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Sample records for calcium inorganic compounds

  1. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  2. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  3. Total Serum Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is still a very common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe and the disorder of calcium and inorganic phosphate metabolism has been poorly associated with the infection. This study was aimed at assessing the total serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in PTB patients in ...

  4. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  5. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  6. Evaluation of Serum Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum samples were analysed for calcium and inorganic phosphate using titrimetric and colorimetric methods respectively. Our result revealed a steady decrease in calcium from first trimester to lactating period with statistically significant values in second and third trimesters, and lactation (P<0.05) when compared with ...

  7. Infrared spectra of inorganic compounds (3800-45cm- 1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyquist, Richard A; Kagel, Ronald O; Kagel, Ron

    1971-01-01

    .... In contrast, relatively few infrared spectra of inorganic compounds are available for reference, and no present collection covers both the mid- and far-infrared regions from 3800 to 45 cm-1. The present work is intended to help fill this void by presenting a comprehensive compendium of reference spectra of inorganic compounds.

  8. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  9. Epitaxial Relationships between Calcium Carbonate and Inorganic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taewook Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The polymorph-selective crystallization of calcium carbonate has been studied in terms of epitaxial relationship between the inorganic substrates and the aragonite/calcite polymorphs with implication in bioinspired mineralization. EpiCalc software was employed to assess the previously published experimental results on two different groups of inorganic substrates: aragonitic carbonate crystals (SrCO3, PbCO3, and BaCO3 and a hexagonal crystal family (α-Al2O3, α-SiO2, and LiNbO3. The maximum size of the overlayer (aragonite or calcite was calculated for each substrate based on a threshold value of the dimensionless potential to estimate the relative nucleation preference of the polymorphs of calcium carbonate. The results were in good agreement with previous experimental observations, although stereochemical effects between the overlayer and substrate should be separately considered when existed. In assessing the polymorph-selective nucleation, the current method appeared to provide a better tool than the oversimplified mismatch parameters without invoking time-consuming molecular simulation.

  10. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  11. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anticancer. Antidiabetic. Anti-HIV activity. Skin ointment. Antiviral. Supplement. Antiperspirant. Synthetic antioxidant. Anti-inflammatory neuroprotective agent. Antihypertensive ... a specific inhibitor of the GSK-3 family of protein kinases in vitro and in intact cells. .... ing, ruthenium compounds interact with proteins including.

  12. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  13. Process for reducing aromatic compounds in ethylenediamine with calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by containing an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with ethylenediamine and calcium metal, the calcium metal being used in large excess or alternatively in conjunction with an inert abrasive particulate substance. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, largely mono-olefins.

  14. The effect of inorganic additives to calcium phosphate on in vitro behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liang; Perez-Amodio, Soledad; Barrère, F.; Everts, Vincent; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a medium-throughput system based on deposition of calcium phosphate films in multi-well tissue culture plates that can be used to study the effect of inorganic additives on the behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in a standardized manner. All tested elements, copper, zinc,

  15. The effects of inorganic additives to calcium phosphate on in vitro behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Perez-Amodio, S.; Barrere-de Groot, F.Y.F.; Everts, V.; van Blitterswijk, C.A.; Habibovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a medium-throughput system based on deposition of calcium phosphate films in multi-well tissue culture plates that can be used to study the effect of inorganic additives on the behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in a standardized manner. All tested elements, copper, zinc,

  16. INFLUENCE OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON THE PROCESS OF PHOTOCATALYSIS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase in concentration of organic micropollutants in the water environment influences the development of methods for their effective elimination from various matrices released into aquatic ecosystems. One of widely described in literature processes for the decomposition of hardly-biodegradable pollutants is the process of heterogeneous photocatalysis. The paper presents the influence of inorganic substances on the decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, industrial admixtures - octylphenol and pharmaceutical compounds - diclofenac in the photocatalysis process conducted in the presence of TiO2. It has been shown that the presence of Cl- ions did not affect the photochemical reaction of the micropollutant decomposition. Whereas, the presence of CO3(2-, SO4(2- and HPO4(2- ions inhibited the decolonization of octylphenol and diclofenac, while the degradation efficiency of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene was reduced only by the presence of CO3(2- and HCO3- anions. The photooxidation of micropollutants in solutions containing Al(3+ oraz Fe(3+ cations proceeded with a much lower efficiency than that for solution without inorganic compounds. The analysis of the kinetics of the photocatalytic decomposition of selected micropollutants show a decrease in the reaction rate constant and an increase in their half-life due to the blocking of theactive semiconductor centers by inorganic compounds. In addition,the toxicological analysis inducated the generation of micropollutant oxidation by-products, which aggravate the quality of treated aqueous solutions.

  17. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  18. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Genetically Engineered Inorganic Binding Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Carolyn Gayle

    Understanding how organisms are capable of forming (synthesize, crystallize, and organize) solid minerals into complex architectures has been a fundamental question of biomimetic materials chemistry and biomineralization for decades. This study utilizes short peptides selected using a cell surface display library for the specific polymorphs of calcium carbonate, i.e., aragonite and calcite, to identify two sets of sequences which can then be used to examine their effects in the formation, crystal structure, morphology of the CaCO3 minerals. A procedure of counter selection, along with fluorescence microscopy (FM) characterization, was adapted to insure that the sequences on the cells were specific to their respective substrate, i.e., aragonite or calcite. From the resulting two sets of sequences selected, five distinct strong binders were identified with a variety of biochemical characteristics and synthesized for further study. Protein derived peptides, using the known sequences of the proteins that are associated with calcite or aragonite, were also designed using a bioinformatics-based similarity analysis of the two sets of binders. In particular, an aragonite binding protein segment, AP7, a protein found in nacre, was chosen for this design and the resulting effects of the designed peptides and the AP7 were examined. Specifically, the binding affinities of the selected and the protein derived peptides off the cells were then tested using FM; these studies resulted in different binding characteristics of the synthesized and cellular bound peptides. Two of the peptides that displayed strong binding on the cells bound to neither of the CaCO 3 substrates and both the high and low similarity protein-derived peptides bound to both polymorphs. However, two of the peptides were found to only bind to their respective polymorph showing; these results are significant in that with this study it is demonstrated that the designed peptides based on experimental library

  19. Multi-Phase Equilibrium and Solubilities of Aromatic Compounds and Inorganic Compounds in Sub- and Supercritical Water: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinli; Ding, Xin; Du, Bowen; Fang, Tao

    2017-11-02

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), as a novel and efficient technology, has been applied to wastewater treatment processes. The use of phase equilibrium data to optimize process parameters can offer a theoretical guidance for designing SCWO processes and reducing the equipment and operating costs. In this work, high-pressure phase equilibrium data for aromatic compounds+water systems and inorganic compounds+water systems are given. Moreover, thermodynamic models, equations of state (EOS) and empirical and semi-empirical approaches are summarized and evaluated. This paper also lists the existing problems of multi-phase equilibria and solubility studies on aromatic compounds and inorganic compounds in sub- and supercritical water.

  20. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  1. A comparison of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally; Vale, Allister

    2009-11-01

    This article reviews the experimental and clinical studies that have compared the efficacy (impact on urine lead excretion, blood and tissue lead concentrations, resolution of features and survival) of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning. It also summarizes the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects and the adverse effects of treatment. Medline, Toxline, and Embase were searched for all available years to June 2009. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: The absorption of oral DMSA is more complete than sodium calcium edetate; the latter has to be administered parenterally. Both antidotes are distributed predominantly extracellularly. Sodium calcium edetate is not metabolized, whereas DMSA is extensively metabolized to mixed disulfides of cysteine. The two antidotes have elimination half-lives of less than 60 min. There is no evidence that either antidote crosses the blood-brain barrier to any major extent. Sodium calcium edetate chelates lead by displacement of the central Ca2+ ion with Pb2+. The nature of the DMSA-lead chelate is less clearly defined. There is evidence that the mixed disulfides of cysteine are the active chelating moiety in humans. If this is the case, this suggests that chelation occurs principally, if not exclusively, in the kidney. The primary source of lead mobilized by sodium calcium edetate is bone with an additional contribution from kidney and liver. Comparison of the experimental studies is complicated by substantial variations in study design, particularly the antidote dose, the route and duration of treatment, the amount and duration of lead dosing, and lack of direct comparison between antidotes (comparison was usually made with control). In experimental studies that used equimolar and clinically relevant antidote doses and assessed the impact of DMSA and sodium calcium edetate on urine lead excretion and/or blood lead concentrations, similar results

  2. Electricity generation from an inorganic sulfur compound containing mining wastewater by acidophilic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Gaofeng; Christel, Stephan; Roman, Pawel; Wong, Zhen Lim; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide mineral processing often produces large quantities of wastewaters containing acid-generating inorganic sulfur compounds. If released untreated, these wastewaters can cause catastrophic environmental damage. In this study, microbial fuel cells were inoculated with acidophilic

  3. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  4. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds, v.1 pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    2013-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  5. Infrared spectra of inorganic compounds (3800-45cm- 1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyquist, Richard A; Kagel, Ronald O; Kagel, Ron

    1971-01-01

    ... availability of low- cost infrared spectrometers. For these reasons, over the last 30 years large numbers of standard spectra of organic compounds have been collected and catalogued, and are presently available for reference...

  6. Experimental formation enthalpies for intermetallic phases and other inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, George; Meschel, S. V.; Nash, Philip; Chen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the energy associated with the reaction to form the compound from its component elements. The standard enthalpy of formation is a fundamental thermodynamic property that determines its phase stability, which can be coupled with other thermodynamic data to calculate phase diagrams. Calorimetry provides the only direct method by which the standard enthalpy of formation is experimentally measured. However, the measurement is often a time and energy intensive process. We present a dataset of enthalpies of formation measured by high-temperature calorimetry. The phases measured in this dataset include intermetallic compounds with transition metal and rare-earth elements, metal borides, metal carbides, and metallic silicides. These measurements were collected from over 50 years of calorimetric experiments. The dataset contains 1,276 entries on experimental enthalpy of formation values and structural information. Most of the entries are for binary compounds but ternary and quaternary compounds are being added as they become available. The dataset also contains predictions of enthalpy of formation from first-principles calculations for comparison.

  7. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; Crystal structure; Dinuclear complex; Electrocatalysis; Impedance spectroscopy. Abstract. Dinuclear coordination compound of Cu(II), namely, [Cu2(pydc)2(pz)(H2O)2]·2H2O, where pydc = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid) and pz = pyrazine has been synthesized and ...

  8. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry : The promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, B.; Casini, A.

    2014-01-01

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold

  9. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  10. Luminescence properties of organic–inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds under vacuum ultraviolet irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Naoki; Koshimizu, Masanori; Okada, Go; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki; Asai, Keisuke

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the luminescence properties of organic–inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds under vacuum ultraviolet irradiation. A crystal of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbBr4 was fabricated by the poor-solvent diffusion method. Exciton emissions from the inorganic layer were observed at 410 nm under ultraviolet irradiation (excitation wavelengths: 180 and 300 nm). The rise time behavior observed in the luminescence decay curve showed no difference among the excitation wavelengths of 60–300 nm. In addition, no excitation peak of benzene such as an intense peak at 180 nm (1A1g → 1E1u) in the vacuum ultraviolet region was observed in the excitation spectra measured while monitoring the exciton emissions from the inorganic layer. These results indicate that the effect of energy transfer from the organic layer to the inorganic layer has negligible contribution to the luminescence properties of organic–inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds.

  11. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    absorption. Therefore, calcium as an essential nutrient should not be underestimated in our diet. Milk and dairy products are good sources of bioavailable calcium due to specific protein binding. Other sources of calcium, apart from a balanced and healthy diet, are calcium supplements and calcium fortified......Calcium precipitation in the almost neutral environment of the intestines is a process related to weight loss management and plays an important role in the prevention of colon cancer development. This process also affects calcium bioavailability which is decreased due to decreased calcium...... food. Therefore, an understanding of the basic chemistry of calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds can contribute to a general knowledge about calcium bioavailability and also to product improvement. Calcium precipitation with palmitate was described by a first-order reaction for conditions...

  12. [Responses of rice-wheat rotation system in south Jiangsu to organic-inorganic compound fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Heng-Da; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Wang, Qiu-Jun; Xu, Da-Bing; Yibati, Halihashi; Xu, Jia-Le; Huang, Qi-Wei

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-2007, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of applying three kinds of organic-inorganic compound fertilizers [rapeseed cake compost plus inorganic fertilizers (RCC), pig manure compost plus inorganic fertilizers (PMC), and Chinese medicine residues plus inorganic fertilizers (CMC)] on the crop growth and nitrogen (N) use efficiency of rice-wheat rotation system in South Jiangsu. Grain yield of wheat and rice in the different fertilization treatments was significantly higher than the control (no fertilization). In treatments RCC, PMC and CMC, the wheat yield was 13.1%, 32.2% and 39.3% lower than that of the NPK compound fertilizer (CF, 6760 kg x hm(-2)), respectively, but the rice yield (8504-9449 kg x hm(-2)) was significantly higher than that (7919 kg x hm(-2)) of CF, with an increment of 7.4%-19.3%. In wheat season, the aboveground dry mass, N accumulation, and N use efficiency in treatments RCC, PMC, and CMC were lower than those of CF, but in rice season, these parameters were significantly higher than or as the same as CF. In sum, all the test three compound fertilizers had positive effects on the rice yield and its nitrogen use efficiency in the rice-wheat rotation system, being most significant for RCC.

  13. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on inorganic compounds. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Kitazawa, Takafumi; Nanba, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Norio; Sumisawa, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Masuo [Toho Univ., Funabashi, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    {sup 166}Er and {sup 127}I Moessbauer spectra were observed. {sup 166}Er Moessbauer spectrum of Er metal and 9 compounds were measured by {sup 166}Ho/Y{sub 0.6}Ho{sub 0.4}H{sub 2} source at 12K and the parameters such as e{sup 2}qQ(mm s{sup -1}), Heff(T) and {tau}(ns) were determined. The relaxation time of ErCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O was 0.7ns, long, but that of ErCl{sub 3} was 10 ps, short time. {sup 127}I Moessbauer spectrum of PhI(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2} (R=CH{sub 3}, CHF{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}Cl, CHCl{sub 2}, CCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}Br, CHBr{sub 2} and CBr{sub 3}) were observed and compared with that of R`{sub 3}Sb(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2} was similar to that of PhI(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2}. The correlation coefficient between e{sup 2}qQ({sup 127}I) and Mulliken population of carboxylic hydrogen atom of R{sub 2}CO{sub 2}H was -0.87. The relation between the hypervalent bond of O-I-O and that of O-Sb-0 was shown by the equation: e{sup 2}qQ({sup 121}Sb)/mm s{sup -1} = -47.2 + 1.32 e{sup 2}qQ({sup 127}I)/mm s{sup -1}. Hypervalent iodine complex such as (PhI(py){sub 2}){sup 2+} salt and E-Sb-I (E=O, I, N and C) were studied, too. (S.Y.)

  14. Inorganic and methane clathrates: Versatility of guest–host compounds for energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, Lakshmi; Koh, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    This review article evaluates the structure–property relations of inorganic clathrates and clathrate hydrates and their potential role in energy harvesting. There is potential cross-fertilization between the two research areas.

    Guest–host clathrate compounds exhibit unique structural and physical properties, which lead to their versatile roles in energy applications. Prominent classes of clathrate compounds are gas hydrates and inorganic clathrates. That said, there is limited cross-fertilization between the clathrate hydrate and inorganic clathrate communities, with researchers in the respective fields being less informed on the other field. Yet the structures and unique guest–host interactions in both these compounds are common important features of these clathrates. Common features and procedures can inspire and inform development between the compound classes, which may be important to the technological advancements for the different clathrate materials, e.g., structure characterization techniques and guest–host dynamics in which the “guest” tends to be imprisoned in the host structure, until external forces are applied. Conversely, the diversity in chemical compositions of these two classes of materials leads to the different applications from methane capture and storage to converting waste heat to electricity (thermoelectrics). This article highlights the structural and physical similarities and differences of inorganic and methane clathrates. The most promising state-of-the-art applications of the clathrates are highlighted for harvesting energy from methane (clathrate) hydrate deposits under the ocean and for inorganic clathrates as promising thermoelectric materials.

  15. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation off...

  16. Inorganic tin compounds do not induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes in the absence of metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damati, Artemis; Vlastos, Dimitris; Philippopoulos, Athanassios I; Matthopoulos, Demetrios P

    2014-04-01

    The genotoxic evaluation (in vitro analysis) of a series of eight inorganic tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds [tin(II) acetate, tin(II) chloride, tin(II) ethylhexanoate, tin(II) oxalate, tin(II) oxide, tin(IV) acetate, tin(IV) chloride and tin(IV) oxide], for the detection of micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes, was performed in the absence of metabolic activation by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Human lymphocytes were treated for over one cell cycle (31 hours), with concentrations ranging from 1 to 75 μM (1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 75 μM), of tin(II) and tin(IV) salts dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The above-listed concentrations cover the values that have been detected in humans with no occupational exposure to tin compounds. The experimental results show the absence of genotoxicity for all inorganic compounds tested in the specific concentrations and experimental conditions. Cytotoxic effects of tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds were evaluated by the determination of cytokinesis block proliferation index and cytotoxicity percentage. Our observations on the cytotoxicity pattern of the tested tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds indicate that they are cytotoxic in several tested concentrations to human lymphocytes treated in vitro. The observed differences in cytotoxicity of each tested compound might reflect differences in their chemical structure.

  17. Low temperature removal of inorganic sulfur compounds from mining process waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeqvist, Maria; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Saleh, Amang; Dopson, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Process water and effluents from mining operations treating sulfide rich ores often contain considerable concentrations of metastable inorganic sulfur compounds such as thiosulfate and tetrathionate. These species may cause environmental problems if released to downstream recipients due to oxidation to sulfuric acid catalyzed by acidophilic microorganisms. Molecular phylogenic analysis of the tailings pond and recipient streams identified psychrotolerant and mesophilic inorganic sulfur compound oxidizing microorganisms. This suggested year round thiosalt oxidation occurs. Mining process waters may also contain inhibiting substances such as thiocyanate from cyanidation plants. However, toxicity experiments suggested their expected concentrations would not inhibit thiosalt oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3. A mixed culture from a permanently cold (4-6 °C) low pH environment was tested for thiosalt removal in a reactor design including a biogenerator and a main reactor containing a biofilm carrier. The biogenerator and main reactors were successively reduced in temperature to 5-6 °C when 43.8% of the chemical oxidation demand was removed. However, it was found that the oxidation of thiosulfate was not fully completed to sulfate since low residual concentrations of tetrathionate and trithionate were found in the discharge. This study has demonstrated the potential of using biotechnological solutions to remove inorganic sulfur compounds at 6°C and thus, reduce the impact of mining on the environment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry: the promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Casini, Angela

    2014-03-21

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold coordination compounds. In fact, several studies have proved that they can be used to develop highly efficient metal-based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer. This Perspective summarizes the results obtained for different families of bioactive organometallic gold compounds including cyclometallated gold(iii) complexes with C,N-donor ligands, gold(I) and gold(I/III) N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene complexes, as well as gold(I) alkynyl complexes, with promising anticancer effects. Most importantly, we will focus on recent developments in the field and discuss the potential of this class of organometallic compounds in relation to their versatile chemistry and innovative mechanisms of action.

  19. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, C. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Correcher, V., E-mail: v.correcher@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Virgos, M.D. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Aragonite and biogenic Ca-carbonates could be used as a TL dosimeters. • TL can be employed for retrospective dosimetry purposes. • Calcium carbonates show an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity. • The stability of the radiation–induced TL remains, at least, till 700 h. - Abstract: As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle – littorina littorera – shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180–320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  20. Inorganic sulfur–nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J. Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the German Research Council (DFG CO 1305/2-1 and SFB1116 TP B06 to MCK), the Susanne-Bunnenberg-Stiftung of the Düsseldorf Heart Center (to MK, and MCK) and the Forschungskommission, Faculty of Medicine, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf (to MCK), the UK Medical Research Council (G1001536 to MF), and the Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton (to MF). The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compound to form S...

  1. Structural study, spectroscopic analysis and dielectric proprieties of new hybrid organic-inorganic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, Nejla; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2017-11-01

    The present research work presented the growth, the crystal structure and the spectroscopic study of a new organic inorganic hybrid compound [C12H12N]2ZnCl4. In fact, the single crystals of bis (4-benzylpyridinium) tetrachlorozincate (II), [4-BP]2ZnCl4 were obtained by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature and crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group -P2yn of Monoclinic system. The infrared (FT-IR), Raman and RMN spectra of the title compound were recorded at room temperature and then analyzed. The thermal study and the evolution of the complex permittivity of the single crystal sample have been reported to explain the availability of the phase transition at 368 K.

  2. Structural Characterization and Infrared and Electrical Properties of the New Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oueslati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New inorganic-organic hybrid [(C3H74N]2Hg2Cl6 compound was obtained and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, and impedance spectroscopy. The latter crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group C 2/c, with the following unit cell dimensions: (1 Å, (6 Å, (2 Å, and (2. Besides, its structure was solved using 84860 independent reflections leading to . Electrical properties of the material were studied using impedance spectroscopic technique at different temperatures in the frequency range of 209 Hz to 5 MHz. Detailed analysis of the impedance spectrum suggested that the electrical properties of the material are strongly temperature-dependent. The Nyquist plots clearly showed the presence of bulk and grain boundary effect in the compound.

  3. Electricity generation from an inorganic sulfur compound containing mining wastewater by acidophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Gaofeng; Christel, Stephan; Roman, Pawel; Wong, Zhen Lim; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Dopson, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Sulfide mineral processing often produces large quantities of wastewaters containing acid-generating inorganic sulfur compounds. If released untreated, these wastewaters can cause catastrophic environmental damage. In this study, microbial fuel cells were inoculated with acidophilic microorganisms to investigate whether inorganic sulfur compound oxidation can generate an electrical current. Cyclic voltammetry suggested that acidophilic microorganisms mediated electron transfer to the anode, and that electricity generation was catalyzed by microorganisms. A cation exchange membrane microbial fuel cell, fed with artificial wastewater containing tetrathionate as electron donor, reached a maximum whole cell voltage of 72 ± 9 mV. Stepwise replacement of the artificial anolyte with real mining process wastewater had no adverse effect on bioelectrochemical performance and generated a maximum voltage of 105 ± 42 mV. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the microbial consortia resulted in sequences that aligned within the genera Thermoplasma, Ferroplasma, Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus and Acidithiobacillus. This study opens up possibilities to bioremediate mining wastewater using microbial fuel cell technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunomodulatory effect of selenosemicarbazides and selenium inorganic compounds, distribution in organs after selenium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, I; Koziol-Montewka, M; Toś-Luty, S; Pasternak, K; Latuszyńska, J; Tokarska, M; Kielczykowska, M

    1999-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of selenium producing a protective barrier against free radicals play an important role in numerous metabolic and immunologic processes associated with oxidation-reduction reactions which take place during intracellular digestion of phagocyted bacteria. The aim of our study was to examine the properties of an organic compound of selenium, 4-(o-tolilo)-selenosemicarbazide of p-chlorobenzoic acid in terms of its retention in organs, effect on erythropoesis and phagocytic abilities of neutrophiles as well as antioxidant properties in neutrophiles tested with NBT test. This compound as well as inorganic sodium selenate was given to Swiss mice at the dose of 10(-3) g Se/kg for the period of 10 days. The concentrations of selenium in livers of mice treated with sodium selenate and selenosemicarbazide were found to be higher than in controls (18.7 micrograms lg-1 and 23.2 micrograms lg-1 vs. 12 micrograms lg-1, respectively). Analysis of blood cells count has shown a significant decrease in neutrophile levels in both groups treated with selenium. The influence of selenium compounds on phagocytosis and especially NBT test has been determined (3.8% of positive cells in the controls vs. 2.2% and 0.9% in the groups treated with sodium selenate and selenosemicarbazide, respectively). Our preliminary investigations suggest that selenosemicarbazides are biologically active compounds and can modify neutrophile functions.

  5. Stimulation of cell proliferation by calcium and a calcimimetic compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mailland, M; Waelchli, R; Ruat, M; Boddeke, HGWM; Seuwen, K

    Some mesenchymal cells respond to stimulation by specific cations with increased cell proliferation. In the present study we have investigated whether the parathyroid/kidney/brain calcium-sensing receptor (PCaR) can mediate such mitogenic responses. We have expressed the recombinant rat PCaR in

  6. Influence of dissolved inorganic carbon and calcium on gas formation and accumulation in iron permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Aki S; Weber, Anne; Jekel, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainties in long-term reactivity and gas accumulation in Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers still hinder a broad application of this groundwater remediation technology. In this study long-term column experiments were conducted under varying geochemical conditions. Generation of hydrogen by anaerobic corrosion in Fe(0) reactive filters was mainly influenced by the mass flux of dissolved inorganic carbon. Both increased concentrations and volume flows led to a substantial rise in gas generation but only to slight differences of gas accumulation within the pores of the reactive filter. Comparisons of columns with different lengths showed higher averaged corrosion rates in the shorter and lower corrosion rates in the longer columns. Calcium in conjunction with dissolved inorganic carbon formed compact and localized aragonite minerals, while in the absence of calcium chukanovite dominated, which covered and passivated the reactive surface to a higher extent. Magnetite was the major crystalline corrosion product in the absence of carbonate and no decline in long term corrosion rates was observed within up to 700 days of operation. Total gas yields of columns were restricted by passivation and approached a volume of approximately 13.5 mL/g granulated cast iron. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Solubility Characteristics and Slow-Release Mechanism of Nitrogen from Organic-Inorganic Compound Coated Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil incubation method was used to investigate the solubility characteristics and slow-release mechanism of organic-inorganic compound coated urea at temperature of 10, 20, and 30°C. The membrane microstructure with and without incubation was tested via scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Slow release of nitrogen (N from different inorganic minerals was analysed by the activation energy from the nutrient solubility system. The rate of nitrogen solubility increased with temperature increasing. The first-order reaction kinetic equation described the solubility process of coated urea. The rate constant k also increased with temperature increasing. Moreover, the SEM images showed that the microstructure of the coating layer changed into a flocculent structure and the number of tiny pores and holes on the membrane surface increased significantly with temperature increasing, which increased N solubility rate. The Arrhenius equation indicated that activation energy was closely related to k during the solubility process; the activation energy was reduced with k rising, which resulted in N solubility rate increasing. Overall, the N solubility rate of coated urea was affected by temperature.

  8. Migration of residual nonvolatile and inorganic compounds from recycled post-consumer PET and HDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Camila; Reyes, Felix G.R., E-mail: reyesfgr@fea.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Ciencias dos Alimentos; Freire, Maria Teresa de A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencia Animal e Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Nerin, Cristina; Bentayeb, Karim; Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Aznar, Margarita [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Arago Inst. of Engineering Research, University of Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-04-15

    Migration of nonvolatile and inorganic residual compounds from post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) submitted to cleaning processes for subsequent production of materials intended to food contact, as well as from multilayer packaging material containing post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was determined. Tests were carried out using food simulant. Nonvolatile organic contaminants from PET, determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ/MS), showed significant migration reduction as consequence of the more complex cleaning technologies applied. However, contaminants not allowed by Brazilian and European Union regulations were identified even in deep cleaning samples. Results from multilayer HDPE showed a greater number of contaminants when compared to recycled pellets. Inorganic contaminants, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were below the acceptable levels. Additional studies for identification and quantitation of unknown molecules which were not possible to identify in this study by UPLC-QqQ/MS are required to ascertain the safety of using post-consumer recycled packaging material. (author)

  9. Inorganic sulfur-nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-04-14

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S-N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical interaction of these two species leads to formation of S-N compounds brought this chemistry to the attention of physiologists, biochemists and physicians. We here provide a perspective about the potential role of S-N compounds in biological signaling and briefly review their chemical properties and bioactivities in the context of the chronology of their discovery. Studies of the biological role of NO revealed why its chemistry is ideally suited for the tasks Nature has chosen for it; realising how the distinctive properties of sulfur can enrich this bioactivity does much to revive 'die Freude am experimentellen Spiel' of the pioneers in this field.

  10. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M. [National Research Council - Institute of Composites and Biomedical Materials, P.le E. Fermi, 1 80055 Portici (Naples) (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles.

  11. Utilization of titanium oxide-like compound as an inorganic phosphate adsorbent for the control of serum phosphate level in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Kazuhiko; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Wakimoto, Shin; Ichimura, Minoru; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2010-08-01

    Hyperphosphatemia adversely affects the prognosis of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). We synthesized a titanium oxide-like compound (TAP) as a phosphate adsorbent for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in CFR patients. We evaluated the ability of TAP to adsorb inorganic phosphate in vitro and in vivo. TAP was shown to contain sulfate and hydroxyl groups by thermal analysis, which probably involved in phosphate adsorption through an ionic exchange mechanism. TAP constantly adsorbed phosphate (66.20-72.84 mg/g TAP) over a wide pH range (1.22-7.27) in vitro. To evaluate the phosphate binding potential of TAP in vivo, adenine-induced CRF rats were fed AIN-76 diet containing 3% TAP, 10% TAP, 3% sevelamer hydrochloride (clinical phosphate adsorbent), or 3% calcium carbonate, and serum levels of phosphate and calcium and urinary phosphate were compared with those in untreated CRF rats. Orally administered TAP showed the inhibitory effect on serum phosphate level in adenine-induced CRF rats, which was equivalent to that of sevelamer hydrochloride. These results indicate that TAP is a useful alternative phosphate-binder with fewer side effects than sevelamer hydrochloride and calcium carbonate.

  12. Effect of synthesis parameters on the compressive strength of low-calcium ferronickel slag inorganic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnitsas, Kostas; Zaharaki, Dimitra; Perdikatsis, Vasillios

    2009-01-30

    The wide range of physical and chemical properties of inorganic polymers, also known as geopolymers, commonly formed by alkali activation of aluminosilicates, makes these materials useful for a variety of applications. In the present experimental study inorganic polymers are synthesised from low-Ca electric arc ferronickel slag. The effect of experimental conditions on the compressive strength of the final products is assessed. A number of techniques, namely XRD, FTIR and TG-DTG were used to identify new phases and subsequently elucidate to some degree the mechanisms involved. Finally, the paper discusses briefly the potential of inorganic polymer technology as a feasible option for the utilisation of certain potentially hazardous mining and metallurgical wastes towards an increased sustainability of the wider minerals sector.

  13. Preparation of calcium carbonate as nanoparticles from inorganic precursors and sucrose as additive with potential application as biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabaita, F.; Mahtout, L.; Perez Villarejo, L.; Carrasco Hurtado, B.; Sanchez Soto, P.J.

    2016-07-01

    In this communication, it is reported the first relevant results on a broad study on the preparation of calcium carbonate as precipitated nanoparticles of the polymorphs vaterite and calcite. The inorganic precursors are calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and sodium hydrogencarbonate, and the organic additive is sucrose in aqueous solution. The crystalline phases are studied by X-Ray powder diffraction, using a quantitative method, and the particle morphologies using scanning electron microscopy. When the organic additive is not used, calcite as the most thermodynamically stable polymorph is precipitated as nanocrystalline predominant phase (83%) mixed with vaterite. Using a high concentration of the organic additive (67%), vaterite is precipitated as the nanocrystalline predominant phase (>98%). Using the additive in variable proportion produces the precipitation of the 2 polymorphs, being vaterite always the predominant phase. The morphology of the precipitated calcium carbonate shows nanospherical uniform particles with irregular contourns of vaterite and characteristic rhomboedral particles of calcite when this phase is present. According to the biocompatibility, this material shows interest in applications as biomaterial in bone implants. (Author)

  14. Influence of calcium compounds on the mechanical properties of fly ash geopolymer pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuujin, J; van Riessen, A; Williams, R

    2009-08-15

    The influence of calcium compounds (CaO and Ca(OH)(2)) on the mechanical properties of fly ash based geopolymers has been studied. Calcium compounds were substituted in fly ash at 1, 2 and 3 wt%, respectively. Curing of the geopolymers was performed at ambient temperature (20 degrees C) and 70 degrees C. Addition of calcium compounds as a fly ash substitute improved mechanical properties for the ambient temperature cured samples while decreasing properties for the 70 degrees C cured samples. Seven days compressive strength of the ambient temperature cured samples increased from 11.8 (2.9) to 22.8 (3.8)MPa and 29.2 (1.1)MPa for 3% CaO and 3% Ca(OH)(2) additions, respectively.

  15. Electrolytic aminated carbon materials for the electrocatalytic redox reactions of inorganic and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Eriko; Takahashi, Yuichi; Nishi, Hideki; Uchiyama, Shunichi

    2011-06-01

    Some kinds of amine groups can be introduced to the glassy carbon surface by the electrode oxidation of the carbon electrode surface in ammonium carbamate solution, and this amine groups modified electrode is named as an aminated glassy carbon electrode. The existences of not only primary amine but also secondary and tertially amines were confirmed by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The applications of the aminated carbon material for the electrocatalytic reductions of oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and organic compounds such as quinones were carried out, and the effects of amination on the formation of electrocatalytic sites for many species were revealed. The electrocatalyzed cyclic voltammograms of metal ions and metal chelate compounds obtained by aminated glassy carbon electrodes are also discussed. Moreover, we intend to describe that the aminated carbon electrode can exhibit the large reduction waves of inorganic oxoacids such as N02- or bromide ion. The introduced functional groups containing nitrogen atom can change the distribution of the electron densities of the graphite carbon surface, and this specific electron distribution environment may generate the various electrocatalytic activities. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Phoungthong, Khamphe [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui [Changzhou Domestic Waste Treatment Center, Changzhou 213000 (China); Shao, Li-Ming [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pin-Jing, E-mail: solidwaste@tongji.edu.cn [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO{sub 3} was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO{sub 3} and CaSiO{sub 3} began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leached at pH < 12. CaSO{sub 4} could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO{sub 3} > Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} > CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the

  17. Development of injectable organic/inorganic colloidal composite gels made of self-assembling gelatin nanospheres and calcium phosphate nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanan; Bongio, Matilde; Farbod, Kambiz; Nijhuis, Arnold W G; van den Beucken, Jeroen; Boerman, Otto C; van Hest, Jan C M; Li, Yubao; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal gels are a particularly attractive class of hydrogels for applications in regenerative medicine, and allow for a "bottom-up" fabrication of multi-functional biomaterials by employing micro- or nanoscale particles as building blocks to assemble into shape-specific bulk scaffolds. So far, however, the synthesis of colloidal composite gels composed of both organic and inorganic particles has hardly been investigated. The current study has focused on the development of injectable colloidal organic-inorganic composite gels using calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles and gelatin (Gel) nanospheres as building blocks. These novel Gel-CaP colloidal composite gels exhibited a strongly enhanced gel elasticity, shear-thinning and self-healing behavior, and gel stability at high ionic strengths, while chemical - potentially cytotoxic - functionalizations were not necessary to introduce sufficiently strong cohesive interactions. Moreover, it was shown in vitro that osteoconductive CaP nanoparticles can be used as an additional tool to reduce the degradation rate of otherwise fast-degradable gelatin nanospheres and fine-tune the control over the release of growth factors. Finally, it was shown that these colloidal composite gels support attachment, spreading and proliferation of cultured stem cells. Based on these results, it can be concluded that proof-of-principle has been obtained for the design of novel advanced composite materials made of nanoscale particulate building blocks which exhibit great potential for use in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1988-01-01

    A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

  19. Stoichiometric modeling of oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (Riscs) in Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla Fazzini, Roberto A; Cortés, Maria Paz; Padilla, Leandro; Maturana, Daniel; Budinich, Marko; Maass, Alejandro; Parada, Pilar

    2013-08-01

    The prokaryotic oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) is a topic of utmost importance from a biogeochemical and industrial perspective. Despite sulfur oxidizing bacterial activity is largely known, no quantitative approaches to biological RISCs oxidation have been made, gathering all the complex abiotic and enzymatic stoichiometry involved. Even though in the case of neutrophilic bacteria such as Paracoccus and Beggiatoa species the RISCs oxidation systems are well described, there is a lack of knowledge for acidophilic microorganisms. Here, we present the first experimentally validated stoichiometric model able to assess RISCs oxidation quantitatively in Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (strain DSM 17318), the archetype of the sulfur oxidizing acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs. This model was built based on literature and genomic analysis, considering a widespread mix of formerly proposed RISCs oxidation models combined and evaluated experimentally. Thiosulfate partial oxidation by the Sox system (SoxABXYZ) was placed as central step of sulfur oxidation model, along with abiotic reactions. This model was coupled with a detailed stoichiometry of biomass production, providing accurate bacterial growth predictions. In silico deletion/inactivation highlights the role of sulfur dioxygenase as the main catalyzer and a moderate function of tetrathionate hydrolase in elemental sulfur catabolism, demonstrating that this model constitutes an advanced instrument for the optimization of At. thiooxidans biomass production with potential use in biohydrometallurgical and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Simultaneous removal of inorganic and organic compounds in wastewater by freshwater green microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guang-Jie; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Fu-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Batch experiments were carried out for 7 days to investigate the simultaneous removal of various organic and inorganic contaminants including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), metals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and estrogenic activity in wastewater by four freshwater green microalgae species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris. After treatment for 7 days, 76.7-92.3% of TN, and 67.5-82.2% of TP were removed by these four algae species. The removal of metals from wastewater by the four algae species varied among the metal species. These four algae species could remove most of the metals efficiently (>40% removal), but showed low efficiencies in removing Pb, Ni and Co. The four algae species were also found to be efficient in removing most of the selected organic compounds with >50% removal, and the estrogenic activity with removal efficiencies ranging from 46.2 to 81.1% from the wastewater. Therefore, algae could be harnessed to simultaneously remove various contaminants in wastewater.

  1. Cultivating Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda microalgae to degrade inorganic compounds and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Andrea; Sidella, Sarah; Barone, Valeria; Fragalà, Ferdinando; Silkina, Alla; Nègre, Michèle; Gennari, Mara

    2016-09-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of cultivating Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae in wastewater from the hydroponic cultivation of tomatoes with the aim of purifying the water. S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris were also used in purification tests carried out on water contaminated by the following active ingredients: metalaxyl, pyrimethanil, fenhexamid, iprodione, and triclopyr. Fifty-six days after the inoculum was placed, a reduction was found in the concentration of nitric nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and soluble and total phosphorus. The decrease was 99, 83, 94, and 94 %, respectively, for C. vulgaris and 99, 5, 88, and 89 %, respectively, for S. quadricauda. When the microalgae were present, all the agrochemicals tested were removed more quickly from the water than from the sterile control (BG11). The increase in the rate of degradation was in the order metalaxyl > fenhexamid > iprodione > triclopyr > pyrimethanil. It was demonstrated that there was a real degradation of fenhexamid, metalaxyl, triclopyr, and iprodione, while in the case of pyrimethanil, the active ingredient removed from the substrate was absorbed onto the cells of the microalgae. It was also found that the agrochemicals used in the tests had no significant effect on the growth of the two microalgae. The experiment highlighted the possibility of using cultivations of C. vulgaris and S. quadricauda as purification systems for agricultural wastewater which contains eutrophic inorganic compounds such as nitrates and phosphates and also different types of pesticides.

  2. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010.

  3. On the protection by inorganic phosphate of calcium-induced membrane permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, E; Moreno-Sánchez, R; Zazueta, C; Rodríguez, J S; Bravo, C; Reyes-Vivas, H

    1997-12-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate as inhibitor of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition was studied. It is shown that in mitochondria containing a high phosphate concentration, i.e., 68 nmo/mg, Ca2+ did not activate the pore opening. Conversely, at lower levels of matrix phosphate, i.e., 38 nmol/mg, Ca2+ was able to induce subsequent pore opening. The inhibitory effect of phosphate was apparent in sucrose-based media, but it was not achieved in KCI media. The matrix free Ca2+ concentration and matrix pH were lowered by phosphate, but they were always higher in K+-media. In the absence of ADP, phosphate strengthened the inhibitory effect of cyclosporin A on carboxyatractyloside-induced Ca2+ efflux. Acetate was unable to replace phosphate in the induction of the aforementioned effects. It is concluded that phosphate preserves selective membrane permeability by diminishing the matrix free Ca2+ concentration.

  4. [Effect of the light on the biosynthesis of inorganic polyphosphates and some phosphoorganic compounds in Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuntsov, M M; Grebennikov, A S

    1977-01-01

    The illumination of Chlorella cells is found to affect the biosynthesis of different inorganic polyphosphates (IPP) and phosphoorganic compounds. The synthesis of IPP fractions, extracted with TCA at 0 degrees C and perchloric acid at 100 degrees C, is carried out with the cooperation of photochemical reactions, while the formation of other IPP fractions is light-independent. Ohosphorus incorporation into nucleic acids and phosphoproteins is due to the effect of the light, and phosphorylation of carbohydrates and phospholipids is a dark process.

  5. U{sup 6+} minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, P.C. [Univ. of Notre Dame, Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, Notre Dame, Indiana (United States); Argonne National Lab., Chemistry Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States)], E-mail: pburns@ndu.edu

    2005-12-15

    The crystal structures of uranyl minerals and inorganic uranyl compounds are important for understanding the genesis of U deposits, the interaction of U mine and mill tailings with the environment, transport of actinides in soils and the vadose zone, the performance of geological repositories for nuclear waste, and for the development of advanced materials with novel applications. Over the past decade, the number of inorganic uranyl compounds (including minerals) with known structures has more than doubled, and reconsideration of the structural hierarchy of uranyl compounds is warranted. Here, 368 inorganic crystal structures that contain essential U{sup 6+} are considered (of which 89 are minerals). They are arranged on the basis of the topological details of their structural units, which are formed by the polymerization of polyhedra containing higher-valence cations. Overarching structural categories correspond to those based upon isolated polyhedra (8), finite clusters (43), chains (57), sheets (204), and frameworks (56) of polyhedra. Within these categories, structures are organized and compared upon the basis of either their graphical representations, or in the case of sheets involving sharing of edges of polyhedra, upon the topological arrangement of anions within the sheets. (author)

  6. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  7. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 1 ? Inorganic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, D. O.; Mcfiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic modelling framework to predict the equilibrium behaviour of mixed inorganic salt aerosols is developed, and then coupled with a technique for finding a solution to the Kohler equation in order to create a diameter dependent hygroscopic aerosol model (Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model - ADDEM). The model described here provides a robust and accurate inorganic basis using a mole fraction based activity coefficient model and adjusted energies of formation for treating ...

  8. Comparison of selenium distribution in mice organs after the supplementation with inorganic and organic selenium compound selenosemicarbazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Toś-Luty, Sabina; Donica, Helena; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Wawrzycki, Sławomir

    2002-01-01

    Studies on selenium organ content and its function in living organisms just like studies on other elements provide interesting results although their interpretation is not always clear. The aim of our study was to determine the concentration and distribution of selenium in several organs and tissues in mice after supplementation with our newly synthesized organic compound of selenium selenosemicarbazide (4-o-tolyl-selenosemicarbazide of o-chlorobenzoic acid) as compared to the effects of the supplementation with inorganic compounds. SWISS mice were fed with both types of compounds at the dose of 10(-3) g Se per kg for the period of 10 days. The concentrations of selenium in brains of mice treated with selenocarbazide and sodium selenite were higher than in controls (38.04 micrograms g-1 and 32.00 micrograms g-1 vs. 26.18 micrograms g-1). There was a statistically significant increase in the selenium contents in lungs after supplementation with selenosemicarbazide and sodium selenite (11.81 micrograms g-1 and 6.79 micrograms g-1 vs. 1.75 micrograms g-1 in controls). We found a statistically insignificant increase in selenium contents in intercostal muscles after supplementation with inorganic selenium compounds and a statistically significant increase after the supplementation with selenosemicarbazide (10.13 micrograms g-1; 14.21 micrograms g-1 and 28.84 micrograms g-1, respectively). Our investigations lead to a conclusion that 4-o-tolyl-seleno-semicarbazide of o-chlorobenzoic acid, an organic selenium compound may be more easily absorbed than inorganic sodium IV selenite.

  9. Response of pepper plants (Capsicum annum L.) on soil amendment by inorganic and organic compounds of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száková, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Goessler, Walter; Pavlíková, Daniela; Schmeisser, Ernst

    2007-01-01

    The influence of soil contamination by inorganic and organic arsenic compounds on uptake, accumulation, and transformation of arsenic in pepper (Capsicum annum L.) was investigated in greenhouse pot experiments under controlled conditions. Pepper plants were cultivated in substrate amended by aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid (MA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) applied individually into cultivation substrate at concentrations of 15 mg As per kg of substrate. The plant availability of the arsenicals increased in the order arsenite = arsenate pepper fruits, As(III), As(V), and DMA were present (25%, 37%, and 39% of the water-extractable arsenic). In control stems + leaves and roots, As(V) was the major compound (63% and 53% in a phosphate buffer extract) followed by As(III) representing 33% and 42%. Additionally, low concentrations (not exceeding 5%) of DMA and MA were detected as well. In all the soils analyzed after the first harvest of pepper fruits, arsenate was the dominating compound followed by arsenite. Methylarsonic acid, methylarsonous acid, and DMA were present at varying concentrations depending on the individual soil treatments. In the treated plants, the arsenic compounds in plant tissues reflected predominantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds present in soil after amendment, and this pattern was more significant in the first part of vegetation period. The results confirmed the ability of generative parts of plants to accumulate preferably organic arsenic compounds, whereas in the roots and aboveground biomass, mainly inorganic arsenic species are present. Evidently, the source of soil arsenic contamination affects significantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds in soil and subsequently the distribution of arsenic compounds within the plants.

  10. Contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment in Halostachys caspica response to salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Youling; Li, Ling; Yang, Ruirui; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhang, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which plants cope with salt stress remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment (OA) in the halophyte species Halostachys caspica. The results indicate that 100–200 mM NaCl is optimal for plant growth; the water content and degree of succulence of the assimilating branches are higher in this treatment range than that in other treatments; parenchyma cells are more numerous with 100 mM NaCl treatment than they are in control. Inorganic ions (mainly Na+ and Cl-) may play a more important role than organic compounds in NaCl-induced OA and are the primary contributors in OA in H. caspica. The inorganic ions and organic solutes display a tissue-dependent distribution. Na+ and Cl− are accumulated in the reproductive organs and within assimilating branches, which may represent a mechanism for protecting plant growth by way of salt ion dilution and organ abscission. Additionally, OA via increased accumulation of organic substances also protected plant growth and development. This finding provides additional evidence for plant tolerance to salinity stress which can be used for breeding new cultivars for stress tolerance. PMID:26350977

  11. Contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment in Halostachys caspica response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Youling; Li, Ling; Yang, Ruirui; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhang, Baohong

    2015-09-09

    The mechanism by which plants cope with salt stress remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment (OA) in the halophyte species Halostachys caspica. The results indicate that 100-200 mM NaCl is optimal for plant growth; the water content and degree of succulence of the assimilating branches are higher in this treatment range than that in other treatments; parenchyma cells are more numerous with 100 mM NaCl treatment than they are in control. Inorganic ions (mainly Na+ and Cl-) may play a more important role than organic compounds in NaCl-induced OA and are the primary contributors in OA in H. caspica. The inorganic ions and organic solutes display a tissue-dependent distribution. Na+ and Cl- are accumulated in the reproductive organs and within assimilating branches, which may represent a mechanism for protecting plant growth by way of salt ion dilution and organ abscission. Additionally, OA via increased accumulation of organic substances also protected plant growth and development. This finding provides additional evidence for plant tolerance to salinity stress which can be used for breeding new cultivars for stress tolerance.

  12. A Statistical Learning Framework for Materials Science: Application to Elastic Moduli of k-nary Inorganic Polycrystalline Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Notestine, Randy; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Jain, Anubhav; Asta, Mark; Gamst, Anthony

    2016-10-03

    Materials scientists increasingly employ machine or statistical learning (SL) techniques to accelerate materials discovery and design. Such pursuits benefit from pooling training data across, and thus being able to generalize predictions over, k-nary compounds of diverse chemistries and structures. This work presents a SL framework that addresses challenges in materials science applications, where datasets are diverse but of modest size, and extreme values are often of interest. Our advances include the application of power or Hölder means to construct descriptors that generalize over chemistry and crystal structure, and the incorporation of multivariate local regression within a gradient boosting framework. The approach is demonstrated by developing SL models to predict bulk and shear moduli (K and G, respectively) for polycrystalline inorganic compounds, using 1,940 compounds from a growing database of calculated elastic moduli for metals, semiconductors and insulators. The usefulness of the models is illustrated by screening for superhard materials.

  13. A Statistical Learning Framework for Materials Science: Application to Elastic Moduli of k-nary Inorganic Polycrystalline Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Notestine, Randy; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Jain, Anubhav; Asta, Mark; Gamst, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Materials scientists increasingly employ machine or statistical learning (SL) techniques to accelerate materials discovery and design. Such pursuits benefit from pooling training data across, and thus being able to generalize predictions over, k-nary compounds of diverse chemistries and structures. This work presents a SL framework that addresses challenges in materials science applications, where datasets are diverse but of modest size, and extreme values are often of interest. Our advances include the application of power or Hölder means to construct descriptors that generalize over chemistry and crystal structure, and the incorporation of multivariate local regression within a gradient boosting framework. The approach is demonstrated by developing SL models to predict bulk and shear moduli (K and G, respectively) for polycrystalline inorganic compounds, using 1,940 compounds from a growing database of calculated elastic moduli for metals, semiconductors and insulators. The usefulness of the models is illustrated by screening for superhard materials.

  14. Creating a computer game suitable for practice of nomenclature of inorganic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NEČEDA, Luboš

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is focused on usage of computer game (adventure game) in teaching of chemismy (posted on internet since 2017). Game is situated to the town of České Budějovice and contains set of tests from Inorganic chemisty. This game can be used to motivate students to study chemistry on primary schools.

  15. Inorganic compounds and materials as catalysts for oxidations with aqueous hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardello, veronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie; De Vos, Dirk E.; Neumann, Ronny; Adam, Waldemar; Zhang, Rui; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Witte, Peter T.; Alsters, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our work on oxidations with aqueous hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by inorganic catalysts devoid of organic ligands. In the first part of the review, the use of the [WZn3(ZnW9O34)2]12− “sandwich” polyoxometalate as a multi-purpose oxidation catalyst is described. Attention is paid to

  16. Efficacy evaluation of compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in patients with early diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effect of compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in patients with early diabetic retinopathy.METHODS: Totally 120 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were selected, and they were randomly divided into study group and control group according to the random number table method, each had 60 cases. Patients in the control group were treated with compound Xueshuantong capsule, and the patients in the study group were treated with compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate. We observed and compared the clinical symptoms(hemangioma volume, hemorrhagic spot area, macular thickness, visual gray value, visual acuity, threshold sensitivity within 30°, inflammatory factors(serum hs-CRP, VEGF, IGF-1, clinical efficacy and adverse events. RESULTS:(1The hematoma volume, hemorrhage spot area, macular thickness and visual gray value of the two groups were lower than those before treatment(tstudy group=24.81, 19.59, 8.567, 17.79, tcontrol group=12.02, 8.60, 10.32, 10.85; Ptstudy group=-5.24, -8.79, tstudy group=-2.26, -3.39; all Pt=-12.97, -9.47,-13.54, -5.59, 2.65, 4.05; all Ptstudy group=34.30, 23.33, 42.118, tcontrol group =18.68, 17.46, 26.73; all Pt=-14.79, -7.43, -15.35, all Pχ2=16.352, Pχ2=0.32, P>0.05.CONCLUSION: Compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in the treatment of early diabetic retinopathy can effectively improve the clinical symptoms of retinal defects, the mechanism of action is related to the level of inflammatory factors, the clinical efficacy is better, security is high.

  17. Contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment in Halostachys caspica response to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Youling Zeng; Ling Li; Ruirui Yang; Xiaoya Yi; Baohong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which plants cope with salt stress remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment (OA) in the halophyte species Halostachys caspica. The results indicate that 100–200 mM NaCl is optimal for plant growth; the water content and degree of succulence of the assimilating branches are higher in this treatment range than that in other treatments; pa...

  18. Calcium Imaging of Neuronal Activity in Drosophila Can Identify Anticonvulsive Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K Streit

    Full Text Available Although there are now a number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs available, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients respond poorly to drug intervention. The reasons for this are complex, but are probably reflective of the increasing number of identified mutations that predispose individuals to this disease. Thus, there is a clear requirement for the development of novel treatments to address this unmet clinical need. The existence of gene mutations that mimic a seizure-like behaviour in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, offers the possibility to exploit the powerful genetics of this insect to identify novel cellular targets to facilitate design of more effective AEDs. In this study we use neuronal expression of GCaMP, a potent calcium reporter, to image neuronal activity using a non-invasive and rapid method. Expression in motoneurons in the isolated CNS of third instar larvae shows waves of calcium-activity that pass between segments of the ventral nerve cord. Time between calcium peaks, in the same neurons, between adjacent segments usually show a temporal separation of greater than 200 ms. Exposure to proconvulsants (picrotoxin or 4-aminopyridine reduces separation to below 200 ms showing increased synchrony of activity across adjacent segments. Increased synchrony, characteristic of epilepsy, is similarly observed in genetic seizure mutants: bangsenseless1 (bss1 and paralyticK1270T (paraK1270T. Exposure of bss1 to clinically-used antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin or gabapentin significantly reduces synchrony. In this study we use the measure of synchronicity to evaluate the effectiveness of known and novel anticonvulsive compounds (antipain, isethionate, etopiside rapamycin and dipyramidole to reduce seizure-like CNS activity. We further show that such compounds also reduce the Drosophila voltage-gated persistent Na+ current (INaP in an identified motoneuron (aCC. Our combined assays provide a rapid and reliable method to screen unknown

  19. Effects of an inorganic and two new organic compounds of selenium on morphologic blood elements and antioxidant status in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Toś-Luty, Sabina; Tokarska, Małgorzata

    2003-01-01

    Two organic compounds, 4-(o-tolilo-)-selenosemicarbazide of p-chlorobenzoic acid and 3-(p-chlorobenzoylamino-)-2-(o-tolylimino-)-4-phenyl-4-selenazoline were compared to the effects of the supplementation with inorganic Na2SeO3. Studies were carried out in four groups consisting of 10 female mice each of SWISS strain. Three of them were supplemented with different selenium formula at the dose of 10(-3) mg Se per g over the period of 10 day. The blood samples were collected to heparinized test tubes; the red blood and white blood count, hematocrit and haemoglobin concentration were studied. The influence of selenium compounds on phagocytosis and NBT test was determined.

  20. A Simple and Easy-To-Learn Chart of The Main Classes of Inorganic Compounds and Their Acid-Base Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Grigoriy

    2005-01-01

    The main classes of inorganic compounds is presented to students as a two-dimensional chart and one coordinate of the chart corresponds to the acidic equivalent while the other corresponds to the number of bound water molecules. The chart is intended for those students who can assign a compound to a particular class and can be used at different…

  1. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  2. A review on how Lanthanide impurity levels change with chemistry and structure of inorganic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, P.

    2012-01-01

    The energy of the 4f-5d transitions of divalent and trivalent lanthanide impurities in compounds depends strongly on the type of lanthanide, its valence, and the type of compound. Despite this large variability there is much systematic in 4f-5d transition energy. Once it is known for one lanthanide

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and electrical properties of the new organic-inorganic hybrid compound bis(1-chlorido-4-aminopyridinium) octachlorodiantimoinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersi, Mohamed Amine; Hajji, Rachid; Chaabane, Iskandar; Gargouri, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Bis(1-chlorido-4-aminopyridinium) octachlorodiantimoinate has been synthesized and characterized by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 296 K and impedance spectroscopy. At room temperature, the title compound is crystallized in the triclinic system (P 1 ̅ space group) with Z = 2 and the following unit cell dimensions: a = 7.919 (1) Å, b = 9.624 (1) Å, c = 17.692 (3) Å, α = 101.81 (1)°, β = 95.12 (1)°and γ = 112.48 (1)°. The crystal structure of the [C10H12Cl2N4]Sb2Cl8 compound is built of two un-equivalent monoprotonated cations [C5H6N2Cl] + and two un-equivalent tetrachloroantimonate (III) anions noted which are [Sb(1)Cl4]- and [Sb(2)Cl4]-. The arrangement of this compound can be described by an alternation of organic and inorganic layers stacked along [010] direction. The cohesion of compound entities is ensured by hydrogen bonding (N-H…. Cl) and Van Der Waals interaction (C-H…. Cl). The temperature dependence of the σdc conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius type behavior described by the following expression σdc T = Aexp(-Ea/kβT). The Ac conductivity and the dielectric loss suggest that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism.

  4. The effect of hydroxybenzoate calcium compounds in inducing cell death in epithelial breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M Merghani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxybenzoate (HB compounds have shown their significance in inducing apoptosis in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and cancer cell lines, including HT-1080. The current study focuses on assessing the effects of 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoate calcium (HBCa compounds on MCF-10A, MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 epithelial breast cell lines. The HBCa-treated cells were examined using annexin V, to measure apoptosis in the three epithelial breast cell lines, after 48 h of treatment. The results indicated that 0.5 and 2.5 mmol/L of HBCa induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The induction of cell death in normal MCF-10A cells was found to be significantly less (p = 0.0003–0.0068, in comparison to the malignant cell lines (MDA-MB231 and MCF-7. HBCa compounds were also found to cause cell cycle arrest in the epithelial breast cells at G1/G0. Furthermore, HBCa compounds induced the upregulation of apoptotic proteins (p53, p21, Bax and caspase-3, as well as the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which may suggest that apoptosis is induced via the intrinsic pathway.

  5. Evaluation of organic and inorganic compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirén, Heli; Sirén, Kimmo; Sirén, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    Pinot Noir red wines made by malolactic fermentation were studied for studying differences in their chemical profiles with help of a wide spectrum of grape-based and other chemical compounds used in winemaking...

  6. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: Inorganic elements and organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed......) concrete waste, (ii) mixed masonry and concrete, (iii) asphalt and (iv) freshly cast concrete cores; both old and newly generated construction and demolition waste was included. PCBs and PAHs were detected in all samples, generally in non-critical concentrations. Overall, PAHs were comparable to background...... levels in urban environments. "Old" and "new" concrete samples indicated different PCB congener profiles and the presence of PCB even in new concrete suggested that background levels in raw materials may be an issue. Significant variability in total content of trace elements, even more pronounced...

  7. Effect of modified compound calcium phosphate cement on the differentiation and osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jican; Lin, Jiazhong; Yao, Guanfeng; Kong, Kangmei; Wang, Xinjia

    2017-06-29

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of self-invented compound calcium phosphate cement upon the proliferation and osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Four groups including traditional calcium phosphate cement, modified calcium phosphate cement, modified calcium phosphate cement plus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and control groups were established. The cell proliferation curve was delineated by MTT. The activity of BMSCs to synthesize alkaline phosphatase (AKP) was evaluated. The growth and invasion of BMSCs were observed. The expression levels of aggrecan, collagen I, collagen II, AKP, and OSX messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured by using RT-PCR. Compared with other groups, the BMSCs in the modified calcium phosphate cement group presented with loose microstructure and the BMSCs closely attached to the vector margin. At 7 days after co-culture, the expression of AKP in the modified calcium phosphate cement plus BMP group was significantly upregulated compared with those in other groups. In the modified calcium phosphate cement group, the BMSCs properly proliferated on the surface of bone cement and invaded into the cement space. At 10 days, the expression levels of aggrecan, collagen I, collagen II, AKP, and OSX mRNA in the modified calcium phosphate cement and modified calcium phosphate cement plus BMP groups were significantly upregulated than those in other groups. Modified compound calcium phosphate cement possesses excellent biocompatibility and osteogenic induction ability. Loose microstructure and large pore size create a favorable environment for BMSCs proliferation and vascular invasion, as an ideal vector for releasing BMP cytokines to mediate the differentiation and osteogenesis of BMSCs.

  8. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  9. Development and implementation of a high-throughput compound screening assay for targeting disrupted ER calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Honarnejad

    Full Text Available Disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis is believed to occur early in the cascade of events leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Particularly familial AD mutations linked to Presenilins result in exaggerated agonist-evoked calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here we report the development of a fully automated high-throughput calcium imaging assay utilizing a genetically-encoded FRET-based calcium indicator at single cell resolution for compound screening. The established high-throughput screening assay offers several advantages over conventional high-throughput calcium imaging technologies. We employed this assay for drug discovery in AD by screening compound libraries consisting of over 20,000 small molecules followed by structure-activity-relationship analysis. This led to the identification of Bepridil, a calcium channel antagonist drug in addition to four further lead structures capable of normalizing the potentiated FAD-PS1-induced calcium release from ER. Interestingly, it has recently been reported that Bepridil can reduce Aβ production by lowering BACE1 activity. Indeed, we also detected lowered Aβ, increased sAPPα and decreased sAPPβ fragment levels upon Bepridil treatment. The latter findings suggest that Bepridil may provide a multifactorial therapeutic modality for AD by simultaneously addressing multiple aspects of the disease.

  10. Crystal structure of an organic–inorganic hybrid compound based on morpholinium cations and a β-type Anderson polyanion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. Lukianova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new organic–inorganic hybrid compound, pentamorpholinium hexahydrogen hexamolybdoferrate(III sulfate 3.5-hydrate, (C4H10NO5[FeIII(OH6Mo6O18](SO4·3.5H2O, was obtained from an aqueous solution. The polyoxidomolybdate (POM anion is of the Anderson β-type with a central FeIII ion. Three of five crystallographically independent morpholinium cations are disordered over two sets of sites. An intricate network of intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O interactions between cations, POMs, sulfate anions and non-coordinating water molecules creates a three-dimensional network structure.

  11. High-throughput screening of inorganic compounds for the discovery of novel dielectric and optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petousis, Ioannis; Mrdjenovich, David; Ballouz, Eric; Liu, Miao; Winston, Donald; Chen, Wei; Graf, Tanja; Schladt, Thomas D; Persson, Kristin A; Prinz, Fritz B

    2017-01-31

    Dielectrics are an important class of materials that are ubiquitous in modern electronic applications. Even though their properties are important for the performance of devices, the number of compounds with known dielectric constant is on the order of a few hundred. Here, we use Density Functional Perturbation Theory as a way to screen for the dielectric constant and refractive index of materials in a fast and computationally efficient way. Our results constitute the largest dielectric tensors database to date, containing 1,056 compounds. Details regarding the computational methodology and technical validation are presented along with the format of our publicly available data. In addition, we integrate our dataset with the Materials Project allowing users easy access to material properties. Finally, we explain how our dataset and calculation methodology can be used in the search for novel dielectric compounds.

  12. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: inorganic elements and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2014-07-15

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed) concrete waste, (ii) mixed masonry and concrete, (iii) asphalt and (iv) freshly cast concrete cores; both old and newly generated construction and demolition waste was included. PCBs and PAHs were detected in all samples, generally in non-critical concentrations. Overall, PAHs were comparable to background levels in urban environments. "Old" and "new" concrete samples indicated different PCB congener profiles and the presence of PCB even in new concrete suggested that background levels in raw materials may be an issue. Significant variability in total content of trace elements, even more pronounced for leaching, was observed indicating that the number of analysed samples may be critical in relation to decisions regarding management and utilisation of the materials. Higher leaching of chromium, sulphate and chloride were observed for masonry-containing and partly carbonated samples, indicating that source segregation and management practices may be important. Generally, leaching was in compliance with available leaching limits, except for selenium, and in some cases chromium, sulphate and antimony. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of Organic and Inorganic Slow-Release Compound Fertilizer on Different Soils Microbial Community Structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yuan, Ting; Gu, Shou-kuan; Wang, Zheng-yin

    2015-04-01

    As a new style fertilizer, slow-control release fertilizer had been an important subject in recent years, but few researches were about soil microbial community structure diversity. Phospholipid fatty acid method was used to determined the microbial community structure diversity of acid soil and slight alkaline soil applied with slow-release compound fertilizer (SRF), chemical fertilizer (CF) and common compound fertilizer (CCF) at the 10th, 30th, 60th and 90th day under the constant temperature incubation condition. Results indicated that various bacteria (i. e 13:0, i14:0,14:0, i15:0, a15:0, i16:0, 16:12OH, 16:1w5c,16:0, i17:0, a17:0, cy17:0, 17:02OH, i18:0, 18:0 and cy19:0w8c), two actinomycetes (10Me17:0 and 10Me18:0) and only one fungus (18:1 w9c) were detected in two soils after applying slow-release compound fertilizer and other fertilizers during the whole incubation period. SRF could significantly increase the fungi PLFA content by 8.3% and 6.8% at the early stage (the 10th day and 30th day) compared with CF, as well as significantly increase by 22.7% and 17.1% at the late stage (the 60th day and 90th day) compared with CCF in acid soil. SRF significantly increased bacteria, fungi and gram positive bacteria compared with CF and CCF in incubation period (except at the 30th day) in slight alkaline soil. SRF could significantly improve the ratio of normal saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid at the 30th day and 90th days in acid soil compared with no fertilizer (CK), CF and CCF, while as to slight alkaline soil, SRF was significantly greater than that of CK, CF and CCF only at the 60th day. SRF could significantly decrease the ratio of iso PLFA and anteiso PLFA in acid soil (in 30-90 days) and slight alkaline soil (in 10-60 days). For two soils PLFA varieties, contents and ratios of microbial community, slow-release compound fertilizer increased soil microbial PLFA varieties and contents, and decreased the influence to microbial survival

  14. Magnetic behavior of inorganic-organic hybrid phosphite compounds with 3-d transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Sergio; Mesa, J.L. E-mail: qipmeruj@lg.ehu.es; Pizarro, Jose L.; Pena, Alazne; Gutierrez, Jon; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo

    2004-05-01

    The (C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2})[M(HPO{sub 3})F{sub 3}](M{sup III}=V, Cr, Fe) [I], (C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2})[M{sub 3}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 4}] (M{sup II}=Mn, Co) [II] and (C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}){sub 0.5}[Fe(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}](M{sup III}=V, Fe) [III] compounds have been synthesized by using mild hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure of the compounds shows different dimensionality. The compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior, with hysteresis loops for the bimetallic (C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2})[Mn{sub 2.09}Co{sub 0.91}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 4}] and (C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}){sub 0.5}[V{sub 0.48}Fe{sub 0.52}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] phases, indicating the existence of a ferrimagnetic behavior probably due to a spin descompensation.

  15. Anomalous luminescence of Eu sup 2 sup + and Yb sup 2 sup + in inorganic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Dorenbos, P

    2003-01-01

    In many compounds the broadband emission of Eu sup 2 sup + and Yb sup 2 sup + is subject to a very large (0.6-1.2 eV) Stokes shift and it behaves peculiarly with temperature change. Conduction band states of the host compound are involved in this 'anomalous' emission. Cases of anomalous emission are identified and the conditions for it to occur studied. Clear trends with the size of the lanthanide ion, the size of the site occupied, the size of anions in the compound, and the binding strength of oxygen ligands were found. The trends are interpreted by models involving the Madelung potential and Pauling repulsion at the lanthanide site together with the Coulomb and isotropic exchange interactions within the lanthanide ion. The results provide information on the approximate location of the lowest 4f sup n sup - sup 1 5d level relative to the bottom of the conduction band. The systematic variation with type of lanthanide and host lattice is discussed. Combining the results with information on the systematic vari...

  16. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions

  17. Evaluation of organic and inorganic compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Sirén

    2015-03-01

    The wine products showed different profiles of carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Especially, saccharose (max. 0.21 g/L, rhamnose (max. 0.45 g/L, fructose (max. 1.9 g/L, and phosphate (max 1.4 g/L quantities were extremely high in some wines. The results also showed that yeast fermentation in winemaking agitated high production of lactic (max 5.7 g/L and tartaric (max 1.7 g/L acids. The red wines processed by cold maceration and natural fermentation gave similar profiles. Only one of the Pinot Noir wines entirely differentiated from the others with comparison of carbohydrates and organic acids.

  18. Comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of inorganic and organic iron compounds in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrichka Dimitrova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate was investigated in broiler chickens after intravenous injection and crop intubation. The iron compounds were injected intravenously in v. brachialis. After 20-day “wash-out” period the ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate were administered again by an elastic silicone tube into the crop. The serum concentrations of the iron were determined with bioanalyser. Two pharmacokinetic approaches were used – compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. After i.v. injection we found statistically significantly longer and better distribution of the iron contained in the ferrous methionate compared to the ferrous sulphate. The АUC0→∞ was statistically significantly higher in the ferrous methionate. In the alimentary tract of broiler chickens, ferrous methionate was absorbed more rapidly than ferrous sulfate. It was also distributed at a higher volume as compared to the ferrous sulfate.

  19. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  20. Effects of inorganic sulfur addition on fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in an artificially acidified (sulfuric and nitric acids) poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen) in Barrington, NH, USA. At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control (unacidified) and experimental sections within two major physiographic zones of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). The experimental segments of the mire received S amendments since 1983, in amounts equivalent to the annual S deposition in the highest polluted areas of Canada and U.S. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was the predominant VSC released from the mire and varied largely with time and space (i.e., from 2.5 to 127 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1)). Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days, although it stimulated production of DMS and MSH in the anoxic surficial regions of the peat. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic segment of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic segment, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were approximately 8 times higher from a Sphagnum site than from a bare peat site. Fluxes of VSC's were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments at both sites, while DMS and MSH concentrations increases greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. Our data indicated that although Sphagnum is not the direct source of DMS released from Sphagnum peatlands, it might play a role in regulating DMS emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Application of self-organising maps towards segmentation of soybean samples by determination of inorganic compounds content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremasco, Hágata; Borsato, Dionísio; Angilelli, Karina Gomes; Galão, Olívio Fernandes; Bona, Evandro; Valle, Marcos Eduardo

    2016-01-15

    In this study, 20 samples of soybean, both transgenic and conventional cultivars, which were planted in two different regions, Londrina and Ponta Grossa, both located at Paraná, Brazil, were analysed. In order to verify whether the inorganic compound levels in soybeans varied with the region of planting, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and B contents were analysed by an artificial neural network self-organising map. It was observed that with a topology 10 × 10, 8000 epochs, initial learning rate of 0.1 and initial neighbourhood ratio of 4.5, the network was able to differentiate samples according to region of origin. Among all of the variables analysed by the artificial neural network, the elements Zn, Ca and Mn were those which most contributed to the classification of the samples. The results indicated that samples planted in these two regions differ in their mineral content; however, conventional and transgenic samples grown in the same region show no difference in mineral contents in the grain. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A clinical and histopathological comparison of the effectiveness of salicylic acid to a compound of inorganic acids for the treatment of digital dermatitis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capion, N.; Larsson, E. K.; Nielsen, O. L.

    2018-01-01

    ; however, the demand for effective nonantibiotic alternatives is increasing. The objective was to evaluate the performance of 3 nonantibiotic topical treatments (salicylic acid and a compound of inorganic acids in a 20% solution and in a dry form) on DD in a commercial dairy herd. Within the 30-d test...... of spirochetes present in the epidermis), 2 (moderate number of spirochetes present and reaching an intermediary level in the epidermis), and 3 (large number of spirochetes present and reaching the deepest part of the epidermis or the superficial dermis). The improvement rate was 10/14 (71%) for salicylic acid......, 11/15 (73%) for the inorganic acid solution, and 8/13 (62%) for the inorganic acid powder. The analysis showed no difference among treatments. The association between clinical score and histopathological score was determined by an odds ratio. The odds ratio of a healed lesion having spirochetes...

  3. Development of strong and bioactive calcium phosphate cement as a light-cure organic-inorganic hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barounian, M; Hesaraki, S; Kazemzadeh, A

    2012-07-01

    In this research, light cured calcium phosphate cements (LCCPCs) were developed by mixing a powder phase (P) consisting of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate and a photo-curable resin phase (L), mixture of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)/poly acrylic-maleic acid at various P/L ratios of 2.0, 2.4 and 2.8 g/mL. Mechanical strength, phase composition, chemical groups and microstructure of the cured cements were evaluated at pre-set times, i.e. before and after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). The proliferation of Rat-derived osteoblastic cells onto the LCCPCs as well as cytotoxicity of cement extracts were determined by cell counting and 3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl}-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay after different culture times. It was estimated from Fourier transforming infrared spectra of cured cements that the setting process is ruled by polymerization of HEMA monomers as well as formation of calcium poly-carboxylate salts. Microstructure of the cured cements consisted of calcium phosphate particles surrounded by polymerized resin phase. Formation of nano-sized needlelike calcium phosphate phase on surfaces of cements with P/L ratios of 2.4 and 2.8 g/mL was confirmed by scanning electron microscope images and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of the cured specimen soaked in SBF for 21 days. Also, XRD patterns revealed that the formed calcium phosphate layer was apatite phase in a poor crystalline form. Biodegradation of the cements was confirmed by weight loss, change in molecular weight of polymer and morphology of the samples after different soaking periods. The maximum compressive strength of LCCPCs governed by resin polymerization and calcium polycarboxylate salts formation was about 80 MPa for cement with P/L ratio of 2.8 g/mL, after incubation for 24 h. The strength of all cements decreased by decreasing P/L ratio as well as increasing soaking time. The preliminary cell studies revealed that LCCPCs could support proliferation of

  4. Broad-Band-Emissive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Semiconducting Nanowires Based on an ABX3-Type Chain Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenyue; Li, Lina; Ji, Chengmin; Lin, Guoming; Wang, Sasa; Shen, Yaoguo; Sun, Zhihua; Zhao, Sangen; Luo, Junhua

    2017-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide (e.g., CH3NH3PbX3, where X = CI, Br, and I) nanowires (NWs) with remarkable electric and optical properties have recently garnered increasing attention, owing to their structural flexibility and tunability compared to inorganic semiconducting NWs. While most recently reported NWs are limited to methylammonium/formamidinium three-dimensional lead halide perovskites, it is urgent to develop new organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs. Here, broad-band-emissive single-crystal semiconductive NWs based on a new ABX3-type organic-inorganic chain hybrid, (2-methylpiperidine)lead tribromide, are reported. It is believed that this work will enrich the organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs and may provide potential applications for LED displaying.

  5. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, *CEMENTS, * CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, * FERRITES , *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, SUBSTITUTES, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS.

  6. An inorganic electroluminescent device using calcium phosphate doped with Eu{sup 3+} as the luminescent layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, Takuhiro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa-shi, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Ito, Michimasa [Tokai Rika Co. Ltd., 3-260 Toyota, Oguchi-cho, Niwa-gun, Aichi 480-0195 (Japan); Kawai, Takahiro [Department of Biochemical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa-shi, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Matsushima, Yuta, E-mail: ymatsush@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa-shi, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Highlights: ► A thin film electroluminescent device was fabricated with a calcium phosphate as the light emitting layer. ► The light emitting layer was formed on the BaTiO{sub 3} disk by a spray pyrolysis method. ► Among the examined calcium phosphates, β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} showed the best photo- and electroluminescent properties. -- Abstract: In this work, the availability of calcium phosphates for the light emitting layer of a thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) device was investigated. The goal of this work was to develop an electronic device with ordinary materials such as a calcium phosphate, the principal ingredient of the skeleton of the vertebrate. Compositions of 2CaO·P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}), 3CaO·P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and 4CaO·P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (Ca{sub 4}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) were examined as the candidates for the light emitting layer. Before composing the TFEL device, the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the three compositions were investigated in the powder form to evaluate the performance as the light emitting layer. Among the examined calcium phosphates, Eu-doped β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} showed the best PL properties. It showed typical red-emission from Eu{sup 3+}. The PL intensity was enhanced with the heat-treatment temperature and the optimal temperature was 1250 °C. Then, a TFEL device was prepared by a spray pyrolysis method with the β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor layer on a BaTiO{sub 3} disk. The TFEL device exhibited the red emission originating in Eu{sup 3+} at 610 nm under applying alternating voltage. Different from the power sample, the intensity of EL decreased with the heat-treatment temperature from 1000 to 1250 °C. The deterioration of EL at the higher temperatures was attributed to chemical interaction between the phosphor layer and the BaTiO{sub 3} disk.

  7. Studies on calcium uptake by myometrial microsomes with particular reference to the dependence on inorganic phosphate and oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, S

    1978-09-01

    Ca uptake by microsomes isolated from non-pregnant rabbit myometrium was potentiated by both inorganic phosphate (Pi) and oxalate anions. Both Pi and oxalate had little effect on the initial rate of uptake but a pronounced effect on the capacity of Ca uptake measured after 20 min which was greater in the presence of oxalate than that of Pi (5 mM each). The presence or absence of sucrose in the uptake medium had a significant effect on oxalate-induced potentiation of Ca uptake but not on that potentiated by Pi or that measured in the absence of either potentiating anion. A part of Ca accumulated additionally under the influence of sucrose could be removed by washing microsomes with KCl. Another significant difference between the pontentiating effect of oxalate and Pi was observed when the pH of the incubation medium was varied. In the presence of oxalate the pH optimum was between 6.4--6.8, whereas that in its absence or in the presence of Pi the optimal pH was around 7.2. Reduction in pH from 7.2 to 6.8 along with the substitution of KCl by sucrose resulted in 3-fold increase in Ca uptake when oxalate was used as the potentiating anion. The results suggest that Ca is taken up by a different mechanism in the presence of oxalate than that in its absence or when oxalate anion is substituted with inorganic phosphate.

  8. Application of molecular calcium compounds in catalysis and hydrogen storage; Anwendung von molekularen Calcium-Verbindungen in der Katalyse und der Wasserstoffspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielmann, Jan

    2010-07-20

    1. Applications in catalysis: In the course of this work new catalytic applications of calcium compounds and in particular hydrocarbon-soluble calcium hydride species have been investigated. The complex [(DIPP-nacnac)CaH(THF)]2 (1, DIPP-nacnac = HC[C(Me)N-2,6-(i-Pr)-C6H3]2) served as a model system to test reactivity of the calcium hydride in stoichiometric reactions on a molecular level. It has been found that the hydroboration of conjugated alkenes with catecholborane can be accelerated considerably by using catalytic amounts of calcium complexes. However it was shown that calcium hydride species catalyze the decomposition of catecholborane to BH3 which is probably the catalytically active species. Investigations on the catalytic hydrosilylation of ketones have demonstrated that calcium complexes are efficient catalysts for this reaction. In the proposed catalytic cycle of this reaction six-coordinate hypervalent silicon species play a crucial role. Furthermore it has been shown that molecular calcium compounds are catalysts for the hydrogenation of conjugated alkenes with H2 under relatively mild conditions (20 bar H2, 20 C). Both steps in the proposed catalytical cycle i.e. addition of a metal hydride to the C=C double bond and a heterolytic cleavage of H2 by a calcium alkyl compound have been confirmed experimentally. 2. Applications in hydrogen storage: Ligand stabilized metal amidoborane complexes in the form of (DIPP-nacnac)MNH(R)BH3(THF)x (M = Ca, Mg; R = H, Me, i-Pr, 2,6-(i-Pr)-C6H3; x = 0, 1, 2) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. These complexes are model systems for the metal amidoborane compounds M(NH2BH3)n (M = Li, Na, n = 1; M = Ca, n = 2), which are potential high capacity hydrogen storage materials. To get insights in their dehydrogenation mechanisms the thermal decomposition of the model compounds was investigated in solution. This allowed for the first isolation of well-defined dehydrogenated products which have been

  9. Curative effect evaluation of compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate for patients with early diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ping Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical effect of compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in the treatment for patients with early diabetic retinopathy(DR.METHODS: According to the random table method, 54 cases of DR patients(68 eyesin the ophthalmological clinic of our hospital from February 2015 to November 2016 were divided into control group and research group with 27 cases(34 eyesin each group. Patients in the control group were treated with calcium dobesilate tablets, while patients in the research group were treated with compound xueshuantong capsule based on the control group. The duration of treatment was 5mo in both groups. The total clinical efficiency of the two groups was calculated, and the visual, blood glucose and inflammatory factors of the two groups were detected before and after treatment, in addition the adverse reaction and recurrence rate were observed. RESULTS: The total clinical efficiency of the patients in the research group was 91%(31/34, which was significantly higher than 68%(23/34of the control group(PPP=0.039. CONCLUSION: The curative effect of compound xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in the treatment of patients with early DR is significant. It can significantly improve eyesight, blood glucose and inflammatory response and has a good forward curative effect.

  10. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  11. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  12. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  13. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    to acidic amino acids and dipeptides was also investigated. It was found that aspartate binds calcium stronger than glutamate. This was confirmed by electrochemical determination of the association constants for aqueous solutions at ionic strength 0.20 and 1.0. The mixed dipeptides Asp/Glu showed additive...... affinity of calcium binding as determined by the association constants and also compared with the values predicted from the individual amino acids. In contrast, the AspAsp dipeptide showed an affinity less than additive, while the GluGlu dipeptide showed affinity of calcium binding to be more than additive....... Additionally, the affinity of calcium to serine was small but was increased for the SerGlu dipeptide and the values became comparable to phosphorylated serine. An increase in ionic strength lead to decreased calcium binding of the studied free amino acids, dipeptides and phosphorylated serine as expected...

  14. Acceptance of minerals and other compounds by calcium-deprived rats: 24-h tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, S E; Tordoff, M G

    1996-07-01

    We measured 24-h spontaneous intake of four to eight concentrations of 31 different solutions by groups of rats fed control or low-calcium diets. Relative to controls, those fed low-calcium diet had increased acceptance of one or more concentrations of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium bicarbonate, but not sodium gluconate. Differences in palatability between these sodium salts were unimportant because the rats fed low-calcium diet consumed more sodium chloride even if this was made less acceptable by adulteration with citric acid. The possibility that calcium-deprived rats have an enhanced general cation or mineral appetite was supported by findings of increased acceptance of one or more concentrations of nine of ten chloride minerals tested (aluminum chloride, ammonium chloride, ferric chloride, ferrous chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, strontium chloride, zinc chloride). However, there were no differences in acceptance of any concentration of cesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, or lead acetate. Moreover, calcium-deprived rats drank more hydrochloric acid and malic acid than did controls. Thus the effect of calcium deficiency on intake was not confined to minerals. Acidity or bitterness did not appear important because there was no difference between the groups in intake of sulfuric acid, citric acid, or quinine hydrochloride. Consistent with the exacerbating effects of phosphates on calcium deprivation, deprived rats had decreased intakes of phosphates (sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate). However, they also had decreased intakes of sucrose and saccharin. It is clear that calcium deprivation does not induce a general increase in acceptance of all taste solutions, but there appears to be no simple explanation for what these animals consume.

  15. Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

    2013-09-20

    A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54μgmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, OIO and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine-containing inorganic compounds such as HOI, which is a further development of the technique used by Carpenter et al. [2]. The method is based on selective photolytic dissociation of the analytes, followed by oxidization and particle formation of the iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Atmospheric samples can also be pre concentrated by diffusion denuder (with α Cyclodextrin modified and immobilised silica coating) [3-5] and afterwards released by thermodesorption. First attempts of quantification are carried out by external calibration using an

  17. Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area

    OpenAIRE

    R. Fisseha; R. Fisseha; J. Dommen; L. Gutzwiller; E. Weingartner; M. Gysel; M. Gysel; C. Emmenegger; M. Kalberer; U. Baltensperger

    2006-01-01

    Gas and aerosol samples were taken using a wet effluent diffusion denuder/aerosol collector (WEDD/AC) coupled to ion chromatography (IC) in the city of Zurich, Switzerland from August to September 2002 and in March 2003. Major water soluble inorganic ions; nitrate, sulfate, and nitrite were analyzed online with a time resolution of two hours for the gas and aerosol phase. The fraction of water soluble inorganic anions in PM10 varied from 15% in August to about 38% in March. Seasonal and diurn...

  18. Differential enhancement of leukaemia cell differentiation without elevation of intracellular calcium by plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Danilenko, M; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a majority of acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients, but resistance of leukaemic cells to ATRA and its toxicity, such as hypercalcaemia, lead to a limitation of treatment. Therefore, combination therapies with differentiation-enhancing agents at non-toxic concentrations of ATRA may overcome its side effects. Here, we investigated the effect of plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone compounds and their underlying mechanisms in ATRA-induced differentiation of human leukaemia HL-60 cells. Experimental approach: HL-60 cells were treated with four sesquiterpene lactones (helenalin, costunolide, parthenolide and sclareolide) and cell differentiation was determined by NBT reduction, Giemsa and cytofluorometric analyses. Signalling pathways were assessed by western blotting, gel-shift assay and kinase activity determinations and intracellular calcium levels were determined using a calcium-specific fluorescent probe. Key results: Helenalin, costunolide and parthenolide, but not sclareolide, increased ATRA-induced HL-60 cell differentiation into a granulocytic lineage. Signalling kinases PKC and ERK were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by all of the effective sesquiterpene lactones, but JNK and PI3-K were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by costunolide and parthenolide. Enhancement of cell differentiation closely correlated with inhibition of NF-κB DNA-binding activity by all three effective compounds. Importantly, enhancement of differentiation induced by 50 nM ATRA by the sesquiterpene lactones was not accompanied by elevation of basal intracellular calcium concentrations. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones may enhance ATRA-mediated cell differentiation through distinct pathways. PMID:18724384

  19. Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds with Mesoporous Materials Prepared from Calcium Fluoride Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sv-Yuan; Tsai, Hsiao-Hsin; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Chang, Chang-Tang; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-02-01

    Large amount of calcium fluoride sludge was generated by semiconductor industry every year. It also needs high requirement of fuel consumption using rotor concentrator and thermal oxidizer to treat VOCs. The mesoporous catalyst prepared by calcium fluoride sludge was used for VOCs treatment in this study. Acetone is a kind of solvent and used in a large number of laboratories and factories. The serious problems will be caused when it exposed to the environmental. Economic and practical technology is needed to eliminate this kind of hazardous air pollutant. In this research, the adsorption of acetone was tested with CF-MCM (mesoporous silica materials synthesized from calcium fluoride). The raw material was mixed with cationic cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants, firstly. The prepared mesoporous silica materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the surface area, large pore volume and pore diameter could be up to 862 m2 g(-1), 0.57 cm3 g(-1) and 2.9 nm, respectively. The crystal patterns of CF-MCM were similar with MCM-41 from TEM image. The adsorption capacity of acetone with CF-MCM was 118, 190, 194 and 201 mg g(-1), respectively, under 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of MCM-41 and CF-MCM was almost the same. The effects of operation parameters, such as contact time and mixture concentration, on the performance of CF-MCM were also discussed in this study.

  20. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  1. Organic and inorganic compounds in the water streams of the paper machine; Haitta-ainevirrat ja -tasot paperikoneella - PMST 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, P.; Edelmann, K.; Kaijaluoto, S. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The tightening standards for environmental protection set forth in legislation and the green consideration has reduced the environmental load of the paper and pulp industry significantly during recent years. Paper mills have decreased their water consumption by increasing internal circulation and by improving external effluent treatment. The consequence is that the concentrations of organic and inorganic dissolved and colloidal substances in the paper mill waters have risen. The fresh water consumption of paper machine can be decreased by cleaning the different water streams from the wire- and press-section and by lowering the amount of organic and inorganic materials led to paper machine water. In this case also water from mechanical pulping process and pulp itself should be cleaned. In this project the water use of modern paper machine and stream connections are studied. In addition flows, interactions and retention of dissolved and colloidal materials in the wet end of the paper machine are investigated. By utilizing this knowledge accurate simulation models of paper machine wet end can be created. With this model the various methods and technologies for controlling the harmful components in paper machine wet end are analyzed. (orig.)

  2. Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fisseha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and aerosol samples were taken using a wet effluent diffusion denuder/aerosol collector (WEDD/AC coupled to ion chromatography (IC in the city of Zurich, Switzerland from August to September 2002 and in March 2003. Major water soluble inorganic ions; nitrate, sulfate, and nitrite were analyzed online with a time resolution of two hours for the gas and aerosol phase. The fraction of water soluble inorganic anions in PM10 varied from 15% in August to about 38% in March. Seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase were observed with more than 50% of the total nitrate in the gas phase during August and more than 80% of nitrate in the aerosol phase during March exceeding the concentration of sulfate by a factor of 2. Aerosol sulfate, on the other hand, did not show significant variability with season. However, in the gas phase, the SO2 concentration was 6.5 times higher in winter than in summer. Nitrous acid (HONO also showed a diurnal variation in both the gas and aerosol phase with the lowest concentration (0.2–0.6 µg/m3 in the afternoon. The primary pollutants, NO, CO and SO2 mixing ratios were often at their highest between 04:00–10:00 local time due to the build up of fresh vehicle emission under a nocturnal inversion.

  3. Influence of addition of alkali metal compounds to calcium carbonate on desulfurization characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Ichiro; Saito, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Takahiro

    1999-07-01

    Limestone is currently supplied as a desulfurizer into bubbling and circulating fluidized bed coal combustors since both combustors are operated at the temperature ranged from 1,073 to 1,173 K, where limestone can be calcined and sulfurized optimally. In the practical boilers, however, the limestone particles are fed to the combustor excessively since the utilization efficiency of CaO produced by the calcination of limestone is low. On the other hand, many kinds of sea-shell are clarified as one of industrial wastes, and also consist of CaCO{sub 3} similar to limestone. Therefore it would be possible for wasted sea-shell to be applied to one of the desulfurizers. In this case the CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of the shell is fixed and recycled naturally in obedience to the ecological law. From this viewpoint, desulfurization characteristics of wasted sea shell have been already studied fundamentally by using a thermobalance as compared with the results obtained by limestone. The results obtained by this study are summarized as follows. (1) The desulfurization activity for wasted sea-shell is much higher than that for limestone. (2) Even if the alkali metal compounds are partially removed from the sea shell, the desulfurization efficiency does not change. (3) The desulfurization activity can be enhanced by adding alkali metal compounds to limestone. Sodium compounds are more effective on the desulfurization efficiency than potassium compounds. Sodium chloride is the best agent among them.

  4. The study of inorganic scintillating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, G. N.; Kuznetsov, S. I.; Padalko, V. N.; Syrtanov, M. S.

    2017-05-01

    The procedure for measuring the temporal characteristics and light output of inorganic scintillating materials excited by β-, γ-, and α-particles from radioactive sources is described. Results of measurements of characteristics are presented for ∼30 scintillating compounds including cerium-doped yttrium silicate and scandium borate; europium-doped strontium phosphate; cerium-doped strontium silicate, calcium silicate and magnesium calcium silicate, etc. Upon β- and γ-excitation, cerium-doped scandium borate gives the highest light output with a fluorescent lifetime of 40 ± 4 ns. The highest light output for α-excitation was from cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite, with a fluorescent lifetime of 29 ± 3 ns.

  5. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA. Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications.

  6. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  7. Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds.

  8. Effect of organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds on RDX degradation and cytochrome P-450 expression in Rhodococcus strain YH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejidat, Ali; Kafka, Limor; Tekoah, Yoram; Ronen, Zeev

    2008-06-01

    We hypothesized that biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)--a widely used explosive contaminating soil and groundwater--by Rhodococcus strain YH1 is controlled by the presence of external nitrogen sources. This strain is capable of degrading RDX while using it as sole nitrogen source under aerobic conditions. Both inorganic and organic nitrogen sources were found to have a profound impact on RDX-biodegradation activity. This effect was tested in growing and resting cells of strain YH1. Nitrate and nitrite delayed the onset of RDX degradation by strain YH1, while ammonium inhibited it almost completely. In addition, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) inhibited RDX degradation and growth of strain YH1. On the other hand, tetrahydrophthalamide did not influence biodegradation or growth. Growth on RDX induced the expression of a cytochrome P-450 enzyme that is suggested to be involved in the first step in the aerobic pathway of RDX degradation, as identified by SDS-PAGE analysis. Ammonium and nitrite strongly repressed cytochrome P-450 expression. Our findings suggest that effective RDX bioremediation by strain YH1 requires the design of a treatment scheme that includes initial removal of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and TNT before RDX degradation can take place.

  9. Compilation and evaluation of gas phase diffusion coefficients of reactive trace gases in the atmosphere: volume 1. Inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion of gas molecules to the surface is the first step for all gas-surface reactions. Gas phase diffusion can influence and sometimes even limit the overall rates of these reactions; however, there is no database of the gas phase diffusion coefficients of atmospheric reactive trace gases. Here we compile and evaluate, for the first time, the diffusivities (pressure-independent diffusion coefficients) of atmospheric inorganic reactive trace gases reported in the literature. The measured diffusivities are then compared with estimated values using a semi-empirical method developed by Fuller et al. (1966). The diffusivities estimated using Fuller's method are typically found to be in good agreement with the measured values within ±30%, and therefore Fuller's method can be used to estimate the diffusivities of trace gases for which experimental data are not available. The two experimental methods used in the atmospheric chemistry community to measure the gas phase diffusion coefficients are also discussed. A different version of this compilation/evaluation, which will be updated when new data become available, is uploaded online (google.com/site/mingjintang/home/diffusion"target="_blank">https://sites.google.com/site/mingjintang/home/diffusion).

  10. Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Silva, J. R.; Vieira, S. L. A.; Caseiro, A.; Pio, C. A.

    2012-08-01

    Pollutants inside school buildings may affect children's health and influence learning performance and attendance. This study investigated pollutant concentrations inside and outside school buildings at different locations (city centre and suburban) in Aveiro, Portugal, between April and June 2010. The aim was to evaluate simultaneously comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and CO) and indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs, NO2, PM10 and bioaerosols. PM10 samples were analysed and characterised, for the first time, for the water soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbonates, and detailed organic speciation. The CO2 and bioaerosol levels were higher than the acceptable maximum values to the occupants' comfort. Concentrations of the traffic tracer NO2 were higher outdoors. The daily indoor PM10 levels were always higher than those outdoors, except on weekends, suggesting that the physical activity of pupils and class works highly contributed to the emission and resuspension of particles. Almost all identified VOCs showed I/O ratios higher than one, which denotes an important contribution from indoor sources at both schools. The suburban school was more exposed to industrial emissions than the institution located in the city centre. Especially at the city centre, infiltration of outdoor particulates leads to contamination of school indoor environment with vehicle emissions and biomass burning smoke likely coming from biofuel use in nearby restaurants and bakeries.

  11. Preparation a new sorbent based on polymeric ionic liquid for stir cake sorptive extraction of organic compounds and inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Wang, Yulei; Hong, Qiuyun; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-11-01

    A new multi-interaction sorbent (MIS) based on polymeric ionic liquid was prepared and used as extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE). In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, an ionic liquid, 1-vinylbenzyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was used as monomer to copolymerize in situ with divinylbenzene to form the MIS. The influences of the content of monomer and the porogen solvent in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance were investigated thoroughly. The MIS was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Parabens and aromatic amines were used to investigate the extraction performance of MIS-SCSE for apolar and strongly polar analytes, respectively. The extraction parameters for parabens and aromatic amines were optimized. At the same time, simple and sensitive analytical methods for parabens and aromatic amines in real samples were developed by the combination of MIS-SCSE and HPLC/DAD. Some inorganic anions, such as F(-), Br(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-) and SO4(2-), were used to test the extraction performance of MIS-SCSE for anions. Results indicated that mechanism involved in the extraction of MIS is the multi-interaction modes including π-π, hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, dipole-dipole and anion-exchange interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inorganic photovoltaic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Robert W.; Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The inorganic semiconductor materials used to make photovoltaic cells include crystalline, multicrystalline, amorphous, and microcrystalline Si, the III-V compounds and alloys, CdTe, and the chalcopyrite compound, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). We show the structure of the different devices that have been developed, discuss the main methods of manufacture, and review the achievements of the different technologies.

  13. Effect of ammonium compounds on dissolution rate of South African calcium-based material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Hillary; Siagi, Zachariah; Mbarawa, M

    2009-09-15

    The rate at which limestone dissolves is very important in wet flue gas desulphurisation process (FGD). High dissolution rates provide better alkalinity that is important for sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) absorption. The dissolution characteristics have been studied by using a pH-Stat method at 60 degrees C, at pH value of 5, stirrer speed of 100 rpm and particle size of 44 microm. This paper examines the use of ammonium compound as the possible additives that will enhance the dissolution rate of limestone. The dissolution rates were measured according to the shrinking core model with surface control, i.e. (1-(1-X)(1/3))=k(r)t. It was found that the dissolution rate increases in the presence of ammonium compounds. Upon addition of 0.5 g of ammonium nitrate, the dissolution rate constants increased by 170%. As the pH is increased the dissolution rate decreases. The dissolution reaction follows a shrinking core model with the chemical reaction control as the rate-controlling step.

  14. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level.

  15. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, samples 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, seven domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituent, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their minimum reporting levels.

  16. Oxidative treatment of bromide-containing waters: formation of bromine and its reactions with inorganic and organic compounds--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Michèle B; Criquet, Justine; Zimmermann-Steffens, Saskia G; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Bromide (Br(-)) is present in all water sources at concentrations ranging from ≈ 10 to >1000 μg L(-1) in fresh waters and about 67 mg L(-1) in seawater. During oxidative water treatment bromide is oxidized to hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) and other bromine species. A systematic and critical literature review has been conducted on the reactivity of HOBr/OBr(-) and other bromine species with inorganic and organic compounds, including micropollutants. The speciation of bromine in the absence and presence of chloride and chlorine has been calculated and it could be shown that HOBr/OBr(-) are the dominant species in fresh waters. In ocean waters, other bromine species such as Br2, BrCl, and Br2O gain importance and may have to be considered under certain conditions. HOBr reacts fast with many inorganic compounds such as ammonia, iodide, sulfite, nitrite, cyanide and thiocyanide with apparent second-order rate constants in the order of 10(4)-10(9)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7. No rate constants for the reactions with Fe(II) and As(III) are available. Mn(II) oxidation by bromine is controlled by a Mn(III,IV) oxide-catalyzed process involving Br2O and BrCl. Bromine shows a very high reactivity toward phenolic groups (apparent second-order rate constants kapp ≈ 10(3)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7), amines and sulfamides (kapp ≈ 10(5)-10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) and S-containing compounds (kapp ≈ 10(5)-10(7)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7). For phenolic moieties, it is possible to derive second-order rate constants with a Hammett-σ-based QSAR approach with [Formula in text]. A negative slope is typical for electrophilic substitution reactions. In general, kapp of bromine reactions at pH 7 are up to three orders of magnitude greater than for chlorine. In the case of amines, these rate constants are even higher than for ozone. Model calculations show that depending on the bromide concentration and the pH, the high reactivity of bromine may outweigh the reactions of chlorine during

  17. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/collagen injectable bone paste with an anti-washout property utilizing sodium alginate. Part 1: influences of excess supplementation of calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taira; Kikuchi, Masanori; Aizawa, Mamoru

    2017-03-01

    The anti-washout property, viscosity, and cytocompatibility to an osteoblastic cell line, MG-63, of anti-washout pastes were investigated. Mixing a hydroxyapatite/collagen bone-like nanocomposite (HAp/Col), an aqueous solution of sodium alginate (Na-Alg), which is a paste hardening and lubricant agent, and supplementation of calcium carbonate or calcium citrate (Ca-Cit) as a calcium resource for the hardening reaction realized an injectable bone paste. Adding Ca-Cit at a concentration greater than eight times the Ca(2+) ion concentration to Na-Alg improved the anti-washout property. Although the viscosity test indicated a gradual increase in the paste viscosity as the calcium compounds increased, pastes with excess supplementation of calcium compounds exhibited injectability through a syringe with a 1.8 mm inner diameter, realizing an injectable bone filler. Furthermore, the anti-washout pastes with Ca-Cit had almost the same cell proliferation rate as that of the HAp/Col dense body. Therefore, HAp/Col injectable anti-washout pastes composed of the HAp/Col, Na-Alg, and Ca-Cit are potential candidates for bioresorbable bone filler pastes.

  18. Formation of inorganic nanofibers by heat-treatment of poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakane K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers (precursors were formed by electrospinning employing water as a solvent for the spinning solution. The precursors were converted into oxide (ZrO2, carbide (ZrC or nitride (ZrN nanofibers by heating them in air, Ar or N2 atmospheres. Monoclinic ZrO2 nanofibers with high-specific surface area were obtained by heat-treatment of the precursors in air. ZrC and ZrN nanofibers could be obtained below theoretical temperatures calculated from thermodynamics data.

  19. Structural characterization, vibrational spectroscopy accomplished with DFT calculation, thermal and dielectric behaviors in a new organic-inorganic tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajlaoui, Sondes, E-mail: hajlaouisondes@yahoo.fr [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Chaabane, Iskandar [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Lhoste, Jérôme; Bulou, Alain [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Guidara, Kamel [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    In this work a novel compound tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate was synthesized and characterized by; single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. The crystal structure refinement at room temperature reveled that this later belongs to the monoclinic compound with P121/c1 space group with the following unit cell parameters a = 8.2699(3) Å, b = 12.4665(4) Å, c = 22.3341(7) Å and β = 92.94(0)°. The crystal arrangement can be described by stacked organic-inorganic layers in the c direction with two independent water molecules placed between each two layers. The detailed interpretations of the vibrational properties of the studied compound were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set, and has enabled us to make the detailed assignments by comparative study of the experimental and calculated Raman and IR spectra. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement disclosed two anomalies in the temperature range 356–376 (T{sub 1}) K and at 393 K (T{sub 2}) characterized by the dehydration of the sample and probably a reconstruction of a new structure after T{sub 2} transition. The temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity show a relaxation process around T{sub 2} anomaly indicating the occurrence of the disorder at high temperature. The dependence of the exponent m(T) on temperature, extracted from the straight lines of log(ε″) with log (ω), suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism. - Highlights: • The single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been performed. • The assignments of the vibration modes based on DFT were reported and discussed. • Differential scanning calorimetric reveals the presence of two endothermic peaks. • The electric permittivity was studied using the impedance measurements. • The CBH is the appropriate model for the conduction

  20. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarret, Géraldine; Harada, Emiko; Choi, Yong-Eui; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A; Birschwilks, Mandy; Clemens, Stephan; Manceau, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  1. Application of poly(aspartic acid-citric acid copolymer compound inhibitor as an effective and environmental agent against calcium phosphate in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ling Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(aspartic acid-citric acid copolymer (PAC is a new product of poly(carboxylic acid scale inhibitor. The study aims to develop a “green” water treatment agent for calcium phosphate scale. The article compares the efficiency of three polymeric antiscalants, poly(aspartic acid-citric acid copolymer (PAC, polymaleic acid (HPMA and a compound inhibitor (PAC-HPMA, for calcium phosphate scale prevention under varying experimental conditions. Inhibitor concentration, calcium concentration, system pH, temperature and experimental time were varied to determine their influences on inhibitor performance by the static scale inhibition method. The copolymer (PAC was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The compound inhibitor was applied in the actual circulating cooling water system. An atomic force microscope (AFM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and a scale formation process analysis were used to explore the scale inhibition mechanism. The results showed that scale inhibition rates of PAC, HPMA and PAC-HPMA against Ca3(PO42 were, respectively, about 23%, 41.5% and 63% when the dosage was 8 mg/L in the experiment. The compound inhibitor showed the better inhibition performance than the above two kinds of monomers. Under the actual working conditions, the inhibition rate of compound inhibitor was close to 100% and completely met the actual application requirements of scale inhibitor in circulating cooling water systems. The main inhibition mechanism was the decomposition-chelation dispersion effect. The compound inhibitor can be used as an efficient “green” scale inhibitor for calcium phosphate.

  2. Trends in air concentration and deposition at background monitoring sites in Sweden - major inorganic compounds, heavy metals and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K.; Svensson, Annika; Sjoeberg, K.; Pihl Karlsson, G.

    2001-09-01

    This report describes concentrations in air of sulphur compounds, soot, nitrogen compounds and ozone in Sweden between 1985-1998. Time trends of concentration in precipitation and deposition of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity, base cations and chloride in six different regions covering Sweden are evaluated during the period 1983-1998. Trends of heavy metals in precipitation have been analysed for the period 1983-1998 and the change in heavy metal concentration, 1975-1995, in mosses is described. Data used in the trend analyses originates from measurements performed at six Swedish EMEP stations and from approximately 25 stations within the national Precipitation Chemistry Network. Two different statistical methods, linear regression and the non-parametric Mann Kendall test, have been used to evaluate changes in annual mean values. Time trends of concentration of sulphur dioxide, particulate sulphate, soot, nitrogen dioxide, total nitrate and total ammonium in air show highly significant decreasing trends, except for soot at one station in northern Sweden. Concentrations of ozone have a strong seasonal variation with a peak occurring in spring every year. However, annual ozone concentrations show no obvious trends in spite of decreasing emissions of the precursors NOx and VOC. A slight indication of a decreasing trend in the number of ozone episodes might be seen from 1990 to 1998. Sulphate concentrations in precipitation and deposition show strongly significant decreasing trends in the whole country. Concentrations and deposition of nitrate and ammonium have been decreasing in all areas except for nitrate at stations in south-west and north-west Sweden and ammonium in south-west Sweden. Acidity has decreased in all areas since 1989, resulting in increasing pH values in Sweden. The interannual variations of concentration and deposition of base cations and chloride are large and few general trends can be seen during 1983-1997. Time trends of four heavy metals in

  3. Compound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (6). Figure S4. UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (9). Figure S5. UV-vis spectra showing solvent ___, acidic--- and basic -□- effects on compound (8) in CH2Cl2 solution. Table S1. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of salicylaldimine Schiff bases (5-8).

  4. Color and organic compounds removal from secondary effluent of landfill leachate with a novel inorganic polymer coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Y M; Gu, Q B; Sun, T C; Li, F S

    2008-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in landfill leachate are causing environmental concerns due to their adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. The most popular biological process is mostly the first stage in combination with additional physical-chemical process. Current post-treatments are limited by high operating costs, low treatment efficiencies, or sensitive operating conditions. Poly-aluminium(III)-magnesium(II)-sulfate (PMAS in brief) is used to remove color and organic compounds in secondary effluent of landfill leachate. More than 40 kinds of organic matters in the secondary effluent are identified and 10 of them belong to the Black List of environmental preferred controlled pollutants considered by EPA of USA or China. Removals of COD, BOD(5), UV(254) and color by coagulation with PAMS can reach above 60%, 55%, 85% and 85% respectively under the optimum conditions. The species of alkyl, alkene, acyclic alcohol and acyclic acyl amine are efficiently removed (about 85%), with some of them removed completely, while the species of acid, ester and ketone are mostly removed (about 65%) and such matters with benzene ring as aromatic hydrocarbon, hydroxybenzene, aromatic alcohol, aromatic acyl amine are partially removed (about 50%). Organic pollutants in the secondary effluent are greatly removed with high efficiency here, which greatly weakens its pollution extent. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  5. An automated analyzer to measure surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of water soluble inorganic aerosol compounds and reactive trace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rick M; Trebs, Ivonne; Otjes, René; Jongejan, Piet A C; Ten Brink, Harry; Phillips, Gavin; Kortner, Michael; Meixner, Franz X; Nemitz, Eiko

    2009-03-01

    Here, we present a new automated instrument for semicontinuous gradient measurements of water-soluble reactive trace gas species (NH3, HNO3, HONO, HCl, and SO2) and their related aerosol compounds (NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-)). Gas and aerosol samples are collected simultaneously at two heights using rotating wet-annular denuders and steam-jet aerosol collectors, respectively. Online (real-time) analysis using ion chromatography (IC) for anions and flow injection analysis (FIA) for NH4+ and NH3 provide a half-hourly averaged gas and aerosol gradients within each hour. Through the use of syringe pumps, IC preconcentration columns, and high-quality purified water, the system achieves detection limits (3sigma-definition) under field conditions of typically: 136/207,135/114, 29/ 22,119/92, and 189/159 ng m(-3) for NH3/NH4+, HNO3/NO3-, HONO/ NO2-, HCl/Cl- and SO2/SO4(2-), respectively. The instrument demonstrates very good linearity and accuracy for liquid and selected gas phase calibrations over typical ambient concentration ranges. As shown by examples from field experiments, the instrument provides sufficient precision (3-9%), even at low ambient concentrations, to resolve vertical gradients and calculate surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes undertypical meteorological conditions of the atmospheric surface layer using the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  6. Two-year caries clinical study of the efficacy of novel dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraivaphan, P; Amornchat, C; Triratana, T; Mateo, L R; Ellwood, R; Cummins, D; DeVizio, W; Zhang, Y-P

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year double-blind randomized three-treatment controlled parallel-group clinical study compared the anti-caries efficacy of two dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound (di-calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate) and 1,450 ppm fluoride (F), as sodium monofluorophosphate, to a control dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F, as sodium fluoride, in a silica base. The 6,000 participants were from Bangkok, Thailand and aged 6-12 years initially. They were instructed to brush twice daily, in the morning and evening, with their randomly assigned dentifrice. Three trained and calibrated dentists examined the children at baseline and after 1 and 2 years using the National Institute of Dental Research Diagnostic Procedures and Criteria. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and surfaces (DMFS) for the three study groups were very similar at baseline, with no statistically significant differences among groups. After 1 year, there were no statistically significant differences in caries increments among the three groups. After 2 years, the two groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm F had statistically significantly (p < 0.02) lower DMFT increments (21.0 and 17.7% reductions, respectively) and DMFS increments (16.5 and 16.5%) compared to the control dentifrice. The differences between the two groups using the new dentifrices were not statistically significant. The results of this pivotal clinical study support the conclusion that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm F provide significantly greater protection against caries lesion cavitation, in a low to moderate caries risk population, than dentifrices containing 1,450 ppm F alone. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  8. Room-temperature polar order in [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3]--a hybrid inorganic-organic compound with a unique perovskite architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguirre, L C; Pato-Doldán, B; Stroppa, A; Yáñez-Vilar, S; Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B; Castro-García, S; Mira, J; Sánchez-Andújar, M; Señarís-Rodríguez, M A

    2015-03-02

    We report on the hybrid inorganic-organic ammonium compound [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3], which displays a most unusual framework structure: instead of the expected 4(9)·6(6) topology, it shows an ABX3 perovskite architecture with the peculiarity and uniqueness (among all the up-to-date reported hybrid metal formates) that the Cd ions are connected only by syn-anti formate bridges, instead of anti-anti ones. This change of the coordination mode of the formate ligand is thus another variable that can provide new possibilities for tuning the properties of these versatile functional metal-organic framework materials. The room-temperature crystal structure of [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3] is noncentrosymmetric (S.G.: Pna21) and displays a polar axis. DFT calculations and symmetry mode analysis show that the rather large polarization arising from the off-center shift of the ammonium cations in the cavities (4.33 μC/cm(2)) is partially canceled by the antiparallel polarization coming from the [Cd(HCOO)3](-) framework, thus resulting in a net polarization of 1.35 μC/cm(2). As shown by second harmonic generation studies, this net polarization can be greatly increased by applying pressure (Pmax = 14 GPa), an external stimulus that, in turn, induces the appearance of new structural phases, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  10. Dual mechanochemical immobilization of heavy metals and decomposition of halogenated compounds in automobile shredder residue using a nano-sized metallic calcium reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous immobilization of heavy metals and decomposition of halogenated organic compounds in different fractions of automobile shredder residue (ASR) were achieved with a nano-sized metallic calcium through a 60-min ball milling treatment. Heavy metal (HM) immobilization and chlorinated/brominated compound (CBC) decomposition efficiencies both reached 90-100 %, after ball milling with nanometallic calcium/calcium oxide (Ca/CaO) dispersion, regardless of ASR particle size (1.0, 0.45-1.0, and 0.250 mm). Concentrations of leachable HMs substantially decreased to a level lower than the regulatory standard limits (Co and Cd 0.3 mg L(-1); Cr 1.5 mg L(-1); Fe, Pb, and Zn 3.0 mg L(-1); Mn and Ni 1 mg L(-1)) proposed by the Korean hazardous waste elution standard regulatory threshold. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) element maps/spectra showed that while the amounts of HMs and CBCs detectable in ASR significantly decreased, the calcium mass percentage increased. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR includes Ca-associated crystalline complexes that remarkably inhibit HM desorption and simultaneously transform dangerous CBCs into harmless compounds. The use of a nanometallic Ca/CaO mixture in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is an innovative approach to remediate cross-contaminated residues with heavy metals and halogenated compounds.

  11. Annual changes in serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels and correlation with gonadal status of a freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Srivastav

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult Channa punctatus murrels of both sexes (60-80 g were collected locally from Ramgarh Lake during the second week of every month (10 individuals of each sex/month throughout the year. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum calcium and phosphate levels by the methods of Trinder (1960 and Fiske and Subbarow (1925, respectively. Gonads were fixed to judge the state of maturation of the fish. Males exhibited no change in serum calcium levels throughout the year in correlation with testicular maturation. However, serum phosphate levels exhibited a rise in correlation with the increased gonadosomatic index. Females showed marked seasonal changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels which were associated with ovarian maturation (vitellogenesis.

  12. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-11-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples.

  13. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1450 ppm fluoride over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Zhong, Yisi; Jiang, Xianjun; Hu Deyu; Mateo, Luis R; Morrison, Boyce M; Zhang, Yun-Po

    2015-01-01

    A double blind, randomized, unsupervised, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted on over 5,500 children in Sichuan Province, China. This clinical trial compared the anti-caries efficacy of two test dentifrices to that of a control dentifrice. The test dentifrices contained 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), and an insoluble calcium compound (either dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate). The positive control dentifrice contained 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF), in a silica base. The children were randomly assigned one of the toothpastes, and children residing in the same household were assigned the same dentifrice to use at home, twice a day. Three calibrated dentists examined the children at baseline, as well as after one and two years of product use. After one year of product use, there were no statistically significant differences among the three groups with respect to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) or to decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS). After two years of product use, subjects in the two test groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound had a statistically significant reduction in DMFT increments of 20.5% and in DMFS increments of 19.6% when compared to subjects in the group using the positive control dentifrice. After two years, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to DMFT or DMFS between the two groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound. The use of the two test dentifrices demonstrated significant reductions in decayed, missing, and filled teeth and surfaces, however there was no statistically significant different between the two test dentifrices clinically after two years of using the toothpastes. The results of this two-year clinical investigation support the conclusion that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine

  14. Investigation of the influence of liquid water films on O3 and PAN deposition on plant leaf surfaces treated with organic / inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water films on environmental surfaces play an important role in various fields of interest (Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994). For example, the deposition of water soluble trace gases could be increased by surface moisture. Chameides and Stelson (1992) found out that the dissolution of trace gases in airborne particulate matter increases with rising water/solid ratio of the particles. Further, Flechard et al. (1999) concluded that deliquescent salt particles represent a potential sink for trace gases, depending on their chemical property. The formation of surface water films and its influence on the gas deposition was proposed by many previous studies (Fuentes and Gillespie, 1992, Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994, van Hove et al., 1989, Burkhardt et al., 1999, Flechard et al., 1999). In this study we investigate the influence of leaf surface water films on the deposition of O3 and PAN under controlled laboratory conditions. A twin cuvette system described in Sun et al. (2015) was used to control the environmental parameters such as light, temperature, trace gas mixing ratio and humidity. Furthermore, the leaf surface was treated with various organic and inorganic solutions to investigate the influence of deposited compounds on the electrical surface conductance of the leaves and the surface deposition of O3 and PAN at various relative humidities. The result shows that RHcrit, where the electrical surface conductance (G) increases exponentially, was 40 % during the light period and 50 % during the dark period. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of the leaf surface liquid film was depended on the deposited compounds on the leaf cuticles. For the O3 deposition on plants (Quercus ilex) a clear enhancement at rising environmental air humidity under light and dark condition was found. The increase during light conditions can be related partly to increasing stomatal conductance with higher RH. From the non-stomatal deposition measured in dark experiments, we could

  15. Effect of different calcium sources on the bioactive compounds stability of extruded and nixtamalized blue maize flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Madrigal, Miguel Ángel; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Camacho-Dávila, Alejandro; Torres-Chávez, Patricia Isabel; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2015-05-01

    The stability of antioxidants in extruded and nixtamalized blue maize flours with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and calcium lactate [C6H10O6Ca] were evaluated. Extruded blue maize flours batches were obtained by mixing blue maize flours separately with different Ca(OH)2 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 %) and C6H10O6Ca (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 %) concentrations respectively and extruded to obtain the extruded flours. For nixtamalized flours, the maize grains were cooked at 1 % Ca(OH)2 and 2.95 % C6H10O6Ca concentrations respectively. Color, antioxidant activity, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, contents were analyzed. Color, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins contents and total phenolics decreased as the calcium hydroxide concentration increased. In contrast, increasing the calcium lactate concentration on the extruded flours had the opposite effect. The extrusion process retained 57-47 %, 72-62 % and 79-65 % of the anthocyanins content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively. These retention rates were higher than those of the nixtamalized flours using the same calcium sources. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were identified in the maize kernel and flours. Cyanidin-3-glucoside concentration was increased by both extrusion and nixtamalization processed with either of the two calcium sources. In contrast, pelargonidin-3-glucoside concentration decreased by both processes. Other anthocyanins were observed, but they were not identified.

  16. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  17. ERO1α-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial calcium flux contributes to ER stress and mitochondrial permeabilization by procaspase-activating compound-1 (PAC-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seervi, M; Sobhan, P K; Joseph, J; Ann Mathew, K; Santhoshkumar, T R

    2013-12-19

    Procaspase-activating compound-1 (PAC-1) is the first direct caspase-activating compound discovered; using an in vitro cell-free system of caspase activation. Subsequently, this compound was shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells with promising in vivo antitumor activity in canine lymphoma model. Recently, we have reported its ability to kill drug-resistant, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL overexpressing and Bax/Bak-deficient cells despite the essential requirement of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt. c) release for caspase activation, indicating that the key molecular targets of PAC-1 in cancer cells are yet to be identified. Here, we have identified Ero1α-dependent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium leakage to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM) and ER luminal hyper-oxidation as the critical events of PAC-1-mediated cell death. PAC-1 treatment upregulated Ero1α in multiple cell lines, whereas silencing of Ero1α significantly inhibited calcium release from ER and cell death. Loss of ER calcium and hyper-oxidation of ER lumen by Ero1α collectively triggered ER stress. Upregulation of GRP78 and splicing of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA in multiple cancer cells suggested ER stress as the general event triggered by PAC-1. XBP1 mRNA splicing and GRP78 upregulation confirmed ER stress even in Bax/Bak double knockout and PAC-1-resistant Apaf-1-knockout cells, indicating an induction of ER stress-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis by PAC-1. Furthermore, we identified BH3-only protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) as the key molecular link that orchestrates overwhelmed ER stress to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, involving mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, in a p53-independent manner. Silencing of PUMA in cancer cells effectively reduced cyt. c release and cell death by PAC-1.

  18. ERO1α-dependent endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondrial calcium flux contributes to ER stress and mitochondrial permeabilization by procaspase-activating compound-1 (PAC-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seervi, M; Sobhan, P K; Joseph, J; Ann Mathew, K; Santhoshkumar, T R

    2013-01-01

    Procaspase-activating compound-1 (PAC-1) is the first direct caspase-activating compound discovered; using an in vitro cell-free system of caspase activation. Subsequently, this compound was shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells with promising in vivo antitumor activity in canine lymphoma model. Recently, we have reported its ability to kill drug-resistant, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL overexpressing and Bax/Bak-deficient cells despite the essential requirement of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt. c) release for caspase activation, indicating that the key molecular targets of PAC-1 in cancer cells are yet to be identified. Here, we have identified Ero1α-dependent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium leakage to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM) and ER luminal hyper-oxidation as the critical events of PAC-1-mediated cell death. PAC-1 treatment upregulated Ero1α in multiple cell lines, whereas silencing of Ero1α significantly inhibited calcium release from ER and cell death. Loss of ER calcium and hyper-oxidation of ER lumen by Ero1α collectively triggered ER stress. Upregulation of GRP78 and splicing of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA in multiple cancer cells suggested ER stress as the general event triggered by PAC-1. XBP1 mRNA splicing and GRP78 upregulation confirmed ER stress even in Bax/Bak double knockout and PAC-1-resistant Apaf-1-knockout cells, indicating an induction of ER stress-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis by PAC-1. Furthermore, we identified BH3-only protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) as the key molecular link that orchestrates overwhelmed ER stress to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, involving mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, in a p53-independent manner. Silencing of PUMA in cancer cells effectively reduced cyt. c release and cell death by PAC-1. PMID:24357799

  19. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lemasters, John J., E-mail: JJLemasters@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective

  20. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  1. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-10-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, four domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, three dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituent, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that equaled or exceeded their reporting levels. The ethylbenzene concentration in one water sample exceeded the reporting level.

  2. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [State of Idaho, Dept. of Water Resources (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from six irrigation wells, seven domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, one dairy well, and one observation well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All the samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Concentrations of 1,1,1 -trichloroethane exceeded the reporting level in two water samples. Two samples and a quality assurance replicate contained reportable concentrations of 2, 4-D. One sample contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.

  3. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [State of Idaho, Dept. of Water Resources (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.

  4. Cholecalciferol has no effect on calcium and inorganic phosphorus balance in a naturally cholecalciferol-deplete subterranean mammal, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenstein, R; Yahav, S

    1991-04-01

    Naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, have no obvious source of cholecalciferol (D3) available to them, given their underground habitat and tubiferous diet. They have undetectable levels of 25-OH-D3 and as such appear to be naturally deplete in D3. The effect of an oral D3 supplement on mineral balance and homeostasis was therefore investigated. This D3 treatment did not affect circulating levels of Ca2+ and inorganic phosphorus (P(i]. Nor did D3 treatment affect mineral intake and absorption. The Ca2+ and P(i) present in the food was efficiently extracted and absorbed, resulting in an apparent fractional absorption (AFA) efficiency exceeding 98%. Irrespective of D3 treatment, the amount of Ca2+ and P(i) absorbed was positively correlated with the amount ingested, suggesting that intestinal uptake is by a passive D3-independent process. After D3 supplementation urinary Ca2+ secretion was unchanged; however, the amount of P(i) excreted in the urine increased (P less than or equal to 0.05). This resulted in a concomitant decline in P(i) AFR (P less than or equal to 0.02 from 99.95 +/- 0.02% to 99.82 +/- 0.03%). Almost all the Ca2+ and P(i) in the glomerular filtrate were reabsorbed, facilitating AFR efficiencies that approach physiological maxima (greater than 99%). Changes in AFR efficiency with D3 supplementation are therefore of no biological significance. Net mineral flux of both elements, irrespective of D3 treatment, was positive. It is speculated that the ever-growing incisors of these animals act as mineral dumps and assist in the tight regulation of plasma Ca2+ and P(i). These data suggest that naked mole rats utilize mechanisms independent of D3 in regulating mineral homeostasis and are therefore well-adapted to an environment devoid of sunlight.

  5. Effects on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc of adding the two inorganic forms of selenium to solution cultures of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longchamp, M; Angeli, N; Castrec-Rouelle, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of selenate or selenite to common fertilizers for crop production could be an effective way of producing selenium-rich food and feed. However, this would be feasible only if the increase in plant selenium (Se) content did not negatively influence the uptake of other essential elements. We therefore need to understand the interactions between Se and other major and trace elements during uptake by the plant. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of inorganic forms of Se on the accumulation of selected macronutrients (Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu). Those essential elements are involved in the oxidative balance of cells. Zea mays seedlings were grown hydroponically in growth chambers in nutrient solutions to which we added 10, 50 or 1000 μg.L(-1) of selenate and/or selenite. Cation accumulation was significantly affected by the addition of 50 μg.L(-1) or 1000 μg.L(-1) Se, but not by the presence of 10 μg.L(-1) of Se in the nutrient solution. The highest concentration (1000 μg.L(-1)) of Se in the nutrient solution affected the accumulation of essential cations in Zea mays: selenate tended to increase the accumulation of Mg, Zn and Mn, whereas a selenate/selenite mixture tended to decrease the accumulation of Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn. Only Fe accumulation was unaffected by Se whatever its form or concentration. Selenium may also affect the distribution of cations on Zea mays. For example, levels of Mg and Zn translocation to the shoots were lower in the presence of selenite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. More about inorganic complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Alfred;

    1980-01-01

    This article is a sequel to the one which appeared earlier in this Journal ("Inorganic Complexes: An Introduction" Hyphen VOil. I, Number 3, Spring 1978, pp. 31 - 39) and which dealt with certain aspects of the chemistry of complexes, notably: their definition, stereochemistry, nomenclature and some of their chemical properties. In this article we shall examine the stability of complexes and review some of the applications of coordination compound" in chemis~ry.

  7. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  8. Immobilization of L-Lysine on Zeolite 4A as an Organic-Inorganic Composite Basic Catalyst for Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds under Mild Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Farzad; Rezapour, Mehdi; Kianpour, Sahar [Islamic Azad Univ., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Lysine (Lys) immobilized on zeolite 4A was prepared by a simple adsorption method. The physical and chemical properties of Lys/zeolite 4A were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis. The obtained organic-inorganic composite was effectively employed as a heterogeneous basic catalyst for synthesis of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. No by-product formation, high yields, short reaction times, mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity with reusability of the catalyst are the salient features of the present catalyst.

  9. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a ...

  10. Calcium Input Potentiates the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β1-dependent Signaling to Promote the Export of Inorganic Pyrophosphate by Articular Chondrocyte*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailotto, Frederic; Reboul, Pascal; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Netter, Patrick; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Bianchi, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulates extracellular PPi (ePPi) generation and promotes chondrocalcinosis, which also occurs secondary to hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemia. We previously demonstrated that ANK was up-regulated by TGF-β1 activation of ERK1/2 and Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKCα). Thus, we investigated mechanisms by which calcium could affect ePPi metabolism, especially its main regulating proteins ANK and PC-1 (plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1). We stimulated articular chondrocytes with TGF-β1 under extracellular (eCa2+) or cytosolic Ca2+ (cCa2+) modulations. We studied ANK, PC-1 expression (quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting), ePPi levels (radiometric assay), and cCa2+ input (fluorescent probe). Voltage-operated Ca2+-channels (VOC) and signaling pathways involved were investigated with selective inhibitors. Finally, Ank promoter activity was evaluated (gene reporter). TGF-β1 elevated cCa2+ and ePPi levels (by up-regulating Ank and PC-1 mRNA/proteins) in an eCa2+ dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 effects were suppressed by cCa2+ chelation or L- and T-VOC blockade while being mostly reproduced by ionomycin. In the same experimental conditions, the activation of Ras, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKCα, and the stimulation of Ank promoter activity were affected similarly. Activation of SP1 (specific protein 1) and ELK-1 (Ets-like protein-1) transcription factors supported the regulatory role of Ca2+. SP1 or ELK-1 overexpression or blockade experiments demonstrated a major contribution of ELK-1, which acted synergistically with SP1 to activate Ank promoter in response to TGF-β1. TGF-β1 promotes input of eCa2+ through opening of L- and T-VOCs, to potentiate ERK1/2 and PKCα signaling cascades, resulting in an enhanced activation of Ank promoter and ePPi production in chondrocyte. PMID:21471198

  11. Calcium input potentiates the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-dependent signaling to promote the export of inorganic pyrophosphate by articular chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailotto, Frederic; Reboul, Pascal; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Netter, Patrick; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Bianchi, Arnaud

    2011-06-03

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulates extracellular PP(i) (ePP(i)) generation and promotes chondrocalcinosis, which also occurs secondary to hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemia. We previously demonstrated that ANK was up-regulated by TGF-β1 activation of ERK1/2 and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C (PKCα). Thus, we investigated mechanisms by which calcium could affect ePP(i) metabolism, especially its main regulating proteins ANK and PC-1 (plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1). We stimulated articular chondrocytes with TGF-β1 under extracellular (eCa(2+)) or cytosolic Ca(2+) (cCa(2+)) modulations. We studied ANK, PC-1 expression (quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting), ePP(i) levels (radiometric assay), and cCa(2+) input (fluorescent probe). Voltage-operated Ca(2+)-channels (VOC) and signaling pathways involved were investigated with selective inhibitors. Finally, Ank promoter activity was evaluated (gene reporter). TGF-β1 elevated cCa(2+) and ePP(i) levels (by up-regulating Ank and PC-1 mRNA/proteins) in an eCa(2+) dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 effects were suppressed by cCa(2+) chelation or L- and T-VOC blockade while being mostly reproduced by ionomycin. In the same experimental conditions, the activation of Ras, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKCα, and the stimulation of Ank promoter activity were affected similarly. Activation of SP1 (specific protein 1) and ELK-1 (Ets-like protein-1) transcription factors supported the regulatory role of Ca(2+). SP1 or ELK-1 overexpression or blockade experiments demonstrated a major contribution of ELK-1, which acted synergistically with SP1 to activate Ank promoter in response to TGF-β1. TGF-β1 promotes input of eCa(2+) through opening of L- and T-VOCs, to potentiate ERK1/2 and PKCα signaling cascades, resulting in an enhanced activation of Ank promoter and ePP(i) production in chondrocyte.

  12. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Mary M; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative trace toxic metal analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Characteristics and source of inorganic and organic compounds in the sediments from two hydrothermal fields of the Central Indian and Mid-Atlantic Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Wu, Zijun; Li, Jiangtao; Chen, Shun; Yao, Huiqiang

    2011-05-01

    A combined inorganic and organic geochemical study was carried out on sediments collected from the Kairei hydrothermal field on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Analysis of the major and trace elements as well as the minerals shows that the Kairei hydrothermal sediments are formed by the mixing of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids with Mg-rich seawaters, but the Logatchev sediments are associated with pelagic carbonate oozes containing some precipitates derived from hydrothermal plume fall-out. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of Kairei sediments show a character of light REE (LREE) enrichment and positive Eu anomaly, whereas two of the three Logatchev sediment samples lack positive Eu anomaly and have negative Ce anomaly. Patterns of aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions in the sediments from both hydrothermal fields exhibit high relative concentrations of volatile resolved components, smooth n-alkane distributions and high concentrations of the isoprenoids pristane and phytane. The composition of organic matter and C isotope composition of individual n-alkanes indicate that they come from marine photosynthetic autotrophs and hydrothermal organisms, as well as terrestrial inputs in the Kairei and the Logatchev hydrothermal fields. Several parameters of organic geochemistry, used for assessing the maturity of bitumen, are well correlated with one another. In general, these parameters indicate that the Kairei sediments are more mature than the Logatchev sediments. The relationship between the inorganic parameters (REE/Fe and Eu/Eu ∗) and the organic parameter (bitumen maturity) might reflect changes of the hydrothermal influence on the sediments. The results of this study provide an insight into the variation of inorganic and organic geochemistry in deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  14. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  15. Spontaneous Aerosol Ejection: Origin of Inorganic Particles in Biomass Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Gantt, Rachel; Joseph, Kristeen E; Maduskar, Saurabh; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Zhu, Cheng; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-06-08

    At high thermal flux and temperatures of approximately 500 °C, lignocellulosic biomass transforms to a reactive liquid intermediate before evaporating to condensable bio-oil for downstream upgrading to renewable fuels and chemicals. However, the existence of a fraction of nonvolatile compounds in condensed bio-oil diminishes the product quality and, in the case of inorganic materials, catalyzes undesirable aging reactions within bio-oil. In this study, ablative pyrolysis of crystalline cellulose was evaluated, with and without doped calcium, for the generation of inorganic-transporting aerosols by reactive boiling ejection from liquid intermediate cellulose. Aerosols were characterized by laser diffraction light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and high-speed photography. Pyrolysis product fractionation revealed that approximately 3 % of the initial feed (both organic and inorganic) was transported to the gas phase as aerosols. Large bubble-to-aerosol size ratios and visualization of significant late-time ejections in the pyrolyzing cellulose suggest the formation of film bubbles in addition to the previously discovered jet formation mechanism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Activation of the calcium receptor by a calcimimetic compound halts the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J; Miller, S C; Wada, M; Nagano, N; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-05-01

    The secondary hyperparathyroidism that develops in rats with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) can be totally prevented by activation of the parathyroid Ca(2+) receptor with a calcimimetic compound, when treatment is initiated before parathyroid cell hyperplasia and increased circulating parathyroid hormone levels develop. In clinical practice, however, secondary hyperparathyroidism is usually manifest by the time CRI is diagnosed. This study examined the effects of daily oral gavage or continuous subcutaneous infusion for 8 wk of the calcimimetic NPS R-568 on the progression of established mild or moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in rats with CRI induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Both oral and infused NPS R-568 completely prevented further hyperplasia but did not reduce total parathyroid cell number below that present at the initiation of treatment. This prevention of cellular proliferation occurred despite increases in plasma phosphate and decreases in Ca(2+) and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, and supports the view that the Ca(2+) receptor is the dominant regulator of parathyroid cell hyperplasia in addition to parathyroid hormone secretion. The clinical implications of these findings suggest that controlling Ca(2+) receptor activity with calcimimetic compounds could be sufficient to manage secondary hyperparathyroidism in CRI.

  17. Estimating intestinal absorption of inorganic and organic selenium compounds by in vitro flux and biotransformation studies in Caco-2 cells and ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Rasmussen, Laura Hyrup; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare and estimate absorption and biotransformation of selected selenium compounds by studying their fluxes across Caco-2 cells. Five different selenium compounds, selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), selenate, selenite, and methylselen......The aim of the present work was to compare and estimate absorption and biotransformation of selected selenium compounds by studying their fluxes across Caco-2 cells. Five different selenium compounds, selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), selenate, selenite......) were also studied. Selenium absorptive and exsorptive fluxes and accumulation in cell cytosol were analyzed by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Absorptive flux of SeMet, MeSeCys, and selenate showed values correlating to complete in vivo absorption, while......SeA, including volatile species, whereas no significant increases in fluxes were observed. In summary, the absorption of selenite selenate and the selenoamino acids is considered complete under physiological conditions, but the absorption mechanisms and metabolism of the compounds are different. © 2011 Springer...

  18. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type...

  19. Syntheses, structures and photocatalytic properties of five new praseodymium-antimony oxochlorides: from discrete clusters to 3D inorganic-organic hybrid racemic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Wang, Ze-Ping; Song, Ying; Hu, Bing; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-07-14

    Five novel praseodymium-antimony oxochloride (Pr-Sb-O-Cl) cluster-based compounds, namely (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl14.6(OH)2.4(Hsal)]·H2O (1), (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]4{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5](bcpb)2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5]}·42H2O (2), (3-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(H2O)2](bcpb)}·2(3-Mepy)·3H2O (3), [Fe(1,10-phen)3]2{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl10(H2O)2](bcpb)2}·3(3-Mepy)·13H2O (4), and (2-MepyH)6[Fe(1,10-phen)3]10{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(OH)2]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl9][Pr4Sb12O18Cl9(OH)2]2(Hpdc)10(pdc)2}·110H2O (5) (2-Mepy = 2-methylpyridine, 3-Mepy = 3-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, H2sal = salicylic acid, H3bcpb = 3,5-bis(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, H3pdc = 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid) have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compound 1 is the first zero-dimensional (0D) Pr-Sb-O-Cl cluster decorated by an organic ligand. Compounds 2-4 are constructed from the same H3bcpb ligands but adopt different structures: 2 represents a rare example of a one-dimensional (1D) nanotubular structure based on high-nuclearity clusters; 3 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) mono-layered structure, in which left-handed and right-handed helical chains are alternately arranged, while 4 features a double-layered structure with an unprecedented (3,3,6)-connected 3-nodal topological net. Compound 5 is a unique three-dimensional (3D) 2-fold interpenetrating racemic compound, simultaneously containing three kinds of Pr-Sb-O-Cl-pdc clusters. UV-light photocatalytic H2 evolution activity was observed for compound 3 with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor. In addition, the magnetic properties of compounds 1 and 5 are also studied.

  20. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  1. Structural study and crystallography of the major compound of anhydrous cement: tri-calcium silicate; Etude structurale et cristallographie du compose majoritaire du ciment anhydre: le silicate tricalcique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirfontaine, M.N. de

    2000-01-01

    Anhydrous (Portland) cement is mainly composed of a synthetic material, the clinker, whose major compound is tri-calcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), often referred as C{sub 3}S with the compact oxides notations, C = CaO et S = SiO{sub 2}. The polymorphism of C{sub 3}S, still not well known, is the main subject of the thesis. Various crystal structures (rhombohedral R, monoclinic M1, M2, M3 and triclinic T1, T2, T3) can be found, depending on temperature and impurities. The only known structures are T1, M1 and M3, involving large unit cells with an orientational disorder of silicate tetrahedra. The single crystal studies exhibit no clear relation between the various polymorphs. Starting from known results from literature single crystal experiments, we establish the metric and structural relations between the different structures. Averaged structures for the T1, M1 and M3 polymorphs are proposed, together with all the matrices of transformation between the unit cells. We also introduce new 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D structural units, which make easier the understanding of the structures of C{sub 3}S, with the result of a better description of the orientational disorder. The effects of impurities on the structure are discussed. In industrial clinkers, impurities stabilize mainly M1 and M3 monoclinic forms. We propose a space group (Pc) and two structural models (a superstructure and an approximate averaged structure) for the M1 form. All the models are validated on synthetic compounds (M3, M2, M1 et T1) and industrial clinkers analysed by X-Ray powder diffraction with Rietveld analysis. (author)

  2. Synthesis of Dichlorophosphinenickel(II) Compounds and Their Catalytic Activity in Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions: A Simple Air-Free Experiment for Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thananatthanachon, Todsapon; Lecklider, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, students perform an air-free synthesis of three dichlorophosphinenickel(II) compounds, NiCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 2], NiCl[subscript 2](PCy[subscript 3])[subscript 2], and NiCl[subscript 2](DPPE), using NiCl[subscript 2]·6H[subscript 2]O and the appropriate phosphine as the precursors. These colorful nickel…

  3. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  4. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  5. Quenching of labile functionalised lipids by inorganic sulphur species: Evidence for the formation of sedimentary organic sulphur compounds at the early stages of diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinninghe Damst'e, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Kock-van Dalen, A. C.; De Leeuw, Jan W.; Schenck, P. A.

    1989-06-01

    The bitumen of the Jurf ed Darawish Oil Shale has been analysed for organic sulphur compounds (OSC). A number of OSC are reported for the first time: several C 288, C 37 and C 38 2,5-dialkylthiolanes and -thiophenes and 2,6-di- n-alkylthianes, and C 19 branched thiophenes possessing the 9-methyloctadecane carbon skeleton. A number of these compounds were identified by synthesis of authentic standards. All the OSC compound classes mentioned exhibit structural isomer distributions dominated by a limited number of all theoretically possible isomers. This provides direct evidence for the formation of these OSC by abiogenic sulphur incorporation into functionalised lipids at the early stages of diagenesis. Precursors for the OSC identified are suggested. From these observations and from data on the occurrence of other OSC and of sulphur in high molecular weight substances a general model for the incorporation of sulphur into organic matter is proposed. Sulphur incorporation into precursors with double bonds (or other reactive functionalities) will lead to formation of OSC and sulphur-rich high molecular weight substances. Only precursors with two double bonds in favourable position for intramolecular addition of intermediate thiols can yield low molecular weight OSC. Double bond isomerisations by a sequence of H 2S addition and elimination reactions may play a role in this respect.

  6. Preparation, characterization, and theoretical analysis of group 14 element(I) dimers: a case study of magnesium(I) compounds as reducing agents in inorganic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cameron; Bonyhady, Simon J; Holzmann, Nicole; Frenking, Gernot; Stasch, Andreas

    2011-12-19

    A synthetic route to the new amidine (DipNH)(DipN)C(C(6)H(4)Bu(t)-4) (ButisoH; Dip = C(6)H(3)Pr(i)(2)-2,6) has been developed. Its deprotonation with either LiBu(n) or KN(SiMe(3))(2) yields the amidinate complexes [M(Butiso)] (M = Li or K). Their reactions with group 14 element halides/pseudohalides afford the heteroleptic group 14 complexes [(Butiso)SiCl(3)], [(Butiso)ECl] (E = Ge or Sn), and [{(Butiso)Pb(μ-O(3)SCF(3))(THF)}(∞)], all of which have been crystallographically characterized. In addition, the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of the homoleptic complex [Pb(Butiso)(2)] is reported. Reductions of the heteroleptic complexes with a soluble magnesium(I) dimer, [{((Mes)Nacnac)Mg}(2)] ((Mes)Nacnac = [(MesNCMe)(2)CH](-); Mes = mesityl), have given moderate-to-high yields of the group 14 element(I) dimers [{(Butiso)E}(2)] (E = Si, Ge, or Sn), the X-ray crystallographic studies of which reveal trans-bent structures. The corresponding lead(I) complex could not be prepared. Comprehensive spectroscopic and theoretical analyses of [{(Butiso)E}(2)] have allowed their properties to be compared. All complexes possess E-E single bonds and can be considered as intramolecularly base-stabilized examples of ditetrelynes, REER. Taken as a whole, this study highlights the synthetic utility of soluble and easy to prepare magnesium(I) dimers as valuable alternatives to the harsh, and often insoluble, alkali-metal reducing agents that are currently widely employed in the synthesis of low-oxidation-state organometallic/inorganic complexes. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Different effects of inorganic and dimethylated arsenic compounds on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and DNA synthesis in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, T; Nakajima, F; Fukumori, N

    1998-09-01

    Changes in cytoskeletal organization of cultured V79 cells exposed to arsenite and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), a methylated derivative of inorganic arsenics, and related changes, such as mitotic arrest and induction of multinucleated cells, were investigated in comparison with their effects on DNA synthesis. DMAA caused mitotic arrest and induction of multinucleated cells with a delay of 12 h relative to the mitotic arrest. By contrast, arsenite at equitoxic concentrations to DMAA was less effective than DMAA in causing mitotic arrest and in inducing multinucleated cells. Post-mitotic incubation of cells arrested in metaphase by 6 h incubation with 10 mM DMAA showed that the incidence of multinucleated cells increased conversely with a rapid decrease in metaphase cells. This suggests that metaphase-arrested cells can escape from metaphase, resulting in the appearance of multinucleated cells. The mitotic arrest caused by DMAA was accompanied by disruption of the microtubule network. By contrast, both arsenite and DMAA did not cause disorganization of actin stress fibers even when incubated at concentrations that caused a marked retardation of cell growth. Cells exposed to arsenite for 6 h showed marked inhibition of DNA synthesis, whereas inhibition by DMAA was not observed. When incubation was prolonged by 18 h, the arsenite-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis was mitigated. By contrast, inhibition of DNA synthesis by DMAA occurred in parallel with an increase in the population of mitotic cells. These results suggest that DMAA caused growth retardation and morphological changes via disruption of the microtubule network, and that arsenite-induced retardation of cell growth and inhibition of DNA synthesis were not attributable to the cytoskeletal changes.

  8. Different effects of inorganic and dimethylated arsenic compounds on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and DNA synthesis in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Takafumi; Nakajima, Fumie [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa (Japan); Fukumori, Nobutaka [Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, Hyakuninchou, Shinjyuku (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Changes in cytoskeletal organization of cultured V79 cells exposed to arsenite and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), a methylated derivative of inorganic arsenics, and related changes, such as mitotic arrest and induction of multinucleated cells, were investigated in comparison with their effects on DNA synthesis. DMAA caused mitotic arrest and induction of multinucleated cells with a delay of 12 h relative to the mitotic arrest. By contrast, arsenite at equitoxic concentrations to DMAA was less effective than DMAA in causing mitotic arrest and in inducing multinucleated cells. Post-mitotic incubation of cells arrested in metaphase by 6 h incubation with 10 mM DMAA showed that the incidence of multinucleated cells increased conversely with a rapid decrease in metaphase cells. This suggests that metaphase-arrested cells can escape from metaphase, resulting in the appearance of multinucleated cells. The mitotic arrest caused by DMAA was accompanied by disruption of the microtubule network. By contrast, both arsenite and DMAA did not cause disorganization of actin stress fibers even when incubated at concentrations that caused a marked retardation of cell growth. Cells exposed to arsenite for 6 h showed marked inhibition of DNA synthesis, whereas inhibition by DMAA was not observed. When incubation was prolonged by 18 h, the arsenite-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis was mitigated. By contrast, inhibition of DNA synthesis by DMAA occurred in parallel with an increase in the population of mitotic cells. These results suggest that DMAA caused growth retardation and morphological changes via disruption of the microtubule network, and that arsenite-induced retardation of cell growth and inhibition of DNA synthesis were not attributable to the cytoskeletal changes. (orig.) (orig.) With 7 figs., 31 refs.

  9. Inorganic nanoparticles as nucleic acid transporters into eukaryotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanov, R. N.; Zarytova, V. F.; Zenkova, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    The review is concerned with inorganic nanoparticles (gold, titanium dioxide, silica, iron oxides, calcium phosphate) used as nucleic acid transporters into mammalian cells. Methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and approaches to surface modification through covalent or noncovalent attachment of low- or high-molecular-weight compounds are considered. The data available from the literature on biological action of nucleic acids delivered into the cells by nanoparticles and on the effect of nanoparticles and their conjugates and complexes on the cell survival are summarized. Pathways of cellular internalization of nanoparticles and the mechanism of their excretion, as well as the ways of release of nucleic acids from their complexes with nanoparticles after the cellular uptake are described. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  10. Inorganic Sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dransfield, G.P

    2000-07-01

    Inorganic sunscreens, based on TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, are a rapidly growing segment of the overall UV protection market. They offer the advantages of high SPF, broad-spectrum coverage and reduced potential irritancy to users. Lack of transparency has traditionally been a drawback regarding acceptance of these products. Recent development work has therefore prioritised the achievement of transparency through superior control of particle size, shape and particle size distribution. The properties of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO are discussed as sunscreen actives, and the key factors affecting efficacy and cosmetic elegance. The pros and cons of different product forms (powders and dispersions) are discussed. physical sunscreens can be used either as the sole active in a formulation, or in combination with each other or with organic sunscreens; the relative benefits of these approaches are assessed. The paper concludes with a review of work undertaken to achieve transparency along with developments to improve efficacy (SPF and UVA coverage) and photostability. (author)

  11. Partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of renders with organic binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    2016-01-01

    , calcium carbonate, marble, kaolinite, and talc were determined. Partition constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.2mL g−1 (diuron) and 5.2mLg−1 (iodocarb), respectively. The results for barite and kaolinite were in a similar range and usually, the compounds with high partition constants for one......The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in the recent years. These biocides are applied, e.g., to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching......, the partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render with organic binder was investigated. The partition constants of carbendazim, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, cybutryn (irgarol), octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn, and tebuconazole towards minerals typically used in renders, e.g. barite...

  12. Compound I formation in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase is modulated by the equilibrium between pentacoordinated and 6-aquo hexacoordinated forms of the heme and by calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Alexander N P; Sidrach, Lara; Chazarra, Soledad; Varón, Ramón; Tudela, José; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2003-07-29

    Basic artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase (AKP-C), when purified from the plant, has an unusually intense and sharp Soret absorption peak. The resonance Raman spectrum [López-Molina, D., et al. (2003) J. Inorg. Biochem. 94, 243-254] suggested a mixture of pentacoordinate high-spin (5cHS) and 6-aquo hexacoordinate high-spin (6cHS) ferric heme species. The rate constant (k(1)) of compound I formation with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was also lower than expected. Further stopped-flow studies have shown this reaction to be biphasic: a nonsaturating fast phase and a slow phase with complex H(2)O(2) concentration dependence. Addition of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) changed the absorption spectrum, suggesting the formation of a fully 5cHS species with a k(1) more than 5 orders of magnitude greater than that in the absence of Ca(2+) using the chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Ca(2+) titrations gave a dissociation constant for a single Ca(2+) of approximately 20 microM. The circular dichroism spectrum of AKP-C was not significantly altered by Ca(2+), indicating that any structural changes will be minor, but removal of Ca(2+) did suppress the alkaline transition between pH 10 and 11. A kinetic analysis of the reaction of Ca(2+)-free AKP-C with H(2)O(2) supports an equilibrium between a slow-reacting 6cHS form and a more rapidly reacting 5cHS species, the presence of which was confirmed in nonaqueous solution. AKP-C, as purified, is a mixture of Ca(2+)-bound 5cHS, 6-aquo 6cHS, and Ca(2+)-free 5cHS species. The possibility that Ca(2+) concentration could control peroxidase activity in the plant is discussed.

  13. A Multiweek Upper-Division Inorganic Laboratory Based on Metallacrowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirovetz, Brian J.; Walters, Nicole E.; Bender, Collin N.; Lenivy, Christopher M.; Troup, Anna S.; Predecki, Daniel P.; Richardson, John N.; Zaleski, Curtis M.

    2013-01-01

    Metallacrowns are a versatile class of inorganic compounds with uses in several areas of chemistry. Students engage in a multiweek, upper-division inorganic laboratory that explores four different metallacrown compounds: Fe[superscript III](O[subscript 2]CCH[subscript 3])[subscript 3][9-MC[subscript Fe][superscript III][subscript…

  14. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inorganic chemistry has been uncovered while studying sys- tems pertinent to B. 12 ... inorganic chemistry. His research interests are in the chemistry of model compounds of biochemical relevance. He did post- doctoral research in the. University of ..... G N Schrauzer, in Advances in Chemistry series, No. 100, Ed. R F.

  15. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  16. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  17. Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M L; Salminen, W F; Larson, P R; Barter, R A; Kranetz, J L; Simon, G S

    2001-08-01

    Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of and Deletion From GRAS Status as Direct and Human Food Ingredients. Federal Register 44 (244). 74845-74857, 18 December (1979)] and the European Union (EU) allows inorganic phosphates to be added directly to food (EU Directive 95/2/EC as amended by 98/72/EC). In this review, data on the acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity from the published literature and from unpublished studies by the manufacturers are reviewed. Based on the toxicity data and similar chemistry, the inorganic phosphates can be separated into four major classes, consisting of monovalent salts, divalent salts, ammonium salts and aluminum salts. The proposed classification scheme supports the use of toxicity data from one compound to assess the toxicity of another compound in the same class. However, in the case of eye and skin irritation, the proposed classification scheme cannot be used because a wide range of responses exists within each class. Therefore, the eye and skin hazards associated with an individual inorganic phosphate should be assessed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. A large amount of toxicity data exists for all four classes of inorganic phosphates. The large and comprehensive database allows an accurate assessment of the toxicity of each class of inorganic phosphate. Overall, all four classes of inorganic phosphates exhibit low oral, inhalation and dermal toxicities. Based on these data, humans are unlikely to experience adverse effects when the daily phosphorus consumption remains

  18. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  19. Synthesis and luminescence properties of lead-halide based organic-inorganic layered perovskite compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 (n=4, 5, 7, 8 and 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Nobuaki; Aono, Masami; Watanabe, Yoshihisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic layered perovskite compounds, (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 (n=4, 5, 7, 8 and 9). The effect of the number of carbon atoms on luminescence properties has been examined. Thin films of microcrystalline (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 fabricated by spin-coating are highly oriented, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectra reveal that (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 films (n=4, 7, 8 and 9) show the structural phase transitions. The excitonic structures of (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 vary with the number of carbon atoms of the alkyl chain length. At low temperatures below 100 K, the lowest-energy free-exciton band of (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 (n=7, 8 and 9) split into three fine-structure levels. In contrast to (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbBr4 films, (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 (n=7, 8 and 9) shows no triplet exciton emission, but it shows the Stokes-shifted emission from bound excitons.

  20. Elucidating the individual effects of calcium and phosphate ions on hMSCs by using composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoux, Charlène B S S; Bassett, David C; Othman, Ziryan; Rodrigues, Ana I; Reis, Rui L; Barralet, Jake E; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    The biological performance of bone graft substitutes based on calcium phosphate bioceramics is dependent on a number of properties including chemical composition, porosity and surface micro- and nanoscale structure. However, in contemporary bioceramics these properties are interlinked, therefore making it difficult to investigate the individual effects of each property on cell behavior. In this study we have attempted to investigate the effects of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions independent from one another by preparing composite materials with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymeric matrix and calcium carbonate or sodium phosphate salts as fillers. Clinically relevant bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on these composites and proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization were investigated with time and were compared to plain PLA control particles. In parallel, cells were also cultured on conventional cell culture plates in media supplemented with calcium or inorganic phosphate to study the effect of these ions independent of the 3D environment created by the particles. Calcium was shown to increase proliferation of cells, whereas both calcium and phosphate positively affected alkaline phosphatase enzyme production. QPCR analysis revealed positive effects of calcium and of inorganic phosphate on the expression of osteogenic markers, in particular bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin. Higher levels of mineralization were also observed upon exposure to either ion. Effects were similar for cells cultured on composite materials and those cultured in supplemented media, although ion concentrations in the composite cultures were lower. The approach presented here may be a valuable tool for studying the individual effects of a variety of soluble compounds, including bioinorganics, without interference from other material properties. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Tracking inorganic foulants irreversibly accumulated on low-pressure membranes for treating surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Hiroshi; Kimura, Katsuki; Higuchi, Kumiko; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ding, Qing; Hafuka, Akira

    2015-12-15

    particles approximately the same size as the narrowed pores. Calcium and silica are assumed to accumulate on the membrane due to their cross-linking action and/or complex formation with organic substances such as humic compounds. The present research is the first to clearly show that the inorganic components that contribute to membrane fouling differ according to the stage of membrane fouling progression; the information obtained by this research should enable chemical cleaning or operational control in accordance with the stage of membrane fouling progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of ethylene dibromide, dibromochloropropane, other volatile organic compounds, radium isotopes, radon, and inorganic compounds in groundwater and spring water from the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers near McBee, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Public-supply wells near the rural town of McBee, in southwestern Chesterfield County, South Carolina, have provided potable water to more than 35,000 residents throughout Chesterfield County since the early 1990s. Groundwater samples collected between 2002 and 2008 in the McBee area by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) officials indicated that groundwater from two public-supply wells was characterized by the anthropogenic compounds ethylene dibromide (EDB) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) at concentrations that exceeded their respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). Groundwater samples from all public-supply wells in the McBee area were characterized by the naturally occurring isotopes of radium-226 and radium-228 at concentrations that approached, and in one well exceeded, the MCL for the combined isotopes. The local water utility installed granulated activated carbon filtration units at the two EDB- and DBCP-contaminated wells and has, since 2011, shut down these two wells. Groundwater pumped by the remaining public-supply wells is currently (2014) centrally treated at a water-filtration plant.

  3. Auranofin, an anti-rheumatic gold compound, modulates apoptosis by elevating the intracellular calcium concentration ([ca2+]I) in mcf-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Elizabeth; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2014-11-06

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = -0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 μM), Nimodipine (10 μM), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 μM) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca2+]i. Overall, elevation of [Ca2+]i by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca2+]i should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells.

  4. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca2+]i in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Varghese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in breast cancer cells (MCF-7. Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM with a strong negative correlation (r = −0.713 to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 μM, Nimodipine (10 μM, Caffeine (10 mM, SKF 96365(20 μM were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca2+]i. Overall, elevation of [Ca2+]i by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca2+]i should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camila F.N. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ► Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ► These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ► Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup −1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near −2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  6. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  7. The Global Redox Responding RegB/RegA Signal Transduction System Regulates the Genes Involved in Ferrous Iron and Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of the Acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Moinier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical attack of ore by ferric iron and/or sulfuric acid releases valuable metals. The products of these reactions are recycled by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. These acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, among which Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, grow at the expense of the energy released from the oxidation of ferrous iron and/or inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs. In At. ferrooxidans, it has been shown that the expression of the genes encoding the proteins involved in these respiratory pathways is dependent on the electron donor and that the genes involved in iron oxidation are expressed before those responsible for ISCs oxidation when both iron and sulfur are present. Since the redox potential increases during iron oxidation but remains stable during sulfur oxidation, we have put forward the hypothesis that the global redox responding two components system RegB/RegA is involved in this regulation. To understand the mechanism of this system and its role in the regulation of the aerobic respiratory pathways in At. ferrooxidans, the binding of different forms of RegA (DNA binding domain, wild-type, unphosphorylated and phosphorylated-like forms of RegA on the regulatory region of different genes/operons involved in ferrous iron and ISC oxidation has been analyzed. We have shown that the four RegA forms are able to bind specifically the upstream region of these genes. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of RegA did not change its affinity for its cognate DNA. The transcriptional start site of these genes/operons has been determined. In most cases, the RegA binding site(s was (were located upstream from the −35 (or −24 box suggesting that RegA does not interfere with the RNA polymerase binding. Based on the results presented in this report, the role of the RegB/RegA system in the regulation of the ferrous iron and ISC oxidation pathways in At. ferrooxidans is discussed.

  8. The Global Redox Responding RegB/RegA Signal Transduction System Regulates the Genes Involved in Ferrous Iron and Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of the Acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinier, Danielle; Byrne, Deborah; Amouric, Agnès; Bonnefoy, Violaine

    2017-01-01

    The chemical attack of ore by ferric iron and/or sulfuric acid releases valuable metals. The products of these reactions are recycled by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. These acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, among which Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, grow at the expense of the energy released from the oxidation of ferrous iron and/or inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs). In At. ferrooxidans, it has been shown that the expression of the genes encoding the proteins involved in these respiratory pathways is dependent on the electron donor and that the genes involved in iron oxidation are expressed before those responsible for ISCs oxidation when both iron and sulfur are present. Since the redox potential increases during iron oxidation but remains stable during sulfur oxidation, we have put forward the hypothesis that the global redox responding two components system RegB/RegA is involved in this regulation. To understand the mechanism of this system and its role in the regulation of the aerobic respiratory pathways in At. ferrooxidans, the binding of different forms of RegA (DNA binding domain, wild-type, unphosphorylated and phosphorylated-like forms of RegA) on the regulatory region of different genes/operons involved in ferrous iron and ISC oxidation has been analyzed. We have shown that the four RegA forms are able to bind specifically the upstream region of these genes. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of RegA did not change its affinity for its cognate DNA. The transcriptional start site of these genes/operons has been determined. In most cases, the RegA binding site(s) was (were) located upstream from the -35 (or -24) box suggesting that RegA does not interfere with the RNA polymerase binding. Based on the results presented in this report, the role of the RegB/RegA system in the regulation of the ferrous iron and ISC oxidation pathways in At. ferrooxidans is discussed.

  9. The Global Redox Responding RegB/RegA Signal Transduction System Regulates the Genes Involved in Ferrous Iron and Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of the Acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinier, Danielle; Byrne, Deborah; Amouric, Agnès; Bonnefoy, Violaine

    2017-01-01

    The chemical attack of ore by ferric iron and/or sulfuric acid releases valuable metals. The products of these reactions are recycled by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. These acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, among which Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, grow at the expense of the energy released from the oxidation of ferrous iron and/or inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs). In At. ferrooxidans, it has been shown that the expression of the genes encoding the proteins involved in these respiratory pathways is dependent on the electron donor and that the genes involved in iron oxidation are expressed before those responsible for ISCs oxidation when both iron and sulfur are present. Since the redox potential increases during iron oxidation but remains stable during sulfur oxidation, we have put forward the hypothesis that the global redox responding two components system RegB/RegA is involved in this regulation. To understand the mechanism of this system and its role in the regulation of the aerobic respiratory pathways in At. ferrooxidans, the binding of different forms of RegA (DNA binding domain, wild-type, unphosphorylated and phosphorylated-like forms of RegA) on the regulatory region of different genes/operons involved in ferrous iron and ISC oxidation has been analyzed. We have shown that the four RegA forms are able to bind specifically the upstream region of these genes. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of RegA did not change its affinity for its cognate DNA. The transcriptional start site of these genes/operons has been determined. In most cases, the RegA binding site(s) was (were) located upstream from the −35 (or −24) box suggesting that RegA does not interfere with the RNA polymerase binding. Based on the results presented in this report, the role of the RegB/RegA system in the regulation of the ferrous iron and ISC oxidation pathways in At. ferrooxidans is discussed. PMID:28747899

  10. Stereochemistry of organometallic and inorganic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this fourth volume in the series have reviewed the making and breaking of chemical bonds in a sophisticated manner. In particular, new pressures brought about by environmental concerns, larger demands for the medical and pharmaceutical sectors and economics of the market place are forcing us into demanding greater stereochemical control and better product yields for chemical reactions capable of producing useful products. The chapters are written by leading experts in this area and give excellent overviews of the strengths and weaknesses of the various methodologies.In C

  11. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    derivatives formed in the acid environment of the stomach bind strongly to the proteins in ulcerated tissue to form a protective layer which shields it from aggressive factors and allows it to heal. Redox Chemistry in Medicine. (i) Metal Superoxide Dismutase Mimics and Peroxynitrite. Control. Superoxide dis mutase (SOD) is ...

  12. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  13. Organic/Inorganic Composite Latexes: The Marriage of Emulsion Polymerization and Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Lansalot, Muriel

    This review article describes recent advances in the synthesis and properties of waterborne organic/inorganic colloids elaborated through conventional emulsion polymerization, a well-established technology. These materials can be defined as aqueous suspensions of composite latex particles made up of organic and inorganic domains organized into well-defined core-shell, multinuclear, raspberry-like, multipod-like, or armored morphologies. Particular emphasis is placed on the synthetic strategies for fabrication of these colloidal materials. Two main approaches are described: the polymerization of organic monomers in the presence of preformed inorganic particles, and the reverse approach by which inorganic materials are synthesized in the presence of preformed polymer latexes. The list of examples provided in this review is by no means exhaustive but rather intends to give an overview of synthetic methods for selected inorganic compounds (e.g., silica, iron oxide, pigments, clays, quantum dots, and metals), and briefly reports on potential applications of the resulting materials.

  14. Polysulfide calcium as multyfunctional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abramova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified method of producing of polysulfide calcium, the influence of various factors on the degree of polysulfide of product, as well as possible directions for its use as a multifunctional compound were considered.

  15. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Elizabeth; Büsselberg, Dietrich, E-mail: dib2015@qatar-med.cornell.edu [Weil Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, P.O. Box 24144 Doha (Qatar)

    2014-11-06

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = −0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 μM), Nimodipine (10 μM), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 μM) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Overall, elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca{sup 2+}-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells.

  16. The inorganic content of pleromin in tooth plates of the living holocephalan, Chimaera phantasma, consists of a crystalline calcium phosphate known as beta-Ca3(PO4)2 (whitlockite).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, M; Sasagawa, I; Akai, J

    1984-03-01

    The tooth plates in the living Holocephalan, Chimaera phantasma were studied by various techniques. They consisted of osteodentin and hypermineralized pleromin (kosmin). The degree of mineralization on the latter was as much as in the enameloid of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. Scanning electron microscope observation indicated that the pleromin consisted of large and granular crystals. X-ray powder diffractometry, electron microprobe analysis and analytical electron microscopy revealed that the inorganic constituent of pleromin included, as an essential element, a beta-Ca3(PO4)2 (whitlockite) structure containing a small amount of Mg.

  17. Characterization of South African Coal for Metals, Inorganic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of South African Coal for Metals, Inorganic and Organic Sulfur Compounds. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... Spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used for extraction, identification and quantification of inorganic, organic, total sulfur forms as well as selected metals related to the presence of sulfur in coal.

  18. Calcium phosphate saturation in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Temperature, inorganic phosphate concentration and pH seem to be the major factors influencing the degree of saturation of calcium phosphate in sea water. Two water regions can be demarcated in the study area based on the saturation patterns...

  19. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE COMPOUNDS BY VARYING pH VALUE AND Ca/P ATOMIC RATIO USING AQUEOUS PRECIPITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN CHENG CHEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using an aqueous synthesis with varying pH values and changing ion source of calcium-to-phosphorus atomic ratios to clarify precipitations was the purpose of this study. The precipitation procedures were processed in two ways; firstly, a pH range of 3.0 to 12.0 was controlled while the ion source of relative Ca/P ratio was kept at 2.0. Secondly, the reaction was kept alkaline with a pH of 12.0 and the value range of Ca/P ratios in the precursor ion-solutions was 1.0 to 3.0. The physicochemical properties were measured to characterize the various precipitates. Results showed that when the pH was varied, the morphology of the precipitates gradually changed to micrometer column-like shape under acidic condition and nano-scale globular-like shape in alkaline environments. By controlling the pH and Ca/P ratio of ion-sources in aqueous reactions, precipitates in biphasics of calcium carbonate/apatite and calcium hydroxide/apatite were obtained with nanometer-scale morphologies. The precipitation procedures that are used in the synthesis of the biphasics provide a simpler, safer, less expensive and more environmentally friendly than the co-precipitation by sintering processes.

  1. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  2. ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID MATERIALS. I: SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Polyhedral oligosilsesquioxanes (i.e., [RSiO3/2]n) are an interesting class of three-dimensional silsesquioxanes derived from the hydrolytic polycondensation of trifunctional organosilicon monomers (i.e., RSiX3, X = Cl, OMe, OEt) [1] . The use of inorganic cage compounds as molecular building blocks for the rational design ...

  3. Molecular mechanics application in inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Lilian Weitzel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a review about basic principles of the molecular mechanics that is the most important tool used in molecular modeling area, and their applications to the calculation of the relative stability and chemical reactivity of organometalic and coordination compounds. We show how molecular mechanics can be successfully applied to a wide variety of inorganic systems.

  4. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissimilatory reduction of inorganic sulfur by facultatively anaerobic marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J H; Jannasch, H W

    1973-09-01

    THREE STRAINS, SELECTED FROM A LARGE NUMBER OF NEWLY ISOLATED, FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC MARINE BACTERIA, REDUCED INORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS OTHER THAN SULFATE ANAEROBICALLY IN DEFINED CULTURE MEDIA IN THE FOLLOWING DIFFERENT PATTERNS: (i) sulfite and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide, and tetrathionate was reduced to thiosulfate; (ii) tetrathionate was reduced to thiosulfate only; or (iii) thiosulfate was reduced to sulfide only when pyruvate was the substrate. Comparison of anaerobic growth in the presence or absence of inorganic sulfur compounds indicated true dissimilatory reductions.

  6. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  7. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  8. Charge-transfer induced surface conductivity for a copper based inorganic-organic hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkenbout, Anne H.; Uemura, Takafumi; Takeya, Jun; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrids are receiving increasing attention as they offer the opportunity to combine the robust properties of inorganic materials with the versatility of organic compounds. We have studied the electric properties of an inorganic-organic hybrid with the chemical formula:

  9. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble

  10. Calcium and phosphorus supplementation in grazing lactating Zebu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with dicalcium phosphate containing 10 g calcium and 8 g phosphorus on plasma total calcium inorganic phosphate, body condition score and milk yield were studied for 42 days, during the dry season of 1997 in forty grazing, lactating Zebu cows, in lringa region, Tanzania.

  11. Partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of renders with organic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Michal M; Bollmann, Ulla E; Bester, Kai

    2016-12-15

    The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in the recent years. These biocides are applied, e.g., to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching, the partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render with organic binder was investigated. The partition constants of carbendazim, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, cybutryn (irgarol), octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn, and tebuconazole towards minerals typically used in renders, e.g. barite, calcium carbonate, marble, kaolinite, and talc were determined. Partition constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.2mLg(-1) (diuron) and 5.2mLg(-1) (iodocarb), respectively. The results for barite and kaolinite were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partition constants for one mineral also had high values for the other mineral. No sorption to marble at all was found. From all minerals investigated, only talc showed high partition for all studied biocides. Partition constants for talc varied from 21.3mLg(-1) (iodocarb) to 683.7mLg(-1) (tebuconazole), respectively. The comparison with render-water distribution constants of two artificially made renders showed that the distribution constants can be estimated based on partition constants of compounds for individual components of the render. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  13. USAF Inorganic Coating Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic silicate Candidate 1 Permanganate base None Candidate 2-S1 Fluorozirconate base Organic silicate Candidate 2-S2 Fluorozirconate base...Inorganic silicate Candidate 2 Fluorozirconate base None Candidate 3 Divalent Zn salt base None Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release...PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS Paint Adhesion – Cr Primer ASTM D 3359, Method A PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS

  14. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    projections of research in frontier areas of inorganic chemistry, includ- ing organometallics, bio-inorganic chemistry, catalysis and materials chemistry. We do hope that the wide range of topics covered in this Issue reflect the current trends of research in inorganic chemistry in India and prac- titioners of inorganic chemistry ...

  15. Crystal Crosslinked Gels for the Deposition of Inorganic Salts with Polyhedral Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Mochizuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralization has been given a great deal of attention by materials chemists because of its low environmental load and sustainability. With the goal of synthesizing such processes, various methods have been developed, especially for inorganic salts of calcium. In this report, we focused on the deposition of inorganic salts, such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate using crystal crosslinked gels (CCG, which are prepared by crystal crosslinking of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs. Due to the crystalline nature of MOFs, CCGs intrinsically possess polyhedral shapes derived from the original MOF crystals. As the result of deposition, the obtained inorganic salts also exhibited a polyhedral shape derived from the CCG. The deposition mainly occurred near the surface of the CCG, and the amorphous nature of the deposited inorganic salts was also confirmed.

  16. Inorganic Janus particles for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Schick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent developments regarding the synthesis and design of Janus nanoparticles, they have attracted increased scientific interest due to their outstanding properties. There are several combinations of multicomponent hetero-nanostructures including either purely organic or inorganic, as well as composite organic–inorganic compounds. Janus particles are interconnected by solid state interfaces and, therefore, are distinguished by two physically or chemically distinct surfaces. They may be, for instance, hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other, thus, creating giant amphiphiles revealing the endeavor of self-assembly. Novel optical, electronic, magnetic, and superficial properties emerge in inorganic Janus particles from their dimensions and unique morphology at the nanoscale. As a result, inorganic Janus nanoparticles are highly versatile nanomaterials with great potential in different scientific and technological fields. In this paper, we highlight some advances in the synthesis of inorganic Janus nanoparticles, focusing on the heterogeneous nucleation technique and characteristics of the resulting high quality nanoparticles. The properties emphasized in this review range from the monodispersity and size-tunability and, therefore, precise control over size-dependent features, to the biomedical application as theranostic agents. Hence, we show their optical properties based on plasmonic resonance, the two-photon activity, the magnetic properties, as well as their biocompatibility and interaction with human blood serum.

  17. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  18. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  19. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  20. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  1. Nomenclature of chemical compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Kaczmarek

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the organisation responsible for digesting th...

  2. X-Ray Diffraction Technique in the Analysis of Phases of Hydroxylapatite and Calcium Phosphate in a Human Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Poštić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human jawbones consist mainly of hydroxylapatite. The aim of this study was to assess the structure of solid calcium phosphate compounds of the jawbone in cases of normal and osteoporotic JBs. Design: The X-ray diffraction technique was used to analyze the structure of samples of cadavers’ jawbones. The experimental JB samples were taken from an osteoporotic and atrophic jawbone, and control samples were from normal and nonosteoporotic bone samples. Results: Hydroxylapatite was the only phase in control bone samples. In experimental bone samples, the above-mentioned phase was registered, as well as monetite and brushite. Conclusion: The obtained data indicated that the changes of crystalographic forms of calcium phosphate in the physiologic system were balanced according to the possibility of change in the inorganic chemical system.

  3. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanhang; Wang, Meiyin; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong

    2015-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:28788017

  4. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  5. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanhang; Wang, Meiyin; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong

    2015-03-31

    Organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  6. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Maestre, Salvador E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es

    2006-03-15

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l{sup -1} in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l{sup -1} for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min.

  7. Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteleski, Adrian John

    The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound

  8. Funky inorganic fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic porous hollow fibers (IPHF) are interesting for various applications that can benefit from a high surface-area-to-volume ratio. Examples include membranes, catalysts, electrodes, and combinations of these. The thesis starts with providing an overview of conceivable materials of which IPHF

  9. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-06-28

    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  10. Decomposition pathways of polytetrafluoroethylene by co-grinding with strontium/calcium oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; He, Xiaoman; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong; Saito, Fumio

    2017-06-01

    Waste polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) could be easily decomposed by co-grinding with inorganic additive such as strontium oxide (SrO), strontium peroxide (SrO 2 ) and calcium oxide (CaO) by using a planetary ball mill, in which the fluorine was transformed into nontoxic inorganic fluoride salts such as strontium fluoride (SrF 2 ) or calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ). Depending on the kind of additive as well as the added molar ratio, however, the reaction mechanism of the decomposition was found to change, with different compositions of carbon compounds formed. CO gas, the mixture of strontium carbonate (SrCO 3 ) and carbon, only SrCO 3 were obtained as reaction products respectively with equimolar SrO, excess SrO and excess SrO 2 to the monomer unit CF 2 of PTFE were used. Excess amount of CaO was needed to effectively decompose PTFE because of its lower reactivity compared with strontium oxide, but it promised practical applications due to its low cost.

  11. Analytical electron microscopy of biogenic and inorganic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    1989-01-01

    In the terrestrial sedimentary environment, the mineralogically predominant carbonates are calcite-type minerals (rhombohedral carbonates) and aragonite-type minerals (orthorhombic carbonates). Most common minerals precipitating either inorganically or biogenically are high magnesium calcite and aragonite. High magnesium calcite (with magnesium carbonate substituting for more than 7 mole percent of the calcium carbonate) is stable only at temperatures greater than 700 C or thereabouts, and aragonite is stable only at pressures exceeding several kilobars of confining pressure. Therefore, these carbonates are expected to undergo chemical stabilization in the diagenetic environment to ultimately form stable calcite and dolomite. Because of the strong organic control of carbonate deposition in organisms during biomineralization, the microchemistry and microstructure of invertebrate skeletal material is much different than that present in inorganic carbonate cements. The style of preservation of microstructural features in skeletal material is therefore often quite distinctive when compared to that of inorganic carbonate even though wholesale recrystallization of the sediment has taken place. Microstructural and microchemical comparisons are made between high magnesium calcite echinoderm skeletal material and modern inorganic high magnesium calcite inorganic cements, using analytical electron microscopy and related techniques. Similar comparisons are made between analogous materials which have undergone stabilization in the diagenetic environment. Similar analysis schemes may prove useful in distinguishing between biogenic and inorganic carbonates in returned Martian carbonate samples.

  12. Protein-inorganic nanohybrids: A potential symbiosis in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freag, May S; Elzoghby, Ahmed O

    2017-10-27

    recently, a great interest has been paid to the development of hybrid protein-inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for tissue engineering applications to combine the merits of both inorganic and protein nanocarriers. this short review primarily discusses the most important advances in the application of the hybrids of proteins (gelatin, zein, silk fibroin,….etc) with inorganic NPs (calcium phosphate NPs, cadmium QDs, carbon nanotubes,…etc) in tissue engineering. various strategies that have been utilized for the preparation of protein-functionalized inorganic NPs are discussed. Nanocomposite films, electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, nanostructured colloidal composite gels and nanocomposite lyophilized sponges are among the most common platforms of protein-inorganic nanohybrid formulations used in regenerative medicine. protein-inorganic nanohybrids could serve as promising platforms for different biomedical applications including bone and cartilage tissue regeneration, imaging of engineered tissues, development of antithrombogenic implant biomaterials and anti-bacterial wound dressing as well. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  14. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  15. Effects of polymer concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals formed in polyacrylamide hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Taishi; Kawashita, Masakazu; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2013-11-01

    Growing crystals in hydrogels is an attractive method to form inorganic solids with designed morphology under ambient conditions. Precipitation of the inorganic solids in a hydrogel matrix can be regarded as mimicking the process of biomineralization. In the construction of biominerals, an organic template composed of insoluble macromolecules is used to control the crystal growth of the inorganic compounds. The morphological control in biomineralization can be applied to artificial reaction systems. In this study, the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals formed in polymeric hydrogels of various polymer concentrations was investigated. Spherical octacalcium phosphate (OCP) precipitated in the polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. Fibrous crystals gradually covered the surface of the spherical crystals as the polymer concentration of the gel increased. The morphology of the OCP crystals changed from sea urchin shapes to wool-ball shapes with increasing PAAm concentration. The morphological change is generated by the template effect of the polymer wall, which is made up of stacked PAAm sheets, surrounding the spherical OCP crystals.

  16. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  17. Nanostructured inorganic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musselman, Kevin P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas [Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (DE). Dept. of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS)

    2011-07-01

    Recent progress in the development of nanostructured inorganic solar cells is reviewed. Nanostructuring of inorganic solar cells offers the possibility of reducing the cost of photovoltaics by allowing smaller amounts of lower-grade photovoltaic semiconductors to be used. Various fabrication methods used to nanostructure traditional photovoltaic semiconductors are detailed and the performance of resulting devices is discussed. The synthesis of solar cells by solution-based methods using less traditional, abundant materials is identified as a promising route to widescale photovoltaic electricity generation, and nanostructured solar cell geometries are highlighted as essential in this approach. Templating and self-assembling methods used to produce appropriate low-cost nanostructures from solutions are detailed, and the performance of preliminary ultra-low-cost cells made with these structures is reviewed. (orig.)

  18. Supported inorganic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  19. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  20. Inorganic constituents in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Radenovic [University of Zagreb, Sisak (Croatia). Faculty of Metallurgy

    2006-07-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More than one hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been found in coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates), minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the order of w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprised in coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases. Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A variety of analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode of occurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumental methods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is the one most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that have influence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion. Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuously and widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is a conflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution on the other. It's known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, can be: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert a significant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  1. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  2. Morphological Investigation of Calcium Carbonate during Ammonification-Carbonization Process of Low Concentration Calcium Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaigang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine calcium carbonate is a widely used cheap additive. The research is conducted in low degree supersaturation solution in order to study the polymorphic phases’ change and its factors of the calcium carbonate precipitate in the ammonification-carbonization process of the solution with calcium. Fine particles of calcium carbonate are made in the solution containing 0.015 mol/L of Ca2+. Over 98% of the calcium carbonate precipitate without ammonification resembles the morphology of calcite, while the introduction of ammonia can benefit the formation of vaterite. It was inferred that the main cause should be serious partial oversaturation or steric effects. Ammonia also helps to form the twin spherical calcium carbonate. However, particles formed in the process of ammonification-carbonization in solution with low concentration degree of calcium are not even with a scale of the particle diameter from 5 to 12 μm. Inorganic salts, alcohol, or organic acid salts have significant controlling effect on the particle diameter of calcium carbonate and can help to decrease the particle diameter to about 3 μm. Anionic surfactants can prevent the conglobation of calcium carbonate particles and shrink its diameter to 500 nm–1 μm.

  3. Mechanical Properties of a Calcium Dietary Supplement, Calcium Fumarate Trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijing; Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Li, Wei; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2015-12-07

    The mechanical properties of calcium fumarate trihydrate, a 1D coordination polymer considered for use as a calcium source for food and beverage enrichment, have been determined via nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction with single crystals. The nanoindentation studies reveal that the elastic modulus (16.7-33.4 GPa, depending on crystallographic orientation), hardness (1.05-1.36 GPa), yield stress (0.70-0.90 GPa), and creep behavior (0.8-5.8 nm/s) can be rationalized in view of the anisotropic crystal structure; factors include the directionality of the inorganic Ca-O-Ca chain and hydrogen bonding, as well as the orientation of the fumarate ligands. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show a bulk modulus of ∼ 20 GPa, which is indicative of elastic recovery intermediate between small molecule drug crystals and inorganic pharmaceutical ingredients. The combined use of nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques provides a complementary experimental approach for probing the critical mechanical properties related to tableting of these dietary supplements.

  4. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  5. Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Yongpeng [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China)], E-mail: yongpengt@yahoo.com.cn; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Liang Feng [Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen Jianmin [Shenzhen Municipal Hospital for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong 518020 (China); Zhang Hong; Liu Guoqing; Sun Huibin [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luong, John H.T. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Quebec, H4P 2R2 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl{sub 2}) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to cell death. ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, however, showed a protective effect against these two organic compounds. Such inorganic nanoparticles complexed with BaP or EB which became less toxic to the cell. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as an insoluble particle model scavenged by macrophage were investigated in rats. They were scavenged out of the lung tissue about 48 h after infection. This result suggest that some insoluble inorganic nanoparticles of PM (particulate matters) showed protective effects on organic toxins induced acute toxic effects as they can be scavenged by macrophage cells. Whereas, some inorganic ions such as calcium ion in PM may help environmental organic toxins to penetrate cell membrane and induce higher toxic effect.

  6. The development and validation of a new technology, based upon 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and fluoride, for everyday use in the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, D

    2013-08-01

    This paper briefly discusses caries prevalence, the multi-factorial nature of caries etiology, caries risk and the role and efficacy of fluoride. The paper also highlights research on bacterial metabolism which provided understanding of the mouth's natural defenses against caries and the basis for the development of a new technology for the everyday prevention and treatment of caries. Finally, evidence that the technology complements and enhances the anti-caries efficacy of fluoride toothpaste is summarized. Global data show that dental caries is a prevalent disease, despite the successful introduction of fluoride. Caries experience depends on the balance between consumption of sugars and oral hygiene and the use of fluoride. Three scientific concepts are fundamental to new measures to detect, treat and monitor caries: (1) dental caries is a dynamic process, (2) dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, pre-clinical to irreversible, clinically detectable lesions, and (3) the caries process is a balance of pathological and protective factors that can be modulated to manage caries. Fluoride functions as a protective factor by arresting and reversing the caries process, but fluoride does not prevent pathological factors that initiate the process. A novel technology, based upon arginine and an insoluble calcium compound, has been identified which targets dental plaque to prevent initiation of the caries process by reducing pathological factors. As the mechanisms of action of arginine and fluoride are highly complementary, a new dentifrice, which combines arginine with fluoride, has been developed and clinically proven to provide superior caries prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials.

  8. Characterization of South African Coal for Metals, Inorganic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Submitted by invitation to celebrate 2011 the 'International Year of Chemistry'. ABSTRACT. This work characterized South African coal for metals, organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. Microwave assisted extraction. (MAE) followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used for ...

  9. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  10. Role of adsorption in combined membrane fouling by biopolymers coexisting with inorganic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-di; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Dan-Yang; Xiao, Kang; Guan, Jing; Xie, Yuefeng F; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Waite, T David

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of the combined fouling by biopolymers coexisting with inorganic particles from the aspects of fouling index, fouling layer structure and biopolymer-particle interactions. Calcium alginate was used as the model biopolymer and Fe2O3, Al2O3, kaolin, and SiO2 were used as model inorganic particles. Results showed that the combined fouling differed greatly among the four types of inorganic particles. The differences were attributed particularly to the different adsorption capacities for calcium alginate by the particles with this capacity decreasing in the order of Fe2O3, Al2O3, kaolin and SiO2. Particle size measurement and electron microscopic observation indicated the formation of agglomerates between calcium alginate and those inorganic particles exhibiting strong adsorption capacity. A structure was proposed for the combined fouling layer comprised of a backbone cake layer of alginate-inorganic particle agglomerates with the pores partially filled with discontinuous calcium alginate gels. The filterability of the fouling layer was primarily determined by the abundance of the gels. The strength of physical interaction between calcium alginate and each type of inorganic particle was calculated from the respective surface energies and zeta potentials. Calculation results showed that the extent of physical interaction increased in the order of Al2O3, Fe2O3, kaolin and SiO2, with this order differing from that of adsorption capacity. Chemical interactions may also play an important role in the adsorption of alginate and the consequent combined fouling. High-resolution XPS scans revealed a slight shift of electron binding energies when alginate was adsorbed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Early Development of Inorganic Clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouchard, Michel; Cros, Christian

    In this chapter the authors relate the discovery of the first inorganic clathrates, Na8Si46 and NaxSi136 (3 ≤ x ≤ 11), whose cage-like structures were determined by comparison with those of the two most classical gas and liquid clathrate hydrates. The main characteristics of clathrate compounds are recalled and a brief review of clathrate hydrates is given. The different polyhedral cages and their arrangements in the so-called type I structure (Na8Si46) and type II structure (NaxSi136) are described in details. The synthesis, composition and structure of other inorganic clathrates of silicon, germanium and tin with potassium, rubidium and cesium as guest atoms are reported. The crystal structure (type I or type II) and corresponding composition is closely related to the size of the guest alkali atoms. The formation of the characteristic polyhedral cages with a majority of pentagonal faces is discussed, and results from the arrangement of all the tetrahedrons in eclipsed position. The relation between clathrate structures and those of clathrasils (silica-based clathrates), Frank-Kasper alloys and fullerene forms of carbon is also discussed. The first measurements of the physical properties of inorganic clathrates are reviewed, including electrical conductivity, thermal properties, high pressure behavior, NMR and ESR investigations. The ability for the silicon, germanium and tin host lattices to form non-stoichiometric and mixed frameworks with elements of neighboring groups is briefly described, giving rise to a large variety of new inorganic clathrates with ionic guest-host interactions and semiconducting properties.

  12. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  13. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events. PMID:17663775

  14. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  15. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  16. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  17. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  18. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  19. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  20. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  1. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  2. Controls on Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Cultured Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisakurek, B.; Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hathorne, E.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; Erez, J.

    2008-12-01

    Calcium isotopes have recently emerged as an important tool to study the biomineralization pathways and processes in foraminifera. We analyzed calcium isotopes in planktonic and benthic foraminifera grown under controlled laboratory conditions at different salinity, temperature and pH values. Our results indicate that calcium isotope fractionation in foraminifera is controlled by more than one environmental parameter, requiring a common mechanism to explain the observed trends. There is a significant negative correlation between calcium isotope fractionation and the distribution coefficient of strontium in planktonic foraminifera, which has the same slope (within error) as that in inorganic calcite (Tang et al, 2008). In analogy to these inorganic experiments, calcium isotopic fractionation and Sr/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera appear to be mainly controlled by the precipitation rate. However, the two regressions (inorganic vs. foraminiferal) have a small but constant offset from each other by about 0.2 permil in delta(44Ca/40Ca) for a given D(Sr). This offset is presumably due to a vital effect that can be modeled via Rayleigh distillation from an internal biomineralization reservoir (Elderfield et al., 1996). Our preliminary results suggest that such a reservoir behaves as a semi-open system, wherein only less than 25 percent of the calcium taken up from seawater is being utilized for calcification. Elderfield, H., Bertram, C.J., Erez, J. 1996. A biomineralization model for the incorporation of trace elements into foraminiferal calcium carbonate. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 142:409-423. Tang J., Dietzel M., Boehm F., Koehler S.J., Eisenhauer A. 2008. Sr2+/Ca2+ and 44Ca/40Ca fractionation during inorganic calcite formation: II. Ca isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72:3733-3745.

  3. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure and highly non-linear optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid compound: 1,4-Diazbicyclo-octane oxonium tri- nitrates single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchiri, Rokaya; Ennaceur, Nasreddine; Cordier, Marie; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Elaloui, Elimame

    2017-07-01

    A new nonlinear optical hybrid crystal 1,4-Diazbicyclo[222]octane oxonium tri-nitrates (DOTN), of the dimension 4×12×1 mm3. The crystal was grown using water as solvent at room temperature and crystal structure was determined by X-Ray diffraction respectively, this title compound was shown to crystallize in non-centrosymmetric trigonal system with space group P31c. The recorded FTIR spectrum has proven the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal as well as the formation of DOTN. Besides, the thermal stability and melting temperature of the DOTN crystal were identified from the TG/DSC analysis. The suitability of this material for optical application was studied by non-linear optical (NLO) and UV-visible absorption techniques. Furthermore, the nonlinear optical property was analyzed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique and was 3.4 times than that of KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) single crystals. The first hyperpolarizability of nitrate was determined by Second Harmonic light Scattering.

  4. Reduction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron(III) by Klebsiella sp. FD-3 immobilized on iron(II, III) oxide poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres: effects of inorganic compounds and kinetic study of effective diffusion in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zuo-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Tian-Ming; Jing, Guo-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Fe3O4 poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres (MPPMs) were introduced to immobilize Klebsiella sp. FD-3, an iron-reducing bacterium applied to reduce Fe(III)EDTA. The effects of potential inhibitors (S(2-), SO3(2-), NO3(-), NO2(-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO) on Fe(III)EDTA reduction were investigated. S(2-) reacted with Fe(III)EDTA as an electron-shuttling compound and enhanced the reduction. But Fe(III)EDTA reduction was inhibited by SO3(2-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO due to their toxic to microorganisms. Low concentrations of NO3(-) and NO2(-) accelerated Fe(III)EDTA reduction, but high concentrations inhibited the reduction, whether by free or immobilized FD-3. The immobilized FD-3 performed better than freely-suspended style. The substrate mass transfer and diffusion kinetics in the porous microspheres were calculated. The value of Thiele modulus and effectiveness factors showed that the intraparticle diffusion was fairly small and neglected in this carrier. Fe(III)EDTA reduction fitted first-order model at low Fe(III)EDTA concentration, and changed to zero-order model at high concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium phosphate saturation in seawater around the Andaman Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    apparent solubility product of 4 x 10/20 C given by Kester and Pytocowicz. The maximum percentage saturation works out to be 67, 65, 95, and 97 respectively towards west, east, north and south. The inorganic mineral phosphate and calcium content...

  6. The thermodynamic scale of inorganic crystalline metastability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhao; Dacek, Stephen T; Ong, Shyue Ping; Hautier, Geoffroy; Jain, Anubhav; Richards, William D; Gamst, Anthony C; Persson, Kristin A; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-11-01

    The space of metastable materials offers promising new design opportunities for next-generation technological materials, such as complex oxides, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, steels, and beyond. Although metastable phases are ubiquitous in both nature and technology, only a heuristic understanding of their underlying thermodynamics exists. We report a large-scale data-mining study of the Materials Project, a high-throughput database of density functional theory-calculated energetics of Inorganic Crystal Structure Database structures, to explicitly quantify the thermodynamic scale of metastability for 29,902 observed inorganic crystalline phases. We reveal the influence of chemistry and composition on the accessible thermodynamic range of crystalline metastability for polymorphic and phase-separating compounds, yielding new physical insights that can guide the design of novel metastable materials. We further assert that not all low-energy metastable compounds can necessarily be synthesized, and propose a principle of 'remnant metastability'-that observable metastable crystalline phases are generally remnants of thermodynamic conditions where they were once the lowest free-energy phase.

  7. The Relationship of Blood Pressure with Intra- Or extracellular and Bone Calcium Merabolisms in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Sugihara, Nobuyuki; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the correlations of blood pressure with intra- or extracellular and bone calcium matabolisms in the elderly. We measured serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (Pi), C-terminal parathyroid hormone fragment (PTH-C), and calcitonin. Intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]I) in platelet and erythrocyte was measured by fura- 2/AM from dual excitation wavelength using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. We calculated bone mineral content (BMC) of lumbar vertebral body using a calibratio...

  8. Calcium phosphate: a substitute for aluminum adjuvants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Daniel; Thibaudon, Michel; Bélec, Laurent; Crépeaux, Guillemette

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale. Expert commentary: Calcium phosphate is a compound naturally present in the organism, safe and already used in human vaccination. Beyond comparisons with the other adjuvants, calcium phosphate represents a good candidate to replace or to complete alum salts as a vaccine adjuvant.

  9. Toward understanding the requirements for synthesizing organized organic-inorganic biomimetic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Sharon Louise

    The literature about the structure and formation mechanisms of seashell nacre was examined for clues as to principles that could be used to synthesize a material with an organized organic-inorganic microstructure. An overall theme was found to be the importance of an organic phase, possibly preorganized, in influencing and controlling the shape, phase, and orientation of inorganic crystals. Current published biomimetic strategies were also reviewed. In this work, several approaches at synthesizing an organized material were taken. Preliminary investigations centered around the topic of inorganic crystal precipitation in the presence of organic molecules. The first set of experiments studied the effect of soluble organic molecules such as polymers and citric acid on calcium sulfate shape formation. In order to make a 3-dimensional material, self-organizing organic systems were investigated. A hydrophobic monomer (MMA) was mixed with a surfactant (DDAB) and an aqueous solution of calcium sulfate into the cubic phase. The MMA was polymerized to PMMA, and the calcium sulfate crystals were allowed to precipitate. An interesting lamellar PMMA microstructure resulted, with limited areas in which the calcium sulfate precipitates were aligned. Focus then shifted to the role of inorganic additives, supersaturation, and inorganic substrates on crystal shapes and organization. First, experimental design techniques were used to study the influence of combinations of variables on shape formation in both the calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate systems. A unique calcite sphere morphology was found when Mgsp{2+} was combined with SOsb4sp{2-} in the solution during precipitation. Next, a new procedure was developed to form 2-dimensional materials at air-limewater interfaces. The effect of additives and Langmuir monolayers on shape formation was studied, as well as methods to grow 3-dimensional materials from solutions using multilayering techniques. Finally, the ability of calcium

  10. Inorganic ion sorbent method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2007-07-17

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  11. Inorganic ion sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2006-10-17

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  12. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  13. Anode material selection criteria for selective oxidation of inorganic compounds in nitric acid media; Criteres de selection de materiaux d'anodes pour l'oxydation selective de solutes mineraux en milieu nitrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysseric, C.; Arnaud, O. [CEA Valrho, (DCC/DRRV/SPHA), 30 - Marcoule (France); Savall, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    materials, including IrO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, PbO{sub 2} PtO{sub x} and carbon compounds. The experimental findings led to a better understanding of the role of the nitrates involved in multiple processes. From the standpoint of electro-activity, nitrates appear to contribute to the water oxidation mechanism and favor the evolution of oxygen at potentials above 2.05 V{sub ESH}, while the electron transfer of the Ag{sup 2+}/Ag{sup +} couple is relatively unaffected by this counter-ion. The decreasing diffusivity of Ag{sup +} ions as the nitric acid concentration increases affects the overall Ag{sup 2+} ion generation in over-concentrated nitric acid medium. The complexation qualities of the nitrate ions that make them suitable ligands for Ag{sup 2+} ions also induce specific effects: the potential is shifted by about 200 mV, and the water oxidation reaction is catalyzed. A qualitative analysis of this phenomenon involving the electrode/solution interface competition between the AgNO{sub 3}{sup +} complex and the Ago precipitate and a quantitative analysis of the diminishing electrolytic generation efficiency are discussed. Test results with various materials show that the classification based on a high oxygen over-potential is a necessary but insufficient criterion. Material selectivity is also related to chemical processes at the interface as noted above. For example, the redox chemistry of the anode material in nitric acid media accelerates the parasitic processes in the case of lead dioxide. Polarization of the electrode material at high anode potentials, as in the case of platinum, implies the formation of oxide layers that are relatively unstable in nitric acid media, and which must also be considered as a factor to be analyzed with respect to material selectivity. The proposed approach provides a rational interpretation of the search for new anode materials based on electron transfer kinetics and on the transport of various species, but primarily on the analysis of the

  14. Inorganic materials in industrial processes

    OpenAIRE

    Demadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Although inorganic materials represent a small number to the extreme number of the organic ones, they play a number of crucial roles in several processes of industrial interest. Two significant technologically processes have been selected as “case studies” for this presentation: metallic corrosion and its control, and mitigation of inorganic deposits, both related to industrial water systems. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  15. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  17. Hybrid Composites from Wheat Straw, Inorganic Filler, and Recycled Polypropylene: Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcing effect of hybrid filler including wheat straw (WS and inorganic filler (heavy calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, and fly ash in recycled polypropylene (R-PP has been investigated. The effects of individual filler (WS and combined fillers (WS and inorganic filler on morphological, mechanical, and thermal expansion and water absorption properties of hybrid composites were investigated. The flexural modulus and flexural strength were both reduced when reinforced with three kinds of inorganic fillers, respectively, which was possibly due to the poor interphase adhesion as observed in SEM. The high surface energy of heavy calcium carbonate due to its high acidic character provides an opportunity of better PP-heavy calcium carbonate interfacial interactions compared to PP-straw, PP-fly ash, and PP-SiO2 interface. The water absorption at saturation increased markedly by introduction of WS in it. The hybrid composites from WS and inorganic fillers showed better water absorption compared to those WS/PP composites. The thermal expansion of composites decreased with the increase of WS loading. Heavy calcium and SiO2 can obviously reduce the LCTE value of composite. At the 25% inorganic filler content, composites had the smallest LCTE values.

  18. Signalling properties of inorganic polyphosphate in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Kira M; Marina, Nephtali; Baev, Artyom Y; Wood, Nicholas W; Gourine, Alexander V; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate is known to be present in the mammalian brain at micromolar concentrations. Here we show that polyphosphate may act as a gliotransmitter, mediating communication between astrocytes. It is released by astrocytes in a calcium-dependent manner and signals to neighbouring astrocytes through P2Y(1) purinergic receptors, activation of phospholipase C and release of calcium from the intracellular stores. In primary neuroglial cultures, application of polyP triggers release of endogenous polyphosphate from astrocytes while neurons take it up. In vivo, central actions of polyphosphate at the level of the brainstem include profound increases in key homeostatic physiological activities, such as breathing, central sympathetic outflow and the arterial blood pressure. Together, these results suggest a role for polyphosphate as a mediator of astroglial signal transmission in the mammalian brain.

  19. Stabilized lanthanum sulphur compounds. [thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G. H.; Elsner, N. B.; Shearer, C. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium, or strontium. This compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.

  20. INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC ADDITIVES ON CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE DIHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustinova Yulia Valer’evna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, functional additives are widely spread in the production of inorganic dry mixtures. However, their impact on the microstructure of products, generated in the process of hardening of inorganic binders, is understudied. In this context, the goal of the work is the study of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO •2H O crystallization. Super plasticizer based on sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resin, methylcellulose and vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride copolymer powder were selected for studies. First, pure calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were synthesized. Then, synthesized calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were exposed to the X-ray analysis to determine the nature of influence of polymer additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals. Possible combinations of simple forms of CaSO •2H O were identified by the X-ray analysis and the special software. Electronic microscopy analysis was performed to validate models of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals. All plasticizers influence the crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The influence of additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals of calcium sulfate dihydrate can be explained by the fact that molecules of sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resins, methylcellulose, and copolymers of vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride are absorbed by crystal faces. It is proven that the method of X-ray analysis can be used to predict the shape and habitus of crystals.

  1. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eco Chemie B.V.) potentio- stat/galvanostat by NOVA 1.8 software. A conventional three electrode cell was used with an Ag|AgCl elec- trode (KCl 3M) as the reference electrode, a Pt wire as counter electrode and a modified glassy carbon elec-.

  2. Leaching studies of inorganic and organic compounds from fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, F.; Swart, K.; Morabito, R.; Brunori, C.; Balzamo, S.; Slobodnik, J.; Korenkova, E.; Janos, P.; Wildnerova, M.; Hlavay, J.; Polyak, K.; Fodor, P.; Muntau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fly ash is produced in massive quantities by fossil fuel based power plants and waste incinerators, and contains high levels of potentially toxic chemicals. Various leaching tests exist to determine the available fractions, but the outcome is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions, and

  3. Mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    The purpose of this series is to provide a continuing critical review of the literature concerned with mechanistic aspects of inorganic and organo­ metallic reactions in solution, with coverage being complete in each volume. The papers discussed are selected on the basis of relevance to the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and many include results of a nonkinetic nature when useful mechanistic information can be deduced. The period of literature covered by this volume is July 1982 through December 1983, and in some instances papers not available for inclusion in the previous volume are also included. Numerical results are usually reported in the units used by the original authors, except where data from different papers are com­ pared and conversion to common units is necessary. As in previous volumes material included covers the major areas of redox processes, reactions of the nonmetallic elements, reaction of inert and labile metal complexes and the reactions of organometallic compounds. While m...

  4. Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Based-Microparticles for Peptide Pulmonary Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Frederic; Gobbo, Oliviero L; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2016-01-20

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to interact with proteins, for example, in biogenic ACC, to form stable amorphous phases. The control of amorphous/crystalline and inorganic/organic ratios in inhalable calcium carbonate microparticles may enable particle properties to be adapted to suit the requirements of dry powders for pulmonary delivery by oral inhalation. For example, an amorphous phase can immobilize and stabilize polypeptides in their native structure and amorphous and crystalline phases have different mechanical properties. Therefore, inhalable composite microparticles made of inorganic (i.e., calcium carbonate and calcium formate) and organic (i.e., hyaluronan (HA)) amorphous and crystalline phases were investigated for peptide and protein pulmonary aerosol delivery. The crystalline/amorphous ratio and polymorphic form of the inorganic component was altered by changing the microparticle drying rate and by changing the ammonium carbonate and HA initial concentration. The bioactivity of the model peptide, salmon calcitonin (sCT), coprocessed with alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), a model protein with peptidase inhibitor activity, was maintained during processing and the microparticles had excellent aerodynamic properties, making them suitable for pulmonary aerosol delivery. The bioavailability of sCT after aerosol delivery as sCT and AAT-loaded composite microparticles to rats was 4-times higher than that of sCT solution.

  5. In vitro antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J; Farine, J C; Garay, R P; Hannaert, P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium dobesilate, a vascular protective agent, was tested in vitro for its scavenging action against oxygen free radicals. Calcium dobesilate was as potent as rutin to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (IC50 = 1.1 vs 0.7 microM, respectively). It was also able to scavenge superoxide radicals, but with 23 times less potency than rutin (IC50 = 682 vs 30 microM, respectively). Calcium dobesilate significantly reduced platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced chemiluminescence in human PMN cells and lipid peroxidation by oxygen free radicals in human erythrocyte membranes, although these actions required calcium dobesilate concentrations > or = 50 microM. Finally, in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, magnesium dobesilate reduced the increase in cytosolic free calcium induced by hydrogen peroxide and inhibited phenazine methosulfate-induced cell potassium loss. In conclusion, calcium dobesilate was effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals in vitro, at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Conversely, higher concentrations of the compound were required to scavenge superoxide radicals or to protect the cells against the deleterious effects of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Further studies in vivo are required to determine if these antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate can play a role in its vascular protective mechanisms.

  6. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles; Determinacao de componentes organicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em forma de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF). Determinacao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio M.; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: lawless@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N{sub 2} atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  7. Apatite Formation: Why It May Not Work as Planned, and How to Conclusively Identify Apatite Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Drouet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate apatites are inorganic compounds encountered in many different mineralized tissues. Bone mineral, for example, is constituted of nanocrystalline nonstoichiometric apatite, and the production of “analogs” through a variety of methods is frequently reported. In another context, the ability of solid surfaces to favor the nucleation and growth of “bone-like” apatite upon immersion in supersaturated fluids such as SFB is commonly used as one evaluation index of the “bioactivity” of such surfaces. Yet, the compounds or deposits obtained are not always thoroughly characterized, and their apatitic nature is sometimes not firmly assessed by appropriate physicochemical analyses. Of particular importance are the “actual” conditions in which the precipitation takes place. The precipitation of a white solid does not automatically indicate the formation of a “bone-like carbonate apatite layer” as is sometimes too hastily concluded: “all that glitters is not gold.” The identification of an apatite phase should be carefully demonstrated by appropriate characterization, preferably using complementary techniques. This review considers the fundamentals of calcium phosphate apatite characterization discussing several techniques: electron microscopy/EDX, XRD, FTIR/Raman spectroscopies, chemical analyses, and solid state NMR. It also underlines frequent problems that should be kept in mind when making “bone-like apatites.”

  8. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  9. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  10. Principles of Inorganic Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalena, John N.; Cleary, David

    2005-04-01

    A unique interdisciplinary approach to inorganic materials design Textbooks intended for the training of chemists in the inorganic materials field often omit many relevant topics. With its interdisciplinary approach, this book fills that gap by presenting concepts from chemistry, physics, materials science, metallurgy, and ceramics in a unified treatment targeted towards the chemistry audience. Semiconductors, metal alloys and intermetallics, as well as ceramic substances are covered. Accordingly, the book should also be useful to students and working professionals in a variety of other disciplines. This book discusses a number of topics that are pertinent to the design of new inorganic materials but are typically not covered in standard solid-state chemistry books. The authors start with an introduction to structure at the mesoscopic level and progress to smaller-length scales. Next, detailed consideration is given to both phenomenological and atomistic-level descriptions of transport properties, the metal-nonmetal transition, magnetic and dielectric properties, optical properties, and mechanical properties. Finally, the authors present introductions to phase equilibria, synthesis, and nanomaterials. Other features include: Worked examples demonstrating concepts unfamiliar to the chemist Extensive references to related literature, leading readers to more in-depth coverage of particular topics Biographies introducing the reader to great contributors to the field of inorganic materials science in the twentieth century With their interdisciplinary approach, the authors have set the groundwork for communication and understanding among professionals in varied disciplines who are involved with inorganic materials engineering. Armed with this publication, students and researchers in inorganic and physical chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering will be better equipped to face today's complex design challenges. This textbook is appropriate for senior

  11. Inorganic plugs removal using ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasir; Pu, Chunsheng; Xu, Li; Lei, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    It is essential to recover the lost productivity caused by formation damage in the proximity of the wellbore during different well operations. In comparison to conventionally used methods, the efficiency, reliability, environment friendly, and simple and convenient technique of ultrasonic waves make it more attractive in petroleum industries. In current study, ultrasonic waves were applied to mitigate the formation damage caused by deposition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nearby well bore. Results showed that 100 minutes exposure time could efficiently recover 38.1% of original productivity but further increase in irradiation time (120mins) would decrease the recovery to 37.1%. This aberration can be attributed to the particle-bridge formation formed by larger particles at later stages and tendency of acoustic wave to push back the fluid flow. Moreover, ultrasonic waves transducer#2 (Frequency 20KHz and Power 1000W) could recovery maximum recovery of 36.3%, however, high frequency transducer was not effective in this recovery. This inorganic removal can be attributed to the cavitation and thermal energy produced through three different ways including cavitation, boundary friction and transformation upon hitting the medium.

  12. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  13. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  14. Essential minerals and inorganic contaminants (barium, cadmium, lithium, lead and vanadium in dried bee pollen produced in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Gasparotto SATTLER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Like other beehive products, such as honey, royal jelly and propolis, bee pollen has attracted great interest because of the health benefits it can provide when consumed. Bee pollen has high contents of sugars and proteins and a low content of lipids, it is also a rich source of vitamins and other bioactive compounds, which makes it an attractive micronutrient supplement. However, few studies have investigated its composition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the essential minerals and inorganic contaminants present in bee pollen produced at apiaries in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES revealed the presence of 8 essential minerals (calcium, iron, copper, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus and zinc in the 5 analyzed samples; 6 of them were in sufficiently high amounts to meet dietary requirements. Of the 5 inorganic contaminants assessed (barium, cadmium, lithium, lead and vanadium, only cadmium was present at levels over the International Honey Commission’s standards. All bee pollen samples showed a high content of the 8 essential minerals. Contamination usually results from the use of pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals in agriculture; thus, monitoring of its levels must be included in bee pollen analysis.

  15. Solid phase extraction of hydroxyaromatic compounds from aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Sukhanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of extraction parameters of hydroxyaromatic compounds on sort of polyurethane foam, nature and composition of solution deposited on a polymer foam, content of inorganic salt in solution.

  16. The inorganic carbon distribution in Irish coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Triona; Cave, Rachel; McGovern, Evin; Kivimae, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, coastal and shelf waters play a crucial role in the global climate through their influence on major biogeochemical cycles. Due to growing concern about ocean acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, measurements of inorganic carbon parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), pH and pCO2) have been made with increasing regularity over the past two decades. While it is clear that open ocean surface waters are acidifying at a fairly uniform rate ( -0.02 pH units per decade), less is known about changes in coastal waters due to the high complexity and spatial variability in these regions. Large spatial and temporal variability in coastal CO2 parameters is mainly due to nutrient inputs, biological activity, upwelling and riverine inputs of alkalinity and inorganic and organic carbon. The inorganic carbon system in Irish coastal waters is presented here, gathered from 9 surveys around the Irish coastline between 2009 and 2013. There are striking contrasts in the CO2 system between different areas, largely attributed to the bedrock composition of the nearby rivers. Freshwater end-member concentrations of TA, calculated from TA-salinity relationships in outer estuarine and nearshore coastal water, were supported by riverine TA data from the Irish Environmental Protection Agency. A large portion of Ireland is covered with limestone bedrock and as a result, many of the rivers have extremely high TA (>5000μmol/kg) due to the carbonate mineral content of the underlying bedrock. While such high TA has resulted in elevated pH and calcium carbonate saturation states in some coastal waters, (e.g. Galway Bay and Dublin Bay), the high TA in other areas was accompanied by particularly high DIC (e.g. River Shannon on the west coast), resulting in lower pH and aragonite/calcite saturation states and even CO2 degassing in the Shannon estuary. Due to non-limestone lithology in many parts

  17. Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew P. E.

    2004-01-01

    Buckminsterfullerene, which is in the shape of a soccer-ball was first discovered in 1985, has many applications as a good lubricant, or as a new superconductor. The synthesis of these inorganic fullerenes involves a great deal of interdisciplinary research between physicists, material scientists, engineers and chemists from various fields.

  18. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    James Moir was a pioneering chemist in the early 1900s who played a leading role in various chemical societies in South Africa. Although he was mainly an organic chemist, he also made contributions in the field of inorganic chemistry. His forays in this field deal with gold extraction using the new solvent thiourea, removal ...

  19. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Chemical. Sciences) is based on 18 papers presented at the Ninth Symposium on Modern Trends in. Inorganic Chemistry (MTIC-IX) held during 12–14 December 2001 at the Indian. Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata. We have also ...

  20. Nomenclature of chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kaczmarek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the organisation responsible for digesting the chemical nomenclature. The article contains the transcription chart and the manner of reading the structural formula, also called latero-numerical. Additionally, there is information conceming the usage of the common names given, still remaining in use next to the names compatible with those of IUPAC. Particular types of chemical compounds have served as models for description of other nomenclature formation rules from the simplest structures to the complicated compound ones. A short summary presents the relations and similarities between the names of particular types of chemical compounds.

  1. Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.

    2004-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the

  2. Organic Polymers Modified with Inorganic Polyhedra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddad, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    ...) macromers into organic polymers. These hybrid inorganic/organic thermoplastics based on styrenes, acrylics, imides, norbornenes or siloxanes, are reinforced by covalently linking monodisperse inorganic POSS clusters to the polymer backbone...

  3. Correlates Of Inorganic Fertilizer Consumption Among Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... This paper investigated the correlates of inorganic fertilizer consumption among smallholder farmers in Abia State, Nigeria A multi – stage random sampling technique was employed in ... Keywords: Correlates, Inorganic Fertilizer, Consumption, Smallholder farmer.

  4. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Comice'. III. Saccharides, nitrogen compounds and some mineral elements contents in pear leaves and shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszka Jaumień

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Long shoots inhibited in growth by treatment with chlormequate contained more reducing sugars in mid July than did the control ones growing vigorously. Storage starch accumulation was earlier in the former shoots than in he control ones, and they also contained more nitrogen compounds, especially protein, and significantly more calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc then the controls. Comparison of long shoots with growth partly inhibited by the action of chlormequate, on which flower buds form in the subapical part, and of spurs on which an apical flower bud forms, with the long shoots of control vigorously growing trees where flower buds do not form, indicates that initiation of flowering in the pear tree is associated with a high level of storage compounds, both organic and inorganic, in the stem.

  5. Calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Paige A; Truong, Chi; Wheeler, M Clayton; DeSisto, William J

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of calcium pretreatment on pyrolysis of individual lignocellulosic compounds. Previous work has demonstrated that the incorporation of calcium compounds with the feedstock prior to pyrolysis has a significant effect on the oxygen content and stability of the resulting oil. The aim of this work was to further explore the chemistry of calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis. Bench-scale pyrolysis of biomass constituents, including lignin, cellulose and xylan is performed and compared to the oils produced from pyrolysis of the same components after calcium pretreatment. The resulting oils were analyzed by quantitative GC-MS and SEC. These analyses, together with data collected from previous work provide evidence which was used to develop proposed reaction pathways for pyrolysis of calcium-pretreatment biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Thermodynamic Scale of Inorganic Crystalline Metastability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhao; Dacek, Stephen; Ong, Shyue Ping; Hautier, Geoffroy; Jain, Anubhav; Richards, William; Gamst, Anthony; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Materials Project Team

    The space of metastable materials offers promising new design opportunities for next-generation technological materials such as complex oxides, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, steels and beyond. Although metastable phases are ubiquitous in both nature and technology, only a heuristic understanding of their underlying thermodynamics exists. Here we report a large-scale data-mining study of the Materials Project, a high-throughput database of DFT-calculated energetics of ICSD structures, to explicitly quantify the thermodynamic scale of metastability for 29,902 observed inorganic crystalline phases. We reveal the influence of chemistry and composition on the accessible thermodynamic range of crystalline metastability for polymorphic and phase-separating compounds, yielding new physical insights that can guide the design of novel metastable materials. We further assert that not all low-energy metastable compounds can necessarily be synthesized, and propose a principle of ``remnant metastability'' - that observable metastable crystalline phases are generally remnants of thermodynamic conditions where they were once the lowest free-energy phase. DOE Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and Contract no. UGA-0-41029-16/ER392000.

  7. Computational Screening of All Stoichiometric Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel W; Butler, Keith T; Jackson, Adam J; Morris, Andrew; Frost, Jarvist M; Skelton, Jonathan M; Walsh, Aron

    2016-10-13

    Forming a four-component compound from the first 103 elements of the periodic table results in more than 10(12) combinations. Such a materials space is intractable to high-throughput experiment or first-principle computation. We introduce a framework to address this problem and quantify how many materials can exist. We apply principles of valency and electronegativity to filter chemically implausible compositions, which reduces the inorganic quaternary space to 10(10) combinations. We demonstrate that estimates of band gaps and absolute electron energies can be made simply on the basis of the chemical composition and apply this to the search for new semiconducting materials to support the photoelectrochemical splitting of water. We show the applicability to predicting crystal structure by analogy with known compounds, including exploration of the phase space for ternary combinations that form a perovskite lattice. Computer screening reproduces known perovskite materials and predicts the feasibility of thousands more. Given the simplicity of the approach, large-scale searches can be performed on a single workstation.

  8. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  9. Mineralization of alkaline phosphatase-complexed collagen implants in the rat in relation to serum inorganic phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, T.; Oosting, J.; Everts, V.; Beertsen, W.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationship between mineralization of collagenous matrices and serum levels of calcium and inorganic phosphate. Collagen slices were prepared from bovine dentin or cortical bone and complexed with varying amounts of intestinal alkaline phosphatase

  10. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry. FOREWORD. Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging ...

  11. Hybrid protein-inorganic nanoparticles: From tumor-targeted drug delivery to cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Hemasa, Ayman L; Freag, May S

    2016-12-10

    Recently, a great interest has been paid to the development of hybrid protein-inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery and cancer diagnostics in order to combine the merits of both inorganic and protein nanocarriers. This review primarily discusses the most outstanding advances in the applications of the hybrids of naturally-occurring proteins with iron oxide, gadolinium, gold, silica, calcium phosphate NPs, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots in drug delivery and cancer imaging. Various strategies that have been utilized for the preparation of protein-functionalized inorganic NPs and the mechanisms involved in the drug loading process are discussed. How can the protein functionalization overcome the limitations of colloidal stability, poor dispersibility and toxicity associated with inorganic NPs is also investigated. Moreover, issues relating to the influence of protein hybridization on the cellular uptake, tumor targeting efficiency, systemic circulation, mucosal penetration and skin permeation of inorganic NPs are highlighted. A special emphasis is devoted to the novel approaches utilizing the protein-inorganic nanohybrids in combined cancer therapy, tumor imaging, and theranostic applications as well as stimuli-responsive drug release from the nanohybrids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern antifouling coatings are generally based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic biocides as active ingredients. Cu2O is prone to bioaccumulation, and should therefore be replaced by more environmentally benign compounds when technically possible. However, cuprous oxide does not only provide...... antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... and highly seawater-soluble ions of the metal. The goals have been to establish the antifouling potency of an antifouling coating that releases hydrogen peroxide as biocide, and to investigate the potential use of peroxides as water-soluble polishing and leaching pigments. The investigations have shown...

  13. Inorganic Phosphorus Fractions and Their Relationships with Soil Characteristics of Selected Calcareous Soils of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl azadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P is the second limiting nutrient in soils for crop production after nitrogen. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient in crop production. Determination of forms of soil phosphorus is important in the evaluation of soil phosphorus status. Various sequential P fractionation procedures have been used to identify the forms of P and to determine the distribution of P fractions in soils (Chang and Jackson, 1957, Williams et al., 1967; Hedley et al., 1982, but are not particularly sensitive to the various P compounds that may exist in calcareous soils. A Sequential fractionation scheme has been suggested for calcareous soils by which three types of Ca-phosphates i.e. dicalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, and apatite could be identified (Jiang and Gu, 1989. These types of Ca-phosphates were described as Ca2-P (NaHCO3-extractable P, Ca8-P (NH4AC-extractable P and Ca10-P (apatite type, respectively. In this study, the amount and distribution of soil inorganic phosphorus fractions were examined in 49 soil samples of Fars province according to the method described by Jiang and Gu (1989. Materials and Methods: Based on the previous soil survey maps of Fars province and According to Soil Moisture and Temperature Regime Map of Iran (Banaei, 1998, three regions (abadeh, eghlid and noorabad with different Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes were selected. The soils were comprised Aridic, xeric, and ustic moisture regimes along with mesic, and hyperthemic temperature regimes. 49 representative samples were selected. The soil samples were air-dried and were passed through a 2-mm sieve before analysis. Particle size distribution was determined by hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder 1996. Also, Cation exchange capacity (CEC; Sumner and Miller 1996, calcium carbonate equivalent (Loeppert and Suarez 1996, organic matter content (Nelson and Sommers 1996, and pH by saturated paste method (Thomas 1996 were determined . Inorganic phosphorus

  14. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate such elements as aluminum, barium, strontium, zinc in seeds in concentrations that exceed their content in black mustard seeds, while compounds of calcium, cesium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium in a greater degree were accumulated in black mustard seeds. Conclusions. As legal and regulatory documents for important chemical elements don’t contain the maximum permissible limits of their content in medicinal plants, it would make sense to launch a comprehensive research with the involvement of specia­lists of relevant profiles in order to establish such a gradation. Plants of white and black mustard in Kiev Oblast have accumulated high levels of such metals as Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn that exceed the known limits of accumulation, indicating a partial contamination of soils in the region. Consequently, these plants can be used for phytoremediation of soils. Considering the fact that in the pharmaceutical practice refined mustard seed oil is used, revealed alterations of metal accumulation in seeds will not affect the quality of the final drugs. According to the research results, white and black mustard is promising for cultivation in Kiev Oblast with a view to obtain raw material that can be processed into drugs.

  15. Selective coprecipitation of polyphenols in bioactive/inorganic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier; Ouali, Lahoussine; Erni, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the formation of bioactive/inorganic coprecipitates of polyphenols catechins with calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. Extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, green tea catechins are efficient free radical scavengers, but their purported benefits from the perspective of prevention, health, and nutritional physiology are accompanied by unpleasant organoleptic characteristics: they are notoriously bitter. Selective complexation of polyphenols with metal salts is a possibility to mask or inactivate bitterness and/or off-flavors. We produce such complexes using a continuous coprecipitation process. With excess calcium chloride present in the matrix we observe a correlation of the carbonate to total anions molar ratio with the catechin load. To characterize the composition and structure of the coprecipitates we combine elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS-MS). We quantify the release kinetics in different model environments to predict the behavior of the catechins from the coprecipitates in model media simulating the conditions during oral ingestion and storage. The dissolution data suggest that the release profile of these delivery systems can be influenced and fine-tuned via the anion composition of the mineral carrier.

  16. The application of chitosan/collagen/hyaluronic acid sponge cross-linked by dialdehyde starch addition as a matrix for calcium phosphate in situ precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, B; Sionkowska, A; Osyczka, A M

    2018-02-01

    Scaffolds based on chitosan, collagen and hyaluronic acid, cross-linked by dialdehyde starch were obtained through the freeze-drying method. The porous structures were used as matrixes for calcium phosphate in situ precipitation. Composites were characterized by different analyses, e.g. infrared spectroscopy, SEM images, porosity, density, and mechanical tests. Moreover, an examination involving the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic method was carried out for the calcium and phosphorus ratio determination. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells were examined on the obtained scaffolds. The results showed that the properties of the scaffolds based on chitosan, collagen, and hyaluronic acid can be modified by dialdehyde starch addition. The mechanical parameters (i.e. compressive modulus and maximum compressive force), porosity, and density of the material were improved. Calcium phosphate was deposited in the scaffolds at the Ca/P ratio ∼2. SEM images showed the homogeneous structure, with interconnected pores. The cross-linker addition and an inorganic compound precipitation improved the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. The obtained materials can provide the support required in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  18. Gas separations using inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, B.Z.; Singh, S.P.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results from a research and development program to develop, fabricate, and evaluate inorganic membranes for separating gases at high temperatures and pressures in hostile process environments encountered in fossil energy conversion processes such as coal gasification. The primary emphasis of the research was on the separation and recovery of hydrogen from synthesis gas. Major aspects of the program included assessment of the worldwide research and development activity related to gas separations using inorganic membranes, identification and selection of candidate membrane materials, fabrication and characterization of membranes using porous membrane technology developed at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and evaluation of the separations capability of the fabricated membranes in terms of permeabilities and fluxes of gases.

  19. Electrochemical Catalysis of Inorganic Complex K4[Fe(CN)6] by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zhiyong; Wu, Ranran; Xiao, Yong

    to the redox proteins localized to the outer-membrane, for example, the MtrC, MtrB,MtrA and CymA2. Here we investigate its electrochemical properties towards redox inorganic redox compounds. It shows strong electrocatalysis toward electrochemical oxidation of K4[Fe(CN)6]. As a redox molecule, K4[Fe(CN)6] gives...... on the selectivity and electrocatalysis mechanisms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are under investigation. The ability of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to catalyze redox action of inorganic metal complex compounds will provide an insight on metal cycles in nature....

  20. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  1. A novel lattice energy calculation technique for simple inorganic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Cemal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: savaskaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Banerjee, Priyabrata [Surface Engineering and Tribology Group, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209 (India)

    2017-01-01

    In this pure theoretical study, a hitherto unexplored equation based on Shannon radii of the ions forming that crystal and chemical hardness of any crystal to calculate the lattice energies of simple inorganic ionic crystals has been presented. To prove the credibility of this equation, the results of the equation have been compared with experimental outcome obtained from Born-Fajans-Haber- cycle which is fundamentally enthalpy-based thermochemical cycle and prevalent theoretical approaches proposed for the calculation of lattice energies of ionic compounds. The results obtained and the comparisons made have demonstrated that the new equation is more useful compared to other theoretical approaches and allows to exceptionally accurate calculation of lattice energies of inorganic ionic crystals without doing any complex calculations.

  2. Inorganic Precipitation of Aragonite from Artificial Seawater at Low Oxygen Content and in the Presence of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. L.; Gabitov, R. I.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium carbonate minerals are important for our understanding of past marine conditions as well as tools for constructing paleoclimate. However, very little work has been done to determine the influence of oxygen depletion on the geochemistry of calcium carbonate minerals. At lower depths, conditions become increasingly anoxic. Methane oxidation, sulfate reduction, and respiration and fermentation of organic compounds are among the associated microbial metabolisms that may cause precipitation of carbonate or dolomite [1]. As a result the oxidation state of a number of elements change, which should affect their incorporation into carbonate phase. To determine how oxygen depletion affects elemental incorporation and partitioning, aragonite was inorganically grown in the laboratory using artificial seawater. In order to induce precipitation, a small amount of 0.1 M Na2CO3was added into solution. Pumping at a slow rate and stirring was done in order to avoid immediate CaCO3 precipitation. N2 was bubbled through solution in order to minimize oxygen content in experiments at atmospheric pressure. Two experiments were conducted at 5 bars of 0.1%CH4-N2mixture. Further oxygen trapping was done by the addition of Fe powder to some experiments. The aragonite was precipitated over a period of five to seven days, during which fluid subsamples were taken daily to measure pH. A drop in pH indicated that precipitation had started. Precipitated aragonite samples as well as final fluid solutions were collected and analyzed with ICP-MS, and isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In addition, solids were measured with electron microprobe. Our preliminary data showed aragonite grown with the presence of Fe powder is depleted in S/Ca and is enriched in Mn/Ca relative to aragonite precipitated without Fe powder. No significant effect of CH4 on aragonite d13C was observed. 1. Boetius A. et al. (2000) Nature, 407, 623-626.

  3. Structural study of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped calcium phosphates obtained by the mechanical milling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C C; Sombra, A S B [LOCEM (Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory) Physics Department, Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pici, 714 Block, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Graca, M P F; Valente, M A [Physics Department, I3N, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: sombra@fisica.ufc.br

    2009-05-15

    In this study, iron oxide was added with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 wt%) of hydroxyapatite (HAP) obtained by the mechanical milling method. The mixture was calcinated at 900 deg. C for 5 h with a heating rate of 3 deg. C min{sup -1}. The influence of the incorporation of different amounts of iron oxide was investigated by x-ray diffraction using both the Rietveld method and scanning electron microscopy. Calcium phosphates have a wide range of applications, particularly in the biomedical field. HAP stands out in this group of compounds due to its excellent biocompatibility, because it is very similar to the inorganic tissue of the bone matrix, both in chemistry and crystallographic structure. Among the cations that could substitute for calcium in the HAP structure, iron has gained importance recently, because it can form ferrites, which could be used for the treatment of cancer by hyperthermia. Iron could also influence the physiochemical properties of HAP, improving its potential as a biocompatible material.

  4. Magnesium supplementation through seaweed calcium extract rather than synthetic magnesium oxide improves femur bone mineral density and strength in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Bu, So Young; Kim, Jae Young; Yeon, Jee-Young; Sohn, Eun-Wha; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Commercially available seaweed calcium extract can supply high amounts of calcium as well as significant amounts of magnesium and other microminerals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which the high levels of magnesium in seaweed calcium extract affects the calcium balance and the bone status in ovariectomized rats in comparison to rats supplemented with calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide. A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley female rats (7 weeks) were divided into four groups and bred for 12 weeks: sham-operated group (Sham), ovariectomized group (OVX), ovariectomized with inorganic calcium and magnesium supplementation group (OVX-Mg), and ovariectomized with seaweed calcium and magnesium supplementation group (OVX-SCa). All experimental diets contained 0.5% calcium. The magnesium content in the experimental diet was 0.05% of the diet in the Sham and OVX groups and 0.1% of the diet in the OVX-Mg and OVX-SCa groups. In the calcium balance study, the OVX-Mg and OVX-SCa groups were not significantly different in calcium absorption compared to the OVX group. However, the femoral bone mineral density and strength of the OVX-SCa group were higher than those of the OVX-Mg and OVX groups. Seaweed calcium with magnesium supplementation or magnesium supplementation alone did not affect the serum ALP and CTx levels in ovariectomized rats. In summary, consumption of seaweed calcium extract or inorganic calcium carbonate with magnesium oxide demonstrated the same degree of intestinal calcium absorption, but only the consumption of seaweed calcium extract resulted in increased femoral bone mineral density and strength in ovariectomized rats. Our results suggest that seaweed calcium extract is an effective calcium and magnesium source for improving bone health compared to synthetic calcium and magnesium supplementation.

  5. Calcium phosphate cements with strontium halides as radiopacifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Engqvist, Håkan; Ott, Marjam Karlsson; Persson, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    High radiopacity is required to monitor the delivery and positioning of injectable implants. Inorganic nonsoluble radiopacifiers are typically used in nondegradable bone cements; however, their usefulness in resorbable cements is limited due to their low solubility. Strontium halides, except strontium fluoride, are ionic water-soluble compounds that possess potential as radiopacifiers. In this study, we compare the radiopacity, mechanical properties, composition, and cytotoxicity of radiopaque brushite cements prepared with strontium fluoride (SrF2 ), strontium chloride (SrCl2 ·6H2 O), strontium bromide (SrBr2 ), or strontium iodide (SrI2 ). Brushite cements containing 10 wt % SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , or SrI2 exhibited equal to or higher radiopacity than commercial radiopaque cements. Furthermore, the brushite crystal lattice in cements that contained the ionic radiopacifiers was larger than in unmodified cements and in cements that contained SrF2 , indicating strontium substitution. Despite the fact that the strontium halides increased the solubility of the cements and affected their mechanical properties, calcium phosphate cements containing SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 showed no significant differences in Saos-2 cell viability and proliferation with respect to the control. Strontium halides: SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 may be potential candidates as radiopacifiers in resorbable biomaterials although their in vivo biocompatibility, when incorporated into injectable implants, is yet to be assessed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  7. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  8. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  9. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  10. Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep K.; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process in which microbes produce inorganic materials as part of their basic metabolic activities. This technology has been widely explored and promising with potential in various technical applications. In the present review, the detailed mechanism of production of calcium carbonate biominerals by ureolytic bacteria has been discussed along with role of bacteria and the sectors where these biominerals are being used. The applications of bacterially produced carbonate biominerals for improving the durability of buildings, remediation of environment (water and soil), sequestration of atmospheric CO2 filler material in rubbers and plastics etc. are discussed. The study also sheds light on benefits of bacterial biominerals over traditional agents and also the issues that lie in the path of successful commercialization of the technology of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from lab to field scale. PMID:24194735

  11. Control of the spread of inorganic elements by shelterbelt in agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Życzyńska-Bałoniak, Irena; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Non-point pollution from agricultural lands involves primarily three transport processes: runoff, leaching, and erosion-sedimentation. The primary transport medium for all three processes is water, which is also a significant carrier of nutrients and sediments. Hydrologic processes important relative to non-point pollution are: (a) infiltration, (b) subsurface flow, (c) overland flow. A better understanding of the impact of shelterbelt on the decrease the quantities of chemical compounds in ground water should increase our ability to predict the improvement of the quality of ground water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of shelterbelt on the decrease of calcium, magnesium and inorganic carbon in ground water passing through the shelterbelt from adjoining cultivated fields. The investigations were carried out in Turew in Chlapowski's Agroecological Park situated 40 km South-West of Poznań (West Polish Lowland). Afforestations represent well developed network of shelterbelts (mid-field rows of trees afforestation). The established network of shelterbelts in Turew is the unique in Europe. Ground water under cultivated field and shelterbelt from the artificial wells ones a month during 7 years from 2000 to 2006 was sampled and investigated. Ground water under shelterbelt flows away from adjoining cultivated field and passing through the shelterbelt. The first distance of this shelterbelt 104 m long is located on mineral soils (division-autogenic soils, order-brown forest soils, type-hapludalfs, subtype-glossudalfs) next from 104 to 125 m on mineral organic soils (division-hydrogenic soils, order-post-bog, soils, type-mucky soils, subtype-muckous). Calcium, magnesium and mineral carbon quantities have been investigated in the ground water of shelterbelts. The direction of water flow was estimated on the basis of the water level in the wells. Shelterbelt includes different species with the dominations of the maple, ash, beech, and hawthorn. Ground

  12. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  13. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  14. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norshamira, A., E-mail: myra.arshad@gmail.com; Mariatti, M., E-mail: mariatti@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  15. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  16. Phosphorus digestibility is highly influenced by phytase but slightly by calcium in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Carlson, Dorthe; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2010-01-01

    phytases: one fungal 3-phytase from Aspergillus ficuum and two formulations of a bacterial 6-phytase from E. coli. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, soybean and rapeseed meal supplemented with vitamins and minerals without any added inorganic phosphate. Calcium was adjusted to 6.3 g...

  17. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  18. Perfect Strangers: Inorganic Photochemistry and Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Pamela J.; Ciftan, Suzanne A.; Sistare, Mark F.; Holden Thorp, H.

    1997-06-01

    The applications of inorganic photochemistry to nucleic acid chemistry are discussed. A brief review of nucleic acid structure is given. Methods for probing DNA using emissive inorganic complexes are discussed. Photoreactions that damage DNA by hydrogen atom transfer from sugar or electron abstraction from guanine are presented. The method of photochemical footprinting using a diplatinum photocatalyst is described. The final section discusses advances in combinatorial selection experiments that increase the urgency for rapid screening methods such as those derived from inorganic photochemistry.

  19. Effects of land use on soil inorganic carbon stocks in the Russian Chernozem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Elena A; Post, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks with depth and with land use in grassland ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine SIC stocks under different management regimes in the Mollisol, one of the typical soils in grasslands. Four sites were sampled: a native grassland field (not cultivated for at least 300 yr), an adjacent 50-yr continuous fallow field, a yearly cut hay field in the V.V. Alekhin Central-Chernozem Biosphere State Reserve in the Kursk region of Russia, and a continuously cropped field in the Experimental Station of the Kursk Institute of Agronomy and Soil Erosion Control. All sampled soils were classified as fine-silty, mixed, frigid Pachic Hapludolls. Significant differences occurred in SIC stocks between cultivated and grassland soil. The inorganic carbon stocks in the top 2 m were 107 Mg ha(-1) for the native grassland, 91 Mg ha(-1) for the yearly cut hay field, 242 Mg ha(-1) for the continuously cropped field, and 196 Mg ha(-1) for the 50-yr continuous fallow. The SIC was in the form of calcium carbonate and was mostly stored below the 1-m depth. The largest difference between inorganic carbon stocks was observed between the continuously cropped field and native grassland. The increase in inorganic carbon in the continuously cropped field and continuous fallow was attributed to initial cultivation and fertilization. Soil inorganic carbon in Mollisols is not accounted for in the current global carbon estimates.

  20. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  1. Glycolytic intermediates induce amorphous calcium carbonate formation in crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ai; Nagasaka, Seiji; Furihata, Kazuo; Nagata, Shinji; Arai, Isao; Saruwatari, Kazuko; Kogure, Toshihiro; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2011-04-01

    It has been thought that phosphorus in biominerals made of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) might be related to ACC formation, but no such phosphorus-containing compounds have ever been identified. Crustaceans use ACC biominerals in exoskeleton and gastroliths so that they will have easy access to calcium carbonate inside the body before and after molting. We have identified phosphoenolpyruvate and 3-phosphoglycerate, intermediates of the glycolytic pathway, in exoskeleton and gastroliths and found them important for stabilizing ACC.

  2. Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic compounds in noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Alide Mitsue Watanabe Cova, André Dias de Azevedo Neto, Rogério Ferreira Ribas, Hans Raj Gheyi, Renata Velasques Menezes ...

  3. HPLC inorganic arsenic speciation analysis of samples containing high sulfuric acid and iron levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Gerrits, I.P.A.M.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in oxidizing and bioleaching reactors, speciation analysis of the inorganic arsenic compounds is required. Existing arsenic speciation analysis techniques are based on the use of liquid chromatography columns coupled to detector equipment such as

  4. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles. This complex and highly regulated process is orchestrated by SNAREs and their associated proteins. The triggering signal for regulated exocytosis is usually...... an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...

  6. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  7. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, M M

    1994-06-01

    The potential value of xylitol in calcium therapy was evaluated by comparing the effect of dietary xylitol (50 g/kg diet) + calcium carbonate with the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on bone repair of young male rats after the rats consumed for 3 wk a calcium-deficient diet (0.2 g Ca/kg diet). After this calcium-depletion period, the rats were fed for 2 wk one of four diets, each containing 5 g Ca/kg diet as one of the four dietary calcium sources. The diet of the control animals was supplemented with CaCO3 (5 g Ca/kg diet) throughout the study. The Ca-deficient rats showed low bone mass, low serum calcium and high serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, parathyroid hormone (1-34 fraction) and osteocalcin concentrations. They also excreted magnesium, phosphate and hydroxyproline in the urine in high concentrations, and had high bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. Most of these changes were reversed by the administered of the calcium salts. The highest recoveries of femoral dry weight, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were observed in the groups receiving xylitol+CaCO3 and calcium lactate. Calcium lactate and calcium citrate caused low serum phosphate concentration compared with rats receiving CaCO3 and with the age-matched Ca-replete controls. Xylitol-treated rats excreted more calcium and magnesium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of these minerals from the gut. These results suggest that dietary xylitol improves the bioavailability of calcium salts.

  8. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears ...

  9. A Multiplexed Fluorescent Calcium and NFAT Reporter Gene Assay to Identify GPCR Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Heeral; Gorey, Colleen; Roush, Nicole; Smallman, Shelly; Collantes, Elizabeth; Santoro, Maxine; Olson, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Laura; Lee, Paul H; Shen, Xiqiang John

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular calcium response and resulting calcium signaling to an agonist-GPCR interaction are important for the measurement of compound activity in the GPCR drug development. The increase in cytosol calcium concentration can be measured by the fluorescent calcium indicator dye such as Fluo-4 in a quick assay (in 3-5 minutes) using the fluorescence imaging plate reader. The calcium signaling through the transcription factors such as NFAT that induces gene expression can be measured by the reporter gene assay that links to the expression of reporter enzyme such as the beta-lactamase that requires 5-hour incubation. We have evaluated a multiplexed assay that sequentially measures the calcium response to a GPCR agonist in a rapid fluorescent calcium dye assay, followed by a NFAT beta-lactamase assay, and compared them in the single assay format. We found that the agonist activity determined in the multiplexed assay were comparable with these determined in the single assay format and the Z' factors were all >0.5. Five active compounds were identified that were active in both calcium dye assay and beta-lactamase assay. Therefore, our results demonstrated the utility of this multiplexed calcium assay for screening of GPCR compounds that can cross validate the primary hits and help to eliminate the false positive compounds.

  10. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Figuring Out Food Labels What's a Vegetarian? Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Mineral Chart Vitamin D ... Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium Bones, Muscles, and ...

  11. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  12. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  13. Influence of Inorganic Salts on Soils Liquid and Plastic Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayininuola, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the influence of inorganic salts on soil liquid limit (LL and plastic limit (PL. Sodium chloride, NaCl, potassium nitrate KNO3 and calcium sulphate, CaSO4 of various concentrations were added to two subsoils. Their liquid and plastic limits before and after contamination were monitored. Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC, exchangeable cations (sodium, Na+, potassium, K+, and calcium, Ca2+ and exchangeable anions (chloride, Cl-, nitrate, NO3, and sulphate, SO42- were determined. A set of equations for predicting LL and PL, (with R2 = 0.908 to 0.990 at different levels of chemical interaction with time was developed using multiple regression analysis model. The results showed that both NaCl and KNO3 brought about reduction in LL and PL while CaSO4 addition led to increment in LL and PL. The predictive equations revealed that there is high tendency for the contaminated soils to regain their uncontaminated LL and PL values with time.

  14. 46 CFR 153.1045 - Inorganic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inorganic acids. 153.1045 Section 153.1045 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... § 153.1045 Inorganic acids. When Table 1 refers to this section, the person in charge of cargo transfer...

  15. Phototriggered Drug Delivery Using Inorganic Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhan, Changyou; Kohane, Daniel S

    2017-01-18

    Light has many desirable properties as the stimulus for triggerable drug delivery systems. Inorganic nanomaterials are often key components in transducing light into drug delivery events. The nature of the light and the inorganic materials can affect the efficacy and safety of the drug delivery system.

  16. as an inorganic analogue of carboxylate group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is a tridentate ONS donor) as an inorganic analogue of carboxylate group: A journey to a new domain of coordination chemistry. SATYABRATA SAMANTAa, SUBODH KANTI DUTTAa,b and. MUKTIMOY CHAUDHURYa,*. aDepartment of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700 032.

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical...

  19. Enzymes of inorganic polyphosphate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakovskaya, Tatyana; Kulaev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) is a linear polymer containing a few to several hundred orthophosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. Investigation of PolyP-metabolizing enzymes is important for medicine, because PolyPs perform numerous functions in the cells. In human organism, PolyPs are involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) uptake in mitochondria, bone tissue development, and blood coagulation. The essentiality of polyphosphate kinases in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria is a basis for the discovery of new antibiotics. The properties of the major enzymes of PolyP metabolism, first of all polyphosphate kinases and exopolyphosphatases, are described in the review. The main differences between the enzymes of PolyP biosynthesis and utilization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as the multiple functions of some enzymes of PolyP metabolism, are considered.

  20. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  1. Inorganic Reactive Sulfur-Nitrogen Species: Intricate Release Mechanisms or Cacophony in Yellow, Blue and Red?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Leontiev, Roman; Misak, Anton; Jakusova, Veronika; Ondrias, Karol; Jacob, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HSx−/Sx2−) to thionitrous acid (HSNO) and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO−). These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Employing a combination of spectrophotometry and sulfide assays, we have investigated the role of polysulfanes from garlic during the release of nitric oxide (•NO) from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the absence and presence of thiol reducing agents. Our studies reveal a distinct enhancement of GSNO decomposition by compounds such as diallyltrisulfane, which is most pronounced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione and presumably proceeds via the initial release of an inorganic mono- or polysulfides, i.e., hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or HSx−, from the organic polysulfane. Albeit being of a preliminary nature, our spectrophotometric data also reveals a complicated underlying mechanism which appears to involve transient species such as SSNO−. Eventually, more in depth studies are required to further explore the underlying chemistry and wider biological and nutritional implications of this interplay between edible garlic compounds, reductive activation, inorganic polysulfides and their interplay with •NO storage and release. PMID:28212297

  2. Inorganic Reactive Sulfur-Nitrogen Species: Intricate Release Mechanisms or Cacophony in Yellow, Blue and Red?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Leontiev, Roman; Misak, Anton; Jakusova, Veronika; Ondrias, Karol; Jacob, Claus

    2017-02-15

    Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HSx-/Sx2-) to thionitrous acid (HSNO) and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO-). These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Employing a combination of spectrophotometry and sulfide assays, we have investigated the role of polysulfanes from garlic during the release of nitric oxide (•NO) from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the absence and presence of thiol reducing agents. Our studies reveal a distinct enhancement of GSNO decomposition by compounds such as diallyltrisulfane, which is most pronounced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione and presumably proceeds via the initial release of an inorganic mono- or polysulfides, i.e., hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) or HSx-, from the organic polysulfane. Albeit being of a preliminary nature, our spectrophotometric data also reveals a complicated underlying mechanism which appears to involve transient species such as SSNO-. Eventually, more in depth studies are required to further explore the underlying chemistry and wider biological and nutritional implications of this interplay between edible garlic compounds, reductive activation, inorganic polysulfides and their interplay with •NO storage and release.

  3. Toxicity of inorganic nanomaterials in biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxia; Chang, Xueling; Chen, Xiaoxia; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Feng; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles have shown promising potentials as novel biomedical imaging agents with high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolution. To translate the laboratory innovations into clinical applications, their potential toxicities are highly concerned and have to be evaluated comprehensively both in vitro and in vivo before their clinical applications. In this review, we first summarized the in vivo and in vitro toxicities of the representative inorganic nanoparticles used in biomedical imagings. Then we further discuss the origin of nanotoxicity of inorganic nanomaterials, including ROS generation and oxidative stress, chemical instability, chemical composition, the surface modification, dissolution of nanoparticles to release excess free ions of metals, metal redox state, and left-over chemicals from synthesis, etc. We intend to provide the readers a better understanding of the toxicology aspects of inorganic nanomaterials and knowledge for achieving optimized designs of safer inorganic nanomaterials for clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On some problems of inorganic supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervov, Vladislav S; Zotova, Anna E

    2013-12-02

    In this study, some features that distinguish inorganic supramolecular host-guest objects from traditional architectures are considered. Crystalline inorganic supramolecular structures are the basis for the development of new functional materials. Here, the possible changes in the mechanism of crystalline inorganic supramolecular structure self-organization at high interaction potentials are discussed. The cases of changes in the host structures and corresponding changes in the charge states under guest intercalation, as well as their impact on phase stability and stoichiometry are considered. It was demonstrated that the deviation from the geometrical and topological complementarity conditions may be due to the additional energy gain from forming inorganic supramolecular structures. It has been assumed that molecular recognition principles can be employed for the development of physicochemical analysis and interpretation of metastable states in inorganic crystalline alloys. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Abiotic vs biological sources and fates of organic compounds in a low temperature continental serpentinizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K.; Noble, S. M.; Shock, E.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinization is likely the most common water-rock reaction in our solar system. During this process ultramafic silicates are hydrated, a calcium hydroxide solution is formed, and H2O is reduced to H2 coupled to the oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+. The resulting hyper-alkaline, reduced conditions generate thermodynamic drives for numerous carbon compound reactions, including the precipitation of various carbonate minerals and the reduction of inorganic carbonate to organic carbon. Testing the extent to which these thermodynamic drives lead to observable results led to the present study of the flow and transformations of carbon through the active continental serpentinizing system at the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman. Water samples were collected from shallow groundwater (representing system input), hyper-alkaline seeps (system output), boreholes (system intermediate), and surface fluid mixing zones, and analyzed for concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC + δ13C), organic carbon (+ δ13C), formate, acetate, H2, methane (+ δ13C), ethane, and an accompanying suite of other geochemical solutes. These analyses indicate that the vast majority of DIC in these serpentinizing fluids precipitates in the subsurface as carbonate minerals; however, a significant amount of DIC is converted into organic acids and light hydrocarbons and expelled at the surface in hyper-alkaline seeps. Based on thermodynamic calculations, it seems most likely that formate last equilibrated with dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) in the subsurface, acetate last equilibrated with calcite (CaCO3) near the surface, and methane and ethane last equilibrated in a distinct carbon-limited region of the subsurface. As for the fates of these compounds, energetic calculations reveal that a combination of oxidative, reductive, and fermentative metabolisms are thermodynamically favorable. Indeed, δ13C trends record microbial methane oxidation at the surface and cannot rule out methane as biologically

  6. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitika; Punia, Darshan; Khetarpaul, N

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the investigation was to analyse physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions. The seeds of five varieties of wheat (C-306, WH-283, WH-711, WH-896 and WH-912) grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions were ground in a Junior Mill to pass through 60-mesh sieves and were stored in air-tight containers until use. Standard methods were used to estimate the physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient composition. Consumer acceptability was studied by carrying out the organoleptic evaluation of wheat chapatis, a common item in diets of the Indian population. The results of study revealed that inorganically grown wheat varieties had significantly higher 1,000-grain weight and more grain hardness as compared with organically grown wheat varieties, and a non-significant difference was observed in their gluten content, water absorption capacity and hydration capacity. On average, wheat varieties grown under inorganic conditions contained significantly higher protein and crude fibre content as compared with varieties grown under organic conditions. WH-711 variety had maximum protein content. Protein fractions (i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) were significantly higher in varieties grown under inorganic conditions than those of varieties grown under organic conditions. The variety WH-711 had the highest total soluble sugars and variety WH-912 had the highest starch content. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents were significantly higher in inorganically grown wheat varieties as compared with organically grown wheat varieties. The wheat varieties grown under organic conditions had significantly higher protein and starch digestibility than the wheat grown under inorganic conditions. The data revealed that there were significant differences in total calcium and phosphorus contents of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic

  8. Thermodynamics of the nickel, cobalt and zinc removal from ethanolic solution by p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on layered calcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernando M. de; Dias, Ana Paula B.; Babeto, Beatriz; Pelisson, Scarlet [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, E.I.S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Intercalation scheme for p-aminobenzoic acid inside the free inorganic host cavity. • The p-aminobenzoic acid is perpendicular orientation to the inorganic layer. • Forming a bilayer arrangement in the cavity. • The metallic ions were adsorbed on intercalated crystalline lamellar compound. - Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained p-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44, 3.34 and 1.62 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel, cobalt and zinc, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metallic cation interactions were determined through calorimetric titration at the solid/liquid interface and gave a net thermal effect that enabled enthalpy and equilibrium constant calculations. Complete thermodynamic data composed of exothermic enthalpy, negative free Gibbs energy and positive entropy conformed to a set of favorable cation/basic center interactions, to indicate that these materials could be useful tools to eliminate undesirable cations from ethanolic systems.

  9. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  10. Sulfate minerals: a problem for the detection of organic compounds on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James M T; Watson, Jonathan S; Najorka, Jens; Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    The search for in situ organic matter on Mars involves encounters with minerals and requires an understanding of their influence on lander and rover experiments. Inorganic host materials can be helpful by aiding the preservation of organic compounds or unhelpful by causing the destruction of organic matter during thermal extraction steps. Perchlorates are recognized as confounding minerals for thermal degradation studies. On heating, perchlorates can decompose to produce oxygen, which then oxidizes organic matter. Other common minerals on Mars, such as sulfates, may also produce oxygen upon thermal decay, presenting an additional complication. Different sulfate species decompose within a large range of temperatures. We performed a series of experiments on a sample containing the ferric sulfate jarosite. The sulfate ions within jarosite break down from 500 °C. Carbon dioxide detected during heating of the sample was attributed to oxidation of organic matter. A laboratory standard of ferric sulfate hydrate released sulfur dioxide from 550 °C, and an oxygen peak was detected in the products. Calcium sulfate did not decompose below 1000 °C. Oxygen released from sulfate minerals may have already affected organic compound detection during in situ thermal experiments on Mars missions. A combination of preliminary mineralogical analyses and suitably selected pyrolysis temperatures may increase future success in the search for past or present life on Mars.

  11. Two new inorganic anions directed Zn(II)-tetrazole frameworks: Syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ji, Xiao-Hui; Li, Jiang-Tao

    2017-11-01

    Two new coordination polymers directed by different inorganic anions, namely [Zn2(mtz)(SO4)(OH)(H2O)]n (1) and [Zn6(mtz)9(NO3)2]n (2) (Hmtz = 5-methyl-1H-tetrazole) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 features a three-dimensional (3D) framework based on one dimensional [Zn(OH)(mtz)]n chains, whereas compound 2 features a 3D (3, 4)-connected tpd topological framework based on one-dimensional 1D [Zn(mtz)]n nano-tubes. The different coordination modes of mtz- ligand may be induced by different inorganic anions. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated in detail.

  12. Differential effects of organic calcium-channel blockers on diastolic SR calcium-handling in the frog heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Sathya; Vijayanand, Caroline; Tharion, Elizabeth

    2002-11-01

    1. Gradual loss of sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) calcium during a rest-period is responsible for the rest-induced decay (RID) of force in mammalian myocardium. Effect of verapamil and diltiazem on a similar RID in the frog myocardium suggests a new mechanism of action of these drugs. 2. Strips of frog-ventricle were paced at 0.2 Hz and the rhythm was interrupted by varying rest-periods ranging from 10 to 180 s. In control conditions, the amplitude of the post-rest beat was significantly lower than that of the pre-rest beat for rest-periods more than 40 s (RID). 3. Verapamil and diltiazem (which are organic calcium-channel blockers (OCCB)) changed the pattern of RID in the control solution to a 'rest-induced potentiation' (RIP) in the same preparation while another OCCB nifedipine and the inorganic calcium-channel blocker cadmium did not alter the post-rest phenomenon. 4. We propose that verapamil and diltiazem produce an RIP due to either blockade of SR calcium-leak during rest or enhancement of SR calcium-uptake during rest.

  13. The solubility of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride in near-critical and supercritical water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.

    Applications using supercritical water often encounter the presence of inorganic compounds in feed streams, most often with a minor concentration. These compounds can lead to damage of the equipment via erosion, scaling and corrosion or can influence and disturb the main reaction and processes

  14. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  15. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  16. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  17. Radioisotope tracer studies of inorganic carbon and Ca in microbially derived CaCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial calcification significantly impacts the cycling and deposition of inorganic carbon. This research employs 45Ca and 14C techniques as radioisotopic tracers to examine the role of cellular cycling of Ca2+ and inorganic carbon in CaCO3 precipitation by the unicellular green alga Nannochloris atomus. Implications of the effects of these physiological aspects on CaCO3 precipitation and the effects of microbial calcification on CaCO3 δ13C ratios are discussed. Results from pulse/chase experiments indicate that intracellular Ca2+ is incorporated into extracellular CaCO3. Intracellular inorganic carbon leaks from cells within 10 to 12 s after injection of unlabelled NaHCO3, providing a source of inorganic carbon for extracellular CaCO3. Cellular expulsion of calcium plays a key role in increasing the CaCO3 saturation state at the site of calcification. The δ13C ratios of microbial carbonates may vary depending on the amount of photorespiratory CO2 incorporated.

  18. Calcium Signalling: Fishing Out Molecules of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-01-01

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins — MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 — to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport.

  19. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  20. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  1. Organic free decavanadate based materials: Inorganic linkers to obtain extended structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerra, Sridevi; Das, Samar K.

    2017-10-01

    Decavanadate based extended structures containing compounds [{Na3(H2O)8(μ2-H2O)6Ag2}HV10O28]n·6nH2O (1), [Co(H2O)6]n[{Na2(H2O)6(μ2-H2O)4Co(H2O)2}V10O28]n·4nH2O (2) and [Zn(H2O)6]n[{Na2(H2O)6(μ2-H2O)4Zn(H2O)2}V10O28]n·4nH2O (3) have been synthesized from respective aqueous solutions of sodium metavanadate. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 crystallize in a triclinic space group P-1. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional inorganic solid, whereas compounds 2 and 3 are isomorphous one-dimensional inorganic polymers. In the crystal structure of compound 1, the silver (I) cation is coordinated to the terminal oxygen as well as bridging oxygen atoms of decavanadate anion and it is also connected to bridging oxygen atom of trimeric sodium aqua cluster cation. In the crystals of compound 2, one hexa-hydrated cobalt cation is present as a counter cation and one ;di-sodium cobalt aqua-complex; cation is supported on the [V10O28]6- cluster anion by coordinate covalent bond. Compound 3 is isomorphous with compound 2, with Zn2+ present (in compound 3) in the place of Co2+ (in compound 2). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are characterized by routine elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy and unambiguously by single crystal X-ray crystallography. In the crystal structure of compound 1, an unusual silver dimer is observed.

  2. Flotation of copper-bearing shale in solutions of inorganic salts and organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation data on copper-bearing shale in aqueous solutions of inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, Na2SO4, KPF6, NH4Cl and organic reagents (ethylamine, propylamine as frothers were presented and discussed. The relationships between shale flotation, surface tension of aqueous solution and foam height during bubbling with air in the flotation system were presented. It has been found that flotation of shale in the presence of inorganic salts the yield was directly proportional to the surface tension of the aqueous solution of salt and inversely proportional to the height of the foam. On the other hand, for organic reagents solutions (short chain amines, a reverse effect has been observed in relation to the inorganic compounds studied, that is the yield of copper-bearing shale flotation and the foam height were inversely proportional to the surface tension of the amine solution.

  3. IMEP-32: Determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cordeiro, Fernando; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    A collaborative study, IMEP-32, was conducted in accordance with international protocols to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin. The method would support Directive No 2002/32/EC of the European...... Parliament and the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed [1] where it is indicated that "Upon request of the competent authorities, the responsible operator must perform an analysis to demonstrate that the content of inorganic arsenic is lower than 2 ppm". The method is based on solid phase...... extraction (SPE) separation of inorganic arsenic from organoarsenic compounds followed by detection with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The collaborative study investigated different types of samples of marine origin, including complete feed (unspiked and spiked), fish meal...

  4. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  5. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  6. Inorganic zincs -- a love/hate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L.D. (S.G. Pinney and Associates, Port St. Lucie, FL (United States))

    1994-09-01

    Inorganic zinc primers have been in constant evolution since their invention in the 1940s. The pressure to use low or zero volatile organic content coatings is increasing their importance as protectives for steel. They offer their best performance when used as single coats without topcoating. The characteristics of the different varieties of inorganic zinc primers and the technique for applying finish coats to them are discussed.

  7. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Share Dialog × Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  8. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Prickets, significant negative correlations were seen between dietary calcium intake and radiological score (r=-0.28; P=0.03) and PTH (r=-0.26; P=0.02). No correlation was found between serum 25OHD level and radiological score or biochemical parameters of rickets. Rickets develops when low dietary calcium intake coexists with a low or borderline vitamin D nutrition status.

  9. Inorganic Arsenic and Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We critically evaluated the etiologic role of inorganic arsenic in human prostate cancer. Data sources We assessed data from relevant epidemiologic studies concerning environmental inorganic arsenic exposure. Whole animal studies were evaluated as were in vitro model systems of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in the prostate. Data synthesis Multiple studies in humans reveal an association between environmental inorganic arsenic exposure and prostate cancer mortality or incidence. Many of these human studies provide clear evidence of a dose–response relationship. Relevant whole animal models showing a relationship between inorganic arsenic and prostate cancer are not available. However, cellular model systems indicate arsenic can induce malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. Arsenic also appears to impact prostate cancer cell progression by precipitating events leading to androgen independence in vitro. Conclusion Available evidence in human populations and human cells in vitro indicates that the prostate is a target for inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis. A role for this common environmental contaminant in human prostate cancer initiation and/or progression would be very important. PMID:18288312

  10. Bibliography of Work on the Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air--Update Number 4 to October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D.

    2001-11-19

    This report is the fifth in a series of bibliographies of work on the photocatalytic oxidation of organic or inorganic compounds in air or water and on the photocatalytic reduction of inorganic compounds in water. This search contains information extracted from 1149 new references to papers, books, and reports from searches conducted between October 1996 and April 2001.

  11. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  12. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate...

  13. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  14. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Mesoionic Compounds - An Unconventional Class of Aromatic Heterocycles. Bharati V Badami. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  16. Calcium phosphate biomaterials from marine algae. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Felício-Fernandes

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate compounds such as Hydroxyapatite (HAp were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis with phycogenic CaCO3 as starting material. Material obtained was characterised by usual methods (XRD, FTIR, TG, N2-adsorption, SEM and EDX in order to study its physical-chemical characteristics. The prepared HAp showed that it may be suitable for use as a biomaterial.

  17. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  18. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  19. A novel speciation alternative for the determination of inorganic arsenic in marine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Herbst, M. Birgitte Koch

    Arsenic (As) is bioaccumulated from seawater to concentrations in the mg/kg range in marine animals. More than 50 naturally-occurring arsenic containing species, both inorganic and organic forms, have been identified in marine animals. The organic forms are mainly considered to be non-toxic, wher......Arsenic (As) is bioaccumulated from seawater to concentrations in the mg/kg range in marine animals. More than 50 naturally-occurring arsenic containing species, both inorganic and organic forms, have been identified in marine animals. The organic forms are mainly considered to be non......-toxic, whereas inorganic arsenic is highly toxic and exposure may lead to severe adverse effects including cancer. Since seafood is the major dietary source for arsenic exposure in the European population, arsenic speciation analysis of marine samples is highly relevant for food safety. However, most data...... of inorganic arsenic in marine based food is based on microwave extraction, species separation by strong anion solid phase extraction (SPE) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) detection. Separation organic arsenic compounds (e.g. MA, DMA and AB) and inorganic arsenic in the form...

  20. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pyatina, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  1. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pyatina, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  2. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  3. Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles: Ab ovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-09-01

    There are numerous remarkable studies related to the self-organization of polymers, coordination compounds, microscale particles, biomolecules, macroscale particles, surfactants, and reactive molecules on surfaces. The focus of this paper is on the self-organization of nanoscale inorganic particles or simply nanoparticles (NPs). Although there are fascinating and profound discoveries made with other self-assembling structures, the ones involving NPs deserve particular attention because they (a) are omnipresent in Nature; (b) have relevance to numerous disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, Earth sciences, and others); (c) embrace most of the features, geometries, and intricacies observed for the self-organization of other chemical species; (d) offer new tools for studies of self-organization phenomena; and (e) have a large economic impact, extending from energy and construction industries, to optoelectronics, biomedical technologies, and food safety. Despite the overall success of the field it is necessary to step back from its multiple ongoing research venues and consider two questions: What is self-assembly of nanoparticles? and Why do we need to study it? The reason to bring them up is to achieve greater scientific depth in the understanding of these omnipresent phenomena and, perhaps, deepen their multifaceted impact. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  4. The morphogenetically active polymer, inorganic polyphosphate complexed with GdCl3, as an inducer of hydroxyapatite formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Huang, Jian; Wang, Kui; Neufurth, Meik; Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Shunfeng; Müller, Werner E G

    2016-02-15

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological polymer composed of tens to hundreds of phosphate units linked together via phosphoanhydride bonds. Here we compared the biological activity of polyP (chain length of 40 phosphate units), complexed with Gd(3+) (polyP·Gd), with the one caused by polyP (as calcium salt) and by GdCl3 alone, regarding their potencies to induce hydroxyapatite (HA) formation in SaOS-2 cells in vitro. The three compounds, GdCl3, polyP and polyP·Gd were found to be non-toxic at concentrations up to at least 30μM. Selecting a low, 5μM, concentration it was found that polyP·Gd significantly induced HA formation, as determined by Alizarin Red S staining and by quantitative determinations using that dye. Under those conditions polyP·Gd and to a smaller extent also polyP or GdCl3 (5μM each) caused HA crystal formation arranged in a nest-like pattern. Exposure of cells to polyP·Gd resulted in a strong increase in alkaline phosphatase activity; this enzyme did not cause a distinct degradation of polyP but of polyP·Gd which was extensively hydrolyzed. The morphogenetic activity of gadolinium, in the form of polyP·Gd, is underscored by the finding that this polymer causes a strong upregulation of the genes encoding morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) as well as collagen type I. It is concluded that polyP·Gd is not an inert polymer but acts as a morphogenetically active polymer and induces HA formation in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glutamate increases toxicity of inorganic lead in GT1-7 neurons: partial protection induced by flunarizine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loikkanen, Jarkko; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio (Finland); Naarala, Jonne [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio (Finland); Savolainen, Kai M. [Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 aA, 00250, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-12-01

    Recent studies point to an interaction between the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system and inorganic lead (Pb) neurotoxicity. Pb (1-100 {mu}M) evoked cytotoxicity over the period of 72 h in mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 neurons. Glutamate (0.1 or 1 mM) on its own did not have any effect on cell viability. However, 1 mM glutamate clearly increased Pb-induced cell death at 48 and 72 h. Although flunarizine (0.1-10 {mu}M), an antagonist of L- and T-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), partially protected from the cytotoxicity induced by co-exposure to Pb (10 or 100 {mu}M) and glutamate (1 mM), it had no protective effect on cytotoxicity induced by Pb alone. The flunarizine-induced protection was dependent on time and observed only at 48 h. Neither verapamil, an antagonist of L-type VSCCs, nor DIDS, an inhibitor of anion exchange, at non-toxic concentrations (0.1-10 {mu}M) had any effect on cytotoxicity induced by Pb alone or together with glutamate at any studied time point. Co-exposure to Pb and glutamate also resulted in more prominent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than either of the compounds alone. Interestingly, we observed an increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in cells exposed to micromolar concentrations of Pb. Glutamate decreased the levels of intracellular GSH and also partially reduced the Pb-induced increase in GSH levels. These results suggest that the interaction of glutamate and Pb results in increased neuronal cell death via mechanisms that involve an increase in ROS production, a decrease in intracellular GSH defense against oxidative stress and probably T-type VSCCs. (orig.)

  6. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Titanium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharapudchenko, E.; Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Tverdokhlebov, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid multilayer coatings were obtained on titanium substrates by the combination of two methods: the micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid solution with the addition of calcium compounds to high supersaturated state and RF magnetron sputtering of the target made of synthetic hydroxyapatite. 16 different groups of coatings were formed on titanium substrates and in vitro studies were conducted in accordance with ISO 23317 in the solution simulating body fluid. The studies using SEM, XRD of the coatings of the samples before and after exposure to SBF were performed. The features of morphology, chemical and phase composition of the studied coatings are shown.

  7. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  8. Superior calcium bioavailability of effervescent potassium calcium citrate over tablet formulation of calcium citrate after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar; Pak, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Calcium supplementation is commonly recommended for patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to avert bone loss. To test the hypothesis that effervescent (liquid) potassium-calcium-citrate (PCC) might be more bioavailable than a tablet formulation of calcium citrate (Citracal Petite), the present study compared a single dose response of the 2 compounds. The present study was conducted at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas. A total of 15 patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in a 2-phase, crossover, randomized study comparing the single-dose bioavailability of PCC versus Citracal Petite. After following a restricted diet for 1 week, the participants ingested either a single dose of 400 mg elemental calcium as PCC or Citracal Petite. Sequential serum and urine samples were collected for a 6-hour period after the dose and analyzed for calcium, parathyroid hormone, and acid-base parameters. Compared with citracal petite, PCC significantly increased the serum calcium concentrations at 2, 3, and 4 hours after the oral load. The peak to baseline variation and increment in serum calcium (area under the curve) were significantly greater after PCC (P = .015 and P = .002, respectively). Concurrently, the baseline to nadir variation and decrement in serum parathyroid hormone (area over the curve) were significantly greater after PCC (P = .004 and P = .005, respectively). Moreover, compared with Citracal Petite, PCC caused a significantly greater increment in urinary citrate (P < .0001) and potassium (P = .0004) and a significantly lower increase in urinary ammonium (P = .045). In patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, PCC was superior to Citracal Petite in conferring bioavailable calcium and suppressing parathyroid hormone secretion. PCC also provided an alkali load. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  10. Reactive molecular simulation on the calcium silicate hydrates/polyethylene glycol composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Hou, Dongshuai; Jiang, Jinyang; She, Wei; Yu, Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) may potentially exhibit extraordinary performance when modified by polymers, in which way the properties of cement-based materials can be improved from the genetic level. In this molecular dynamics simulation of the interaction between C-S-H and polyethylene glycol, apart from the H bond network connection in the interface, another chemical adsorption was observed. Calcium of C-S-H broke the Csbnd O bond of PEG and formed a new Casbnd C connection, which created a stronger link between the organic and inorganic phases.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of porous calcium phosphate; Sintesis y caracterizacion del fosfato de calcio poroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.; Bonifacio M, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The porous calcium phosphate was prepared by the continuous precipitation method using Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} salts. The synthesized material was structurally and superficially characterized using the XRD, BET, IR TGA and SEM techniques. The obtained inorganic material was identified as calcium phosphate that presents a great specific area for what can be efficiently used as adsorbent material for adsorption studies in the radioactive wastes treatment present in aqueous solution. (Author)

  12. Effects of dietary calcium on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Masaki; Nakamura, Shiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection causes gastritis and is considered a gastric cancer risk factor. We have previously reported that codfish meal markedly enhanced Hp-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we sought the responsible components in codfish meal. Codfish were divided into three parts (meat, viscera and 'other parts', including bone), and administered to Hp-infected gerbils. Subsequently, cod bone, sardine bone and prawn shell were tested, along with major calcium components, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, in bone and shell, respectively. 'Other parts' and cod bone enhanced Hp-induced gastritis, as was observed for whole codfish. Similarly, sardine bone and prawn shell, as well as 0.22-0.88% hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, enhanced gastritis. In contrast, administration of a higher dose of the calcium compounds exerted protective effects. Intake of calcium compounds may contribute to enhancement of Hp-induced gastritis.

  13. Electric-Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ren; Wu, Hua; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Draxl, Claudia; Stroppa, Alessandro

    2017-09-20

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds attract a lot of interest for their flexible structures and multifunctional properties. For example, they can have coexisting magnetism and ferroelectricity whose possible coupling gives rise to magnetoelectricity. Here using first-principles computations, we show that, in a perovskite metal-organic framework (MOF), the magnetic and electric orders are further coupled to optical excitations, leading to an Electric tuning of the Magneto-Optical Kerr effect (EMOKE). Moreover, the Kerr angle can be switched by reversal of both ferroelectric and magnetic polarization only. The interplay between the Kerr angle and the organic-inorganic components of MOFs offers surprising unprecedented tools for engineering MOKE in complex compounds. Note that this work may be relevant to acentric magnetic systems in general, e.g., multiferroics.

  14. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  15. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  16. Electrochemical Catalysis of Inorganic Complex K4[Fe(CN)6] by Shewanellaoneidensis MR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zhiyong; Wu, Ranran; Xiao, Yong

    The interaction between metal and bacteria is a universal and important biogeochemical processin environment. As a dissimilatory metal reduction bacterium, the electrochemically activebacteriium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can transfer intracellular electrons to minerals. This ability is attribute...... andelectrocatalysis mechanisms of S. oneidensis MR-1 are under investigation. The ability of S. oneidensis MR-1 to catalyze redoxaction of inorganic metal complex compounds will provide an insight on metal cycles in nature....

  17. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  18. Potential of laser ablation and laser desorption mass spectrometry to characterize organic and inorganic environmental pollutants on dust particles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carre, V.; Aubriet, F.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Krier, G.; Muller, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Stainless steel factories are known to release particles into the atmosphere. Such particulate matter contains significant amounts of heavy metals or toxic inorganic compounds and organic pollutants such as, for example, Cr(VI) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The investigation of Cr(VI)

  19. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Image-Guided Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong Yeol; Jeon, Sangmin; You, Dong Gil; Park, Jae Hyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Koo, Heebeom; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-01-18

    Recently, nanotechnology has provided significant advances in biomedical applications including diagnosis and therapy. In particular, nanoparticles have emerged as valuable outcomes of nanotechnology due to their unique physicochemical properties based on size, shape, and surface properties. Among them, a large amount of research has reported imaging and therapeutic applications using inorganic nanoparticles with special properties. Inorganic nanoparticles developed for imaging and therapy contain metal (Au), metal oxide (Fe3O4, WO3, WO2.9), semiconductor nanocrystal (quantum dots (QDs)), and lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Based on their intrinsic properties, they can generate heat, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or energy transfer, so that they can be used for both imaging and therapy. In this review, we introduce biocompatible inorganic nanoparticles for image-guided thermal and photodynamic therapy, and discuss their promising results from in vitro and in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  20. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  1. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  2. FT-Raman spectroscopy of calcium hydroxide medicament in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T Y; Fujishima, T; Imai, Y

    2004-07-01

    To investigate chemical changes in calcium hydroxide introduced into human root canals as a medicament using Fourier transform-(FT) Raman spectroscopy. Ten necrotic maxillary anterior teeth were selected in 10 patients. The teeth were divided into five treatment groups, according to the survey time. Root canal instrumentation was performed with hand instruments until the master apical file was size 40. Calcium hydroxide paste, in a 1 : 1.25 mixture by weight of powder and distilled water, was introduced directly into the root canal with a lentulo-spiral filler and then condensed with a finger plugger. The access cavity was sealed with a temporary dressing. After 2 and 4 days, then 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the calcium hydroxide paste was sampled with a K-file and then analysed using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The excitation source was an Nd : YAG laser with an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. All spectra were taken with a laser power of 200 mW, 275-1185 scans, and 4 cm(-1) resolution. The conversion of calcium hydroxide to calcium carbonate was calculated on the basis of the spectral data obtained from the mixtures of both compounds. The calcium hydroxide paste in the apical region showed weak bands at 1088 and 284 cm(-1), in addition to bands associated with calcium hydroxide. The weak bands, assigned to calcium carbonate, became stronger with time. Calcium carbonate content increased rapidly in the first 2 days and then tended to increase slowly. Approximately 11% of the calcium hydroxide at the apical portion of the canal was converted to calcium carbonate after 6 weeks. However, little alteration of the paste was noticed in the samples from the middle portion of the canal. Calcium hydroxide medicament in root canals became transformed into calcium carbonate in the apical region within 2 days. Although the transformation continued with time, approximately 90% of the calcium hydroxide remained unchanged after 6 weeks.

  3. Engineered biosealant producing inorganic and organic biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has shown its potential in remediation of a wide range of structural damages including concrete cracks. MICCP involves sequential microbiological and chemical reactions, such as urea h...

  4. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H J; Miller, S L

    1998-06-23

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  5. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzozero, Julien; Scrivener, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate ...

  6. Mixed calcium-magnesium pre-nucleation clusters enrich calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Verch, Andreas; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that magnesium and carbonate ions can form pre-nucleation clusters in analogy to calcium carbonate. If a mixed calcium and magnesium solution is brought in contact with carbonate ions, mixed pre-nucleation clusters form. The equilibrium constants for their formation are reported revealing that over the entire range of possible cation mixing ratios, calcium gets enriched over magnesium in the pre-nucleation clusters. This can explain high magnesium contents in amorphous calc...

  7. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  8. Parotid gland flow activity and inorganic composition in purging bulimic patients treated with fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszynska, Elzbieta; Linden, Roger W A; Slopien, Agnieszka; Rajewski, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether vomiting bulimic and/or non-bulimic depressive patients, both treated with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor SI-5-HT (fluoxetine), have differing proportions of inorganic components (specifically, sodium, potassium and calcium) in their parotid salivary gland secretions, than in the average population. A controlled clinical trial was designed for three age-matched female groups: bulimic patients receiving fluoxetine 40 mg/day (n = 33), non-bulimic patients diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder (fluoxetine 20 mg/day, n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 51). Parotid saliva was collected using a Lashley cap while the subjects were at rest. Stimulation was obtained chemically using a 3% citric acid solution, and physically by instructing the subjects to chew on wax pellets. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium ions were measured using the colorimetric photometry method. The bulimic patients had a reduction in flow and sodium and potassium ions in the parotid saliva and non-bulimic patients had a reduction in flow. Deficits in certain components of saliva were shown to be directly related to salivary flow rate. The data suggest that detection of inorganic deficits in parotid saliva might serve as a reliable confirmation of reduction in flow amongst purging bulimic patients treated with fluoxetine.

  9. Biological Reactions to Calcium Phosphate-coated Calcium Carbonate Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tetsunari NISHIKAWA; Kazuya MASUNO; Tomoharu OKAMURA; Kazuya TOMINAGA; Masahiro WATO; Mayu KOKUBU; Koichi IMAI; Shoji TAKEDA; Yoichro TAGUCHI; Masatoshi UEDA; Akio TANAKA

    2010-01-01

    [SYNOPSIS][Objectives]: In order to histopathologically investigate biological reactions to materials used for scaffolds, we examined the cytotoxicity to calcium particles in vitro and bioabsorption in vivo...

  10. Phosphorus and Calcium Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women with Diabetes Mellitus: Effects of the Type and Duration of the Disease, Time of Menopause and Body Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kyryliuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM on the phosphorus and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women, depending on the type and duration of the disease, duration of menopause, body mass and type of hypoglycemic therapy. The state of phosphorus and calcium metabolism in 86 women with type 1 DM (13 patients and type 2 DM (73 patients was studied. In all patients, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the blood was within normal limits. It was found that the concentration of ionized calcium, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the blood can not be the main criterion for the state of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with DM. Sulfonylureas and insulin in combination with biguanides have no effect on the status of phosphorus and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 DM.

  11. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  12. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S

    1987-01-01

    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  13. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  14. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  15. Profiling of illicit cocaine seized in China by ICP-MS analysis of inorganic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Meng, Xin

    2017-07-01

    For the first time in China, the inorganic element profiling of cocaine specimens was performed at the National Narcotics Laboratory. An inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 26 inorganic elements, including sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminuim (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in illicit cocaine samples. Ultrasonic assisted dissolution was applied for sample preparation. Minimum sample preparation and analysis time were required, which was suitable for routine analysis. After the analysis of 183 cocaine samples seized from 2011 to 2015, the element concentration ranges of cocaine sample were obtained. Based on the quantitative data set of 26 inorganic elements in 131 linked/un-linked cocaine samples, fifty combinations of pre-treatment methods and distance/correlation measurements were tested for their potential discrimination power for cocaine profiling, and normalization+standardization+logarithm (N+S+L)/Cosine correlation exhibited the best result. After hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) analysis of 183 cocaine samples, 21 groups of linked samples were found within and between provinces, which provide intelligence for case connection and revealing of the distribution networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  17. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  18. Corrosion performance of inorganic coatings in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.; Westing, E. van; Kowalski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic coatings are widely used to protect carbon steel hydraulic cylinder rods from wear and corrosion in aggressive offshore environment. Different types of lay-ers such as Ni/Cr, Al2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, and Inconel 625 layers were applied to the carbon steels by plasma, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

  19. A Modular Approach to Inorganic Phosphazane Macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plajer, Alex J; García-Rodríguez, Raúl; Benson, Callum G M; Matthews, Peter D; Bond, Andrew D; Singh, Sanjay; Gade, Lutz H; Wright, Dominic S

    2017-07-24

    Inorganic macrocycles, based on non-carbon backbones, present exciting synthetic challenges in the systematic assembly of inorganic molecules, as well as new avenues in host-guest and supramolecular chemistry. Here we demonstrate a new high-yielding modular approach to a broad range of trimeric and hexameric S- and Se-bridged inorganic macrocycles based on cyclophosphazane frameworks, using the building blocks [S=(H)P(μ-NR)]2 . The method involves the in situ generation of the key intermediate [E....._ (S....._ )P(μ-NR)]22- (E=S, Se) dianion, which can be reacted with electrophilic [ClP(μ-NR)]2 to give PIII /PV hexameric rings or reacted with I2 to give trimeric PV variants. Important issues which are highlighted in this work are the competitive bridging ability of S versus Se in these systems and the synthesis of the first air-stable and chiral inorganic macrocycles. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. or Inorganic N Fertiliser into Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTICT

    mineral N availability because mineral N is required for nitrification and denitrification, the main processes responsible for soil N O2 production (Baggs et al., 2000; Firestone &. Davidson, 1989). In sub-Saharan Africa. (SSA) inorganic fertiliser use is often limited by lack of capital and unreliable supply. Therefore, organic ...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with calcium carbonate... precipitated calcium carbonate in the United States Pharmacopeia XX (1980). (c) Uses and restrictions. Calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium carbonate. 184.1191 Section 184.1191 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, CAS Reg... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation...

  3. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  4. Reactivity Network: Secondary Sources for Inorganic Reactivity Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an eclectic annotated bibliography of secondary sources for inorganic reactivity information of interest to reactivity network review authors and to anyone seeking information about simple inorganic reactions in order to develop experiments and demonstrations. Gives 119 sources. (MVL)

  5. Calcium signalling: fishing out molecules of mitochondrial calcium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-10-26

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins - MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 - to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of inorganic ions in the calcium carbonate scaling of seawater reverse osmosis systems

    KAUST Repository

    Waly, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    In supersaturated solutions the period preceding the start of \\'measurable\\' crystallization is normally referred to as the \\'induction time\\'. This research project aimed to investigate the induction times of CaCO 3 in the presence of Mg 2+ and SO 4 2-. The prepared synthetic solutions have the same ionic strength values found in the Gulf of Oman SWRO concentrates at 30% and 50% recovery. The results showed a significant increase in the induction time by 1140%, 2820%, and 3880% for a recovery of 50%, when adding SO 4 2- only, Mg 2+ only, or both Mg 2+ and SO 4 2-, respectively, to synthetic SWRO concentrate compared to that obtained in the absence of Mg 2+ and SO 4 2- at an initial pH of 8.3. The increase in the induction time in the presence of SO 4 2- was more than likely to be due to nucleation and growth inhibition while the presence of Mg 2+ affected the nucleation and growth through both complexation and inhibition. After a 5-month solution stabilization period, ESEM and XRD analyses showed aragonite in solutions containing Mg 2+. On the contrary, calcite was the final crystal phase formed in solutions with no Mg 2+. This suggests that magnesium may play an important role in inhibiting the formation of calcite. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

  7. Dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone leading to release of calcium regulates osteoclast survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus H; Karsdal, Morten A; Sørensen, Mette G

    2007-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the sole cells possessing the ability to resorb calcified bone matrix. This occurs via secretion of hydrochloric acid mediated by the V-ATPase and the chloride channel ClC-7. Loss of acidification leads to osteopetrosis characterized by ablation of bone resorption and increased...

  8. Review of progress in soil inorganic carbon research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. G.; Jiao, Y.; Yang, W. Z.; Gu, P.; Yang, J.; Liu, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is one of the main carbon banks in the near-surface environment, and is the main form of soil carbon library in arid and semi-arid regions, which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. This paper mainly focuses on the inorganic dynamic process of soil inorganic carbon in soil environment in arid and semi-arid regions, and summarized the composition and source of soil inorganic carbon, influence factors and soil carbon sequestration.

  9. Microstructure of organic–inorganic composite coatings studied by TEM and XANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuo Hamada, Masayasu Nagoshi, Kaoru Sato, Akira Matsuzaki, Takafumi Yamaji and Kotaro Kuroda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromate coatings on Zn or Zn alloy coated steel sheets often include silica for the aim to improve corrosion resistance. In the case of dry-in-place chromate coatings containing acrylic resin (hereafter referred to as an organic–inorganic composite coating, an addition of silica, however, did not show an improvement in corrosion resistance. The microstructures of the organic–inorganic composite coatings were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and the chemical states of Cr were investigated by the total electron yield X-ray absorption near edge structure (TEY-XANES method. TEM samples were successfully prepared by dry ultramicrotomy preventing water-soluble components in the coatings from dissolving out. TEY-XANES revealed the chemical states of components even in the organic matrix. Using these methods, it was found that the addition of silica changed just the morphology of the chromium compound in the organic–inorganic composite coating but not the chemical state of Cr. This is a reason for the addition of silica being not effective at improving corrosion resistance. The combination of dry ultramicrotomy-TEM and TEY-XANES spectroscopy was proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing organic–inorganic composite coatings.

  10. Comparative Analysis Of Organic And Inorganic Fertilizer Use In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic and inorganic fertilizers use were significantly influenced by output of cassava, education, household size, farm size, farming experience, extension contact, cost of inorganic fertilizer and availability of inorganic fertilizer. Inadequate cassava cuttings was a major constraint to the farmers and this can be overcome by ...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test...

  12. Hydrophobic Calcium Carbonate for Cement Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi B. Atla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a novel way to generate a highly effective hydrophobic cement surface via a carbonation route using sodium stearate. Carbonation reaction was carried out at different temperatures to investigate the hydrophobicity and morphology of the calcium carbonate formed with this process. With increasing temperatures, the particles changed from irregular shapes to more uniform rod-like structures and then aggregated to form a plate-like formation. The contact angle against water was found to increase with increasing temperature; after 90 °C there was no further increase. The maximum contact angle of 129° was obtained at the temperature of 60 °C. It was also found that carbonation increased the micro hardness of the cement material. The micro hardness was found to be dependent on the morphology of the CaCO3 particles. The rod like structures which caused increased mineral filler produced a material with enhanced strength. The 13C cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra gave plausible explanation of the interaction of organic-inorganic moieties.

  13. Inorganic mercury poisoning associated with skin-lightening cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2011-12-01

    Mercury and mercury salts, including mercurous chloride and mercurous oxide, are prohibited for use in cosmetic products as skin-lightening agents because of their high toxicity. Yet, the public continue to have access to these products. Reports of skin-lightening cosmetic products containing mercury and cases of mercury poisoning following the use of such products were identified using Medline (1950 - 28 March 2011) with mercury, mercury compounds, mercury poisoning, cosmetics and skin absorption as the subject headings. These searches identified 118 citations of which 31 were relevant. The rate of dermal absorption increases with the concentration of mercury and prior hydration of the skin. The degree of dermal absorption varies with the skin integrity and lipid solubility of the vehicle in the cosmetic products. Ingestion may occur after topical application around the mouth and hand-to-mouth contact. After absorption, inorganic mercury is distributed widely and elimination occurs primarily through the urine and feces. With long-term exposure, urinary excretion is the major route of elimination. The half-life is approximately 1-2 months. The kidneys are the major site of inorganic mercury deposition; renal damage includes reversible proteinuria, acute tubular necrosis and nephrotic syndrome. Gastrointestinal symptoms include a metallic taste, gingivostomatitis, nausea and hypersalivation. Although penetration of the blood-brain barrier by inorganic mercury is poor, prolonged exposure can result in central nervous system (CNS) accumulation and neurotoxicity. Inorganic mercury poisoning following the use of skin-lightening creams has been reported from Africa, Europe, USA, Mexico, Australia and Hong Kong. Nephrotic syndrome (mainly due to minimal change or membranous nephropathy) and neurotoxicity were the most common presenting features. As mercury-containing cosmetic products can contaminate the home, some close household contacts were also reported to have

  14. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  15. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  16. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-12-19

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate in fact contains stable prenucleation ion clusters forming even in undersaturated solution. The cluster formation can be characterized by means of equilibrium thermodynamics, applying a multiple-binding model, which allows for structural preformation. Stable clusters are the relevant species in calcium carbonate nucleation. Such mechanisms may also be important for the crystallization of other minerals.

  17. [The vanadium compounds: chemistry, synthesis, insulinomimetic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E V; Buriakina, A V; Vorob'eva, N M; Baranova, N I

    2014-01-01

    The review considers the biological role of vanadium, its participation in various processes in humans and other mammals, and the anti-diabetic effect of its compounds. Vanadium salts have persistent hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects and reduce the probability of secondary complications in animals with experimental diabetes. The review contains a detailed description of all major synthesized vanadium complexes having antidiabetic activity. Currently, vanadium complexes with organic ligands are more effective and safer than the inorganic salts. Despite the proven efficacy of these compounds as the anti-diabetic agents in animal models, only one organic complex of vanadium is currently under the second phase of clinical trials. All of the considered data suggest that vanadium compound are a new promising class of drugs in modern pharmacotherapy of diabetes.

  18. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  19. The crystal chemistry of inorganic metal borohydrides and their relation to metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan; Schouwink, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of inorganic homoleptic metal borohydrides are analysed with respect to their structural prototypes found amongst metal oxides in the inorganic databases such as Pearson's Crystal Data [Villars & Cenzual (2015). Pearson's Crystal Data. Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic Compounds, Release 2014/2015, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA]. The coordination polyhedra around the cations and the borohydride anion are determined, and constitute the basis of the structural systematics underlying metal borohydride chemistry in various frameworks and variants of ionic packing, including complex anions and the packing of neutral molecules in the crystal. Underlying nets are determined by topology analysis using the program TOPOS [Blatov (2006). IUCr CompComm. Newsl. 7, 4-38]. It is found that the Pauling rules for ionic crystals apply to all non-molecular borohydride crystal structures, and that the latter can often be derived by simple deformation of the close-packed anionic lattices c.c.p. and h.c.p., by partially removing anions and filling tetrahedral or octahedral sites. The deviation from an ideal close packing is facilitated in metal borohydrides with respect to the oxide due to geometrical and electronic considerations of the BH4(-) anion (tetrahedral shape, polarizability). This review on crystal chemistry of borohydrides and their similarity to oxides is a contribution which should serve materials engineers as a roadmap to design new materials, synthetic chemists in their search for promising compounds to be prepared, and materials scientists in understanding the properties of novel materials.

  20. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers as Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Solutions: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiey, Babak; Cheng, Chil-Hung; Wu, Jiangning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers have been applied in different fields, including the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and solid-state separations. In this review, firstly, these compounds are classified. These compounds are prepared by sol-gel method, self-assembly process (mesopores), assembling of nanobuilding blocks (e.g., layered or core-shell compounds) and as interpenetrating networks and hierarchically structures. Lastly, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals of these materials, including different kinds of functional groups, selectivity of them for heavy metals, effect of pH and synthesis conditions on adsorption capacity, are studied. PMID:28788483

  1. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers as Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Solutions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Samiey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers have been applied in different fields, including the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and solid-state separations. In this review, firstly, these compounds are classified. These compounds are prepared by sol-gel method, self-assembly process (mesopores, assembling of nanobuilding blocks (e.g., layered or core-shell compounds and as interpenetrating networks and hierarchically structures. Lastly, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals of these materials, including different kinds of functional groups, selectivity of them for heavy metals, effect of pH and synthesis conditions on adsorption capacity, are studied.

  2. Calcium antagonists: a ready prescription for treating infectious diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B; Eisenstein, Edward M; Krahl, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of new and medically resistant pathogenic microbes continues to escalate toward worldwide public health, wild habitat, and commercial crop and livestock catastrophes. Attempts at solving this problem with sophisticated modern biotechnologies, such as smart vaccines and microbicidal and microbistatic drugs that precisely target parasitic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, remain promising without major clinical and industrial successes. However, discovery of a more immediate, broad spectrum prophylaxis beyond conventional epidemiological approaches might take no longer than the time required to fill a prescription at your neighborhood pharmacy. Findings from a growing body of research suggest calcium antagonists, long approved and marketed for various human cardiovascular and neurological indications, may produce safe, efficacious antimicrobial effects. As a general category of drugs, calcium antagonists include compounds that disrupt passage of Ca(2+) molecules across cell membranes and walls, sequestration and mobilization of free intracellular Ca(2+), and downstream binding proteins and sensors of Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory pathways important for proper cell function. Administration of calcium antagonists alone at current therapeutically relevant doses and schedules, or with synergistic compounds and additional antimicrobial medications, figures to enhance host immunoprotection by directly altering pathogen infection sequences, life cycles, homeostasis, antibiotic tolerances, and numerous other infective, survival, and reproductive processes. Short of being miracle drugs, calcium antagonists are welcome old drugs with new tricks capable of controlling some of the most virulent and pervasive global infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans, including Chagas' disease, malaria, and tuberculosis.

  3. Efficacy of Mixtures of Magnesium, Citrate and Phytate as Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Inhibitors in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mixtures of magnesium, citrate and phytate as calcium oxalate crystallization inhibitors. A turbidimetric assay in synthetic urine was performed to obtain induction times for calcium oxalate crystallization in the absence and presence of different mixtures of inhibitors. The morphology of calcium oxalate crystals in the absence or presence of inhibitors and mixtures of the inhibitors was evaluated in 2 crystallization experiments at low and high calcium oxalate supersaturation. The crystals formed were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Examination of crystallization induction times revealed clear inhibitory effects of magnesium, citrate and phytate on calcium oxalate crystallization, supporting usefulness in the treatment and prevention of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Significant synergistic effects between magnesium and phytate were observed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that phytate is a powerful crystal growth inhibitor of calcium oxalate, totally preventing the formation of trihydrate and monohydrate. In addition to crystallization inhibition capacity, citrate and magnesium avoided calcium oxalate crystallization by decreasing its supersaturation. The synergistic effect between magnesium and phytate on calcium oxalate crystallization suggests that a combination of these 2 compounds may be highly useful as antilithiasis therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium chloride in neonatal parenteral nutrition: compatibility studies using laser methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Huston

    Full Text Available We have previously reported results of precipitation studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium phosphate using visual methods to determine compatibility. The purpose of this study was to do further testing of compatibility for solutions containing calcium chloride using more sensitive methods.Solutions of Trophamine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA and Premasol (Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, IL were compounded with calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. Controls contained no calcium or phosphate. After incubation at 37° for 24 hours solutions without visual precipitation were analyzed to determine mean particle size using dynamic light scattering from a laser light source.Particle sizes were similar for control solutions and those without visual precipitation and a mean particle size <1000 nm. Compatible solutions were defined as those with added calcium and phosphate with no visual evidence of precipitation and mean particle size <1000 nm. In solutions containing 2.5-3% amino acids and 10 mmol/L of calcium chloride the maximum amount of potassium phosphate that was compatible was 7.5 mmol/L.Maximum amounts of phosphate that could be added to parenteral nutrition solutions containing Trophamine and calcium chloride were about 7.5-10 mmol/L less for a given concentration of calcium based upon laser methodology compared to visual techniques to determine compatibility. There were minor differences in compatibility when adding calcium chloride and potassium phosphate to Premasol versus Trophamine.

  5. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  6. Casting inorganic structures with DNA molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Boulais, Etienne; Hakobyan, Yera; Wang, Wei Li; Guan, Amy; Bathe, Mark; Yin, Peng

    2014-11-07

    We report a general strategy for designing and synthesizing inorganic nanostructures with arbitrarily prescribed three-dimensional shapes. Computationally designed DNA strands self-assemble into a stiff "nanomold" that contains a user-specified three-dimensional cavity and encloses a nucleating gold "seed." Under mild conditions, this seed grows into a larger cast structure that fills and thus replicates the cavity. We synthesized a variety of nanoparticles with 3-nanometer resolution: three distinct silver cuboids with three independently tunable dimensions, silver and gold nanoparticles with diverse cross sections, and composite structures with homo- and heterogeneous components. The designer equilateral silver triangular and spherical nanoparticles exhibited plasmonic properties consistent with electromagnetism-based simulations. Our framework is generalizable to more complex geometries and diverse inorganic materials, offering a range of applications in biosensing, photonics, and nanoelectronics. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Carles; Maseras, Feliu

    2008-06-14

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are a useful tool for the computational study of inorganic systems. They allow a quantitative description of systems larger than those treatable with pure QM methods, in principle with a comparable quality. QM/MM calculations are being currently applied to the research in a variety of topics, including structural effects of ligand bulk, selectivity in homogeneous catalysis and mechanical embedding in heterogeneous catalysis. The QM/MM approach is also useful for the separation of steric and electronic contributions, and as an auxiliary tool for geometry optimization when full QM methods are mandatory. The power of QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry is illustrated in this Perspective with a summary of recent representative applications.

  8. Inorganic Adhesives for Robust Superwetting Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Li, Jing; Hou, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-01-24

    Superwetting surfaces require micro-/nanohierarchical structures but are mechanically weak. Moreover, such surfaces are easily polluted by amphiphiles. In this work, inorganic adhesives are presented as a building block for construction of superwetting surfaces and to promote robustness. Nanomaterials can be selected as fillers to endow the functions. We adopted a simple procedure to fabricate underwater superoleophobic surfaces by spraying a titanium dioxide suspension combined with aluminum phosphate binder on stainless steel meshes. The surfaces maintained their excellent performance in regard to oil repellency under water, oil/water separation, and self-cleaning properties after even 100 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. Robust superwetting surfaces favored by inorganic adhesives can be extended to other nanoparticles and substrates, which are potentially advantageous in practical applications.

  9. Microwave chemistry for inorganic nanomaterials synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilecka, Idalia; Niederberger, Markus

    2010-08-01

    This Feature Article gives an overview of microwave-assisted liquid phase routes to inorganic nanomaterials. Whereas microwave chemistry is a well-established technique in organic synthesis, its use in inorganic nanomaterials' synthesis is still at the beginning and far away from having reached its full potential. However, the rapidly growing number of publications in this field suggests that microwave chemistry will play an outstanding role in the broad field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This article is not meant to give an exhaustive overview of all nanomaterials synthesized by the microwave technique, but to discuss the new opportunities that arise as a result of the unique features of microwave chemistry. Principles, advantages and limitations of microwave chemistry are introduced, its application in the synthesis of different classes of functional nanomaterials is discussed, and finally expected benefits for nanomaterials' synthesis are elaborated.

  10. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  11. [Comparative study of the urinary excretion of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Ramón, Vielma; Mora Mora, Marylú; Marino Alarcón, Oscar; Hernández, Gladys; Josefina Linares, Ledy; Urdaneta Romero, Haideé; Arévalo González, Evelia

    2012-03-01

    In order to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, we selected 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, divided into two groups: group I clinically healthy postmenopausal women and group II postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, without chronic kidney and hepatic diseases or diabetes mellitus. We determined the boron (B), phosphorus (P), total calcium (Ca) and total magnesium (Mg) in the urine of two hours, by atomic emission spectroscopy with induction-coupled plasma (ICPA-ES). Total calcium and total magnesium in serum were determined by atomic flame absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inorganic phosphorus in serum, and creatinine in serum and urine, by molecular absorption spectrometry. The preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  12. Global Inorganic Source of Atmospheric Bromine

    OpenAIRE

    Enami, S.; Vecitis, C. D.; Cheng, J.; Hoffmann, M.R.; Colussi, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    A few bromine molecules per trillion (ppt) causes the complete destruction of ozone in the lower troposphere during polar spring and about half of the losses associated with the “ozone hole” in the stratosphere. Recent field and aerial measurements of the proxy BrO in the free troposphere suggest an even more pervasive global role for bromine. Models, which quantify ozone trends by assuming atmospheric inorganic bromine (Br_y) stems exclusively from long-lived bromoalkane gases, significantly...

  13. Names for inorganic radicals (IUPAC Recommendations 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    W. H. Koppenol

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of the properties and reactivities of stable inorganic radicals was obtained decades ago through gas-phase studies of various oxides of halogens, sulfur, and nitrogen. More recently, pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis techniques developed in the 1960s made it possible to study short-lived radicals, such as hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms, and hydroxyl radicals. Because of the high time-resolution of these techniques, absorption spectra and redox properties of the...

  14. Inorganic Photovoltaics - Planar and Nanostructured Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanujam, J.; Verma, A.; González-Díaz, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; García-Tabarés, E.; Rey-Stolle Prado, Ignacio; Granek, F.; Korte, L.; Tucci, M.; Rath, J.; Singh, U.P.; Todorov, T.; Gunawan, O.; Rubioara, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1950s, semiconductor solar cell technology has evolved in great leaps and bounds. Solar power is now being considered as a serious leading contender for replacing fossil fuel based power generation. This article reviews the evolution and current state, and potential areas of near future research focus, of leading inorganic materials based solar cells, including bulk crystalline, amorphous thin-films, and nanomaterials based solar cells. Bulk crystalline silicon sola...

  15. Inorganic photovoltaics Planar and nanostructured devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanujam, J.; Verma, A.; Gonzalez Diaz, B.; Guerrero Lemus, R.; del Canizo, C.; Garcia Tabares, E.; Rey Stolle, I.; Granek, F.; Korte, L.; Tucci, M.; Rath, J.; Singh, U.P.; Todorov, T.; Gunawan, O.; Rubio, S.

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1950s, semiconductor solar cell technology has evolved in great leaps and bounds. Solar power is now being considered as a serious leading contender for replacing fossil fuel based power generation. This article reviews the evolution and current state, and potential areas of near future research focus, of leading inorganic materials based solar cells, including bulk crystalline, amorphous thin films, and nanomaterials based solar cells. Bulk crystalline silicon sola...

  16. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish, seafood and seaweeds--exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, Monika; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Szynal, Tomasz; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Postupolski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish, seafood and seaweeds are foodstuffs that significantly contribute to dietary arsenic intake. With the exception of some algal species, the dominant compounds of arsenic in such food products are the less toxic organic forms. Both the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and EFSA recommend that speciation studies be performed to determine the different chemical forms in which arsenic is present in food due to the differences in their toxicity. Knowing such compositions can thus enable a complete exposure assessment to be made. Determination of total and inorganic arsenic contents in fish, their products, seafood and seaweeds present on the Polish market. This was then followed by an exposure assessment of consumers to inorganic arsenic in these foodstuffs. Total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 55 samples of fish, their products, seafood as well as seaweeds available on the market. The analytical method was hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), after dry ashing of samples and reduction of arsenic to arsenic hydride using sodium borohydride. In order to isolate only the inorganic forms of arsenic prior to mineralisation, samples were subjected to concentrated HCl hydrolysis, followed by reduction with hydrobromic acid and hydrazine sulphate after which triple chloroform extractions and triple 1M HCl re-extractions were performed. Exposure of adults was estimated in relation to the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) that resulted in a 0.5% increase in lung cancer (3.0 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day). Mean total arsenic content from all investigated fish samples was 0.46 mg/kg (90th percentile 0.94 mg/kg), whilst the inorganic arsenic content never exceeded the detection limit of the analytical method used (0.025 mg/kg). In fish products, mean total arsenic concentration was

  17. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  18. ROMP-Derived cyclooctene-based monolithic polymeric materials reinforced with inorganic nanoparticles for applications in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Weichelt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous monolithic inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials have been prepared via ring-opening metathesis copolymerization starting from a highly polar monomer, i.e., cis-5-cyclooctene-trans-1,2-diol and a 7-oxanorborn-2-ene-derived cross-linker in the presence of porogenic solvents and two types of inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., CaCO3 and calcium hydroxyapatite, respectively using the third-generation Grubbs initiator RuCl2(Py2(IMesH2(CHPh. The physico-chemical properties of the monolithic materials, such as pore size distribution and microhardness were studied with regard to the nanoparticle type and content. Moreover, the reinforced monoliths were tested for the possible use as scaffold materials in tissue engineering, by carrying out cell cultivation experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

  19. Epidermal Inorganic Optoelectronics for Blood Oxygen Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haicheng; Xu, Yun; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Changxing; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Jian; Ma, Yinji; Chen, Yihao; Huang, Yin; Ding, Minquang; Su, Honghong; Song, Guofeng; Luo, Yi; Feng, X

    2017-05-01

    Flexible and stretchable optoelectronics, built-in inorganic semiconductor materials, offer a wide range of unprecedented opportunities and will redefine the conventional rigid optoelectronics in biological application and medical measurement. However, a significant bottleneck lies in the brittleness nature of rigid semiconductor materials and the performance's extreme sensitivity to the light intensity variation due to human skin deformation while measuring physical parameters. In this study, the authors demonstrate a systematic strategy to design an epidermal inorganic optoelectronic device by using specific strain-isolation design, nanodiamond thinning, and hybrid transfer printing. The authors propose all-in-one suspension structure to achieve the stretchability and conformability for surrounding environment, and they propose a two-step transfer printing method for hybrid integrating III-V group emitting elements, Si-based photodetector, and interconnects. Owing to the excellent flexibility and stretchability, such device is totally conformal to skin and keeps the constant light transmission between emitting element and photodetector as well as the signal stability due to skin deformation. This method opens a route for traditional inorganic optoelectronics to achieve flexibility and stretchability and improve the performance of optoelectronics for biomedical application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-01

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.