vs.92 ±8,P<0.01),and up-regulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01),but down-regulated the level of phospho-ERK1/2 (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus.Pre-treatment with memantine significantly decreased hyperlocomotion (P < 0.05),attenuated memory deficit (P < 0.05),mitigated [Ca2 +] i (vs.CIH mice,90 ± 8 vs.155 ± 12,P < 0.01),decrease the expression of cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01),but increased the level of phosphoERK1/2(P < 0.05) comparing to the CIH group.Conclusion The neurobehavioral impairments induced by CIH are mediated,at least in part,by intracellular calcium concentration overload,neuron apoptosis

  9. Optimizing calcium selective fluorimetric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Gniadek, Marianna; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2015-11-01

    Recently it was shown that optical nanosensors based on alternating polymers e.g. poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) were characterized by a linear dependence of emission intensity on logarithm of concentration over a few of orders of magnitude range. In this work we focus on the material used to prepare calcium selective nanosensors. It is shown that alternating polymer nanosensors offer competitive performance in the absence of calcium ionophore, due to interaction of the nanospheres building blocks with analyte ions. The emission increase corresponds to increase of calcium ions contents in the sample within the range from 10(-4) to 10(-1) M. Further improvement in sensitivity (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) M) and selectivity can be achieved by incorporating calcium ionophore in the nanospheres. The optimal results were obtained for core-shell nanospheres, where the core was prepared from poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) and the outer layer from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene). Thus obtained chemosensors were showing linear dependence of emission on logarithm of calcium ions concentration within the range from 10(-7) to 10(-1) M. PMID:26452839

  10. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B;

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  11. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  12. Long-Term Blocking of Calcium Channels in mdx Mice Results in Differential Effects on Heart and Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Blain, Alison; Greally, Elizabeth;

    2011-01-01

    calcium ions to enter the cell. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronically blocking calcium channels with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin from onset of disease in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Treatment in utero onwards delayed onset...... in older mice. However, streptomycin treatment did not show positive effects in diaphragm or heart muscle, and heart pathology was worsened. Thus, blocking calcium channels even before disease onset does not prevent dystrophy, making this an unlikely treatment for DMD. These findings highlight...

  13. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  14. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  15. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  16. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  17. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  18. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can break easily, even without an obvious injury. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Eat foods that provide the right amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and protein. This kind of diet will give ...

  19. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  20. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  1. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tan; Yulin Deng; Hong Qing

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofi-brillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers in-volved in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium oxide. 184.1210 Section 184.1210 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8) is also known as lime, quick lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  4. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  5. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Willmann

    2008-01-01

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  6. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... 2012_CKD_GL.pdf . McCullough PA. Interface between renal disease ... patients with kidney failure. N Engl J Med . 2010;362(14):1312- ...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate....

  9. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve po

  12. 21 CFR 582.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.1210 Section 582.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. Resveratrol and calcium signaling: molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalley, Audrey E; Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J; Koulen, Peter

    2014-06-05

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans-resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. As resveratrol's mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. The clinical relevance of resveratrol's actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. The present review emphasizes the correlation between molecular mechanisms of action that have recently been identified for resveratrol and their clinical implications.

  18. Resveratrol and Calcium Signaling: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. McCalley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans-resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. As resveratrol’s mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. The clinical relevance of resveratrol’s actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. The present review emphasizes the correlation between molecular mechanisms of action that have recently been identified for resveratrol and their clinical implications.

  19. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation...... offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium...... electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...

  20. [Calcium polycarbophil in clinical practice. The therapy of constipation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, N; Rubinetto, M P; Zaccaro, C; Gizzi, G; Villani, V; Barbara, L

    1993-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of polycarbophil calcium was assessed in 57 patients of both sexes aged between 18 and 77 years old affected by chronic non-organic constipation. The multicentre study was performed using a single blind and cross-over protocol for 8 weeks, 4 with placebo and 4 with the drug (2 c.p.s 3 t.i.d). Thirteen patients failed to complete the study, 8 of them for reasons not related to the drug. In comparison to placebo, the drug caused a significant reduction in the consistency of stool and evacuatory force during the first week of stool therapy. Medical judgement was that efficacy was "very good" in 73% and "good" in 18%, whereas the drug was thought to be "non efficacious" in 9% of cases. The statistical analysis of data confirmed the efficacy of the drug. The hematochemical parameters evaluated before, during and after treatment only showed a slight increase in calcemia and calciuria which did not reach statistical significance. The therapeutic efficacy and lack of undesired effects confirm the value of polycarbophyl calcium in the treatment of chronic constipation.

  1. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  2. Effect of meal composition on calcium absorption: enhancing effect of carbohydrate polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meal components including fat, fiber, and carbohydrates can influence the intestinal absorption of calcium; such interactions may be of even greater importance in the presence of intestinal disease. This study compares intestinal absorption of 47CaCl2 administered in four ways: in water, within a standard meal, with a liquid formula (Ensure, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio), or with a glucose polymer solution (Frodex-15, Ross). Studies were carried out in 9 patients with ileal resection, 3 patients with jejunoileal bypass, and 14 controls. Fractional calcium absorption from water was lower in patients than in controls. Absorption was enhanced 1.5- to 5-fold when 47CaCl2 was administered with a liquid formula diet containing a glucose polymer or with the glucose polymer alone. Patients with the lowest calcium absorption from breakfast showed the greatest effect of calcium ingestion with formula or glucose polymer. These findings further emphasize the importance of meal composition on calcium absorption and provide a possible mechanism for enhancing calcium absorption in some patients with chronically impaired absorption

  3. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  4. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  5. Escore de cálcio coronariano prediz estenose e eventos na insuficiência renal crônica pré-transplante Score de calcio coronario predice estenosis y eventos en la insuficiencia renal crónica pre trasplante Coronary calcium score as predictor of stenosis and events in pretransplant renal chronic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Abraão Rosário

    2010-02-01

    este grupo. La evaluación del score de calcio coronario (SCC por tomografía computarizada ha estado comprobando valor pronóstico en la población sin enfermedad renal. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la exactitud del SCC para detectar EAC obstructiva y prever eventos cardiovasculares en candidatos a trasplante renal comparada a la angiografía coronaria invasiva (ACI cuantitativa. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron a 97 pacientes con IRC y edad > 35 años. Se consideró como EAC obstructiva la presencia de estenosis > 50% o > 70% por la ACI. Datos descriptivos, concordancia, pruebas diagnósticas, Kaplan-Meier y análisis multivariado se utilizaron. RESULTADOS: El score de Agatston promedio fue de 580,6 ± 1.102,2; los valores mínimos y máximos fueron 0 y 7.994, y mediana de 176. Solamente 14 pacientes tenían score de calcio de cero. No hubo diferencias entre las etnias y la mayor presencia de calcio regional se asoció a la mayor probabilidad de estenosis coronaria en el mismo segmento. El score de calcio de Agatston presentó buena exactitud para el diagnóstico de estenosis, > 50% y > 70% con área bajo la curva ROC de 0,75 y 0,70, respectivamente. En el umbral de 400, el score de calcio identificó el subgrupo con mayor tasa de eventos cardiovasculares en tiempo promedio de seguimiento de 29,1 ± 11,0 meses. CONCLUSIÓN: El SCC en la evaluación de EAC presentó una buena performance diagnóstica y pronostica para eventos cardiovasculares en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC.BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death among chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Traditional, non-invasive exams to detect CAD and to predict events have shown insufficient results in this group. CT Scan evaluation of Coronary Calcium Score (CCS has proven to be of prognostic value for the population reporting no renal condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CCS accuracy in detecting obstructive CAD and in predicting cardiovascular events in candidates to renal transplant

  6. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  7. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  8. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choksi Krishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg. Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.

  9. Cinnarizine in the treatment of chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, M B; Chamberlain, J A; Whiting, S; Rigden, B G; Craven, A H

    1979-01-01

    1 Cinnarizine, an inhibitor of calcium ion transport across smooth muscle cell membrane, has been shown to exert an anti-asthmatic effect in patients with chronic asthma. 2 It is postulated that antagonism to calcium ion transport across the mast cell membrane may cause the compound to have a pharmacological effect similar to sodium cromoglycate. 3 Cinnarizine is orally active and its therapeutic effect is demonstrated in a double-blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study. 4 Patient benefit was shown by a significant improvement in peak flow rate. A non-significant trend towards a reduction in symptomatic bronchodilator usage and a decrease in asthma symptom score was also shown. 5 It is concluded that cinnarizine could well prove to be the first of a new family of anti-asthmatic drugs offering a protective effect when taken systemically. PMID:367414

  10. Ziconotide for treatment of severe chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtko, Achim; Lötsch, Jörn; Freynhagen, Rainer; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Pharmacological management of severe chronic pain is difficult to achieve with currently available analgesic drugs, and remains a large unmet therapeutic need. The synthetic peptide ziconotide has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for intrathecal treatment of patients with severe chronic pain that is refractory to other treatment modalities. Ziconotide is the first member in the new drug class of selective N-type voltage-sensitive calcium-channel blockers. The ziconotide-induced blockade of N-type calcium channels in the spinal cord inhibits release of pain-relevant neurotransmitters from central terminals of primary afferent neurons. By this mechanism, ziconotide can effectively reduce pain. However, ziconotide has a narrow therapeutic window because of substantial CNS side-effects, and thus treatment with ziconotide is appropriate for only a small subset of patients with severe chronic pain. We provide an overview of the benefits and limitations of intrathecal ziconotide treatment and review potential future developments in this new drug class. PMID:20413151

  11. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, C; Kaiserling, E; Koitschev, A

    2003-08-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) of the temporomandibular joint is rare. The disorder is characterized by the presence of crystal deposits within the affected joint. The deposition of crystals in adjacent soft tissue may lead to the formation of pseudotumors. This form of the disease is called tophaceous pseudogout and typically affects the temporomandibular joint. It is difficult to differentiate the disease, particularly from malignant tumors, on the clinical and radiographic findings alone. The diagnosis is based on histological identification of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals. We present an unusually advanced case of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as treatment options are discussed on the basis of our own experience and a review of the literature. PMID:12942180

  12. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  13. [Roles of intracellular calcium and monomeric G-proteins in regulating exocytosis of human neutrophils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Wang, Jun-Han; Wu, Jian-Min; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Chun-Guang

    2003-12-25

    Neutrophils play a major role in host defense against microbial infection. There are some clues indicate that neutrophils may also play a role in the pathophysiology of the airway obstruction in chronic asthma. We studied the roles of intracellular calcium and GTP gamma S in the regulation of neutrophils exocytosis using pipette perfusion and membrane capacitance measurement technique in whole cell patch clamp configuration. The results showed that the membrane capacitance increase induced by calcium revealed a biphasic process. The first phase occurred when the calcium level was between 0.2-14 micromol/L with a plateau amplitude of 1.23 pF and a calcium EC50 of 1.1 micromol/L. This phase might correspond to the release of the tertiary granules. The second phase occurred when the calcium concentration was between 20-70 micromol/L with a plateau increment of 6.36 pF, the calcium EC50 being about 33 micromol/L. This phase might represent the release of the primary and secondary granules. Intracellular calcium also simultaneously increased the exocytotic rate and the eventual extent in neutrophils. On the other hand, GTP gamma S can increase the exocytotic rate in a dose-dependent manner but had no effect on the eventual extent of membrane capacitance increment (>6 pF) if the cell was stimulated for a long period (>20 min). GTP gamma S (ranging from 20 to 100 micromol/L) induced the neutrophils to release all four types of the granules at very low intracellular calcium level. PMID:14695488

  14. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this potential role, microscopic and biochemical comparisons were conducted on the different tissues of Medicago truncatula wild-type and the calcium oxalate defective (cod) 5 which lacks the ability to accumulate prismatic crystals in the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. Calcium measurements showed that cod5 seeds had more calcium and cod5 pods contained less calcium than the corresponding wild-type tissues. Roots, stems, and leaves from cod5 and wild-type had similar calcium content. Although cod5 was devoid of prismatic crystals, cod5 pods were observed to form druse crystals of calcium oxalate not found in wild-type pods. Taken together these findings suggest a functional role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport to the seeds. Regulating calcium uptake at the roots also appeared to be another point of control in determining seed calcium content. Overall, regulating the long distance transport and partitioning of calcium to the seeds appears to be a complex process with multiple points of control. PMID:22325887

  15. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  16. Efficacy and safety of calcium channel blockers in heart failure : Focus on recent trials with second-generation dihydropyridines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, RJM; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Dunselman, PHJM

    2000-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) has high morbidity and mortality rates despite treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and digoxin. Adjunctive-vasodilation through calcium channel blockade has been suggested as potentially useful, However, the first-generation calc

  17. The intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, G; Cinquetti, M; Luciano, A; Benini, A; Muner, A; Bertazzoni Minelli, E

    1998-08-01

    Chronic functional constipation is common in infants, and the bacterial composition of stools in this condition is not known. The study aims were to: (i) investigate the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation; (ii) establish whether the addition of the water-holding agent calcium polycarbophil to the diet induces an improvement in constipation; and (iii) determine the composition of the intestinal ecosystem after the use of this agent. In total, 42 children (20F, 22M; mean age: 8.6 +/- 2.9 y) were studied. Twenty-eight children with functional chronic constipation without anatomical disorders were treated double-blind in random sequence for 1 month with an oral preparation of calcium polycarbophil (0.62 g/twice daily) or placebo. Intestinal flora composition was evaluated by standard microbiological methods and biochemical assays on faecal samples collected before and after treatment. Fourteen healthy children were studied as controls. The results show that (i) the constipated children presented a significant increase in clostridia and bifidobacteria in faeces compared to healthy subjects--different species of clostridia and enterobacteriaceae were frequently isolated; no generalized overgrowth was observed; Clostridia outnumbered bacteroides and E. coli mean counts by 2-3log, while bacteroides and E. coli counts were similar (5-6 log10/g fresh faeces); these intestinal disturbances could be defined as a dysbiosis, i.e. a quantitative alteration in the relative proportions of certain intestinal bacterial species. (ii) Clinical resolution of constipation was achieved only in 43% of treated children and an improvement in 21% (one bowel movement every 2 d). (iii) Calcium polycarbophil treatment induced no significant changes in the composition of the intestinal ecosystem, nor in blood chemistry parameters.

  18. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  19. [Determinants of vascular wall stiffness in patients with chronic renal disease undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, U V; Il'icheva, O E

    2012-01-01

    Examination of 109 patients with chronic renal disease undergoing hemodialysis revealed significant impairment of arterial wall distensibility (accordingly, decreased Peterson's and Young's elastic moduli, distensibility coefficient). The relative thickness of the common carotid artery and pulse wave velocity were significantly greater than in practically healthy subjects. Independent factors influencing arterial wall rigidity included age, arterial pressure, total cholesterol and homocystein, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus levels, calcium x phosphorus product, duration of hemodialysis, interdialytic weight gain. PMID:23516853

  20. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Jensen, Rigmor H; Antal, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even...

  1. Calcium Channel Blockers and Esophageal Sclerosis: Should We Expect Exacerbation of Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Seretis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal sclerosis is the most common visceral manifestation of systemic sclerosis, resulting in impaired esophageal clearance and retention of ingested food; in addition, co-existence of lung fibrosis with esophageal scleroderma is not uncommon. Both the progression of generalized connective tissue disorders and the damaging effect of chronic aspiration due to esophageal dysmotility appear to be involved in this procedure of interstitial fibrosis. Nifedipine is a widely prescribed calcium antagonist in a significant percentage of rheumatologic patients suffering from Raynaud syndrome, in order to inhibit peripheral vasospasm. Nevertheless, blocking calcium channels has proven to contribute to exacerbation of gastroesophageal reflux, which consequently can lead to chronic aspiration. We describe the case of severe exacerbation of interstitial lung disease in a 76-year-old female with esophageal sclerosis who was treated with oral nifedipine for Raynaud syndrome.

  2. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  3. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  4. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  5. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  6. The Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Their Future Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald W; Striessnig, Joerg; Koschak, Alexandra; Dolphin, Annette C

    2015-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are required for many key functions in the body. In this review, the different subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels are described and their physiologic roles and pharmacology are outlined. We describe the current uses of drugs interacting with the different calcium channel subtypes and subunits, as well as specific areas in which there is strong potential for future drug development. Current therapeutic agents include drugs targeting L-type Ca(V)1.2 calcium channels, particularly 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. T-type (Ca(V)3) channels are a target of ethosuximide, widely used in absence epilepsy. The auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 is the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are of value in certain epilepsies and chronic neuropathic pain. The limited use of intrathecal ziconotide, a peptide blocker of N-type (Ca(V)2.2) calcium channels, as a treatment of intractable pain, gives an indication that these channels represent excellent drug targets for various pain conditions. We describe how selectivity for different subtypes of calcium channels (e.g., Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.3 L-type channels) may be achieved in the future by exploiting differences between channel isoforms in terms of sequence and biophysical properties, variation in splicing in different target tissues, and differences in the properties of the target tissues themselves in terms of membrane potential or firing frequency. Thus, use-dependent blockers of the different isoforms could selectively block calcium channels in particular pathologies, such as nociceptive neurons in pain states or in epileptic brain circuits. Of important future potential are selective Ca(V)1.3 blockers for neuropsychiatric diseases, neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease, and resistant hypertension. In addition, selective or nonselective T-type channel blockers are considered potential therapeutic targets in epilepsy, pain, obesity, sleep

  7. Binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribello, Gareth A; Liew, CheeChin; Parrinello, Michele

    2009-05-21

    Polyacrylate molecules can be used to slow the growth of calcium carbonate. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the molecules impede the growth rate. A recent computational study (Bulo et al. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3437) used metadynamics to investigate the binding of calcium to polyacrylate chains and has thrown some light on the coiling and precipitation of these polymers. We extend these simulations to examine the binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylate chains. We show that calcium complexed with both carbonate and polyacrylate is a very stable species. The free energies of calcium-carbonate-polyacrylate complexes, with different polymer configurations, are calculated, and differences in the free energy of the binding of carbonate are shown to be due to differences in the amount of steric hindrance about the calcium, which prevents the approach of the carbonate ion. PMID:19400592

  8. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  9. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Manali R Srinivasan; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium pho...

  10. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  11. [Calcium carbide of different crystal formation synthesized by calcium carbide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-yuan; Kang, Ming; Jiang, Cai-rong; Tu, Ming-jing

    2006-04-01

    To recycle calcium carbide residue effectively, calcium carbide of different crystal form, including global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide was synthesized. Both the influence of pretreatment in the purity of calcium carbide, and the influence of temperatures of carbonization reaction, release velocity of carbon dioxide in the apparition of calcium carbide of different crystal form were studied with DTA-TG and SEM. The result shows that calcium carbide residue can take place chemistry reaction with ammonia chlorinate straight. Under the condition that pH was above 7, the purity of calcium carbide was above 97%, and the whiteness was above 98. Once provided the different temperatures of carbonization reaction and the proper release velocity of carbon dioxide, global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide were obtained.

  12. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2-2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios 2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.

  13. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  14. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  15. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  16. Altered calcium signaling following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Weber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI.

  17. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  18. Peroxisome is a reservoir of intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhury, Bikramjit; Gupta, Shreedhara; Banerjee, Shouvik; Datta, Salil C

    2006-07-01

    We have examined fura 2-loaded purified peroxisomes under confocal microscope to prove that this mammalian organelle is a store of intracellular calcium pool. Presence of calcium channel and vanadate sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase in the purified peroxisomal membrane has been demonstrated. We have further observed that machineries to maintain calcium pool in this mammalian organelle are impaired during infection caused by Leishmania donovani. Results reveal that peroxisomes have a merit to play a significant role in the metabolism of intracellular calcium. PMID:16713100

  19. Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium ion (Ca2+ is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research.

  20. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fort...

  1. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    OpenAIRE

    A Rathod; Bonny, O; Guessous, I; Suter, P M; Conen, D; Erne, P; Binet, I; Gabutti, L; Gallino, A; Muggli, F; Hayoz, D; Pechere-Bertschi, A; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; Bochud, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root-transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dep...

  2. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for lunch; and beans, salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and low-fat mozzarella or soy cheese. Try whole-grain crackers with low-fat cheese ...

  3. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. ... that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running). Osteoporosis is a disease of the ...

  4. 前列腺素 E1联合低分子肝素钙对慢性肺源性心脏病患者肺动脉压和相关生化指标的影响%Effects of PGE1 combined with low - molecular - weight heparin calcium on pulmonary artery pressure and related biochemical indexes in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪挺; 刘奇良

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨前列腺素 E1联合低分子肝素钙对慢性肺源性心脏病患者肺动脉压和相关生化指标的影响。方法选取2013年9月至2015年9月共收治的84例经诊断为慢性肺源性心脏病的患者,按照数字随机分组法将其分为对照组和观察组,每组42例。观察组给予静脉滴注前列腺素 E1和皮下注射低分子肝素钙进行治疗,对照组仅给予静脉滴注静脉滴注前列腺素 E1进行治疗,共1周。测定并比较两组患者肺动脉压、血浆神经递质内皮素(ET)、血栓素 B2(TXB2)、6-酮-前列腺素 Flα(6- K - PGFLα)、总胆红质、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶和尿素氮的含量。结果经治疗后,观察组患者的肺动脉平均压(MPAP)、肺动脉收缩压(PASP)及肺动脉舒张压(PADP)与显著低于对照组( P ﹤0.05);观察组与对照组患者6- K - PGFLα的含量无显著性差异( P ﹥0.05),观察组患者的血浆 ET、TXB2、总胆红质、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶和尿素氮含量均低于对照组( P ﹤0.05)。结论前列腺素 E1联合低分子肝素钙的应用可以有效改善慢性肺源性心脏病患者的肺动脉压,对血浆内 ET、TXB2、总胆红质、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶和尿素氮起到良好的调节作用。%Objective To investigate the effect of PGE1 combined with low molecular weight heparin on pulmonary artery pressure and re-lated biochemical indexes in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease. Methods 84 patients diagnosed as chronic pulmonary heart disease from September 2013 to September 2015 were divided into the control group and the observation group according to the digital random grouping method,42 cases in each group. The observation group was given intravenous injection of PGE1 and subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparin calcium treatment. The control group only received intravenous infusion of PGE1 for treatment. Treatment time

  5. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  6. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  7. Calcium Disorders in the Emergency Department: Independent Risk Factors for Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Sauter

    Full Text Available Calcium disorders are common in both intensive care units and in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether calcium abnormalities in unselected emergency department admissions have an impact on in-hospital mortality.This cross-sectional analysis included all admissions to the Emergency Department at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland from 2010 to 2011. For hyper- and hypocalcaemic patients with a Mann-Whitney U-test, the differences between subgroups divided by age, length of hospital stay, creatinine, sodium, chloride, phosphate, potassium and magnesium were compared. Associations between calcium disorders and 28-day in-hospital mortality were assessed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model.8,270 patients with calcium measurements were included in our study. Overall 264 (3.2% patients died. 150 patients (6.13% with hypocalcaemia and 7 patients with hypercalcaemia (6.19% died, in contrast to 104 normocalcaemic patients (1.82%. In univariate analysis, calcium serum levels were associated with sex, mortality and pre-existing diuretic therapy (all p<0.05. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, hypocalcaemia and hypercalcaemia were independent risk factors for mortality (HR 2.00 and HR 1.88, respectively; both p<0.01.Both hypocalcaemia and hypercalcaemia are associated with increased 28-day in-hospital mortality in unselected emergency department admissions.

  8. Discovery of novel tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives as orally active N-type calcium channel blockers with high selectivity for hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiyama, Takashi; Inoue, Makoto; Honda, Shugo; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Gotoh, Takayasu; Kiso, Tetsuo; Koakutsu, Akiko; Kakimoto, Shuichiro; Shishikura, Jun-ichi

    2014-12-15

    N-type calcium channels represent a promising target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The selective N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide ameliorates severe chronic pain but has a narrow therapeutic window and requires intrathecal administration. We identified tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative 1a as a novel potent N-type calcium channel blocker. However, this compound also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against hERG channels. Structural optimizations led to identification of (1S)-(1-cyclohexyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)-2-{[(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)methyl]amino}ethanone ((S)-1h), which exhibited high selectivity for hERG channels while retaining potency for N-type calcium channel inhibition. (S)-1h went on to demonstrate in vivo efficacy as an orally available N-type calcium channel blocker in a rat spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. PMID:25456079

  9. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-28

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  10. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza B Thomsen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A TTX-sensitive fast Na+ spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers. Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none tetrodotoxin (TTX -sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than one second affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could be modulated locally, suggesting that cerebellar glomeruli may be dynamically sub-compartmentalized due to ongoing inhibition mediated by Golgi cells. This could provide a fine-grained control of mossy fibre-granule cell information transfer and synaptic plasticity within a mossy fibre rosette.

  11. An Intracellular Calcium Oscillations Model Including Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Min; LIU Zeng-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger. Mitochondria contributes significantly to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.The experiment of Kaftan et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 275(2000) 25465] demonstrated that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can reduce the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration oscillations of gonadotropes. By considering the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling we develop a three-variable model of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations based on the models of Atri et al. [Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1727] and Falcke et al. [Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 37]. The model reproduces the fact that mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling increases the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which accords with Kaftan's results. Moreover the model predicts that when the mitochondria overload with Ca2+, the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations vanish, which may trigger apoptosis.

  12. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age Publication ... Osteoporosis Program For Your Information The Role of Calcium Calcium is needed for our heart, muscles, and ...

  13. Bone Up on the Need for Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Most grade-schoolers drink milk at each meal, but teens, especially girls, often switch to carbonated soda at mealtime just as they should be building up their bone bank of calcium. Why calcium is important and how to get enough of it are covered. (MT)

  14. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed

  15. Stochastic Kinetics of Intracellular Calcium Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌胜; 曾仁端

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic model of intracellular calcium oscillations is put forward by taking into account the random opening-closing of Ca2+ channels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The numerical results of the stochastic model show simple and complex calcium oscillations, which accord with the experiment results.

  16. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...... enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...

  17. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithel

  18. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  19. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail: sten.ruediger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-10

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  20. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  1. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  3. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  4. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  5. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  6. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... CIDP is one cause of damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord ( peripheral neuropathy ). Polyneuropathy ...

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett RM. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 274. Engleberg NC. Chronic ...

  8. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  9. Calcium-sensing receptor: a key target for extracellular calcium signaling in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though both clinicians and scientists have long recognized the influence of extracellular calcium on the function of muscle and nervous tissue, recent insights reveal that the mechanisms allowing changes in extracellular calcium to alter cellular excitability have been incompletely understood. For many years the effects of calcium on neuronal signaling were explained only in terms of calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels and biophysical charge screening. More recently however, it has been recognized that the calcium-sensing receptor is prevalent in the nervous system and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal activity via multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the multiplicity of mechanisms by which changes in extracellular calcium alter neuronal signaling and propose that multiple mechanisms are required to describe the full range of experimental observations.

  10. Optogenetic Control of Calcium Oscillation Waveform Defines NFAT as an Integrator of Calcium Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannanta-Anan, Pimkhuan; Chow, Brian Y

    2016-04-27

    It is known that the calcium-dependent transcription factor NFAT initiates transcription in response to pulsatile loads of calcium signal. However, the relative contributions of calcium oscillation frequency, amplitude, and duty cycle to transcriptional activity remain unclear. Here, we engineer HeLa cells to permit optogenetic control of intracellular calcium concentration using programmable LED arrays. This approach allows us to generate calcium oscillations of constant peak amplitude, in which frequency is varied while holding duty cycle constant, or vice versa. Using this setup and mathematical modeling, we show that NFAT transcriptional activity depends more on duty cycle, defined as the proportion of the integrated calcium concentration over the oscillation period, than on frequency alone. This demonstrates that NFAT acts primarily as a signal integrator of cumulative load rather than a frequency-selective decoder. This approach resolves a fundamental question in calcium encoding and demonstrates the value of optogenetics for isolating individual dynamical components of larger signaling behaviors. PMID:27135540

  11. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  12. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  13. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  14. Expert review on coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Budoff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Budoff, Khawar M GulDivision of Cardiology, Saint John’s Cardiovascular Research Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: While there is no doubt that high risk patients (those with >20% ten year risk of future cardiovascular event need more aggressive preventive therapy, a majority of cardiovascular events occur in individuals at intermediate risk (10%–20% ten year risk. Accurate risk assessment may be helpful in decreasing cardiovascular events through more appropriate targeting of preventive measures. It has been suggested that traditional risk assessment may be refined with the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC or other methods of subclinical atherosclerosis measurement. Coronary calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis that can be quantified with the use of cardiac CT and it is proportional to the extent and severity of atherosclerotic disease. The published studies demonstrate a high sensitivity of CAC for the presence of coronary artery disease but a lower specificity for obstructive CAD depending on the magnitude of the CAC. Several large clinical trials found clear, incremental predictive value of CAC over the Framingham risk score when used in asymptomatic patients. Based on multiple observational studies, patients with increased plaque burdens (increased CAC are approximately ten times more likely to suffer a cardiac event over the next 3–5 years. Coronary calcium scores have outperformed conventional risk factors, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP and carotid intima media thickness (IMT as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The relevant prognostic information obtained may be useful to initiate or intensify appropriate treatment strategies to slow the progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Current data suggests intermediate risk patients may benefit most from further risk stratification with cardiac CT, as CAC testing is

  15. Prostaglandins and chronic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is the basis of various chronic illnesses including cancer and vascular diseases. However, much has yet to be learned how inflammation becomes chronic. Prostaglandins (PGs) are well established as mediators of acute inflammation, and recent studies in experimental animals have provided evidence that they also function in transition to and maintenance of chronic inflammation. One role PGs play in such processes is amplification of cytokine signaling. As such, PGs can facil...

  16. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  17. Calcium-imaging with Fura-2 in isolated cerebral microvessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Jörg; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier......Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier...

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treat...

  19. Participação da excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio na homeostase em cães sadios e cães com doença renal crônica Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Na doença renal crônica (DRC a manutenção da homeostase de água e sódio é o primeiro problema a ser contornado pelo organismo e com o agravamento das lesões renais surgem outros problemas graves relacionados à homeostase de cálcio e fósforo. O presente estudo tem por escopo avaliar a excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio, e o perfil sérico destes eletrólitos em cães normais e em cães com DRC naturalmente adquirida. Foram avaliados três grupos de cães adultos, machos ou fêmeas, de raças variadas. Animais normais compuseram o grupo controle (G1 e os cães com DRC foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com os estágios de comprometimento da função renal (G2 e G3, respectivamente, estágios 1-2 e estágios 3-4, descritos pela IRIS 2006 staging CKD. Os cães do G3 apresentaram aumento das concentrações séricas de cálcio ionizado e fósforo, além de diminuição da concentração sérica de sódio. Quanto à excreção renal dos eletrólitos analisados, os animais dos grupos G1 e G2 apresentaram diminuição de carga filtrada e aumento de excreção fracionada, mas as excreções urinárias não variaram significativamente. Os resultados são indicativos de que os rins de cães com DRC podem manter a excreção urinária dos eletrólitos em valores se melhantes aos dos normais. O mecanismo envolve aumento da excreção fracionada na medida em que haja diminuição da filtração glomerular. Esse processo de compensação, entretanto, pode perder a eficiência nos estágios mais avançados da enfermidade no que se refere à manutenção das concentrações séricas de fósforo e sódio.In chronic kidney disease (CKD, the first problem to be solved by the organism is to maintain water and sodium homeostasis and, with the worsening of the renal injuries, other severe problems related to the calcium and phosphorus homeostasis emerge. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the renal excretion and

  20. Arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D. M.; Walsh, C E; DeChatelet, L R; Waite, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the calcium ionophore A23187 on the release and metabolism of [3H]arachidonic acid was examined in normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes and those obtained from patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The ionophore A23187 which stimulates oxidative metabolism in normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes was ineffective in increasing oxidative metabolism (chemiluminescence) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease. However, the ionophore A2318...

  1. Bone mineral disorder in chronic kidney disease: Klotho and FGF23; cardiovascular implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova Villanueva, Laura; Sánchez González, Carmen; Sánchez Tomero, José Antonio; Aguilera, Abelardo; Ortega Junco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular factors are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Bone mineral metabolism disorders and inflammation are pathological conditions that involve increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease. The cardiovascular risk involvement of bone mineral metabolism classical biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, vitamin D and PTH is well known. The newest markers, FGF23 and klotho, could also be implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  2. Calcium: a code coupling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the calculation performances of computers allow the precise and global simulation of complex industrial processes such as the functioning of a nuclear reactor core. One can question the need for the elaboration of new global numerical models in order to make use of the overall capability of computers. Another less time consuming solution consist in the coupling of existing well validated numerical models in order to make them working together. This paper presents the basic principles of the coupling of numerical codes, the tools required, the Calcium tool for codes coupling and an example of application of this tool in the coupling of the THYC (EdF), COCCINELLE (EdF) and CATHARE (CEA-EdF-Framatome) codes for the modeling of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behaviour of a reactor core during accidental situation. (J.S.)

  3. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography is a powerful fractionation technique that has become indispensable for protein purification and characterization. However, it is difficult to retrieve bound proteins without using harsh or denaturing elution conditions, and the purification of scarce antigens...... to homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m...... chromatography was superior to the traditional immunoaffinity chromatographies and resulted in a nine-fold improvement of the purification factor. The technique is applicable for the purification of proteins in complex mixtures by single-step fractionation without the denaturation of eluted antigens...

  4. Aspirin plus calcium supplementation to prevent superimposed preeclampsia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E V; Torloni, M R; Atallah, A N; Santos, G M S dos; Kulay, L; Sass, N

    2014-05-01

    Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have tested calcium supplementation and aspirin separately to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia but not the effects of combined supplementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of aspirin combined with calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was carried out at the antenatal clinic of a large university hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. A total of 49 women with chronic hypertension and abnormal uterine artery Doppler at 20-27 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 26) or 100 mg aspirin plus 2 g calcium (N = 23) daily until delivery. The main outcome of this pilot study was development of superimposed preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. The rate of superimposed preeclampsia was 28.6% lower among women receiving aspirin plus calcium than in the placebo group (52.2 vs 73.1%, respectively, P=0.112). The rate of fetal growth restriction was reduced by 80.8% in the supplemented group (25 vs 4.8% in the placebo vs supplemented groups, respectively; P=0.073). The rate of preterm birth was 33.3% in both groups. The combined supplementation of aspirin and calcium starting at 20-27 weeks of gestation produced a nonsignificant decrease in the incidence of superimposed preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in hypertensive women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler.

  5. In vitro–in vivo studies of the quantitative effect of calcium, multivitamins and milk on single dose ciprofloxacin bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishakhi Dey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin, commonly used in India as an anti-microbial for prolonged use in chronic and non-specific indications, may affect the bioavailability of the drug. The drug prescribed is commonly taken with multivitamins, calcium and milk. A simple and reliable analytical methodology obtaining a correlation with in vivo urinary excretion studies using UV and HPLC and in vitro dissolution studies (IVIVC has shown a significant increase in elimination rate of ciprofloxacin co-administered with multivitamins, calcium and milk. Appreciable IVIVC results proved that dissolution studies could serve as an alternative to in vivo bioavailability and also support bio-waivers.

  6. In vitro-in vivo studies of the quantitative effect of calcium, multivitamins and milk on single dose ciprofloxacin bioavailability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baishakhi Dey; Prakash Katakam; Fathi H. Assaleh; Babu Rao Chandu; Shanta Kumari Adiki; Analava Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, commonly used in India as an anti-microbial for prolonged use in chronic and non-specific indications, may affect the bioavailability of the drug. The drug prescribed is commonly taken with multivitamins, calcium and milk. A simple and reliable analytical methodology obtaining a correlation with in vivo urinary excretion studies using UV and HPLC and in vitro dissolution studies (IVIVC) has shown a significant increase in elimination rate of ciprofloxacin co-administered with multivitamins, calcium and milk. Appreciable IVIVC results proved that dissolution studies could serve as an alternative to in vivo bioavailability and also support bio-waivers.

  7. Fast kinetics of calcium signaling and sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shen; Reddish, Florence; Zhuo, You; Yang, Jenny J

    2015-08-01

    Fast calcium signaling is regulated by numerous calcium channels exhibiting high spatiotemporal profiles which are currently measured by fluorescent calcium sensors. There is still a strong need to improve the kinetics of genetically encoded calcium indicators (sensors) to capture calcium dynamics in the millisecond time frame. In this review, we summarize several major fast calcium signaling pathways and discuss the recent developments and application of genetically encoded calcium indicators to detect these pathways. A new class of genetically encoded calcium indicators designed with site-directed mutagenesis on the surface of beta-barrel fluorescent proteins to form a pentagonal bipyramidal-like calcium binding domain dramatically accelerates calcium binding kinetics. Furthermore, novel genetically encoded calcium indicators with significantly increased fluorescent lifetime change are advantageous in deep-field imaging with high light-scattering and notable morphology change.

  8. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  9. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  10. Chronic constipation in hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of bowel dysfunction in hemiplegic patients, and its relationship with the site of neurological lesion, physical immobilization and pharmacotherapy.METHODS: Ninety consecutive hemiplegic patients and 81 consecutive orthopedic patients were investigated during physical motor rehabilitation in the same period, in the same center and on the same diet. All subjects were interviewed ≥ 3 mo after injury using a questionnaire inquiring about bowel habits before injury and at the time of the interview. Patients' mobility was evaluated by the Adapted Patient Evaluation Conference System. Drugs considered for the analysis were nitrates, angiogenic converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors,calcium antagonists, anticoagulants, antithrombotics,antidepressants, anti-epileptics.RESULTS: Mobility scores were similar in the two groups. De novo constipation (OR = 5.36) was a frequent outcome of the neurological accident.Hemiplegics showed an increased risk of straining at stool (OR: 4.33), reduced call to evacuate (OR: 4.13),sensation of incomplete evacuation (OR: 3.69), use of laxatives (OR: 3.75). Logistic regression model showed that constipation was significantly and independently associated with hemiplegia. A positive association was found between constipation and use of nitrates and antithrombotics in both groups. Constipation was not related to the site of brain injury.CONCLUSION: Chronic constipation is a possible outcome of cerebrovascular accidents occurring in 30% of neurologically stabilized hemiplegic patients.Its onset after a cerebrovascular accident appears to be independent from the injured brain hemisphere,and unrelated to physical inactivity. Pharmacological treatment with nitrates and antithrombotics may represent an independent risk factor for developing chronic constipation.

  11. International evaluation of unrecognizably uglifying human faces in late and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease. Sagliker syndrome. A unique catastrophic entity, cytogenetic studies for chromosomal abnormalities, calcium-sensing receptor gene and GNAS1 mutations. Striking and promising missense mutations on the GNAS1 gene exons 1, 4, 10, 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ismail; Sagliker, Yahya; Demirhan, Osman; Tunc, Erdal; Inandiklioglu, Nihal; Tasdemir, Deniz; Acharya, Vidya; Zhang, Ling; Golea, Ovidia; Sabry, Alaa; Ookalkar, Dhananjay S; Capusa, Cristina; Radulescu, Dana; Garneata, Liliana; Mircescu, Gabriel; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Chen, Cheng Hsu; Prado Rome, Jorge; Benzegoutta, Mansour; Paylar, Nuray; Eyuboglu, Kamil; Karatepe, Ersin; Esenturk, Mustafa; Yavascan, Onder; Grzegorzevska, Alicza; Shilo, Valery; Mazdeh, Mitra Mahdavi; Francesco, Ramos Carillo; Gouda, Zaghloul; Adam, Siddik Momin; Emir, Idris; Ocal, Faith; Usta, Erol; Kiralp, Necati; Sagliker, Cemal; Ozkaynak, Piril Sagliker; Sagliker, Hasan Sabit; Bassuoni, Mahmoud; Sekin, Oktay

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses explaining pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) in late and severe CKD as a unique entity called Sagliker syndrome (SS) are still unclear. This international study contains 60 patients from Turkey, India, Malaysia, China, Romania, Egypt, Tunisia, Taiwan, Mexico, Algeria, Poland, Russia, and Iran. We examined patients and first degree relatives for cytogenetic chromosomal abnormalities, calcium sensing receptor (Ca SR) genes in exons 2 and 3 abnormalities and GNAS1 genes mutations in exons 1, 4, 5, 7, 10, 13. Our syndrome could be a new syndrome in between SH, CKD, and hereditary bone dystrophies. We could not find chromosomal abnormalities in cytogenetics and on Ca SR gene exons 2 and 3. Interestingly, we did find promising missense mutations on the GNAS1 gene exons 1, 4, 10, 4. We finally thought that those catastrophic bone diseases were severe SH and its late treatments due to monetary deficiencies and iatrogenic mistreatments not started as early as possible. This was a sine qua non humanity task. Those brand new striking GNAS1 genes missense mutations have to be considered from now on for the genesis of SS. PMID:22200434

  12. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik;

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...

  13. Calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-ping CHENG; Sheng WEI; Li-ping WEI; Alexei VERKHRATSKY

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ions are the most ubiquitous and pluripotent cellular signaling molecules that control a wide variety of cellular processes.The calcium signaling system is represented by a relatively limited number of highly conserved transporters and channels,which execute Ca2+ movements across biological membranes and by many thousands of Ca2+-sensitive effectors.Molecular cascades,responsible for the generation of calcium signals,are tightly controlled by Ca2+ ions themselves and by genetic factors,which tune the expression of different Ca2+-handling molecules according to adaptational requirements.Ca2+ ions determine normal physiological reactions and the development of many pathological processes.

  14. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Christina B; Pase, Luke B; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  15. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  16. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah M.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation. PMID:26731108

  17. Dysbalance of astrocyte calcium under hyperammonemic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haack

    Full Text Available Increased brain ammonium (NH4(+/NH3 plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4(+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4(+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4(+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (∼ 90% experienced a persistent calcium increase by ∼ 50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1-2 mM NH4(+/NH3, developed within 10-20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4(+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4(+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC, the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX, AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4(+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4(+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study

  18. Thermochemistry of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide in fluoride slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-08-01

    Calcium oxide activity in binary CaF2-CaO and ternary CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 and CaF2-CaO-SiO2 slags has been determined by CO2-slag equilibrium experiments at 1400 °C. The carbonate ca-pacity of these slags has also been computed and compared with sulfide capacity data available in the literature. The similarity in trends suggests the possibility of characterizing carbonate capacity as an alternative basicity index for fluoride-base slags. Slag-D2O equilibrium experi-ments are performed at 1400°C with different fluoride-base slags to determine water solubility at two different partial pressures of D2O, employing a new slag sampling technique. A novel isotope tracer detection technique is employed to analyze water in the slags. The water solubility data found show higher values than the previous literature data by an order of magnitude but show a linear relationship with the square root of water vapor partial pressure. The activity of hydroxide computed from the data is shown to be helpful in estimating water solubility in in-dustrial electroslag remelting (ESR) slags.

  19. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-04-01

    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion.

  20. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy; Jae Jun Sim; Yeong-Su Jang; Siddhartha Kumar Mishra; Keun-Yeong Jeong; Poonam Mander; Oh Byung Chul; Won-Sik Shim; Seung Hyun Oh; Ky-Youb Nam; Hwan Mook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstrea...

  1. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURPREET KAUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimumsanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimumsanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

  2. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. PMID:25673470

  3. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  4. In vivo Calcium Imaging of Evoked Calcium Waves in the Embryonic Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Pellegrino, Christophe; Jokinen, Ville; Andriichuk, Liliia; Khirug, Stanislav; Khiroug, Leonard; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this ...

  5. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tavares da Silva; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Antônio José Natali

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40) were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day). The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages a...

  6. Technology obtaining of nitrogen fertilizer from the calcium is containing waste of production of calcium saltpetre

    OpenAIRE

    Власян, Світлана Варужанівна; Шестозуб, Анатолій Борисович; Волошин, Микола Дмитрович

    2013-01-01

    The new technology of obtaining nitrogen fertilizer from calcium-containing sludge of calcium saltpeter production is considered in the paper. The main objective of the research is the development of processing technology of sludge of calcium saltpeter production into alkaline nitrogen fertilizer, analysis of the composition of initial material and finished product, testing of fertilizer by means of vegeta­tive studies and determination of expenditure of drying agent that is exhaust gases of ...

  7. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium carbonate has about 40 percent elemental calcium, meaning that 500 mg of calcium carbonate actually contains ... in this trial also contained vitamin D (400 international units [ IU ]). During ... and calcium in relation to prostate cancer risk among more than 142, ...

  8. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  9. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function.

  10. Discrete stochastic modeling of calcium channel dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, M E; Levine, H; Tsimring, L S; Baer, Markus; Falcke, Martin; Levine, Herbert; Tsimring, Lev S.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a simple discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. Specifically, the calcium concentration distribution is assumed to give rise to a set of probabilities for the opening/closing of channels which release calcium thereby changing those probabilities. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the mean-field limit of large number of channels per site N, and numerically for small N. As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a non-propagating region of activity to a propagating one changes in nature from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state, in a parameter range where the limiting deterministic model exhibits only single pulse propagation.

  11. Discrete Stochastic Modeling of Calcium Channel Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. A set of probabilities for the opening/closing of calcium channels is assumed to depend on the calcium concentration. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the limit of a large number of channels per site N , and numerically for small N . As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a nonpropagating region of activity to a propagating one changes from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... four moles of water per mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  13. Calcium signaling in neocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlén, Per; Fritz, Nicolas; Smedler, Erik; Malmersjö, Seth; Kanatani, Shigeaki

    2015-04-01

    The calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) is an essential second messenger that plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis. In the ventricular zone (VZ) of the neocortex, neural stem cells linger to produce progenitor cells and subsequently neurons and glial cells, which together build up the entire adult brain. The radial glial cells, with their characteristic radial fibers that stretch from the inner ventricular wall to the outer cortex, are known to be the neural stem cells of the neocortex. Migrating neurons use these radial fibers to climb from the proliferative VZ in the inner part of the brain to the outer layers of the cortex, where differentiation processes continue. To establish the complex structures that constitute the adult cerebral cortex, proliferation, migration, and differentiation must be tightly controlled by various signaling events, including cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling. During development, cells regularly exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) activity that stimulates downstream effectors, which can elicit these fundamental cell processes. Spontaneous Ca(2+) activity during early neocortical development depends heavily on gap junctions and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels, whereas later in development neurotransmitters and synapses exert an influence. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on Ca(2+) signaling and its impact on cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the neocortex. We point out important historical studies and review recent progress in determining the role of Ca(2+) signaling in neocortical development.

  14. Effect of albumin and free calcium concentrations on calcium binding in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; DeGuzman, A; Swanson, J W

    1981-01-01

    In vivo equilibrium dialysis studies were performed to define further the characteristics of calcium binding to bovine albumin. The concentration range for albumin (1 to 9 g/dl) as well as ultrafilterable calcium (0.5 to 2.5 mM) studied encompassed those that might be ordinarily encountered in most clinical situations. Major differences in the regressions of total calcium on ultrafilterable calcium occurred at albumin concentrations of 1, 2, and 9 g/dl but only small differences at albumin co...

  15. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Isela Rojas-Molina; Elsa Gutiérrez-Cortez; Moustapha Bah; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Eric Rivera-Muñoz; Alicia del Real; Ma. de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O), weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O)2.375),...

  16. Relating a calcium indicator signal to the unperturbed calcium concentration time-course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abarbanel Henry DI

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical indicators of cytosolic calcium levels have become important experimental tools in systems and cellular neuroscience. Indicators are known to interfere with intracellular calcium levels by acting as additional buffers, and this may strongly alter the time-course of various dynamical variables to be measured. Results By investigating the underlying reaction kinetics, we show that in some ranges of kinetic parameters one can explicitly link the time dependent indicator signal to the time-course of the calcium influx, and thus, to the unperturbed calcium level had there been no indicator in the cell.

  17. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms.

  18. Effect of Calcium on the Vanadium Extraction from High Calcium Type Stone Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Shenxu; LIANG Liang; ZHANG Yimin; HAN Shihua; HU Yangjia

    2015-01-01

    The high calcium type stone coal from Hubei province was leached by water and dilute acid separately after being roasted with different dosage of NaCl. The water leaching rate of vanadium (WLRV) was low and only 26.8%of vanadium can be leached by water when 4%NaCl was added, but the acid leaching rate of vanadium (ALRV) was relatively high. Calcium in the high calcium type stone coal is greatly superfluous relative to vanadium, hence, the calcium reacts with vanadium to form Ca(VO3)2, Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2 orderly during the stone coal roasting process and high temperature is beneficial to the reactions between calcium and vanadium, which was validated by simulated reactions between pure calcium carbonate and vanadium pentoxide. These calcium vanadates are all water insoluble but acid soluble and this causes the low WLRV and relatively high ALRV. After calcium removal by HCl, the WLRV is highly enhanced and reaches about 50%when only 2%NaCl was added. If the HCl content is too high, the stone coal is easily sintered and the formed glass structure can enwrap vanadium, which leads the WLRV to decline. Single water leaching process is not appropriate to extract vanadium from high calcium type stone coal.

  19. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  20. ERp57 modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake through the MCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingquan; Shi, Weikang; Guo, Yu; Chai, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    ERp57 participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Although ERp57 modulates calcium flux across the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, its functions on mitochondria are largely unknown. Here, we found that ERp57 can regulate the expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and modulate mitochondrial calcium uptake. In ERp57-silenced HeLa cells, MCU was downregulated, and the mitochondrial calcium uptake was inhibited, consistent with the effect of MCU knockdown. When MCU was re-expressed in the ERp57 knockdown cells, mitochondrial calcium uptake was restored. Thus, ERp57 is a potent regulator of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  1. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  2. DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM CONTENT IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović-Balaban, Željka R.; Antunović, Vesna R.; Jelić, Dijana R.; Živković, Tanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a macro element that is very important for the human body: its content and circulation in the body is large, it serves as the electrolyte, it has a building role and participates in the process of metabolism. The European Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Food and Drug (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) gave the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances,) for this macro element. The absorption and bioavailability of the calcium may vary depending on a number...

  3. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  4. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  5. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  6. Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and ...

  7. A calcium-induced calcium release mechanism mediated by calsequestrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seon; Keener, James P

    2008-08-21

    Calcium (Ca(2+))-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) is widely accepted as the principal mechanism linking electrical excitation and mechanical contraction in cardiac cells. The CICR mechanism has been understood mainly based on binding of cytosolic Ca(2+) with ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inducing Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). However, recent experiments suggest that SR lumenal Ca(2+) may also participate in regulating RyR gating through calsequestrin (CSQ), the SR lumenal Ca(2+) buffer. We investigate how SR Ca(2+) release via RyR is regulated by Ca(2+) and calsequestrin (CSQ). First, a mathematical model of RyR kinetics is derived based on experimental evidence. We assume that the RyR has three binding sites, two cytosolic sites for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation, and one SR lumenal site for CSQ binding. The open probability (P(o)) of the RyR is found by simulation under controlled cytosolic and SR lumenal Ca(2+). Both peak and steady-state P(o) effectively increase as SR lumenal Ca(2+) increases. Second, we incorporate the RyR model into a CICR model that has both a diadic space and the junctional SR (jSR). At low jSR Ca(2+) loads, CSQs are more likely to bind with the RyR and act to inhibit jSR Ca(2+) release, while at high SR loads CSQs are more likely to detach from the RyR, thereby increasing jSR Ca(2+) release. Furthermore, this CICR model produces a nonlinear relationship between fractional jSR Ca(2+) release and jSR load. These findings agree with experimental observations in lipid bilayers and cardiac myocytes. PMID:18538346

  8. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na+ and Ca2+ for [CaCl2] ranging from 10−8 to 10−2 M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant

  9. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  10. A theory of Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump stimulation and activity

    CERN Document Server

    Graupner, M; Meyer-Hermann, M; Erler, Frido; Graupner, Michael; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ATP-driven Plasma Membrane Calcium (PMCA) pump is characterized by a high affinity to calcium and a low transport rate compared to other transmembrane calcium transport proteins. It plays a crucial role for calcium extrusion from cells. Calmodulin is an intracellular calcium buffering protein which is capable in its Calcium-liganded form to stimulate the PMCA pump by increasing both, the affinity to calcium and the maximum calcium transport rate. We introduce a new model of this stimulation process and deduce analytical expressions for experimental observables in order to determine the model parameter on the basis of specific experiments. Furthermore a model for the pumping activity is developed. In contrast to the biological process we have to describe the pumping rate behavior by assuming a ATP:Calcium stoichiometry of 2 in order to reproduce experimental data. The conjunction of the description of calcium pumping and the stimulation model fully and correctly simulates PMCA pump function. Therewith the ...

  11. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO causality assessment, Naranjo′s and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as "certain". This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo′s algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig′s severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used.

  12. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca2+ regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway. (paper)

  13. Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on the calcium transients and calcium handling proteins in ventricular myocytes from rats with heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-chun; ZENG Wu-tao; LIU Jun; DONG Yu-gang; TANG An-li; FENG Chong; MA Hong; HE Jian-gui; LIAO Xin-xue; CHEN Wen-fang; LENG Xiu-yu; MA Li; MAI Wei-yi; TAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with calcium transients and calcium handling proteins. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor has been demonstrated to have beneficial effect on CHF. Yet studies addressed to the relationship between ACE inhibitor and calcium transients in CHF are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ACE inhibitor (perindopril) on the contractility and calcium transients and calcium handling proteins in ventricular myocytes from rats with experimental heart failure.Results The fraction of cell shortening (FS%) and [Ca2+]imax (nmol/L) were significantly reduced in group CHF-C compared with group PS (FS%: 7.51±1.15 vs 13.21±1.49;[Ca2+]imax:330.85±50.05 vs 498.16±14.07; both P<0.01), and restored at least partially in CHF-T group. In CHF-C group, the left ventricular mRNA of NCX1 and PLB were significantly upregulated in comparing with PS group (RNCX1/β-Actin: 0.51±0.12 vs 0.19±0.06, P<0.01; RPLB/β-Actin: 0.26±0.12 vs 0.20±0.08, P<0.05), while SERCA2 mRNA was downregulated (0.48±0.10 vs 0.80±0.11, P<0.01). The mRNA levels of NCX1 and SERCA2 in CHF-T group were between the CHF-C and PS group, and the differences of the latter two groups were significant (all P<0.05). In CHF-C and CHF-T groups, the protein expression of NCX1 were 1.141±0.047 and 1.074±0.081 times of that in PS group respectively (both P<0.05), and SERCA2 protein levels were 0.803±0.100 and 0.893±0.084 times of that in PS group respectively (both P<0.05). The protein expression of NCX1 and SERCA2 in the CHF-C and CHF-T groups is significantly different (both P<0.05).Conclusion ACE inhibitor could improve cardiac function of failing heart through directly enhancing the contractility of single cardiomyocyte, and these effects are probably mediated by its roles in preventing the deleterious changes of calcium transients and calcium handling proteins in CHF.

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease: Highlights for the General Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease in the pediatric population has been increasing. Early detection and treatment can slow down the progression of kidney disease and help prevent the development of end stage renal disease. In addition, as the kidney function declines, there are many pathophysiologic interactions with other organ systems that need to be monitored and treated. In particular, because of impaired vitamin D metabolism, calcium and phosphorus homeostasis is dysregulated and results in secondary bone disease. Anemia is common due to a number of factors including impaired erythropoietin production. Growth is often impacted by chronic kidney disease but can be improved by proper treatment. Complications of chronic kidney disease can be minimized by proper monitoring and treatment of these parameters. The general pediatrician plays a critical role in this process.

  15. Chronic penile strangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Silvia I Lopes; Roberto N. Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examin...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    NR Anthonisen

    2007-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are...

  17. Increased absolute calcium binding to albumin in hypoalbuminaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; Caro, J F

    1981-01-01

    The amount of calcium bound to protein was measured in 30 patients with differing diseases and varying degrees of hypoalbuminaemia. Total serum calcium increased directly with both serum albumin and ultrafilterable calcium concentrations. The estimated amount of calcium bound per gram of albumin varied inversely with the albumin concentration, decreasing from 2.1 to 1.0 mg calcium/g albumin as albumin concentration increased from 1.7 to 3.1 g/dl. Circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentr...

  18. The effect of dimethylsulfoxide on the calcium paradox.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruigrok, T. J.; Moes, D.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated rat hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). Experiments were undertaken to study the effect of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the occurrence of the calcium paradox in rat heart muscle. DMSO (1.4 mol/l) was added to the calcium-free or the reperfusion medium. Cell damage was quantitated in terms of creatine kinase (CK) release, cardiac electrogram (CEG) changes, and ultras...

  19. Factors to consider in the selection of a calcium supplement.

    OpenAIRE

    Shangraw, R F

    1989-01-01

    Calcium supplements are widely used, yet many questions remain as to the absorption of various calcium salts. Because the solubility of many calcium salts is dependent upon pH, the type of salt used, the condition of the patient, and the time of administration should be considered. Studies show that many calcium supplements on the market today do not meet standards of quality established in the "U.S. Pharmacopeia" (USP). Consumers must be discerning about the products they purchase. Calcium s...

  20. Effect of combining different calcium concentration dialysate on calcium balance in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-ping; WU Bei; LU Li-xia; QIAO Jie; WU Xiang-lan; WANG Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcium and phosphorus metabolic disturbance are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality.Therefore,maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate metabolism and suitable intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)level has become the focus of attention.We investigated the effects of different peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations on calcium phosphate metabolism and iPTH in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD)patients.Methods Forty stable CAPD patients with normal serum calcium were followed for six months of treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.25,PD4,22 patients)or a combination of 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.75,PD2)and PD4(18 patients)twice a day respectively.Total serum calcium(after albumin correction),serum phosphorus,iPTH,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and blood pressure were recorded before and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment commenced.Results No significant difference was found in baseline serum calcium,phosphorus between the two patient groups,but the levels of iPTH were significantly different.No significant changes were found in the dosage of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D during 6 months.In the PD4 group,serum calcium level at the 1st,3rd,6th months were significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus after 6 months treatment.iPTH was significantly higher(P<0.001)at the 1st,3rd,and 6th months compared with the baseline.No differences were seen in ALP and blood pressure.In the PD4+PD2 group,no significant changes in serum calcium,phosphorus,iPTH,ALP and BP during the 6-month follow-up period.Conclusions Treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate for six months can decrease serum calcium,increase iPTH,without change in serum phosphorus,ALP,and BP.The combining of PD4 and PD2 can stabilize the serum calcium and avoid fluctuations in iPTH levels.

  1. Expanding the neuron's calcium signaling repertoire: intracellular calcium release via voltage-induced PLC and IP3R activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ryglewski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.

  2. 糖尿病肾病与慢性肾小球肾炎血液透析患者血钙、磷及甲状旁腺激素水平比较%Comparison of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy and chronic glomerulo-nephritis underwent hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锐

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估并分析糖尿病肾病及慢性肾小球肾炎血液透析患者血钙、血磷及甲状旁腺激素水平。方法选择2012年2月至2014年6月于洛阳市第一中医院进行血液透析治疗的患者90例,其中糖尿病肾病患者39例,慢性肾小球肾炎患者51例,分别观察分析其血钙、血磷、甲状旁腺素水平及甲状旁腺素达标率。结果糖尿病肾病患者与慢性肾小球肾炎患者血钙水平比较差异未见统计学意义(P >0.05);糖尿病患者血磷水平低于慢性肾小球肾炎患者,甲状旁腺激素水平低于慢性肾小球肾炎,甲状旁腺素水平达标率高于慢性肾小球肾炎,差异均有统计学意义(P 0. 05); The serum phosphorus and PTH levels in patients with diabetes were lower than those of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis (P < 0. 05), and the PTH standard-reaching rate was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy, all of the differences were significant (P < 0. 05). Conclusions The serum phosphor-us and PTH levels are lower and PTH standard-reaching rate is higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy than that of pa-tients with chronic glomerulonephritis, and therefore individualized treatment should be adopted according to different cau-ses to patients underwent hemodialysis, and closely monitoring their electrolytes and related hormone levels.

  3. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 x 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications

  4. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceremuzynski, L.K.; Klos, J.; Barcikowski, B.; Herbaczynska-Cedro, K. (Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Medical School, Warsaw (Poland))

    1991-06-01

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 {times} 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications.

  5. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  6. VS-501: a novel, nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, highly effective phosphate binder derived from natural plant polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Chen, Yung-wu; Gaffin, Robert; Hall, Andy; Wong, Jonathan T; Xiong, Joseph; Wessale, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate control of serum phosphate in chronic kidney disease can lead to pathologies of clinical importance. Effectiveness of on-market phosphate binders is limited by safety concerns and low compliance due to high pill size/burden and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. VS-501 is a nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, chemically modified, plant-derived polymer. In vitro studies show that VS-501 has a high density and a low swell volume when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (vs. sevela...

  7. Targeting voltage-gated calcium channels: developments in peptide and small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, S.; Alewood, PF

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain affects approximately 20% of people worldwide and places a large economic and social burden on society. Despite the availability of a range of analgesics, this condition is inadequately treated, with complete alleviation of symptoms rarely occurring. In the past 30 years, the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been recognized as potential targets for analgesic development. Although the majority of the research has been focused on Cav2.2 in particular, other VGCC subtypes...

  8. ELIMINATION OF INTRACANAL INFECTION IN DOGS' TEETH WITH INDUCED PERIAPICAL LESIONS AFTER ROTARY INSTRUMENTATION: INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT CALCIUM HYDROXIDE PASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Janir Alves Soares; Mário Roberto Leonardo; Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva; Mário Tanomaru Filho; Izabel Yoko Ito

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of rotary instrumentation associated with calcium hydroxide-based pastes prepared with different vehicles and antiseptics. Chronic periapical lesions were experimentally induced in 72 premolar root canals of four dogs. Under controlled asepsis, after initial microbiological sampling (A1), the root canals were instrumented using the ProFile system in conjunction with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and the intracanal medication was placed...

  9. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study compare

  10. Calcium spikes and calcium plateaux evoked by differential polarization in dendrites of turtle motoneurones in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Kiehn, O

    1993-01-01

    The ability of dendrites in turtle motoneurones to support calcium spikes and calcium plateaux was investigated using differential polarization by applied electric fields. 2. Electric fields were generated by passing current through transverse slices of the turtle spinal cord between two plate......+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaux are present in dendrites of spinal motoneurones of the turtle....

  11. Characterization of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and regulatory properties of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel were studied by isolating protein components of the channel complex from both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Hydrodynamic characterization of the (+)-(3H)PN200-110-labeled cardiac calcium channel revealed that the protein components of the complex had a total molecular mass of 370,000 daltons, a Stokes radius of 86 angstrom, and a frictional ratio of 1.3. A technique is described for the rapid incorporation of the CHAPS solubilized skeletal muscle calcium channel complex into phospholipid vesicles. 45Ca2+ uptake into phospholipid vesicles containing calcium channels was inhibited by phenylalkalamine calcium antagonists. Wheat germ lectin followed by DEAE chromatography of the CHAPS solubilized complex resulted in the dissociation of regulatory components of the complex from channel components. The DEAE preparation gave rise to 45Ca2+ uptake that was not inhibited by verapamil but was inhibited by GTPgS activated G0. The inhibition of 45Ca2+ uptake by verapamil was restored by co-reconstitution of wash fractions from wheat germ lectin chromatography. Phosphorylation of polypeptides in this fraction by polypeptide-dependent protein kinase prevented the restoration of verapamil sensitivity. The partial purification of an endogenous skeletal muscle ADP-ribosyltransferase is also described. ADP-ribosylation of the α2 subunit of the calcium channel complex is enhanced by polylysine and inhibited by GTPγS, suggesting that regulation of this enzyme is under the control of GTP binding proteins. These results suggest a complex model, involving a number of different protein components, for calcium channel regulation in skeletal muscle

  12. Milk alkali syndrome in an infant with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari JA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jameela A Kari, Sherif M El DesokyDepartment of Pediatrics and Pediatric Nephrology Unit, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report a case of milk alkali syndrome in a 15-month-old infant who had chronic kidney disease. His kidney function worsened, with creatinine raised from 1.11 mg/dL (98 µmol/L to 3.98 mg/dL (350.3 µmol/L, normal 0.4–1.0 mg/dL (35–91 µmol. He had hypercalcemia, serum calcium level 3.11 (normal 2.1–2.6 mmol/L, and metabolic alkalosis, HCO3 48.7 (normal 21–26 mmol/L. His kidney function returned to its base level and his calcium and bicarbonate levels normalized with adjustment of calcium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate doses. We report this case to highlight an unusual complication and to review the literature on milk alkali syndrome which is rare in children.Keywords: milk alkali syndrome, infants, chronic kidney disease

  13. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.

  14. Managing your chronic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your chronic back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Managing chronic pain means finding ways to make your back pain tolerable so you can live your life. You may not be able to ...

  15. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety

    2000-08-01

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  16. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.

  17. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  18. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies. PMID:25439069

  19. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  20. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...... not depend on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Chymosin added to milk increases renal calcium excretion in the hours following intake without affecting plasma levels of calcium or calciotropic hormones. The effect most likely represents enhanced intestinal calcium absorption shortly after intake. Further...

  1. Role of mitochondria and network connectivity in intercellular calcium oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Dokukina, I V; Grachev, E A; Gunton, J D; Dokukina, Irina V.; Gracheva, Maria E.; Grachev, Eugene A.; Gunton, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are large-scale regulators of cytosolic calcium under normal cellular conditions. In this paper we model the complex behavior of mitochondrial calcium during the action of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate on a single cell and find results that are in good agreement with recent experimental studies. We also study the influence of the cellular network connectivity on intercellular signalling via gap junction diffusion. We include in our model the dependence of the junctional conductivity on the cytosolic calcium concentrations in adjacent cells. We consider three different mechanisms of calcium wave propagation through gap junctions: via calcium diffusion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion, and both calcium and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion. We show that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion is the mechanism of calcium wave propagation and that calcium diffusion is the mechanism of synchronization of cytosolic calcium oscillations in adjacent cells. We also study the role of different to...

  2. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shan Kong; Bing-bing Wang; Quan Ji; Yan-zhi Xia; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride. The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter (CONE). The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34, and the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), CO and CO_2 concentrations during combustion are much lower compared with those of viscose fibers. Calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were formed during thermal degradation of calcium alginate fibers at different temperatures. The shape of calcium alginate fibers is well kept after LOI test. The rigid combustion residue char acts as an effective barrier to the outward diffusion of flame and heat. The combustion process and flame retardant mechanism of calcium alginate fibers are also discussed.

  3. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  4. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied 45Ca2+ across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since 1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and gravi-induced polar calcium movement and 2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  5. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  6. Information flow through calcium binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous mode of biological communication, which regulates a great variety of vital processes in living systems. Such a signal typically begins with an elementary event, in which calcium ions bind to a protein, inducing a change in the protein's structure. Information can only be lost, from what was conveyed through this initial event, as the signal is further transduced through the downstream networks. In the present work we analyze and optimize the information flow in the calcium binding process. We explicitly calculate the mutual information between the calcium concentration and the states of the protein, using a simple model for allosteric regulation in a dimeric protein. The optimal solution depends on the dynamic range of the input as well as on the timescale of signal integration. According to our result, the optimizing strategy involves allowing the calcium-binding protein to be ``activated'' by a partial occupation of its sites, and tuning independently the strengths of cooperative interactions in the binding and unbinding processes.

  7. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  8. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  9. Calcium And Zinc Deficiency In Preeclamptic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Ferdousi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated withincreased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Reduced serum calcium and zinc levels arefound associated with elevated blood pressure in preeclampsia. Objective: To observe serum calciumand zinc levels in preeclamptic women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in theDepartment of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka betweenJuly 2009 to June 2010. In this study, 60 pregnant women of preeclampsia, aged 18-39 years withgestational period more than 20th weeks were included as the study (group B. For comparison ageand gestational period matched 30 normotensive pregnant women control (group A were also studied.All the subjects were selected from Obstetric and Gynae In and Out patient Department of BSMMUand Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Serum calcium was measured by Colorimetric method and serumzinc was measured by Spectrophotometric method. Data were analysed by independent sample t testand Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Mean serum calcium and zinc levels weresignificantly (p<0.001 lower in study group than those of control group. Again, serum calcium andzinc showed significant negative correlation with SBP and DBP in preeclamptic women. Conclusion:This study concludes that serum calcium and zinc deficiency may be one of the risk factor ofpreeclampsia. Therefore, early detection and supplementation to treat this deficiency may reduce theincidence of preeclampsia.

  10. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People About NINDS NINDS Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... en Español What is Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)? Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a neurological ...

  11. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  12. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  13. 钙离子载体诱导慢性髓系白血病细胞分化为树突状细胞的实验研究%Calcium Ionophore Induces the Differentiation of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells into Dendritic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海容; 陈君敏; 陈志哲; 吴素文; 郭江睿; 黄逸群

    2009-01-01

    本研究旨在探索钙载体(calcium ionophore,CI)诱导慢性髓性白血病(CML)细胞分化成树突状细胞(DC)的作用,了解诱导产生P210蛋白的情况和刺激自身T细胞产生针对CML细胞的细胞毒作用.用CI和粒-单集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)联合诱导CML病人骨髓来源的单个核细胞,通过倒置显微镜和电子显微镜观察细胞的形态变化和超微结构,用流式细胞仪检测细胞表面分化抗原的变化和变化过程;用Western blot检测CML特异的肿瘤标志物P210蛋白在DC中的表达;通过乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)实验评估CI诱导的CML-DC刺激自身T细胞产生抗CML细胞的细胞毒作用.结果表明:CML细胞经CI和GM-CSF联合诱导96小时后在倒置显微镜和电子显微镜下观察到DC典型的形态结构;流式细胞仪检测显示CD83、CD86、CD80、HLA-DR、CD40等细胞表面分化抗原的表达显著提高;Westem blot实验表明,生成的CML-DC有P210蛋白的表达,与未经诱导的CML单个核细胞比较,用CI和GM-CSF联合诱导生成的CML-DC的P210蛋白表达水平降低;LDH实验表明,这些CML-DC刺激的自身T细胞对CML细胞的杀伤率显著高于用CML细胞刺激的自身T细胞.结论:CI和GM-CSF联合能快速诱导CML细胞分化成DC,这些CML-DC表达CML细胞特异的肿瘤标志物P210蛋白,但其表达水平较未经诱导的CML单个核细胞低;CML细胞经诱导生成的CML-DC能够刺激自身T细胞产生抗白血病细胞毒性.

  14. The Effect of Corticosteroids on Urinary Calcium Excretion. A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Soylu Gungor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Corticosteroids are the main drugs in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome and bronchial hyperreactivity and can be used for long periods in high doses. From clinical use and experiments, systemic corticosteroids are known to cause hypercalciuria. In this study we aim to determine the effect of corticosteroids on urinary calcium excretion and to assess related parameters in children with chronic disease. Material and Method: Thirty-nine children with nephrotic syndrome and bronchial hyperreactivity from ages 1-15 and 15 same-aged healthy controls of the same sex are included in the study. Nineteen patients with nephrotic syndrome using 2 mg/kg/day oral prednisolone are included in group 1, and 20 patients with bronchial hyperreactivity who use inhaled 2x200 µgr budesonide are included in group 2. All children%u2019s bone formation (serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, resorption (urine deoxypyridinoline crosslinks/creatinine, and metabolism markers (parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate were analyzed. Results: Post-treatment urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was increased in the nephrotic syndrome group. Osteocalcine levels were found decreased in nephrotic syndrome patients who take oral prednisolone treatment. Urine deoxypyridinoline crosslinks/creatinine ratio levels were found low in both nephrotic syndrome and bronchial hyperreactivity patients, contrary to expectations.Discussion: In this study we found that oral prednisolone usage increased renal calcium excretion while inhaled budesonide did not increase renal calcium excretion. We believe that oral prednisolone repressed the bone formation. To further investigate low urine deoxypyridinoline crosslinks/creatinine ratio, more prospective studies with a greater number of participants are required.

  15. Multi-modal in vivo imaging of brain blood oxygenation, blood flow and neural calcium dynamics during acute seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringuette, Dene; Jeffrey, Melanie A.; Carlen, Peter L.; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium has been implicated in the development of epilepsy. To better understand the relation between vascular function and seizure and provide a foundation for interpreting results from functional imaging in chronic disease models, we investigate the relationship between intracellular calcium dynamics and local cerebral blood flow and blood oxygen saturation during acute seizure-like events and pharmacological seizure rescue. To probe the relation between the aforementioned physiological markers in an acute model of epilepsy in rats, we integrated three different optical modalities together with electrophysiological recordings: Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) was used to study changes in flow speeds, Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI) was used to monitor changes in oxygenated, de-oxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentration, and Calcium-sensitive dye imaging was used to monitor intracellular calcium dynamics. We designed a dedicated cortical flow chamber to remove superficial blood and dye resulting from the injection procedure, which reduced spurious artifacts. The near infrared light used for IOSI and LSCI was delivered via a light pipe integrated with the flow chamber to minimize the effect of fluid surface movement on illumination stability. Calcium-sensitive dye was injected via a glass electrode used for recording the local field potential. Our system allowed us to observe and correlate increases in intracellular calcium, blood flow and blood volume during seizure-like events and provide a quantitative analysis of neurovascular coupling changes associated with seizure rescue via injection of an anti-convulsive agent.

  16. Gitelman syndrome disclosed by calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: early diagnosis by ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabotti, A; Della Siega, P; Picco, L; Quartuccio, L; Bassetti, M; De Vita, S

    2016-01-01

    Gitelman's syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive tubular disorder characterized by hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria associated to hypokalemia. The clinical spectrum is wide and usually characterized by chronic fatigue, cramps, muscle weakness and paresthesiae. We describe a case of a 43 year-old male patient with early onset of knee arthritis and no other symptoms. Ultrasound revealed diffuse and confluent hyperechoic deposits in cartilage, fibrocartilage of the menisci and synovium and calcium pyrophosphate crystals were observed in the synovial fluid of the knee. The concomitant presence of hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria and hypokalemia made clear the diagnosis of Gitelman's syndrome associated with chondrocalcinosis. PMID:27339375

  17. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  18. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  19. Glial calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysioilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexei VERKHRASKY

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal-glial circuits underlie integrative processes in the nervous system.Function of glial syncytium is,to a very large extent,regulated by the intracellular calcium signaling system.Glial calcium signals are triggered by activation of multiple receptors,expressed in glial membrane,which regulate both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.The endoplasmic reticulum also endows glial cells with intracellular excitable media,which is able to produce and maintain long-ranging signaling in a form of propagating Ca2+ waves.In pathological conditions,calcium signals regulate glial response to injury,which might have both protective and detrimental effects on the nervous tissue.

  20. Valvular and perivalvular involvement in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neelavathi Senkottaiyan; Saad Hafidh; Farrin A. Manian; Martin A. Alpert

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and aortic valve alcification (AVC) are the most common valvular and perivalvular bnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Both MAC and AVC occur at a younger age in CKD patients than in the general population. AVC progresses to aortic stenosis and mild aortic stenosis progresses to severe aortic stenosis at a more rapid rate in patients with CKD than in the general population. The use of calcium-free phosphate binders in such patients may reduce the calcium burden in valvular and perivalvular tructures and retard the rate of progression of aortic stenosis. Despite high rates of morbidity and mortality, the prognosis associated with valve surgery in patients with CKD is better than without valve surgery. Infective endocarditis remains an important complication of CKD, particularly in those treated with hemodialysis.

  1. Impairment of ciprofloxacin absorption by calcium polycarbophil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Imano, Hideki; Kawai, Masayuki; Kuwahara, Shiro; Tsuchishita, Yoshimasa; Yonezawa, Emi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2002-07-01

    The effect of calcium polycarbophil on the absorption of ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, was evaluated in an in vitro and in vivo study. In the in vitro study, the release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence or absence of metal cations was measured using the dissolution test procedure. In the in vivo study, male ST Wistar rats and male volunteers were employed. First, 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin alone (Rat Study 1) or 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin in combination with 64 mg/kg of calcium chloride (Rat Study 2) was administered orally to 3 rats. Second, a volunteer study was employed and a randomized crossover design with twophases was used. In onephase, volunteers received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin alone (Study 1); in the other phase, they received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin and 1200 mg of fine calcium polycarbophil granules concomitantly (Study 2). The plasma and serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence of aluminum, calcium, or iron ions was slower than that in the absence of these metal ions. The AUC0-4 and Cmax in Rat Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Rat Study 1. AUC0-4 was approximately 60% lower in Rat Study 2 than Rat Study 1. In the volunteer study, the AUC0-12 and Cmax in Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Study 1. In particular, AUC0-12 was approximately 50% lowerin Study 2 than in Study 1. These findings suggest that when ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil were coadministered concomitantly, a decrease of ciprofloxacin absorption was observed, and this action was caused by the formation of chelate complexes. Therefore, it seems clear that we should avoid the concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil.

  2. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  3. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  4. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.;

    2004-01-01

    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...... discusses the current knowledge on the structure and potential function of this protein. Several putative binding partners of ALG-2 have been identified hinting to functions of ALG-2 in apoptosis and possibly also in proliferation, endocytosis and transcriptional regulation during development. Gene deletion...

  5. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.)

  6. Calcium and weight control-Publications summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Çelebi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem. And it is known that both energy balance and nutritional factors are effective on it. The effects of dietary calcium on bone health are known however with recent studies, it has become a food item that focused on the effect on body weight control. Most epidemiyolojik studies claim that there is a relationship between long-term consumption of diary milk and milk products and the decrease of body weight and fat mass. In this article, there are different studies that support or do not support this idea. However the effect mechanism of calcium on weight control is tried to be explained.

  7. Chronicity and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way of framing the study of ‘noncommunicable diseases’ within the more general area of chronic conditions. Focusing on Africa, it takes as points of departure the situation in Uganda, and the approach to health issues developed by a group of European and African colleagues...... over the years. It suggests a pragmatic analysis that places people's perceptions and practices within a field of possibilities shaped by policy, health care systems, and life conditions. In this field, the dimensions of chronicity and control are the distinctive analytical issues. They lead...... on to consideration of patterns of sociality related to chronic conditions and their treatment....

  8. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  9. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H;

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had....... Androgen deficiency increased the abundance of the renal mRNA and protein of both the luminal transient receptor potential vanilloid-subtype 5 (TRPV5) and intracellular calbindin-D(28K) transporters, which in turn were suppressed by testosterone treatment. There were no significant differences in serum...

  10. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  11. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  12. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  13. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Already a member? Log In or Sign Up Home About Us Support the ACPA Contact Us Shop ... for Understanding Pain September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is Chronic Pain? ...

  14. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chronic pain there may be no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and ... expected period of healing for an illness or injury. You can experience pain even if you are ...

  15. Chronic rhinosinusitis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney W; Lee, Robert J; Schleimer, Robert P; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of medical conditions associated with chronic sinonasal inflammation, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and cystic fibrosis. In particular, CRS can be divided into 2 major subgroups based on whether nasal polyps are present or absent. Unfortunately, clinical treatment strategies for patients with chronic sinonasal inflammation are limited, in part because the underlying mechanisms contributing to disease pathology are heterogeneous and not entirely known. It is hypothesized that alterations in mucociliary clearance, abnormalities in the sinonasal epithelial cell barrier, and tissue remodeling all contribute to the chronic inflammatory and tissue-deforming processes characteristic of CRS. Additionally, the host innate and adaptive immune responses are also significantly activated and might be involved in pathogenesis. Recent advancements in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis are highlighted in this review, with special focus placed on the roles of epithelial cells and the host immune response in patients with cystic fibrosis, CRS without nasal polyps, or CRS with nasal polyps. PMID:26654193

  16. Chronic penile strangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  17. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  18. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after a period of time the spinal cord has changed, after a period of time there are ... absence of an apparent cause. But chronic pain has a physiological or neurological basis even when we ...

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  20. Chronic Conditions Chartbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries is a chartbook prepared by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and created to provide an overview of...

  1. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain Awareness Toolkits Partners for Understanding Pain September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is ...

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  3. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP. Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy, sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy, exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc. have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies.

  4. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  5. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1990-01-01

    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  6. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-01

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo.

  7. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-20

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo. PMID:26965706

  8. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  9. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  10. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  11. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Bentov; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jenny Tynyakov; Lilah Glazer; Amir Sagi

    2016-01-01

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates speciali...

  12. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique,; Weiss, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of "ready to use" injectable biomat...

  13. Coupling Effect of Ion Channel Clusters on Calcium Signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a modified intracellular Ca2+ model involving diffusive coupling of two calcium ion channel clusters, the effects of coupling on calcium signalling are numerically investigated. The simulation results indicate that the diffusive coupling of clusters together with internal noise determine the calcium dynamics of single cluster, and for either homogeneous or heterogeneous coupled clusters, the synchronization of clusters, which is important to calcium signalling, is enhanced by the coupling effect

  14. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  15. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  16. Coupling Effect of Ion Channel Clusters on Calcium Signalling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; JIA Ya; YI Ming; MA Jun; YU Guang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on a modified intracellular Ca2+ model involving diffusive coupling of two calcium ion channel clusters,the effects of coupling on calcium signalling are numerically investigated.The simulation results indicate that the diffusive coupling of clusters together with internal noise determine the calcium dynamics of single cluster,and for either homogeneous or heterogeneous coupled clusters,the synchronization of clusters,which is important to calcium signalling,is enhanced by the coupling effect.

  17. Stability of calcium silicate in basic solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生

    2003-01-01

    Mixture of CaO and SiO2 was sintered at 1 200 or 1 400 ℃ according to the mole ratio of CaO/SiO2 of 1 or 2, and then calcium silicate was leached in pure caustic or soda solution. The results indicated that calcium silicate exists much more stably in caustic solution than that in soda solution, and CaO*SiO2 is more stable than β-2CaO*SiO2 whether in caustic solution or in soda solution. The increase of sintering temperature favored the stability of calcium silicate in the leaching process. When β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in soda solution, the increase of leaching temperature and time resulted in decomposing of more calcium silicate. And when β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in caustic solution at high temperature, much 2CaO*SiO2*H2O but little CaO*SiO2*H2O appeared in slag.

  18. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    )-sensitive fast Na(+) spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  20. Three-dimensionally Perforated Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were produced by compression molding using a special mold followed by sintering. The porous calcium phosphate ceramics have three-dimensional and penetrated open pores380-400μm in diameter spaced at intervals of 200μm. The layers of the linear penetration pores alternately lay perpendicular to pore direction. The porosity was 59%-65% . The Ca/P molar ratios of the porous calcium phosphate ceramics range from 1.5 to 1.85. A binder containing methyl cellulose was most effective for preparing the powder compact among vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, stearic acid, methyl cellulose and their mixtures. Stainless steel, polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies for the penetrated open pores. When polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies, the dies were burned out during the sintering process. Using stainless steel as the male dies with the removal of the dies before heat treatment resulted in a higher level of densification of the calcium phosphate ceramic.

  1. The rate of calcium turnover in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports an analysis of the clearance of calcium-47 tracer from the plasma of human patients. Nine subjects have so far been analysed, and the results all deviate somewhat from those predicted from the conventional simple kinetic scheme. 3 figs

  2. Calcium flux assay in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P M

    2001-05-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors of interest to neuroscientists induce transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which can be used as a convenient measure of receptor activation in a variety of applications. This unit describes a simple calcium flux assay applied to Xenopus oocytes. PMID:18428482

  3. The Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The thermogravimetry(TG) and derivative thermogravimetry(DTG) curves of the thermal decomposition reaction of calcium carbonate have been measured at five different heating rates. The kinetic parameters and the reaction mechanism of the reaction were evaluated from analysis of the TG and DTG curves by using the Ozawa method, the combined integral and differential methods and the reduced equations derived by us.

  4. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking... agent in food in an amount not in excess of that reasonably required to produce its intended effect. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sorbate. 582.3225 Section 582.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sorbate. 182.3225 Section 182.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium propionate. 582.3221 Section 582.3221 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  10. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula; Iruzubieta; lvaro; Terán; Javier; Crespo; Emilio; Fábrega

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis,but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation,has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)and chronic hepatitis C(CHC)virus infection.The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known,but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases.Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease.Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required.

  12. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate... (racemic) form. (b) To assure safe use of the additive, the label and labeling of the food...

  13. Free-calcium distribution and calcium pulses in rat peripheral macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanhua; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Jin, Ying

    2000-10-01

    With Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope (LCSM) system, three aspects of characteristics of free cytoplasmic calcium in rat peripheral macrophages are studied. One is the Ca2+ concentration in different area in the same cell. Second is the Ca2+ concentration in the same area in different dividing stage. Third is the feature of calcium pulses evoked by Kcl or pH changing. The results show that even in one cell, the evolution of the Ca2+ concentration is not the same in a different area. In the same area, the nucleolus Ca2+ concentration in division breaking stage is much higher than that in division stage. From the experiment phenomena, we conclude that Kcl itself can not evoke calcium pulses in the unexcitable macrophage, but the change of pH can trig calcium pulses in the same cells.

  14. Photodissociation studies of calcium-coronene and calcium-pyrene cation clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. C.; Buchanan, J. W.; Flynn, N. D.; Duncan, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Gas-phase cluster cations combining calcium atoms and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) coronene (C24H12) and pyrene (C16H10) are produced in a molecular beam using laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle cluster source. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry reveals the formation of clusters of the form Cax(coronene)y+ for up to x = 4 and y = 3 and Cax(pyrene)y+ for up to x = 2 and y = 3. Mass-selected photodissociation studies show that the calcium cation is the most prominent fragment for each system. Photoinduced calcium carbide formation is prominent when two or more calcium atoms are present. Additionally, there is evidence that these clusters can form sandwich structures.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of lanthanum carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease before and during dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, S.; Tolley, K.; Keith, M.S.; Postma, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperphosphatemia is a common and harmful condition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined the cost-effectiveness of the noncalcium-based phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate (LC) as second-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia after therapy failure with calcium-based

  16. Cost-effectiveness of lanthanum carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease before and during dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Stefan; Tolley, Keith; Keith, Michael S; Postma, Maarten J

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hyperphosphatemia is a common and harmful condition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined the cost-effectiveness of the noncalcium-based phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate (LC) as second-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia after therapy failure with calcium-based

  17. INFLUENCE OF SMOKING ON THE SALIVARY AND BLOOD CONCENTRATION OF SOME BIVALENT CATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al. MANEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind the modifications observed in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper. The investigations were performed on an experimental group of 30 patients with clinically-onset chronic periodontitis, and on a control one, including 30 periodontitisfree patients. Total saliva samples were obtained as “first time in the morning” then weighed and processed. Cations were read on an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Calcium, Copper and Zinc and also by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium. The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. The obtained data were normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. The results obtained showed a clear connection of blood magnesium, and also of salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, to chronic periodontitis. Salivary cations are therefore related to the local inflammatory status and associated pathological processes. Blood magnesium could be affected by chronic inflammation.

  18. Phenylacetic acid and arterial vascular properties in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Jankowski, Vera; Henning, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is a recently described uremic toxin that inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and plasma membrane calcium ATPase and may therefore also be involved in remodeling of arteries. Such vascular effects have not been evaluated yet in patients with chronic kidney ...

  19. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  20. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  1. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  2. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B;

    1996-01-01

    Indirect evidence supports a protective role of some EF-hand calcium-binding proteins against calcium-induced neurotoxicity. Little is known about how these proteins influence cytosolic calcium levels. After cloning the parvalbumin cDNA into an expression vector, teratocarcinoma cells (PCC7) were...

  3. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B;

    1996-01-01

    transfected. Parvalbumin-transfected and mock-transfected cells were loaded with the calcium indicator fura-2 and were exposed, in the same dish, to different concentrations of the calcium ionophore A23187 or to KCI. The results show that parvalbumin-transfected PCC7 cells had much better calcium buffering...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. Influence of the calcium sulfate source on the rheological behaviour of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Santacruz, Isabel; García-Maté, Marta; G. Aranda, Miguel Ángel; De la Torre, Ángeles G.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are receiving increasing attention since their manufacture produces much less CO2 than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) [1]. In addition, they show interesting properties such as high early-age strengths, short setting times and impermeability. The main uses of these CSA cements are for quick repairs and pre-cast products or floor concrete applications. They are prepared by mixing the clinker with different amounts of a calcium sulfate set regulator such as ...

  7. Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders due to carbonation and hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Cizer, Özlem; Campforts, J; Balen, Koenraad Van; Elsen, Jan; Gemert, Dionys van

    2006-01-01

    Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders composed of cement, rice husk ash (RHA) and lime in different compositions were studied with mechanical strength, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thermal analysis and SEM. When cement is partially replaced with RHA and lime, hardening occurs as a result of combined hydration, pozzolanic reaction and carbonation reaction. While hydration of cement contributes to the early strength development of the mortars, carbonation is much more pr...

  8. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni

    2010-10-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  10. Optogenetic measurement of presynaptic calcium transients using conditional genetically encoded calcium indicator expression in dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Sgobio

    Full Text Available Calcium triggers dopamine release from presynaptic terminals of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA neurons in the striatum. However, calcium transients within mDA axons and axon terminals are difficult to study and little is known about how they are regulated. Here we use a newly-developed method to measure presynaptic calcium transients (PreCaTs in axons and terminals of mDA neurons with a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI GCaMP3 expressed in transgenic mice. Using a photomultiplier tube-based system, we measured electrical stimulation-induced PreCaTs of mDA neurons in dorsolateral striatum slices from these mice. Single-pulse stimulation produced a transient increase in fluorescence that was completely blocked by a combination of N- and P/Q-type calcium channel blockers. DA and cholinergic, but not serotoninergic, signaling pathways modulated the PreCaTs in mDA fibers. These findings reveal heretofore unexplored dynamic modulation of presynaptic calcium in nigrostriatal terminals.

  11. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James T Taylor; Xiang-Bin Zeng; Jonathan E Pottle; Kevin Lee; Alun R Wang; Stephenie G Yi; Jennifer A S Scruggs; Suresh S Sikka; Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells,free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear;however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel isminimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers.

  12. In vivo calcium imaging of evoked calcium waves in the embryonic cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eYuryev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this approach we demonstrate induction of calcium waves by laser stimulation. These waves are sensitive to ATP-receptor blockade and are significantly increased by pharmacological facilitation of intracellular-calcium release. This approach is the closest to physiological conditions yet achieved for imaging of calcium in the embryonic brain and as such opens new avenues for the study of prenatal brain development. Furthermore, the developed method could open the possibilities of preclinical translational studies in embryos particularly important for developmentally related diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.

  13. Skeletal effects of nutrients and nutraceuticals, beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, J W

    2013-03-01

    There is a need to understand the role of nutrition, beyond calcium and vitamin D, in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in adults. Results regarding soy compounds on bone density and bone turnover are inconclusive perhaps due to differences in dose and composition or in study population characteristics. The skeletal benefit of black cohosh and red clover are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) use may benefit elderly individuals with low serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels, but even in this group, there are inconsistent benefits to bone density (BMD). Higher fruit and vegetable intakes may relate to higher BMD. The skeletal benefit of flavonoids, carotenoids, omega-3-fatty acids, and vitamins A, C, E and K are limited to observational data or a few clinical trials, in some cases investigating pharmacologic doses. Given limited data, it would be better to get these nutrients from fruits and vegetables. Potassium bicarbonate may improve calcium homeostasis but with little impact on bone loss. High homocysteine may relate to fracture risk, but the skeletal benefit of each B vitamin is unclear. Magnesium supplementation is likely only required in persons with low magnesium levels. Data are very limited for the role of nutritional levels of boron, strontium, silicon and phosphorus in bone health. A nutrient rich diet with adequate fruits and vegetables will generally meet skeletal needs in healthy individuals. For most healthy adults, supplementation with nutrients other than calcium and vitamin D may not be required, except in those with chronic disease and the frail elderly.

  14. Lead Poisoning Disturbs Oligodendrocytes Differentiation Involved in Decreased Expression of NCX3 Inducing Intracellular Calcium Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 μM inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3 mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca2+ extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation. Also addition of KB-R7943, NCX3 inhibitor, to simulate Pb toxicity, resulted in decreased myelin basic protein (MBP expression and cell branching. Ca2+ response trace with Pb and KB-R7943 treatment did not drop down in the same recovery time as the control, which elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration reducing MBP expression. In contrast, over-expression of NCX3 in Pb exposed OPCs displayed significant increase MBP fluorescence signal in positive regions and CNPase expression, which recovered OPCs differentiation to counterbalance Pb toxicity. In conclusion, Pb exposure disturbs OLs differentiation via affecting the function of NCX3 by inducing intracellular calcium overload.

  15. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water) on root dentin microhardness

    OpenAIRE

    Hasheminia SM; Norouzynasab S

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled ...

  16. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium wa

  17. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2, the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

  18. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing R

  19. Advances in the etiology of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Aghdassi, Ali A; Budde, Christoph; Nitsche, Claudia; Sauter, Gabriele; Persike, Maria; Günther, Annett; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    In the past, chronic pancreatitis has been regarded as a fairly uniform and largely untreatable disorder that most commonly affects patients who both lack gainful employment or adequate insurance coverage and have a tendency to smoke and drink. Large clinical trials suggest that this perception is not only misguided and discriminatory but also not based on facts. We forgot that the perception of chronic liver disease was similar before World War II, and just like liver cirrhosis the fibrosis and cirrhosis of the pancreas--i.e. chronic pancreatitis--is the end result of a range of environmental, inflammatory, infectious and genetic disorders. A growing number of these have only recently been recognized as a distinct entity and several of which are becoming truly treatable. A large proportion of the risk for developing pancreatitis is conveyed by genetic risk factors, and we estimate that less than half of those have been identified so far. The same holds true for protective factors that can prevent pancreatitis, even in the face of excessive alcohol abuse. Various gene mutations and polymorphisms appear to determine an individual's susceptibility for developing pancreatic disease, for the severity of the disease, and for the disease progression. The spectrum of genotype/phenotype associations ranges from straightforward autosomal dominant traits with near-complete penetrance, as for the most common mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1), to moderate risks factors without mendelian inheritance patterns, as for SPINK1 and CFTR mutations, to very subtle risk associations and disease modifiers that can only be identified in large cohort studies, as for the chymotrypsin C, calcium-sensing receptor and the anionic trypsin (PRSS2) mutations. Only a better understanding of the disease mechanisms that underlie these changes will make an individualized therapy of pancreatic disorders a realistic option. PMID:20814206

  20. Continuous Modeling of Calcium Transport Through Biological Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasielec, J. J.; Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Sokalski, T.; Lewenstam, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work an approach to the modeling of the biological membranes where a membrane is treated as a continuous medium is presented. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including Poisson equation for electric potential is used to describe transport of ions in the mitochondrial membrane—the interface which joins mitochondrial matrix with cellular cytosis. The transport of calcium ions is considered. Concentration of calcium inside the mitochondrion is not known accurately because different analytical methods give dramatically different results. We explain mathematically these differences assuming the complexing reaction inside mitochondrion and the existence of the calcium set-point (concentration of calcium in cytosis below which calcium stops entering the mitochondrion).

  1. Management of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Relhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  2. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T;

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  3. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  4. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Katie A; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M; Davies, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium's other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  5. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  6. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  7. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab...... with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines.......Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...

  8. Calcium-dependent and calcium-sensitizing pathways in the mature and immature ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyman, Ronald I; Waleh, Nahid; Kajino, Hiroki; Roman, Christine; Mauray, Francoise

    2007-10-01

    Studies performed in sheep and baboons have shown that after birth, the normoxic muscle media of ductus arteriosus (DA) becomes profoundly hypoxic as it constricts and undergoes anatomic remodeling. We used isolated fetal lamb DA (pretreated with inhibitors of prostaglandin and nitric oxide production) to determine why the immature DA fails to remain tightly constricted during the hypoxic phase of remodeling. Under normoxic conditions, mature DA constricts to 70% of its maximal active tension (MAT). Half of its normoxic tension is due to Ca(2+) entry through calcium L-channels and store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The other half is independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and is unaffected by inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release (ryanodine) or reuptake [cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)]. The mature DA relaxes slightly during hypoxia (to 60% MAT) due to decreases in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Inhibitors of Rho kinase and tyrosine kinase inhibit both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent DA tension. Although Rho kinase activity may increase during gestation, immature DA develop lower tensions than mature DA, primarily because of differences in the way they process Ca(2+). Calcium L-channel expression increases with advancing gestation. Under normoxic conditions, differences in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry account for differences in tension between immature (60% MAT) and mature (70% MAT) DA. Under hypoxic conditions, differences in both calcium L-channel-dependent and calcium L-channel-independent Ca(2+) entry, account for differences in tension between immature (33% MAT) and mature (60% MAT) DA. Stimulation of Ca(2+) entry through reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange or CPA-induced SOC channel activity constrict the DA and eliminate differences between immature and mature DA during both hypoxia and normoxia.

  9. Sensorineural Hearing Affection In Sickle Cell Disease Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Under Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed MD*, Magdy M El Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the problem of hearing loss in patients of chronic renal failure on regular haemodialysis and The factors which affect it. And to study the effect of sickle cell disease on hearing loss. we studied hearing loss in dialysis patients, sickle cell disease patients and patients of sickle cell disease with chronic renal failure under dialysis compared to normal control subjects. Design: !"",include sickle cell disease patients with chronic renal fa"# $%& ' ", i ,nclude ( # #"# $%&'", , ,( #&'", i 9nclude the normal *+&*+' All groups are subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination including neurological and ENT examination, investigations includes Hb, s. creatinine, s.albumen, s.calcium and calculation of kt/v for dialysis patients. Full audiological assessment, using #,-GSI audiometer was done for all groups with special concentration at frequency of - .Results: hearing loss was found in patients with chronic renal failure more than normal control. Patient with sickle cell disease have hearing disorders significantly higher than $/%- .% 0( # #cell disease have significantly. Marked degree of SNHL than those with SCD only. Hearing loss in patients with 12( # * 3 &4 !4! '#"#"patients with chronic renal failure with or without SCD correlate with duration of dialysis , presence of peripheral neuropathy, s. calcium level, efficiency of dialysis marked by kt/v. Conclusion and recommendation: hearing disorder is common in patients with chronic renal failure under regular haemodialysis and it increase with duration of dialysis it should be suspected if there is Peripheral neuropathy. It can be reduced with efficient dialysis, correction of anemia, adjustment of calcium level. Patients with SCD suffer also some degree of hearing loss especially at higher frequency and this degree of hearing loss

  10. Stimulus-evoked calcium transients in somatosensory cortex are temporarily inhibited by a nearby microhemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor A Cianchetti

    Full Text Available Although microhemorrhages are common in the brain of the elderly, the direct impact of these lesions on neural function remains unclear. In this work, we used femtosecond laser irradiation to rupture the wall of single arterioles in the brain of anesthetized rodents, producing a hematoma of ∼100-µm diameter. Our objective was to study the impact of these microhemorrhages on cortical activity using cell-resolved two-photon imaging of bulk-loaded calcium-sensitive dye. We monitored peripheral sensory stimulus-induced calcium transients from individual neuronal cell bodies, regions of neuropil, and astrocytes at different distances from the microhemorrhage before and 0.5, 2, and 4 hours after the creation of the lesion. We found that immediately after the hemorrhage the average amplitude of the stimulus-induced calcium response was reduced to about half within 150 µm from the hematoma. Beyond 300 µm, there was little effect on cell response, with a smooth increase in response amplitude from 150 µm to 300 µm from the lesion. Cortical function gradually improved with time and by four hours after the lesion the response from neurons and astrocytes had recovered to baseline everywhere but within 150 µm from the hematoma. To assess whether the cells closest to the microhemorrhage recovered over a longer timeframe, we developed a re-openable chronic cranial window preparation that allowed reinjection of calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye. We found that the response largely recovered by one day after the microhemorrhage even within 150 µm from the hematoma. This work suggests that neuronal and astrocyte function is transiently lost near a microhemorrhage, but recovers within one day after the lesion.

  11. Chronic urticaria: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Malcolm W; Tan, Kian Teo

    2007-10-01

    Chronic urticaria is an umbrella term, which encompasses physical urticarias, chronic "idiopathic" urticaria and urticarial vasculitis. It is important to recognize patients with physical urticarias as the investigation and treatment differs in important ways from patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria or urticarial vasculitis. Although relatively uncommon, urticarial vasculitis is an important diagnosis to make and requires histological confirmation by biopsy. Underlying systemic disease and systemic involvement, especially of the kidneys, should be sought. It is now recognized that chronic "idiopathic" urticaria includes a subset with an autoimmune basis caused by circulating autoantibodies against the high affinity IgE receptor (FceR1) and less commonly against IgE. Although the autologous serum skin test has been proven useful in prompting search for and characterization of circulating wheal-producing factors in chronic urticaria, its specificity as a screening test for presence of functional anti-FceR1 is low, and confirmation by demonstration of histamine-releasing activity in the patient's serum must be the benchmark test in establishing this diagnosis. Improved screening tests are being sought; for example, ability of the chronic urticaria patient's serum to evoke expression of CD 203c on donor human basophils is showing some promise. The strong association between autoimmune thyroid disease and autoimmune urticaria is also an area of ongoing research. Drug treatment continues to be centered on the H1 antihistamines, and the newer second-generation compounds appear to be safe and effective even in off-label dosage. Use of systemic steroids should be confined to special circumstances such as tapering regimens for acute flare-ups. Use of leukotriene antagonists is becoming popular, but the evidence for efficacy is conflicting. Cyclosporin is also effective and can be used in selected cases of autoimmune urticaria, and it is also effective in non

  12. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  13. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab......Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...

  14. Chronic unilateral vestibular loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, K A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unilateral vestibular loss is a condition defined by the presence of reduced function of the peripheral vestibular system on one side, which has generally persisted for 3 or more months. The deficit is demonstrated by a reduction of the vestibular-ocular reflex either at the bedside or on laboratory testing. Though some patients with chronic vestibular loss have disabling symptoms, others are asymptomatic. Causes include a viral/postviral disorder, Menière's disease, structural lesions, ischemia, and trauma. Any other systemic or genetic disorder would be expected to involve both sides at some point. PMID:27638074

  15. Aggregation of Calcium Silicate Hydrate Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhorme, Maxime; Labbez, Christophe; Turesson, Martin; Lesniewska, Eric; Woodward, Cliff E; Jönsson, Bo

    2016-03-01

    We study the aggregation of calcium silicate hydrate nanoplatelets on a surface by means of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations at thermodynamic equilibrium. Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main component formed in cement and is responsible for the strength of the material. The hydrate is formed in early cement paste and grows to form platelets on the nanoscale, which aggregate either on dissolving cement particles or on auxiliary particles. The general result is that the experimentally observed variations in these dynamic processes generically called growth can be rationalized from interaction free energies, that is, from pure thermodynamic arguments. We further show that the surface charge density of the particles determines the aggregate structures formed by C-S-H and thus their growth modes. PMID:26859614

  16. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods. PMID:19021875

  17. Electronic Structure of Gadolinium Calcium Oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A; Adams, J; Schaffers, K

    2004-07-01

    Gadolinium calcium oxoborate (GdCOB) is a nonlinear optical material that belongs to the calcium--rare-earth (R) oxoborate family, with general composition Ca{sub 4}RO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (R{sup 3+} = La, Sm, Gd, Lu, Y). X-ray photoemission was applied to study the valence band electronic structure and surface chemistry of this material. High resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Gd 3d and 4d, Ca 2p, B 1s and O 1s core lines were used to evaluate the surface and near surface chemistry. These results provide measurements of the valence band electronic structure and surface chemistry of this rare-earth oxoborate.

  18. Ceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Safronova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Present work is aimed at the fabrication of resorbable bioceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate (CPP from the synthesized powders of amorphous hydrated calcium pyrophosphate (AHCPP. Amorphous hydratedcalcium pyrophosphate in the form of nanopowders was precipitated from Ca(NO3 2 and (NH4 4P2O7 solutions at room temperature in the presence of PO3– ions. Crystalline CPP powder was fabricated from AHCPP by its thermal decomposition at 600 °C and consisted of β- and α- phase. Small particles, with the size less than 200 nm, were formed promoting sintering of the ceramic material. The final sample, sintered at 900 °C, exhibits microstructure with submicron grains, apparent density of 87% of theoretical density (TD and demonstrates tensile strength of 70 MPa.

  19. Kinetics of Leaching Calcium from Dolomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesia is obtained from magnesite ore and the production process applied should remove accompanying minerals that reduce its refractoriness. Given that magnesite reservoirs are more exploited and largely exhausted, there is a growing need for production of magnesia on the basis of other magnesium minerals. Dolomite is a promising source of magnesia because it forms large deposits, is easy to exploit, and generally contains a small quantity of impurities.The kinetics of calcium leaching from dolomite by magnesium-nitrate solution has been studied. The research program included the influence of temperature, mass fraction of magnesium nitrate in solution, dolomite particle size and leaching time. Time dependence of calcium leaching is described by relevant kinetic equations. Rate coefficients, their temperature dependence and Arrhenius activation energy have been determined.

  20. Characterization of ionomycin as a calcium ionophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Hermann, T E

    1978-09-10

    The ionophorous properties of a new antibiotic, ionomycin, have been studied. It was found that the antibiotic is capable of extracting calcium ion from the bulk of an aqueous phase into an organic phase. The antibiotic also acts as a mobile ion carrier to transport the cation across a solvent barrier. The divalent cation selectivity order for ionomycin as determined by ion competition experiments was found to be: Ca greater than Mg greater than Sr = Ba, where the binding of strontium and barium by the antibiotic is insignificant. The antibiotic also binds La3+ to some extent, but its complexation with monovalent alkali metal ions is negligible. Measurement of the binding of ionomycin with Ca2+ indicates that ionomycin complexes and transports calcium ion in a one to one stoichiometry. PMID:28319

  1. [Histaminergic angioedema and chronic urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacard, Florence; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bensaid, Benoit; Nicolas, Jean-François; Augey, Frédéric; Goujon, Catherine; Bérard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most angioedemas are histaminergic and correspond to deep urticarial swelling. Recurrent histaminergic angioedema led to the diagnosis of chronic urticaria, even when there are no superficial associated hives. Chronic urticaria is a benign disease, and autoimmune in 40 % of cases. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is not a sign of severity. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is associated with a longer duration of urticarial disease. NSAIDs and/or systemic corticotherapy are classic triggers of angioedema in chronic urticaria. In the absence of clinical endpoints, there is no need to make further assessment in chronic urticaria good responders to antihistamines.

  2. Effects of Exterior Abscisic Acid on Calcium Distribution of Mesophyll Cells and Calcium Concentration of Guard Cells in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; MA Yuan-yuan; LIU Zi-hui; LIU Bin-hui

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the direct effects of exterior abscisic acid (ABA) on both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells were examined. The distribution of Ca2+ localization were observed with calcium antimonate precipitate-electromicroscopic-cyto-chemical methods after treated with ABA and pretreated with ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), verapamil (Vp), and trifluoperazine (TFP). The laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure the cytosolic calcium concentrations of guard cells under different treatments. The results showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of mesophyll cells was induced to increase by ABA, but to decrease in both outside cell and the vacuoles within 10 min after treatments. The cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells was increased gradually with the lag in treatment time. However, both EGTA and TFP could inverse those effects, indicating that the increase of cytosolic calcium induced by exterior ABA was mainly caused by calcium influx. The results also showed that calmodulin could influence both the calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells. It shows that calmodulin participates in the process of ABA signal transduction, but the mechanism is not known as yet. The changes both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells further proved that the variations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration induced by ABA were involved in the stomatal movements of maize seedlings.

  3. Viscosity estimation for slags containing calcium fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifeng Shu; Jiayun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on recently published experimental data, the Riboud model was modified for viscosity estimation of the slags containing calcium fluoride. The estimated values were in good agreement with measured data. Reasonable estimation can be achieved using the modified Riboud model for mould fluxes and ESR (eletro slag remelting) slags. Especially for ESR slags, the modified Riboud model can provide much more precise values than the original Riboud model.

  4. Premixed calcium silicate cement for endodontic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based materials (also called MTA) are increasingly being used in endodontic applications. However, the handling properties of MTA are not optimal when it comes to injectability and cohesion. Premixing the cements using glycerol avoids these issues. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of common cement variables on important properties of premixed cements for endodontic applications. In this study, the effects of liquid-to-powder ratio, amount of radiopacifier and am...

  5. Coronary artery calcium scoring in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate coronary artery calcium scoring and the assessment of the risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. During the period of three years, 27 patients with MI were analyzed. The average age of patients was 66.1 years (46 to 81). Coronary arteries calcium was evaluated by multi row detector computed tomography (MTDC) Somatom Volume Zoom Siemens, and, retrospectively by ECG gating data acquisition. Semi automated calcium quantification to calculate Agatston calcium score (CS) was performed with 4 x 2.5 mm collimation, using 130 ml of contrast medium, injected with an automatic injector, with the flow rate of 4 ml/sec. The delay time was determined empirically. At the same time several risk factors were evaluated. Results. Out of 27 patients with MI, 3 (11.1%) patients had low CS (10- 100), 5 (18.5%) moderate CS (101- 499), and 19 (70.4%) patients high CS (>500). Of risk factors, smoking was confirmed in 17 (63.0%), high blood pressure (HTA) in 10 (57.0%), diabetes mellitus in 7 (25.9%), positive family history in 5 (18.5%), pathological lipids in 5 (18.5%), alcohol abuse in 4 (1.8%) patients. Six (22.2%) patients had symptoms of angina pectoris. Conclusions. The research showed high correlation of MI and high CS (>500). Smoking, HTA, diabetes mellitus, positive family history and hypercholesterolemia are significant risk factors. Symptoms are relatively poor in large number of patients. (author)

  6. Calcium metabolism in lithium-treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content (BMC) together with biochemical indices of calcium metabolism were measured in 83 manic-depressive patients on long-term lithium therapy. The patients were diagnosed and divided into a unipolar and a bipolar group according to strict symptomatic course criteria. The patients with bipolar course had a significantly decreased BMC (88% of normal, P < 0.001), while the unipolar patients had normal BMC. Both groups had biochemical changes consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  7. Bone disease in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Szejnfeld, V L; Carvalho, A B; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1994-09-01

    The association between idiopathic hypercalciuria and osteopenia (OP) has been recently recognized. It is not established whether or not calcium intake plays a critical role in the loss of bone mass. Fifty-five calcium stone forming patients with either absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) or fasting hypercalciuria (FH), 29 males and 26 premenopausal females, were submitted to dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Calcium intake was assessed by a 72 hr dietary record. OP was detected in 20% (11/55) of patients, being more common among men, 9/26 (35%) than in women, 2/29 (7%), p < 0.05. Male FH patients presented lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than sex, weight and age-matched control (1.058 +/- 0.18 vs 1.209 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, X +/- SD, p < 0.05). OP was more frequent in FH patients, 7/20 (35%) than in AH patients 4/35 (11%), albeit the difference was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between calcium intake and BMD measurement. Six osteopenic male FH patients were further submitted to histomorphometric evaluation with tetracycline double labeling. Bone volume was lower than the controls (13.2 +/- 3.0 vs 27.2 +/- 3.7%, p < 0.05). Osteoid surfaces were reduced, although not significantly (10.1 +/- 8.2% vs 15.9 +/- 6.7%). Eroded surfaces were markedly increased (23.9 +/- 13.4 vs 4.2 +/- 1.4%, p < 0.05). The bone formation rate was very low with a complete lack of tetracycline double labeling in 4 patients. These data suggest low bone volume, tendency to low bone formation, increased bone resorption and a severe mineralization defect, consistent with normal or low bone turnover osteoporosis. PMID:7994936

  8. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  9. Biomimetic mineralization: encapsulation in calcium carbonate shells

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Susana Costa de

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate biomineralization is a self-assembly process that has been studied to be applied in the biomedical field to encapsulate biomolecules. Advantages of engineering mineral capsules include improved drug loading efficiencies and protection against external environment. However, common production methods result in heterogeneous capsules and subject biomolecules to heat and vibration which cause irreversible damage. To overcome these issues, a microfluidic device was designed, m...

  10. Recording of calcium transient and analysis of calcium removal mechanisms in cardiac myocytes from rats and ground squirrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世强; 周曾铨; 钱洪

    2000-01-01

    With confocal microscopy, we recorded calcium transients and analyzed calcium removal rate at different temperatures in cardiac myocytes from the rat, a non-hibernator, and the ground squirrel, a hibernator. The results showed a remarkable increase of the diastolic level of calcium transients in the rat but no detectable change in the ground squirrel. Calcium transient of the ground squirrel, compared with that of the rat at the same temperature, had a shorter duration and showed a faster calcium removal. As indicated by the pharmacological effect of cyclopiazonic acid, calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was the major mechanism of calcium removal, and was faster in the ground squirrel than in the rat. Our results confirmed the essential role of SR in hypothermia-tolerant adaptation, and negated the importance of Na-Ca exchange. We postulated the possibility to improve hypothermia-tolerance of the cardiac tissue of non-hibernating mammals.

  11. T-Type Calcium Channel: A Privileged Gate for Calcium Entry and Control of Adrenal Steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, Michel F

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains, and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies. Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but also reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal, and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis. Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T-type channels

  12. T-type calcium channel: a privileged gate for calcium entry and control of adrenal steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Florian Rossier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies.Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis.Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T

  13. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  14. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  15. Fractional Dynamics in Calcium Oscillation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoothana Suansook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcium oscillations have many important roles to perform many specific functions ranging from fertilization to cell death. The oscillation mechanisms have been observed in many cell types including cardiac cells, oocytes, and hepatocytes. There are many mathematical models proposed to describe the oscillatory changes of cytosolic calcium concentration in cytosol. Many experiments were observed in various kinds of living cells. Most of the experimental data show simple periodic oscillations. In certain type of cell, there exists the complex periodic bursting behavior. In this paper, we have studied further the fractional chaotic behavior in calcium oscillations model based on experimental study of hepatocytes proposed by Kummer et al. Our aim is to explore fractional-order chaotic pattern in this oscillation model. Numerical calculation of bifurcation parameters is carried out using modified trapezoidal rule for fractional integral. Fractional-order phase space and time series at fractional order are present. Numerical results are characterizing the dynamical behavior at different fractional order. Chaotic behavior of the model can be analyzed from the bifurcation pattern.

  16. Mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity modulates neocortical excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Kannurpatti, Sridhar S

    2013-07-01

    Local calcium (Ca(2+)) changes regulate central nervous system metabolism and communication integrated by subcellular processes including mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Mitochondria take up Ca(2+) through the calcium uniporter (mCU) aided by cytoplasmic microdomains of high Ca(2+). Known only in vitro, the in vivo impact of mCU activity may reveal Ca(2+)-mediated roles of mitochondria in brain signaling and metabolism. From in vitro studies of mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration and cycling in various cell types of the central nervous system, we evaluated ranges of spontaneous and activity-induced Ca(2+) distributions in multiple subcellular compartments in vivo. We hypothesized that inhibiting (or enhancing) mCU activity would attenuate (or augment) cortical neuronal activity as well as activity-induced hemodynamic responses in an overall cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activities were measured by extracellular electrophysiology complemented with dynamic mapping of blood oxygen level dependence and cerebral blood flow. Calcium uniporter activity was inhibited and enhanced pharmacologically, and its impact on the multimodal measures were analyzed in an integrated manner. Ru360, an mCU inhibitor, reduced all stimulus-evoked responses, whereas Kaempferol, an mCU enhancer, augmented all evoked responses. Collectively, the results confirm aforementioned hypotheses and support the Ca(2+) uptake-mediated integrative role of in vivo mitochondria on neocortical activity.

  17. Modeling Calcium Wave Based on Anomalous Subdiffusion of Calcium Sparks in Cardiac Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Kang, Jianhong; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang

    2013-01-01

    sparks and waves play important roles in calcium release and calcium propagation during the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling process in cardiac myocytes. Although the classical Fick’s law is widely used to model sparks and waves in cardiac myocytes, it fails to reasonably explain the full-width at half maximum(FWHM) paradox. However, the anomalous subdiffusion model successfully reproduces sparks of experimental results. In this paper, in the light of anomalous subdiffusion of sparks, we develop a mathematical model of calcium wave in cardiac myocytes by using stochastic release of release units (CRUs). Our model successfully reproduces calcium waves with physiological parameters. The results reveal how concentration waves propagate from an initial firing of one CRU at a corner or in the middle of considered region, answer how large in magnitude of an anomalous spark can induce a wave. With physiological currents (2pA) through CRUs, it is shown that an initial firing of four adjacent CRUs can form a wave. Furthermore, the phenomenon of calcium waves collision is also investigated. PMID:23483894

  18. Management of chronic pain in osteoporosis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolucci T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Paolucci,* Vincenzo Maria Saraceni, Giulia Piccinini* Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit, Azienda Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Osteoporosis (OP is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP. Keywords: physical therapy, exercise, pharmacological treatment, posture and balance

  19. SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF AGED RATS IS ALTERED AFTER CHRONIC NIMODIPINE APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    deJong, GI; Buwalda, B.; Schuurman, T.; Luiten, PGM

    1992-01-01

    We examined ultrastructural correlates of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of young (3 months) vs aged (30 months) Wistar rats and established the effects of the calcium antagonist nimodipine in animals chronically treated from 24 to 30 months. The effects of nimodipine was studied since this compound improves hippocampal neuronal physiology and enhances cognitive function during aging. In the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus we found a 24% decrease in synaptic density (Nv) in a...

  20. Generalised osteitis fibrosa cystica due to secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar K Shrestha; A Tayal

    2014-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a frequent complication of patients with chronic kidney disease and is characterized by excessive serum parathyroid hormone levels and an imbalance in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is the leading cause of renal osteodystrophy and bone disease. Osteitis fibrosa cystica, the classic and former most common osteodystrophy, is mainly caused by high bone turnover secondary to high levels of circulating PTH. Its pathophysiology is m...

  1. HEARING LOSS IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE - AN ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Suja Sreedharan; Vishnu Prasad; Jayashree Bhatt; Mahesh Chandra Hegde; Salil Agarwal; Cherukattil Waheeda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss in chronic renal failure is believed to be of multifactorial etiology. Associated hypertension and diabetes mellitus, use of ototoxic drugs, hemodialysis and the changes in metabolic parameters are the various reasons quoted for the hearing loss. Objectives: Our study attempts to correlate the hearing thresholds with the multiple parameters like blood levels of urea, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and hemoglobin values incriminated in...

  2. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, N M; Begenik, H; Emre, H; Erdur, F M; Soyoral, Y

    2012-12-01

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known. We presented a case with chronic renal failure (CRF) that developed gingival hyperplasia due to amlodipine use, which improved after ceasing the drug.

  3. 25 (OH) Vitamin D in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan ULUTAŞ; Taşkapan, Hülya

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role on calcium homeostasis, vitamin D exhibits local (paracrine) effects on cell proliferation differentiation and immune function. Most cells in the body express Vitamin D receptors and 1α-hydroxylase, thereby permitting local production of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, which has therapeutic implications (paracrine effects). Studies have shown that chronic vitamin D deficiency may have serious adverse consequences such as increased risk of hypertension, multiple sclerosi...

  4. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already...

  5. Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Bleijenberg, G.

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been heated debate about chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) among researchers, practitioners, and patients. Few illnesses have been discussed so extensively. The existence of the disorder has been questioned, its underlying pathophysiology debated, and an effective

  6. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... on the hands and feet. Muscle pain. Itching. Diarrhea . Stages of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Key Points There is no standard staging system ...

  7. CHRONIC PROBLEM FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, EDWARD

    THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…

  8. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manageable, but chronic pain is different. And because it is different, we need to think about it in very different ways. Ed Covington, M.D.: ... no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and the patient are accustomed to ...

  9. Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳健明; 姚秀琼; 苏泽轩; 崔福斋

    2003-01-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate is studied mainly in the diluted healthy urine using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and is compared with the crystallization in the diluted pathological urine. It suggests that the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystals are not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions. Only in the concentration range of 0.60-0.90 mmol/L can larger size of CaOx crystals appear. When the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions are 1.20, 0.80, 0.60, 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L in the healthy urine, the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystallites are 9.5 × 6.5, 20.0 × 13.5 and 15.0 μm × 10.0 μm, respectively, for the former three samples after 6 d crystallization. No crystal appears even after 30 d crystallization for the samples of concentrations of 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L due to their low supersaturations. The results theoretically explain why the probability of stone forming is clinically not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca 2+ and Ox2- ions. Laser scattering technology also confirms this point. The reason why healthy human has no risk of urinary stone but stone-formers have is that there are more urinary macromolecules in healthy human urines than that in stone-forming urines. These macromolecules may control the transformation in CaOx crystal structure from monohydrate calcium oxalate (COM) to dihydrate calcium oxalate (COD). COD has a weaker affinity for renal tubule cell membranes than COM. No remarkable effect of the crystallization time is observed on the crystal morphology of CaOx. All the crystals are obtuse hexagon. However, the sizes and the number of CaOx crystals can be affected by the crystallization time. In the early stage of crystallization (1-6 d), the sizes of CaOx crystals increase and the number of crystal particles changes little as increasing the crystallization time due to growth control. In the middle and late stages (6-30 d), the number of crystals increases markedly while the

  10. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  11. Effect of calcium on moving-bed biofilm reactor biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, C; Allen, D G

    2011-03-01

    The effect of calcium concentration on the biofilm structure, microbiology, and treatment performance was evaluated in a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Three experiments were conducted in replicate laboratory-scale reactors to determine if wastewater calcium is an important variable for the design and optimization of these reactors. Biofilm structural properties, such as thickness, oxygen microprofiles, and the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were affected by increasing calcium concentrations. Above a threshold concentration of calcium between 1 and 50 mg/L, biofilms became thicker and denser, with a shift toward increasingly proteinaceous EPS at higher calcium concentrations up to 200 mgCa2+/L. At 300 mgCa2+/L, biofilms were found to become primarily composed of inorganic calcium precipitates. Microbiology was assessed through microscopy, denaturing grade gel electrophoresis, and enumeration of higher organisms. Higher calcium concentrations were found to change the bacterial community and promote the abundant growth of filamentous organisms and various protazoa and metazoan populations. The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency was improved for reactors at calcium concentrations of 50 mg/L and above. Reactor effluents for the lowest calcium concentration (1 mgCa2+/L) were found to be turbid (>50 NTU), as a result of the detachment of small and poorly settling planktonic biomass, whereas higher concentrations promoted settling of the suspended phase. In general, calcium was found to be an important variable causing significant changes in biofilm structure and reactor function.

  12. Calcium and iron absorption: mechanism of action and nutritional importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Rossander-Hultén, L; Brune, M; Gleerup, A

    1992-05-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption in 57 human subjects. Three studies suggested that the effect is not located in the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of phytate in a meal and formation of calcium-iron-phytate complexes is not a prerequisite for the inhibition. The relative increase in iron absorption by ascorbic acid was the same in meals with and without calcium, suggesting that calcium did not influence the balance between enhancing and inhibiting ligands in the gastrointestinal lumen. No inhibiting effect on iron absorption was seen when adding 3 mg calcium to 0.01 mg iron (molar ratio Ca/Fe = 420). Previous studies showing a marked inhibition by calcium had a lower molar ratio, but greater amounts of calcium were given. This suggests that a minimal concentration of calcium is needed to achieve an effect. The present results indirectly support our original hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption is situated within the intestinal mucosal cells. The practical nutritional implications of the inhibitory effect of calcium are considerable since addition of milk, milkshake or cheese to common meals such as pizza or hamburger meals reduced iron absorption by 50-60%. It is recommended to reduce the intake of dairy products with the main meals providing most of the dietary iron, especially for those having the highest iron requirements i.e. children, teenagers and women at childbearing age. PMID:1600930

  13. Evaluation of calcium ion, hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Punit Fulzele; Sudhindra Baliga; Nilima Thosar; Debaprya Pradhan

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Evaluation of calcium ion and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate calcium and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels of calcium hydroxide based products, namely, RC Cal, Metapex, calcium hydroxide with distilled water, along with the new gutta-percha points with calcium hydroxide. Materials and Methods: The materials were inserted in polyethylene tubes and immersed in deionized wat...

  14. Homer regulates calcium signalling in growth cone turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Michael JW

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homer proteins are post-synaptic density proteins with known functions in receptor trafficking and calcium homeostasis. While they are key mediators of synaptic plasticity, they are also known to function in axon guidance, albeit by mechanisms that are yet to be elucidated. Homer proteins couple extracellular receptors – such as metabotropic glutamate receptors and the transient receptor potential canonical family of cation channels – to intracellular receptors such as inositol triphosphate and ryanodine receptors on intracellular calcium stores and, therefore, are well placed to regulate calcium dynamics within the neural growth cone. Here we used growth cones from dorsal root ganglia, a well established model in the field of axon guidance, and a growth cone turning assay to examine Homer1 function in axon guidance. Results Homer1 knockdown reversed growth cone turning from attraction to repulsion in response to the calcium-dependent guidance cues brain derived neurotrophic factor and netrin-1. Conversely, Homer1 knockdown had no effect on repulsion to the calcium-independent guidance cue Semaphorin-3A. This reversal of attractive turning suggested a requirement for Homer1 in a molecular switch. Pharmacological experiments confirmed that the operational state of a calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II/calcineurin phosphatase molecular switch was dependent on Homer1 expression. Calcium imaging of motile growth cones revealed that Homer1 is required for guidance-cue-induced rise of cytosolic calcium and the attenuation of spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients. Homer1 knockdown-induced calcium transients and turning were inhibited by antagonists of store-operated channels. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed the close association of Homer1 with the store-operated proteins TRPC1 and STIM1 within dorsal root ganglia growth cones. Conclusion These experiments provide evidence that Homer1 is an essential

  15. Chronic Pain: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the treatment. Treatment With chronic pain, the goal of treatment is to reduce pain and improve ... some treatments used for chronic pain. Less invasive psychotherapy, relaxation therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also ...

  16. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  17. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page ... Symptoms What's the Clinical Course of CFS? Chronic fatigue syndrome can be misdiagnosed or overlooked because its ...

  18. Synthesis of Calcium Silicate (Casio3 Using Calcium Fluoride, Quartz and Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gopal Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes like bacteria, algae, fungi and virus play an important role to catalyst chemical reactions. In Nature, ores or minerals of different compounds are formed due to microbial environment and other factors like weathering. Microbial environment is also instrumental in forming calcium containing silicate minerals. Chemical reactions occur under microbial environment because microbes have the ability to control or modify different factors like pH, chemical potential and temperature during reactions. In this paper, synthesis of calcium silicate (CaSiO3 using calcium fluoride (CaF2 and quartz (SiO2 under microbial environment in a laboratory is being adopted to produce the required material. XRD technique is used to confirm the formation of CaSiO3.

  19. Assembly and Calcium Binding Properties of Quantum Dot-Calmodulin Calcium Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Su-yong; Nguyen-ta, Kim; Yoo, Hoon; Silva, Gabriel A; Kim, Soon-jong

    2016-02-01

    We have developed the first nanoengineered quantum dot molecular complex designed to measure changes of calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration at high spatial and temporal resolutions in real time. The sensor is ratiometric and composed of three components: a quantum dot (QD) emitting at 620 nm as a fluorescence donor, an organic dye (Alexa Fluor 647) as a fluorescence acceptor, and a calmodulin-M13 (CaM-M13) protein part as a calcium sensing component. In this work, we have determined the maximal number of CaM-M13 required for saturating a single QD particle to be approximately 16. The dissociation constant, Kd of the QD-based calcium ion sensor was also estimated to be around 30 microM. PMID:27433729

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease