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Sample records for calcium inorganic compounds

  1. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  2. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  3. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  4. Modeling of cooperative properties of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When modeling cooperative phenomena, the approach based on the study of certain diamagnetodiluted compounds with increasing concentration of magnetic complexes has been realized sequentially. It has been shown that in the systems with a strong electron-phonon interaction the study of properties of isolated and interacting complexes permits a correct prediction of the structure and magnetic properties of the concentrated compounds. Examples of the study of CuL6 complexes Jahn-Teller effect in various classes of inorganic compounds by the ESR method are considered. The detection and study of the dynamic Jahn-Teller complexes in solid solutions La2-ySryAl1-xCuxO4 permitted suggesting a model dynamic structure of CuO2 basic layer in high-Tc materials

  5. Information-Analytical System for Design of New Inorganic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselyova, Nadezhda; Stolyarenko, Andrey; Ryazanov, Vladimir; Podbel’skii, Vadim

    2008-01-01

    The principles of design of information-analytical system (IAS) intended for design of new inorganic compounds are considered. IAS includes the integrated system of databases on properties of inorganic substances and materials, the system of the programs of pattern recognition, the knowledge base and managing program. IAS allows a prediction of inorganic compounds not yet synthesized and estimation of their some properties.

  6. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  7. Epitaxial Relationships between Calcium Carbonate and Inorganic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taewook Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The polymorph-selective crystallization of calcium carbonate has been studied in terms of epitaxial relationship between the inorganic substrates and the aragonite/calcite polymorphs with implication in bioinspired mineralization. EpiCalc software was employed to assess the previously published experimental results on two different groups of inorganic substrates: aragonitic carbonate crystals (SrCO3, PbCO3, and BaCO3 and a hexagonal crystal family (α-Al2O3, α-SiO2, and LiNbO3. The maximum size of the overlayer (aragonite or calcite was calculated for each substrate based on a threshold value of the dimensionless potential to estimate the relative nucleation preference of the polymorphs of calcium carbonate. The results were in good agreement with previous experimental observations, although stereochemical effects between the overlayer and substrate should be separately considered when existed. In assessing the polymorph-selective nucleation, the current method appeared to provide a better tool than the oversimplified mismatch parameters without invoking time-consuming molecular simulation.

  8. Calcium carboorthovanadate - a new compound with the apa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on calcium carboorthovanadate, Ca10(VO4)6CO3, a new compound with an appatite structure based on calcium orthovanadate, are reported. The synthesis has been conducted in a stoichiometric mixture of finely ground calcium carbonate and calcium orthovanadate. It is found that calcium carboorthovanadate belongs to the hexagonal syngony and has an apatite structure. An analysis of the infrared spectra of initial compounds and calcium carboorthovanadate confirmed the presence of carbonate (CO3)2- and orthovanadate (VO4)3 groupings in the latter. On heating in air, beginning with 450 deg C calcium carboorthovanadate decomposes at a slow rate into calcium oxide, calcium orthovanadate, and carbon dioxide

  9. Charting the complete elastic properties of inorganic crystalline compounds

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Angsten, Thomas; Jain, Anubhav; Notestine, Randy; Gamst, Anthony; Sluiter, Marcel; Ande, Chaitanya Krishna; Zwaag, Sybrand van der; Plata, Jose J.; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Asta, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The elastic constant tensor of an inorganic compound provides a complete description of the response of the material to external stresses in the elastic limit. It thus provides fundamental insight into the nature of the bonding in the material, and it is known to correlate with many mechanical properties. Despite the importance of the elastic constant tensor, it has been measured for a very small fraction of all known inorganic compounds, a situation that limits the ability of materials scien...

  10. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Principles and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text-book consist of eighteen parts: (1) Classification and nomenclature of elements; (2) Classification and nomenclature of chemical compounds; (3) Nomenclature systems; (4) Classification of chemical formulas; (5) Codified numerical prefixes; (6) General principles of nomenclature; (7) Binary compounds; (8) Neutral and cationic atomic groups terminated with -YL; (9) Acids; (10) Polynuclear acids; (11) Double salts and mixed forms of oxides and hydroxides; (12) Adducts; (13) Intermetallic compounds; (14) Isotopically modified compounds; (15) Coordination compounds; (16) Organometallic compounds and their derivatives; (17) Appendixes; (18) Used and recommended literature. This text-book is assigned for university students of the chemistry and related sciences.

  11. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  12. Physical and thermochemical properties for inorganic mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate the radiation safety for the spallation target system using mercury, it is necessary to provide physical and thermochemical data of inorganic mercury compounds formed with elements including spallation products. The numbers of selected inorganic mercury compounds are 208 in the solid state, 9 in the liquid state and 22 in the gaseous state, respectively. This report presents main properties of the inorganic mercury compounds such as density, melting and boiling points, standard enthalpy of formation, standard Gibbs energy of formation, constant-pressure heat capacity, vapor pressure and solubility in mercury. Especially, the temperature dependency of the heat capacity was reestimated by using the Kelley equation. Vapor pressures were estimated with the Chemical Reaction and Equilibrium Software HSC using above thermochemical data. The interaction between mercury and other elements was shown in the form of binary phase diagram. (author)

  13. Tritium recoil reactions in inorganic solid compounds. Chapter 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of recoil tritium produced in inorganic solid compounds is an esoteric chapter of the already esoteric field of Hot Atom Chemistry. A very small group of investigators have devoted their attention to this problem. The author summarizes the results of their studies. (Auth.)

  14. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new carbon-functiona

  15. Superconducting graphite intercalation compounds with calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, N.; Hérold, C.; Marêché, J.-F.; Lagrange, P.; Bellouard, C.; Lamura, G.; Di Gennaro, E.; Andreone, A.

    2008-04-01

    In the graphite-lithium-calcium system, four well-defined intercalation compounds were synthesised. Two of them, CaC 6 and Li 3Ca 2C 6, exhibit superconducting properties at 11.5 K and 11.15 K, respectively, the highest critical temperatures among those of graphite intercalation compounds. The samples are synthesised using a liquid-solid method allowing the preparation of pure bulk samples, auspicious for crystallographic and magnetic measurements. The crystal structure of CaC 6 was entirely specified; this compound crystallises in the R-3 m space group. The two-dimensional unit cell of Li 3Ca 2C 6 is hexagonal and commensurate with that of graphite and the intercalated sheets, very rich in metal, are seven-layered. The magnetic properties of these phases were studied with an applied field parallel and perpendicular to the graphene sheets. In both cases the magnetic phase diagram indicates that these compounds are type II superconducting materials slightly anisotropic in spite of their lamellar structure. In the case of CaC 6, in-plane magnetic penetration depth measurements show a clear exponential behaviour at low temperatures, consistent with an s-wave symmetry of the gap function, well fitted by the standard BCS theory in the dirty limit.

  16. Complexes of polyvinyl alcohol with insoluble inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.; Bulina, N. V.; Gerasimov, K. B.

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid materials of polyvinyl alcohol-hydroxides/oxides of Be, Mg, Zn, Cd, B, Al, Cr, and Fe have been obtained. The studies have been carried out by the methods of optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. Interpretation of experimental data is presented, presuming that, in systems with zinc, boron, aluminum, chromium, and iron hydroxides/oxides, interpolymeric complexes of polyvinyl alcohol with corresponding polymeric inorganic compounds are formed. They belong to a new class of materials with unusual structure containing chains of inorganic polymers isolated in the organic matrix.

  17. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  18. Tritium release from neutron irradiated lithium inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium release from irradiated lithium inorganic compounds Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, LiA10/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/, LiNbO/sub 3/ was studied in isochronic and isothermal conditions in the temperature range 200-9000C. The samples were prepared by outgassing at 600-6500 in quartz ampules, sealed and then irradiated under thermal neutron flux about 1.10/sup 13/n cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ with tritium concentration ≅3.7 10/sup 8/-3.7 10/sup 9/Bq/g. The initial stage of the tritiated water recovery from complex lithium inorganic compounds is characterized by a rapid tritium release accompanied by defect annealing and release energy accumulated by a solid state during irradiation. The two temperature ranges were observed as a result of the OT' groups formation which are in two energy states due to the formation of bonds M-O-T(H) (where M-Si, A1, Ti, Nb...) and Li-O-T(h). Symbol H emphasizes the importance of the residual content of the OH groups in the initial materials which should be considered as an inorganic polymers having the properties of solid acids and bases. The process of tritium release from irradiated lithium inorganic compounds is a many stage process including the following steps: tritium (ion) diffusion inside a crystal lattice; formation of OT groups on the surface of oxygen compounds, recombination of OT and OH groups to form a water molecule that is detected in a gas phase as a product of the annealing process

  19. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  20. Infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds theory and applications in inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The Sixth Edition of this classic work comprises the most comprehensive and current guide to infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic, organometallic, bioinorganic, and coordination compounds. From fundamental theories of vibrational spectroscopy to applications in a variety of compound types, this has been extensively updated. New topics include the theoretical calculations of vibrational frequencies (DFT method), chemical synthesis by matrix co-condensation reactions, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, and more. This volume is a core reference for chemists and medical professionals working with infrared or Raman spectroscopies and an excellent textbook for graduate courses.

  1. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Isela Rojas-Molina; Elsa Gutiérrez-Cortez; Moustapha Bah; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Eric Rivera-Muñoz; Alicia del Real; Ma. de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O), weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O)2.375),...

  2. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of [C10H26N2][(UO2)(SeO4)2(H2O)](H2SeO4)0.85(H2O)2 (1), [C10H26N2][(UO2)(SeO4)2] (H2SeO4)0.50(H2O) (2), and [C8H20N]2[(UO2)(SeO4)2(H2O)] (H2O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO7 and SeO4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO2(SeO4)2(H2O)]2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH3(CH2)10NH3]2+ molecules, H2O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H2SeO4) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO2(SeO4)2]2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H2SeO4) groups but is based upon alternating [UO2(SeO4)2(H2O)]2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH3(CH2)7CH3]+. The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into an organic substructure is necessary; (c) the inclination angle of the amine chains may vary in order to modify

  3. Synthesis and properties of inorganic pigments based on pyrochlore compounds with different lanthanides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, L.; Šulcová, P.; Vlček, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2013), s. 127-135. ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : inorganic pigments * pyrochlore compounds * solid state reaction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.206, year: 2013

  4. MANOVA statistical analysis of inorganic compounds in groundwater Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanty, Heruna, E-mail: herunatanty@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Bekti, Rokhana Dwi, E-mail: groo-jgroo@yahoo.com [Department of Statistics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Herlina, Tati, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id; Nurlelasari, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, University of Padjajaran, Jl. Raya Jatinangor-Sumedang km 21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-10-24

    The present study was carried out to determine levels of inorganic compounds contained in the ground water and Reverse Osmosis (RO) water filtration result. The data in groundwater samples was collected from Bekasi, Tangerang and Jakarta in Indonesia. A total of 30 samples were collected and analyzed for the determine Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Cyanide (CN) and Lead (Pb). The results of the study revealed that in groundwater, the average of Cd 0.0058 mg / l, Mn 1.5233 mg / l, Cr 0.0127 mg/l, Pb 0.0060 mg / l, and CN 0.0040 mg / l. The level of RO result were: Cd 0.0027 mg / l, Mn 0.1767 mg / l, Cr 0.0024 mg / l, Pb 0.0021 mg / l, and CN 0.0023 mg / l . This means that Cd and Mn in ground water were higher than the values recommended by PAK-EPA and WHO or the standard of Indonesian Ministry of Health. But after filtration Reverse Osmosis (RO) Mn and Cd levels decreased to levels below the standardized value. By comparing of mean in MANOVA and nonparametric MANOVA in α=5%, there are differences in average levels of inorganic substances Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and CN between before and after RO filtration.

  5. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  6. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Genetically Engineered Inorganic Binding Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Carolyn Gayle

    Understanding how organisms are capable of forming (synthesize, crystallize, and organize) solid minerals into complex architectures has been a fundamental question of biomimetic materials chemistry and biomineralization for decades. This study utilizes short peptides selected using a cell surface display library for the specific polymorphs of calcium carbonate, i.e., aragonite and calcite, to identify two sets of sequences which can then be used to examine their effects in the formation, crystal structure, morphology of the CaCO3 minerals. A procedure of counter selection, along with fluorescence microscopy (FM) characterization, was adapted to insure that the sequences on the cells were specific to their respective substrate, i.e., aragonite or calcite. From the resulting two sets of sequences selected, five distinct strong binders were identified with a variety of biochemical characteristics and synthesized for further study. Protein derived peptides, using the known sequences of the proteins that are associated with calcite or aragonite, were also designed using a bioinformatics-based similarity analysis of the two sets of binders. In particular, an aragonite binding protein segment, AP7, a protein found in nacre, was chosen for this design and the resulting effects of the designed peptides and the AP7 were examined. Specifically, the binding affinities of the selected and the protein derived peptides off the cells were then tested using FM; these studies resulted in different binding characteristics of the synthesized and cellular bound peptides. Two of the peptides that displayed strong binding on the cells bound to neither of the CaCO 3 substrates and both the high and low similarity protein-derived peptides bound to both polymorphs. However, two of the peptides were found to only bind to their respective polymorph showing; these results are significant in that with this study it is demonstrated that the designed peptides based on experimental library

  7. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21058723

  8. Changes in serum calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphorus levels during different phases of the menstrual cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Puja Dullo; Neeraj Vedi

    2008-01-01

    Background: The menstrual cycle is a complex process involving the interaction of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary, the ovaries and the uterus. The hormonal changes occurring during this cyclic process not only affect oocyte maturation and the endometrial and vaginal environments but can also have an effect on a number of other physiological and biochemical phenomena. Aim and Method: We investigated the changes in serum calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphorus levels during di...

  9. A COMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY ON CA (ION) SUBSTANCES OF VARIOUS AYURVEDIC CALCIUM COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Saini Vinod; Shah Deepti; Mangal Gopesh; Garg Gunjan; Swarnkar Divya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Various Ayurvedic calcium compounds, which are among the sudha vargiya dravya, are a rich source of calcium. These calcium compounds have wide range of therapeutic application. In chemical composition these compounds are same hence the present study was aimed to identify the rich percentage of calcium (as CaO) in these Bhasmas. Preparation of Ayurvedic calcium compounds i.e. praval bhasma, shankha bhasma, shukti bhasma, varatika bhasma, godanti bhasma and kukkutandatvak bhasma was done by sub...

  10. Synthesis and Formation Mechanisms of Calcium Ferrite Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesham I. Saleh

    2004-01-01

    Calcium ferrite compounds were prepared using calcium nitrate and iron nitrate with different molar ratios, 1:1, 0.5:1, and 1:0.5,respectively. The reactions of formation were investigated at different temperatures following the differential thermal analysis (DTA) results. Calcium ferrite compounds are CaFeO3, Ca2FeO3.5, Ca2Fe2O5, CaFe2O4, CaFe4O7, Ca7.2Fe0.8Fe30O53,Ca3Fe15O25, Ca4Fe14O25, and Ca4Fe9O17. Other reactive species of calcium nitrate are still present after firing at 450℃.Compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), DTA, TG, magnetic susceptibility, infrared spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is concluded that the formation mechanism of Ca-ferrite compounds depends mainly on the valency of iron cations which in role depends on its molar ratio and the existing atmosphere.

  11. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  12. Oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in acidophilic prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Aquatic Biotechnology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid is of great importance for biohydrometallurgical technologies as well as the formation of acidic (below pH 3) and often heavy metal-contaminated environments. The use of elemental sulfur as an electron donor is the predominant energy-yielding process in acidic natural sulfur-rich biotopes but also at mining sites containing sulfidic ores. Contrary to its significant role in the global sulfur cycle and its biotechnological importance, the microbial fundamentals of acidophilic sulfur oxidation are only incompletely understood. Besides giving an overview of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles, this review describes the so far known enzymatic reactions related to elemental sulfur oxidation in acidophilic bacteria and archaea. Although generally similar reactions are employed in both prokaryotic groups, the stoichiometry of the key enzymes is different. Bacteria oxidize elemental sulfur by a sulfur dioxygenase to sulfite whereas in archaea, a sulfur oxygenase reductase is used forming equal amounts of sulfide and sulfite. In both cases, the activation mechanism of elemental sulfur is not known but highly reactive linear sulfur forms are assumed to be the actual substrate. Inhibition as well as promotion of these biochemical steps is highly relevant in bioleaching operations. An efficient oxidation can prevent the formation of passivating sulfur layers. In other cases, a specific inhibition of sulfur biooxidation may be beneficial for reducing cooling and neutralization costs. In conclusion, the demand for a better knowledge of the biochemistry of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles is underlined. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Simultaneous determination of inorganic anions, calcium and magnesium by suppressed ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Ruben; García-Alonso, J Ignacio; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2004-04-01

    Suppressed conductimetric detection ion chromatography (IC) was investigated for the separation and detection of common inorganic anions, calcium and magnesium by anion-exchange chromatography using a sodium carbonate-EDTA mobile phase. The formation of anionic Ca2+ -EDTA and Mg2+ -EDTA complexes allowed its separation from other inorganic anions opening the way for their simultaneous determination in a single chromatographic run. The effect of the pH, carbonate and EDTA concentrations in the eluent and the previous addition of EDTA to the samples has been studied. The optimised experimental conditions were applied to the determination of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in mineral waters with results in agreement with alternative ICP-MS methodologies. PMID:15072297

  14. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds, v.1 pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    2013-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  15. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Differential Thermal Analysis of Inorganic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgun, Ozlem; Beken, Murat; Alekberov, Vilayet; Ozcanli, Yesim

    2010-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of inorganic compounds have been analyzed by simultaneous differential thermal analysis (DTA) method. Also phase transitions and critical points have been investigated. Additionally a computer model based on backpropagation multilayer feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used for the stimulation and prediction of critical points and phase transitions of inorganic compounds. Experimental data and output values of artificial neural networks have been compared and ANN predictions showed a considerably good result due to some unjustified data values and ANN predictions concurred with each other.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIATION GRAFT COPOLYMER OF INORGANIC COMPOUND ONTO ALKENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWanxi; CheJitai; 等

    1995-01-01

    In this paper,the radiation graft copolymer of MgO,SiO2 and Y-molecular sieve onto organic compounds,such as methacrylate,styrene and acrylomitrile obtained by per-radiation method were characterized by X-ray diffraction,pyrolysis gas chromatography,GPC and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  17. Cybernetic prediction of inorganic compounds and its correlation with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using known experimental examples and data on chemical elements, an approach was proposed, based on computer learning, to establish the regularities and to predict the character of interaction of components of physico-chemical systems of the type AB, A2B, and A3B. A review is given of the predicted compounds and phases in order to demonstrate the applicability of the method

  18. Some Reactions of Recoil Atoms in Solid Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with our interest in the recoil chemistry of radiophosphorus it was considered worthwhile to investigate systems in which tritium recoils can be produced and subsequently react with inorganic anions of phosphorus. One purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility for tritium recoils to replace (''displace'') either an oxygen or a hydrogen atom bound to phosphorus. For instance, oxygen replacement in an orthophosphate ion (PO4)-3 could lead to a (TPO3)-2 ion (phosphite), hydrogen replacement in hypophosphite could lead to (HTPO2). A number of lithium salts of orthophosphoric, phosphorous and hypophosphorous acid were irradiated with neutrons, the nuclear reaction Li6 (n, α)H3 serving as the source for the energetic tritium atoms. Through a step-wise oxidation procedure tritium bound to phosphorus was converted into HTO and radio-assayed by means of liquid scintillation counting. The results indicate that replacement of oxygen by tritium in orthophosphates is highly unlikely. When phosphites and hypophosphites are the target material, an appreciable percentage of the tritium recoils end up bound to phosphorus. The second purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the labelling of the tripolyphosphate - P32 anion, formed by recoiling P32 particles in a number of crystalline phosphates, deviates from a uniform distribution. A number of phosphates were irradiated with neutrons. The tripolyphosphate - P32 formed was separated by precipitation as the tris (ethylenediamine) cobalt (III) salt. By means of a step-wise degradation into orthophosphate the distribution of the P32 among the two possible positions in the anion was measured. One result of this study is that when anhydrous orthophosphates are the target material, there is as predicted, a strong preference for the tripolyphosphate - P32 formed to be labelled at the centre. These and other results are discussed in the light of current concepts of ''hot

  19. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    absorption. Therefore, calcium as an essential nutrient should not be underestimated in our diet. Milk and dairy products are good sources of bioavailable calcium due to specific protein binding. Other sources of calcium, apart from a balanced and healthy diet, are calcium supplements and calcium fortified...... food. Therefore, an understanding of the basic chemistry of calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds can contribute to a general knowledge about calcium bioavailability and also to product improvement. Calcium precipitation with palmitate was described by a first-order reaction for conditions...... calcium Dgluconate only slowly precipitated after a lag phase. On the other hand, the slow dissolution of calcium D-gluconate by sodium L-lactate in aqueous solution with the reverse lactate/gluconate ratio did not result in a similar solution since fast precipitation prevented formation of a homogenous...

  20. Calcium phosphate composite materials including inorganic powders, BSA or duplex DNA prepared by W/O/W interfacial reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported before that inorganic reaction occurring at the interface of W/O/W emulsion is advantageous to produce hollow spheres (microcapsules) of inorganic matrices such as silica. This process enables us to include various materials into inorganic matrices directly. Calcium phosphates were also produced from NH4H2PO4 and Ca(OH)2 by this interfacial reaction method. Various biomaterials are directly incorporated into crystalline calcium phosphate matrices, when the biomaterials are added to the inner water phase of the W/O/W emulsion. ZrO2 and Al2O3 powders were effectively encapsulated in calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HAp). The images of backscattered electron of FE-SEM observations indicated that ZrO2 particles were included in HAp, while they adhered to the surface of HAp in the case of a simple precipitation method. Biomacromolecules such as BSA and duplex DNA were also included in HAp using the inner water phases dissolving them. Fluorescent microscopy observations revealed that biomacromolecules incorporated in HAp localized in some domains of the HAp matrices. Biomacromolecules thus included were scarcely liberated into deionized water, indicating their strong encapsulation in HAp. This general and simple methodology will provide various composite materials of calcium phosphates, which are applicable to regenerative medicine, DDS, GDS and more

  1. Nomenclature and spelling rules of chemistry in Hungary Pt. 1 Nomenclature of elements and inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part of the updated edition of 'Nomenclature and spelling rules of chemistry in Hungary' (Budapest, 1972), referring to the isotopically modified inorganic compounds is presented. The rules are based on the proposals of IUPAC (1981). Spelling rules concerning the isotopically substituted, isotopically labelled, specifically labelled, selectively and non-selectively labelled compounds, and the positional and numbering rules of nuclides are treated. (Sz.J.)

  2. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  3. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry : The promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, B.; Casini, A.

    2014-01-01

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold co

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on inorganic compounds. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Kitazawa, Takafumi; Nanba, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Norio; Sumisawa, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Masuo [Toho Univ., Funabashi, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    {sup 166}Er and {sup 127}I Moessbauer spectra were observed. {sup 166}Er Moessbauer spectrum of Er metal and 9 compounds were measured by {sup 166}Ho/Y{sub 0.6}Ho{sub 0.4}H{sub 2} source at 12K and the parameters such as e{sup 2}qQ(mm s{sup -1}), Heff(T) and {tau}(ns) were determined. The relaxation time of ErCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O was 0.7ns, long, but that of ErCl{sub 3} was 10 ps, short time. {sup 127}I Moessbauer spectrum of PhI(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2} (R=CH{sub 3}, CHF{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}Cl, CHCl{sub 2}, CCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}Br, CHBr{sub 2} and CBr{sub 3}) were observed and compared with that of R`{sub 3}Sb(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2} was similar to that of PhI(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2}. The correlation coefficient between e{sup 2}qQ({sup 127}I) and Mulliken population of carboxylic hydrogen atom of R{sub 2}CO{sub 2}H was -0.87. The relation between the hypervalent bond of O-I-O and that of O-Sb-0 was shown by the equation: e{sup 2}qQ({sup 121}Sb)/mm s{sup -1} = -47.2 + 1.32 e{sup 2}qQ({sup 127}I)/mm s{sup -1}. Hypervalent iodine complex such as (PhI(py){sub 2}){sup 2+} salt and E-Sb-I (E=O, I, N and C) were studied, too. (S.Y.)

  5. Topological Research on Standard Absolute Entropies,S(○)298, for Binary Inorganic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    For predicting the standard entropy of a binary inorganic compound, two novel connectivity indexes mQ,mG and their converse indexes mQ',mG' based on adjacency matrix of molecular graphs and ionic parameters gi, qi were pro-posed. The qi and gi are defined as qi=(1.1+Zi1.1)/(1.7+ni), gi:(1.4d-Zi)/(0.9+ri+ri-1), where Zi, ni, ri are the charge numbers, the outer electronic shell primary quantum numbers, and the radii of ionic I respectively. The good Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) models for the standard entropies of binary inorganic com-pound can be constructed from 0Q,0Q',1G, and 1G', by using a multivariate linear regression (MLR) method and an artificial neural network (NN) method. The correlation coefficient r, the standard error s, and the average absolute deviation of the MLR model and the NN model are 0.9905, 8.29 J·K-1,mol-1 and 6.48 J·K-1·mol-1, and 0.9960,5.37 J·K-1·mol-1 and 3.90 J·K-1·mol-1, respectively, for 371 binary inorganic compounds (training set). The cross-validation by using the leave-one-out method demonstrates that the MLR model is highly reliable from the point of view of statistics. The correlation coefficients, standard deviations and average absolute deviations of pre-dicted values of the standard entropies of other 185 binary inorganic compounds (test set) are 0.9897, 8.64 J·K-1·mol-1 and 6.84 J·K-1·mol-1, and 0.9957, 5.63 J·K-1·mol-1 and 4.18 J·K-1·mol-1 for the MLR model and the Nnmodel, respectively. The results show that the current method is more effective than literature methods for estimat-ing the standard entropy of a binary inorganic compound. Both MLR and NN methods can provide acceptable mod-els for the prediction of the standard entropies of binary inorganic compounds. The NN model for the standard en-tropies appears to be more reliable than the MLR model.

  6. Inorganic sulfur–nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J. Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S–N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical ...

  7. Development of conjugate methods with gas chromatography for inorganic compounds analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry or with nuclear methods for the analysis of inorganic compounds is studied. The advantages of the use of a gas chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer or with a high resolution radiation detector, are discussed. We also studied the formation and solvent extraction of metal chelates; an aliquot of the organic phase was directly injected into the gas chromatograph and the eluted compounds were detected by mass spectrometry or, when radioactive, by nuclear methods. (author)

  8. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation...... offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium...... electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...

  9. Common Inorganic Salts Catalyze the Transformations of Organic Compounds in Atmospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noziere, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Cordova, A.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation reports the discovery that inorganic salts that are ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosols are efficient catalysts for the transformations of organic compounds in these aerosols, by reactions such as aldol condensation or acetal formation.1 For some of these salts, these catalytic properties were not even known in chemistry.2 Kinetic and product studies of these reactions will be presented for carbonyl compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetone, and glyoxal,1,3 and compared with previously known catalysts such as the recently discovered amino acids.4,5 These studies show that these salts make the reactions as fast in typical tropospheric aerosols as in concentrated sulfuric acid. These reactions produce secondary "fulvic" compounds that absorb light in the near UV and visible and would affect the optical properties of aerosols.1,5 They would also account for the depletion of glyoxal recently reported in Mexico city.3 Thus, while acid catalysis is several orders of magnitudes too slow to be significant in tropospheric aerosols, this work identifies new processes that should be ubiquitous in these aerosols and important for atmospheric chemistry. Refs. 1Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Common inorganic ions catalyze chemical reactions of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols, Submitted, 2008. 2 Noziere, B., Cordova, A., A novel catalyst for aldol condensation reaction, patent pending 02/10/2007. 3Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by inorganic ions, Submitted to J. Phys. Chem. A, 2008. 4Noziere, B., and Cordova, A., A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the Amino Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde in Aqueous and Salt Solutions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112, 2827, 2008. 5Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., and Cordova, A., The Formation of Secondary Light-Absorbing "fulvic-like" Oligomers: A Common Process in Aqueous and Ionic Atmospheric Particles?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34

  10. Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate Transport in Rat Colon: DISSOCIATED RESPONSE TO 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, D. B. N.; Walling, M. W.; Gafter, U; Silis, V.; Coburn, J W

    1980-01-01

    In the small intestine, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] stimulates both calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) absorption. This is mediated through an increase in mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jms) whereas the serosal-to-mucosal flux (Jsm) remains unchanged. We now report that in rat proximal colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 produces active Ca absorption without affecting Pi transport, and that this induced active Ca absorption is associated with alterations in kinetics of both Jms and Jsm so that bot...

  11. Structural Characterization and Infrared and Electrical Properties of the New Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; K. Adil; F. Hlel

    2013-01-01

    New inorganic-organic hybrid [(C3H7)4N]2Hg2Cl6 compound was obtained and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, and impedance spectroscopy. The latter crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group C 2/c, ) with the following unit cell dimensions: (1) Å, (6) Å, (2) Å, and (2). Besides, its structure was solved using 84860 independent reflections leading to . Electrical properties of the material were studied using impedance spectroscopic technique at different temper...

  12. Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Defluorination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances by Calcium Compounds during Waste Thermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Li, Xiao-yan; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-05-01

    The mineralization of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) by calcium compounds during the waste thermal treatment was systemically studied. Different calcium compounds showed different mineralization efficiencies of PFASs during the thermal process, owing to the different reaction mechanisms. Calcium hydroxide was recommended as the most effective Ca reagent for PFAS defluorination because the carbon-fluorine bonds in PFASs can be converted to carbon-hydrogen bonds via the hydrodefluorination reaction. PFASs with different chain lengths and functional groups were further investigated for their potentially different mineralization behavior. The results showed that the chain length of PFASs had an insignificant effect on the mineralization efficiency by calcium hydroxide. The thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) also revealed that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) (with different chain lengths) had a similar thermal behavior. However, PFASs with different functional groups showed different mineralization behavior with calcium hydroxide in relation to their different thermal decomposition temperatures. Finally, the mineralization ratio of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) particles by calcium hydroxide could reach 80% or higher when the temperature was above 400 °C. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results demonstrated much reduced production of gaseous fluorocarbon fragments during PTFE decomposition when coexisting with calcium hydroxide. PMID:25850557

  13. Migration of residual nonvolatile and inorganic compounds from recycled post-consumer PET and HDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Camila; Reyes, Felix G.R., E-mail: reyesfgr@fea.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Ciencias dos Alimentos; Freire, Maria Teresa de A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencia Animal e Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Nerin, Cristina; Bentayeb, Karim; Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Aznar, Margarita [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Arago Inst. of Engineering Research, University of Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-04-15

    Migration of nonvolatile and inorganic residual compounds from post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) submitted to cleaning processes for subsequent production of materials intended to food contact, as well as from multilayer packaging material containing post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was determined. Tests were carried out using food simulant. Nonvolatile organic contaminants from PET, determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ/MS), showed significant migration reduction as consequence of the more complex cleaning technologies applied. However, contaminants not allowed by Brazilian and European Union regulations were identified even in deep cleaning samples. Results from multilayer HDPE showed a greater number of contaminants when compared to recycled pellets. Inorganic contaminants, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were below the acceptable levels. Additional studies for identification and quantitation of unknown molecules which were not possible to identify in this study by UPLC-QqQ/MS are required to ascertain the safety of using post-consumer recycled packaging material. (author)

  14. Solubility Characteristics and Slow-Release Mechanism of Nitrogen from Organic-Inorganic Compound Coated Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil incubation method was used to investigate the solubility characteristics and slow-release mechanism of organic-inorganic compound coated urea at temperature of 10, 20, and 30°C. The membrane microstructure with and without incubation was tested via scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Slow release of nitrogen (N from different inorganic minerals was analysed by the activation energy from the nutrient solubility system. The rate of nitrogen solubility increased with temperature increasing. The first-order reaction kinetic equation described the solubility process of coated urea. The rate constant k also increased with temperature increasing. Moreover, the SEM images showed that the microstructure of the coating layer changed into a flocculent structure and the number of tiny pores and holes on the membrane surface increased significantly with temperature increasing, which increased N solubility rate. The Arrhenius equation indicated that activation energy was closely related to k during the solubility process; the activation energy was reduced with k rising, which resulted in N solubility rate increasing. Overall, the N solubility rate of coated urea was affected by temperature.

  15. Migration of residual nonvolatile and inorganic compounds from recycled post-consumer PET and HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of nonvolatile and inorganic residual compounds from post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) submitted to cleaning processes for subsequent production of materials intended to food contact, as well as from multilayer packaging material containing post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was determined. Tests were carried out using food simulant. Nonvolatile organic contaminants from PET, determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ/MS), showed significant migration reduction as consequence of the more complex cleaning technologies applied. However, contaminants not allowed by Brazilian and European Union regulations were identified even in deep cleaning samples. Results from multilayer HDPE showed a greater number of contaminants when compared to recycled pellets. Inorganic contaminants, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were below the acceptable levels. Additional studies for identification and quantitation of unknown molecules which were not possible to identify in this study by UPLC-QqQ/MS are required to ascertain the safety of using post-consumer recycled packaging material. (author)

  16. Methotrexate loaded self stabilized calcium phosphate nanoparticles: a novel inorganic carrier for intracellular drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, Ukawala; Kulkarni, Vijay; Tushar, Rajyaguru; Murthy, R S R

    2009-02-01

    Calcium phosphate is considered as a potential biomaterial for drug and gene delivery because of its excellent features. In this study, we reported the formulation and characterization of calcium phosphate nanoparticle containing anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX). Calcium phosphate nanoparticles containing MTX (CaPi-MTX) were prepared by reverse micelles technique. CaPi-MTX nanoparticles of average size 262 +/- 47.64 nm with entrapment efficiency of 58.04 +/- 4.09% were obtained. The IR spectrum of CaPi-MTX showed characteristics of composite formation of hydroxyapatite with MTX. X-RD analysis revealed that, CaPi-MTX nanoparticles were crystalline and in hydroxyapatite form. TEM studies showed that CaPi-MTX nanoparticles were spherical in shape. In vitro release study of CaPi-MTX nanoparticles showed slow release of MTX at physiological pH (pH 7.4) while > 90% release was observed within 3-4 hours at endosomal pH (pH 5.5 and pH 6.0). Confocal microscopy was performed using CHO cell lines, showed intracellular localization of FITC-Dextran loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Results indicate that prepared CaPi-MTX nanoparticles could serve the purpose for intracellular drug delivery. PMID:20055112

  17. Trivalent metal ions based on inorganic compounds with in vitro inhibitory activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hanyu; Qin, Yuan; Zhong, Weilong; Li, Cong; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Yehua

    2016-10-01

    Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) inhibitors have attracted considerable attention in recent years and have been developed as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases, including cancer. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can be inhibited by a multitude of compounds, including hydroxamic acids. Studies have shown that materials and compounds containing trivalent metal ions, particularly potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) (K3[Fe(CN)6]), exhibit cdMMP-13 inhibitory potential with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.3μM. The target protein was obtained by refolding the recombinant histidine-tagged cdMMP-13 using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The secondary structures of the refolded cdMMP-13 with or without metal ions were further analyzed via circular dichroism and the results indicate that upon binding with metal ions, an altered structure with increased domain stability was obtained. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments demonstrated that K3[Fe(CN)6]is able to bind to MMP-13 and endothelial cell tube formation tests provide further evidence for this interaction to exhibit anti-angiogenesis potential. To the best of our knowledge, no previous report of an inorganic compound featuring a MMP-13 inhibitory activity has ever been reported in the literature. Our results demonstrate that K3[Fe(CN)6] is useful as a new effective and specific inhibitor for cdMMP-13 which may be of great potential for future drug screening applications. PMID:27542739

  18. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Phoungthong, Khamphe [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui [Changzhou Domestic Waste Treatment Center, Changzhou 213000 (China); Shao, Li-Ming [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pin-Jing, E-mail: solidwaste@tongji.edu.cn [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO{sub 3} was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO{sub 3} and CaSiO{sub 3} began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leached at pH < 12. CaSO{sub 4} could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO{sub 3} > Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} > CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the

  19. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO3 was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca3(PO4)2 was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO3 and Ca3(PO4)2 respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO3 and CaSiO3 began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca3(PO4)2 leached at pH < 12. CaSO4 could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO3 > Ca3(PO4)2 > CaCO3. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO3 and Ca3(PO4)2 leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the theoretical basis for the risk assessment pertaining to LCS clogging in landfills

  20. [Stable compound of inorganic pyrophosphatase with pyrophosphate obtained by a fluoride-mediated reaction with phosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, N P; Baikov, A A; Avaeva, S M

    1981-09-01

    Incubation of inorganic pyrophosphate from baker's yeast with phosphate and MgCl2 in the presence of fluoride results in a gradual inactivation of the enzyme concomitant with incorporation of PP1 (about 2 moles per mole) into the protein. The rate constant for this process shows an increase with a rise in concentrations of the three reagents, the maximal value of inactivation being 0.11 min-1. The bound PP1 is not separated by gel-filtration. The rate of spontaneous degradation of the enzyme-pyrophosphate complex and the nature of EDTA and Mg2+ effects are similar to those for the analogous compound obtained by inhibition of PP1 hydrolysis by fluoride. The data obtained suggest that during PP1 synthesis and hydrolysis by pyrophosphatase fluoride stabilizes the same intermediate of the enzyme with pyrophosphate. PMID:6117333

  1. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles

  2. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M.

    2014-05-01

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles.

  3. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M. [National Research Council - Institute of Composites and Biomedical Materials, P.le E. Fermi, 1 80055 Portici (Naples) (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles.

  4. Modeling skills of pre-service chemistry teachers in predicting the structure and properties of inorganic chemistry compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursa'adah, Euis; Liliasari, Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The focus of chemistry is learning about the composition, properties, and transformations of matters. Modeling skills are required to comprehend structure and chemical composition in submicroscopic size. Modeling skills are abilities to produce chemical structure and to explain it into the macroscopic phenomenon and submicroscopic representations. Inorganic chemistry is a study of whole elements in the periodic table and their compounds, except carbon compounds and their derivatives. Knowledge about the structure and properties of chemical substances is a basic model for students in studying inorganic chemistry. Furthermore, students can design and produce to utilize materials needed in their life. This research aimed to describes modeling skills of pre-service chemistry teachers. In order, they are able to determine and synthesize useful materials. The results show that students' modeling skills were in a low level and unable connecting skill categories, even the models of inorganic compounds common. These phenomena indicated that students only describe each element when they learn inorganic chemistry. So that it will make modeling skills of students low. Later, another researches are necessary to develop learning design of inorganic chemistry based on good modeling skills of students.

  5. Determination of experimental K-shell fluorescence yield for potassium and calcium compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Tiraşoğlu; Ö Söğüt

    2008-03-01

    K-shell fluorescence yields were experimentally determined for potassium and calcium compounds using a Si(Li) X-ray detector system (FWHM=5.96 keV at 160 eV). The samples were excited by 5.96 keV photons produced by a 55Fe radioisotope source. The experimental values are systematically lower than the theoretical values.

  6. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  7. The Production of Organic-Inorganic Compound Film-Coated Urea and the Characteristics of Its Nutrient Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hong-tao; WANG Yao-sheng; SONG Hao-wen; HAN Yan-yu; YU Na; ZHANG Yu-ling; DANG Xiu-li; HUANG Yi; ZHANG Yu-long

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of natural macromolecular compound on the characteristics of nutrient release in the membrane materials of organic-inorganic compound film-coated urea was discussed,and the optimal concentrations for better nutrient release was proposed.The characteristics of nutrient release of film-coated urea were evaluated by soil column leaching experiment.Organic-inorganic compound film-coated urea showed good characteristics of nutrient release,which could be well simulated by Logistic curve.The two parameters in this curve,a and r,can be used to present nutrient release of film-coated urea,and followed the order of B > C > A and C < B < A,respectively,indicating that the release was stronger with the increasing concentration of natural maeromolecular compound in the membrane,which implied better controllability of nutrient release.The concentration of 5% of natural macromolecular compound showed better characteristic of nutrient release and can be utilized as a membrane material combined with inorganic mineral powders to develop film-coated slow-release fertilizer.

  8. Tritium isolation from lithium inorganic compounds applicable to thermonuclear reactor breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium separation from inorganic lithium compounds: Li2O, LiAlO2, Li2SiO3, Li4SiO4, LiF, LiBeF3, Li2BeF4 irradiated with a beam of a gamma facility and a nuclear reactor, has been studied. In the first case the gas phase is absent. In the latter one- the tritium amount in the gas does not exceed 1-2% of its total amount in the salt. Based on the EPR spectra of irradiated salts the concentrations of paramagnetic centres are calculated. It is shown that during thermal annealing the main portion of tritium in the gas phase is in the form of oxide (HTO, T2O). Tritium is separated from lithium fluoroberyllates in the form of hydrogen (HT, T2). The kinetics of tritium oxide isolation from irradiated lithium oxide aluminate, metha- and orthosilicates, lithium sulphate has been studied. The activation energies of tritium oxide separation process are presented. A supposition is made that chemical reaction of the HTO (T2O) or HT(T2) or HF(TF) formation is a limiting stage. Clarification of the process stage limiting the rate of tritium recovery will permit to evaluate conditions for the optimum work of lithium material in the blanket, lithium zone to select the lithium element structure and temperature regime of irradiation

  9. Simultaneous determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury compounds in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logar, Martina; Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Akagi, Hirokatsu [National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058-18 Hama, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Pihlar, Boris [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg) in natural water samples at the pg L{sup -1} level. The method is based on the simultaneous extraction of MeHg and Hg{sup 2+}dithizonates into an organic solvent (toluene) after acidification of about 300 mL of a water sample, followed by back extraction into an aqueous solution of Na {sub 2}S, removal of H {sub 2}S by purging with N {sub 2}, subsequent ethylation with sodium tetraethylborate, room temperature precollection on Tenax, isothermal gas chromatographic separation (GC), pyrolysis and cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometric detection (CV AFS) of mercury. The limit of detection calculated on the basis of three times the standard deviation of the blank was about 0.006 ng L {sup -1} for MeHg and 0.06 ng L {sup -1} for Hg {sup 2+}when 300 mL of water was analysed. The repeatability of the results was about 5% for MeHg and 10% for Hg {sup 2+}. Recoveries were 90-110% for both species. (orig.)

  10. RNA transcript sequencing reveals inorganic sulfur compound oxidation pathways in the acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Stephan; Fridlund, Jimmy; Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; Buck, Moritz; Watkin, Elizabeth L; Dopson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrivoransis an acidophile implicated in low-temperature biomining for the recovery of metals from sulfide minerals.Acidithiobacillus ferrivoransobtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds, and genes encoding several alternative pathways have been identified. Next-generation sequencing ofAt. ferrivoransRNA transcripts identified the genes coding for metabolic and electron transport proteins for energy conservation from tetrathionate as electron donor. RNA transcripts suggested that tetrathionate was hydrolyzed by thetetH1gene product to form thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Despite two of the genes being truncated, RNA transcripts for the SoxXYZAB complex had higher levels than for thiosulfate quinone oxidoreductase (doxDAgenes). However, a lack of heme-binding sites insoxXsuggested that DoxDA was responsible for thiosulfate metabolism. Higher RNA transcript counts also suggested that elemental sulfur was metabolized by heterodisulfide reductase (hdrgenes) rather than sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor). The sulfite produced as a product of heterodisulfide reductase was suggested to be oxidized by a pathway involving thesatgene product or abiotically react with elemental sulfur to form thiosulfate. Finally, several electron transport complexes were involved in energy conservation. This study has elucidated the previously unknownAt. ferrivoranstetrathionate metabolic pathway that is important in biomining. PMID:26956550

  11. Regulation of a novel Acidithiobacillus caldus gene cluster involved in metabolism of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhepishevska, Olena I; Valdés, Jorge; Marcinkeviciene, Liucija; Gallardo, Camelia Algora; Meskys, Rolandas; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Holmes, David S; Dopson, Mark

    2007-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus has been proposed to play a role in the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) produced in industrial biomining of sulfidic minerals. Here, we describe the regulation of a new cluster containing the gene encoding tetrathionate hydrolase (tetH), a key enzyme in the RISC metabolism of this bacterium. The cluster contains five cotranscribed genes, ISac1, rsrR, rsrS, tetH, and doxD, coding for a transposase, a two-component response regulator (RsrR and RsrS), tetrathionate hydrolase, and DoxD, respectively. As shown by quantitative PCR, rsrR, tetH, and doxD are upregulated to different degrees in the presence of tetrathionate. Western blot analysis also indicates upregulation of TetH in the presence of tetrathionate, thiosulfate, and pyrite. The tetH cluster is predicted to have two promoters, both of which are functional in Escherichia coli and one of which was mapped by primer extension. A pyrrolo-quinoline quinone binding domain in TetH was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, and the presence of an o-quinone moiety was experimentally verified, suggesting a mechanism for tetrathionate oxidation. PMID:17873067

  12. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010.

  13. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  14. Development of techniques of production of sulfur-35 and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques to produce routinely Curies of carrier-free sulfur-35 from neutron irradiated potassium chloride were developed. Firstly the ratio of sulfur-35 to phosphorus-32 produced respectively by the reactions 35Cl(n,p)35S and 35Cl(n,α)32P was determined. For the post-irradiation process, two processes of anion exchange and cation exchange were studied. The former process was based on the selective elution of carrier-free sulfate after precipitation of the bulk of potassium chloride by ethanol and the latter process on the selective adsorption of carrier-free phosphate on Fe+3-cation exchange resin. A gloved box with various appendant equipments was constructed for routine production and a glass apparatus was installed in it. Sulfur-35 from 1 Ci to 5 Ci has been produced by the cation exchange process several times every year during past few years, and products of high quality have been obtained with yields higher than 90% without any troubles. In the studies on the synthesis of sulfur-35 labeled inorganic compounds, sulfate[35S] was reduced with tin(II)-phosphoric acid to hydrogen sulfide[35S], which was oxidized to elementary sulfur[35S]. Sulfate[35S] of sodium or copper(II) was precipitated from an aqueous solution of sodium or copper(II) chloride containing carrier-free sulfate [35S] by adding carrier of either one of the sulfates and ethanol. Copper(II) sulfate[35S] was pyrolyzed to evolve sulfur[35S] dioxide, which was fixed in a sodium hydroxide solution as sodium sulfite[35S]. This was allowed to react with colloidal sulfur in a boiling solution in the presence of 2-octanol to form thiosulfate[35S] efficiently. By treating target potassium chloride before and after irradiation in an oxygen-free atmosphere, approximately 60% of sulfur-35 was recovered as thiosulfate. Reduction with nascent hydrogen and decomposition with acid of the thiosulfate were studied to prepare elementary sulfur [35S]. (author)

  15. The one-dimensional organic inorganic hybrid compound poly[(diethylenetriamine)tetra-μ-iodido-dilead(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Y; Driss, A.; Boughzala, H.; E. Samet Kallel

    2008-01-01

    A new organic–inorganic hybrid, [Pb2I4(C4H13N3)]n, was obtained by the reaction of C4N3H10 and PbI2 at room temperature. The structure is a three-dimensional polymer resulting from the association of PbI6 octahedra and a mixed lead organic–inorganic PbI4(C4N3H13) coordination polyhedron. Both Pb atoms, two I atoms and one N atom lie on a mirror plane. N—H...I hydrogen bonds further connect the organic unit and some I atoms.

  16. Metal organophosphonates and their intercalation compounds as inorganic-organic hydrid materials and nanomaterials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Vítězslav; Svoboda, Jan; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.

    Ostrava : VŠB Technical University of Ostrava, 2008, s. 12-12. ISBN 978-80-7329-190-7. [Nano Ostrava 2008. Ostrava (CZ), 01.09.2008-04.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : intercalation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  17. Types of cationic complexes based on oxocentred tetrahedra [OM4] in the crystal structures of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structures of inorganic compounds comprising cationic complexes containing oxygen atoms coordinated tetrahedrally to metal atoms, or oxocentred groups [OM4], are considered. The linking of the [OM4] tetrahedra in the structures has been analysed and cationic complexes of different structures have been identified. The rules governing the linking of the [OM4] tetrahedra have been formulated and the cationic complexes have been subjected to a detailed systematic treatment on their basis. Data on the statistics of the bond lengths and bond angles in the [OM4] tetrahedra are presented. The bibliography includes 317 references.

  18. Study on the Built-up Effect of Inorganic Compounds to Flame Retardant Containing Organophosphorus in Suppression of Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Miao; XIAN Chun-ying; YANG Yong

    2006-01-01

    The built-up effect of inorganic compounds containing more active metal ions, such as Ca2+ , Al3+ , Cu2+ , and Zn2+ , as additives adding to phosphorus-containing flame retarding systems in suppression of smoke was studied. The data presented herein suggested that the amount of smoke in the burning process can be better suppressed after the cotton fabric finishing with built- up system was burnt. Some general principles were identified, and the likely causes of the observed effects were analyzed according to test data.

  19. Effect of triorganotin compounds on calcium transport mechanisms in rat cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although organotin compounds, in general, are neurotoxicants, recent studies indicate that these tin compounds affect heme metabolism as well as cardiovascular system. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium pump together with phosphorylation of phospholamban has an important role in myocardial contraction and relaxation. Since organotin compounds interfere with cardiovascular system, we have studied the in vitro as well as in vivo effects of tributyltin bromide (TBT), triethyltin bromide (TET) and trimethyltin chloride (TMT) on cardiac SR Ca2+-pump activity, in order to know the relative potency of these tin compounds. SR was isolated from heart ventricles of male Sprague-Dawley rats and used for in vitro studies. For in vivo studies, rats were treated orally in corn oil for 6 days with different doses of TET (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg/d), TMT (0.75, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/d) and TBT (0.75, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/d). Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last dosage and cardiac SR was prepared. Cardiac SR Ca2+-ATPase and 45Ca-uptake were measured. All the three tin compounds inhibited Ca2+-ATPase and 45Ca-uptake in vitro in a concentration dependent manner. The order of potency for Ca2+-ATPase as determined IC50, is TBT (2 uM) > TET (63 uM) > TMT (280 uM). For 45Ca-uptake, if followed the same order i.e., TBT (0.35 uM) > TET (10 uM) > TMT (440 uM). In agreement with in vitro results, both SR Ca2+-ATPase and 45Ca-uptake were significantly inhibited in rats treated with these tin compounds. These studies indicate that triorganotin compounds affect Ca2+-pumping mechanisms and thereby alter cardiac contraction-relaxation process

  20. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 1 – Inorganic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic modelling framework to predict the equilibrium behaviour of mixed inorganic salt aerosols is developed, and then coupled with a technique for finding a solution to the Kohler equation in order to create a diameter dependent hygroscopic aerosol model (Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model – ADDEM. The model described here provides a robust and accurate inorganic basis using a mole fraction based activity coefficient model and adjusted energies of formation for treating solid precipitation. The model framework can accommodate organic components, though this added complexity is considered in a companion paper, this paper describes the development of the modelling architecture to be used and predictions of an inorganic model alone. The modelling framework has been developed to flexibly use a combination of mixing rules and other potentially more accurate techniques where available to calculate the water content. Comparisons with other state-of-the-art general equilibrium models and experimental data are presented and show excellent agreement. The Kelvin effect can be considered in this scheme using a variety of surface tension models. Comparison of predicted diameter dependent phenomena, such as the increased relative humidity for onset of deliquescence with decreasing diameter, with another diameter dependent model is very good despite the different approach used. The model is subject to various sensitivities. For the inorganic systems studied here, the model is sensitive to choice of surface tension scheme used, which decreases for larger aerosol. Large sensitivities are found for the value of dry density used. It is thus likely that the history of the aerosol studied in a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, specifically the nature of the drying process that will influence the final crystalline form, will create systematic uncertainties upon comparisons with theoretical predictions. However, the

  1. Characterization of inorganic compounds in nutritional supplements by the instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied in the analyses of samples of nutritional supplements in order to evaluate the composition of their essential inorganic components. Results obtained in these analyses presented, in general, a good agreement with the label values. Precision and accuracy of the results were also evaluated by analyzing NIST 2704 Buffalo River Sediment and NIST 1400 Bone Ash reference materials. (author)

  2. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: Inorganic elements and organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed...... segregation and management practices may be important. Generally, leaching was in compliance with available leaching limits, except for selenium, and in some cases chromium, sulphate and antimony. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  3. Design of non-linear optical materials based on inorganic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberth, Curt.; Mingos, D. M. P.; Dr. Mike Mingos

    1992-01-01

    This Thesis is concerned with the prediction, synthesis, characterization and testing of inorganic materials for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). Chapter One describes the fundamentals of non-linear optics, and poses the problems, and some of their solutions which confront the synthetic chemist and the theoretical prediction of the second order hyperpolarizability constant β using CNDOVSB calculations. Chapter Two describes the design, implementation and calibration of an a...

  4. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... calcium binds silicon primarily as calcium silicates and less as potassium calcium silicates....

  5. The Mechanisms of Calcification in Coccolithophores - The molecular basis of calcium and inorganic carbon transport in Emiliania huxleyi

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinder, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are calcifying marine phytoplankton that through the fixation of inorganic carbon into calcite and particulate organic carbon play a fundamental role in global carbon cycles. As the CO2 concentration of the surface ocean increases through the anthropogenic release of CO2 by burning fossil fuels both a decrease in pH (ocean acidification) and a increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (ocean carbonation) are taking place. To understand the impact of these ocean changes on coccol...

  6. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  7. Stoichiometric Analysis of Inorganic Compounds Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy with Gated and Nongated Spectrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedhar Sunku; Ashwin Kumar Myakalwar; Manoj Kumar Gundawar; Prem Kiran Paturi; Surya Praksh Tewari; Venugopal Rao Soma

    2012-01-01

    We describe our results obtained from stoichiometric ratio studies of three different energetic, inorganic samples (ammonium perchlorate (AP), boron potassium nitrate (BPN), and ammonium nitrate (AN)) using the technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with nanosecond pulses. Signal collection was independently executed using both gated and nongated spectrometers. The oxygen peak at 777.31 nm (O) and nitrogen peaks at 742.50 nm (N1), 744.34 nm (N2), and 746.91 nm (N3) were used...

  8. A new compound in kidney stones? Powder X-ray diffraction study of calcium glycinate trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Armel; Daudon, Michel; Bazin, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    The present identification of a new compound in kidney stones is relevant in clinical practice. Here, poly[[di-μ-aqua-bis(glycinato-κ(2)N,O)calcium(II)] monohydrate], {[Ca(C2H4NO2)2(H2O)2]·H2O}n, has been identified in a possible kidney concretion, although it could be a 'false calculus' associated with Munchausen syndrome. The crystal packing is characterized by an infinite zigzag chain of Ca atoms in [Ca(OW)4O2N2] (OW is a water O atom) square antiprisms, sharing edges formed by water molecules. An uncoordinated water molecule interconnects the parallel chains in a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding scheme. Similarities between the trihydrate and the monohydrate are described. PMID:23832032

  9. Influence of lead Inorganic Compounds on Combustion Rate of Double Base Rocket Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Pillai

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of lead nitrate, red lead, lead chromate, lead floride and lead carbonate on the combustion behaviour of double base propellants in the pressure range-35-140kg/cm /sup 2/ was studied. While all these compounds increased burning rates in lower pressure range (35-60 kg/cm/sup 2/ and higher pressure range (120-140 kg/cm/sup 2/, only lead chromate and lead fluoride were effective in the intermediate pressure range of 60-105 kg/cm/sup 2/. None of these compounds were effective as platonizer, except lead fluoride, which lowered n value to 0.34 in the lower pressure range. Addition of carbon black along with lead compounds raised burning rates further and reduced n values significantly in the higher pressure regins. A probable mechanism on the role of lead compounds studied has been suggested based on burning rate and DTA results.

  10. [Pollution characteristics and source of the atmospheric fine particles and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu in autumn season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Rui; Wang, Yue-Si; Liu, Quan; Liu, Lu-Ning; Zhang, De-Qiang

    2011-11-01

    Real-time measurements of PM2.5, secondary inorganic compounds in PM2.5 (SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-)) and related gaseous pollutants were conducted at Mount Dinghu, a regional background station of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), in October and November 2008 by using a conventional R&P TEOM and a system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC). Sources and transportation of atmospheric particles during the experiment were discussed with principal component analysis and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The average daily mass concentrations of PM2.5 were 76.9 microg x m(-3) during sampling period, and average daily mass concentrations of SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-) were 20.0 microg x m(-3), 6.8 microg x m(-3) and 2.6 microg x m(-3), respectively. The sum of these three secondary inorganic compounds accounted for more than one third of the PM2.5 mass concentration, which had become the major source of atmospheric fine particles at Mount Dinghu. The diurnal variation of PM2.5, SO4(2-), and NH4(+) all showed a "bimodal" distribution with two peaks appeared at 10:00 am and at 16:00 pm, respectively, whereas NO3(-s) howed "single peak" distribution peaked at 10:00 am. The mass concentrations of SO4(2-) in PM2.5 had the similar diurnal variation with that of SO2, SO4(2-) in PM2.5 was mainly transformed from SO2, whereas NO3(-) showed difference diurnal variation with that of NO2, and the second conversion rate of NO2 was far lower than that of SO2. NH4(+) in PM2.5 existed mainly in the form of sulfate, nitrate and chloride. Both of principal component analysis and back trajectory analysis showed that the variations of PM2.5 and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu were mainly affected by the long-range transport air mass passed over Guangzhou, Huizhou and other highly industrialized areas which carried air pollutants to the observation site, at the same time local sulfate originated from secondary formation also

  11. COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in-situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Harald; Engrand, Cécile; Briois, Christelle; Siljeström, Sandra; Merouane, Sihane; Baklouti, Donia; Fischer, Henning; Fray, Nicolas; Hornung, Klaus; Lehto, Harry; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Rynö, Jouni; Schulz, Rita; Silen, Johan; Thirkell, Laurent; Trieloff, Mario; Hilchenbach, Martin

    2015-01-01

    COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust grains. It has a mass resolution m/{\\Delta}m of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these mi...

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(St-co-BA) Latex with an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compound as Emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊杰; 周树学; 廖建和; 武利民

    2003-01-01

    A poly (St-co-BA) latex was successfully synthesized by using an organic-inorganic hybrid compound (OIHC), an aliphatic carboxylate sodium/nano-silica composite, as the emulsifier, and investigated by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), optical contact angle measurement (OCA) and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). It was found that the protective agent, sodium polyacrylate (PA),could obviously improve the polymerization stability and the functional monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), could enhance the store stability of the latex. The particle size of poly(St-co-BA) latex decreased and then leveled off as OIHC content increased. TEM shows that the prepared polymers were a~:tually organic-inorganic nanocomposites, and these films have better waterproof property than those prepared by traditional poly(St-co-BA) latex or organic silicone modified poly(St-co-BA) latex. The nanocomposite polymer has much higher glass transition temperature than organic silicone modified poly(St-co-BA) polymer containing the same organic silicone content.

  13. Magnetic behavior of inorganic-organic hybrid phosphite compounds with 3-d transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (C2H10N2)[M(HPO3)F3](MIII=V, Cr, Fe) [I], (C2H10N2)[M3(HPO3)4] (MII=Mn, Co) [II] and (C2H10N2)0.5[Fe(HPO3)2](MIII=V, Fe) [III] compounds have been synthesized by using mild hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure of the compounds shows different dimensionality. The compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior, with hysteresis loops for the bimetallic (C2H10N2)[Mn2.09Co0.91(HPO3)4] and (C2H10N2)0.5[V0.48Fe0.52(HPO3)2] phases, indicating the existence of a ferrimagnetic behavior probably due to a spin descompensation

  14. Critical review of the chemistry and thermodynamics of technetium and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and thermodynamic data for Technetium (Tc) and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species are reviewed here. Major emphasis is given to systems with potential geochemical applications, especially the geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal. Compounds considered include oxides, hydroxides, hydrates oxides, halides, oxyhalides, double halides, and sulfides. The aqueous species considered include those in both noncomplexing media (pertechnetates, technetates, aquo-ions, and hydrolyzed cations) and complexing media (halides, sulfates, and phosphates). Thermodynamic values are recommended for specific compounds and aqueous ions when reliable experimental data are available. Where thermodynamic data are inadequate or unavailable, the chemistry is still discussed to provide information about what needs to be measured, and which chemistry needs to be clarified. A major application of these thermodynamic data will be for chemical equilibrium modeling and for construction of potential-pH diagrams for aqueous solutions. Unfortunately, the present lack of data precludes such calculations for complexing aqueous media. The situation is much better for noncomplexing aqueous media, but the chemistry and thermodynamics of cationic Tc(V) species and hydrolyzed Tc(III) species are poorly understood. 240 references, 6 tables

  15. A two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid compound, poly[(ethylenediamine) tri-l-oxido-oxidocopper(II)molybdenum(VI)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtap Emirdag-Eanes; Don VanDerveer; Ozgul Gun

    2008-01-01

    A new organic–inorganic two-dimensional hybrid compound, [CuMoO4(C2H8N2)], has been hydrothermally synthesized at 443 K. The unit cell contains layers composed of CuN2O4 octahedra and MoO4 tetrahedra. Corner-sharing MoO4 and CuN2O4 polyhedra form CuMoO4 bimetallic sites that are joined together through O atoms, forming an edge-sharing Cu2Mo2O4 chain along the c axis. The one-dimensional chains are further linked through bridging O atoms that join the Cu and Mo atoms into respectiv...

  16. Reduction of inorganic compounds with molecular hydrogen by Micrococcus lactilyticus. I. Stoichiometry with compounds of arsenic, selenium, tellurium, transition and other elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOLFOLK, C A; WHITELEY, H R

    1962-10-01

    Woolfolk, C. A. (University of Washington, Seattle) and H. R. Whiteley. Reduction of inorganic compounds with molecular hydrogen by Micrococcus lactilyticus. I. Stoichiometry with compounds of arsenic, selenium, tellurium, transition and other elements. J. Bacteriol. 84:647-658. 1962.-Extracts of Micrococcus lactilyticus (Veillonella alcalescens) oxidize molecular hydrogen at the expense of certain compounds of arsenic, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, lead, thallium, vanadium, manganese, iron, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, osmium, ruthenium, gold, silver, and uranium, as well as molecular oxygen. Chemical and manometric data indicate that the following reductions are essentially quantitative: arsenate to arsenite, pentavalent and trivalent bismuth to the free element, selenite via elemental selenium to selenide, tellurate and tellurite to tellurium, lead dioxide and manganese dioxide to the divalent state, ferric to ferrous iron, osmium tetroxide to osmate ion, osmium dioxide and trivalent osmium to the metal, uranyl uranium to the tetravalent state, vanadate to the level of vanadyl, and polymolybdate ions to molybdenum blues with an average valence for molybdenum of +5. The results of a study of certain other hydrogenase-containing bacteria with respect to their ability to carry out some of the same reactions are also presented. PMID:14001842

  17. [Effects of Organic and Inorganic Slow-Release Compound Fertilizer on Different Soils Microbial Community Structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yuan, Ting; Gu, Shou-kuan; Wang, Zheng-yin

    2015-04-01

    As a new style fertilizer, slow-control release fertilizer had been an important subject in recent years, but few researches were about soil microbial community structure diversity. Phospholipid fatty acid method was used to determined the microbial community structure diversity of acid soil and slight alkaline soil applied with slow-release compound fertilizer (SRF), chemical fertilizer (CF) and common compound fertilizer (CCF) at the 10th, 30th, 60th and 90th day under the constant temperature incubation condition. Results indicated that various bacteria (i. e 13:0, i14:0,14:0, i15:0, a15:0, i16:0, 16:12OH, 16:1w5c,16:0, i17:0, a17:0, cy17:0, 17:02OH, i18:0, 18:0 and cy19:0w8c), two actinomycetes (10Me17:0 and 10Me18:0) and only one fungus (18:1 w9c) were detected in two soils after applying slow-release compound fertilizer and other fertilizers during the whole incubation period. SRF could significantly increase the fungi PLFA content by 8.3% and 6.8% at the early stage (the 10th day and 30th day) compared with CF, as well as significantly increase by 22.7% and 17.1% at the late stage (the 60th day and 90th day) compared with CCF in acid soil. SRF significantly increased bacteria, fungi and gram positive bacteria compared with CF and CCF in incubation period (except at the 30th day) in slight alkaline soil. SRF could significantly improve the ratio of normal saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid at the 30th day and 90th days in acid soil compared with no fertilizer (CK), CF and CCF, while as to slight alkaline soil, SRF was significantly greater than that of CK, CF and CCF only at the 60th day. SRF could significantly decrease the ratio of iso PLFA and anteiso PLFA in acid soil (in 30-90 days) and slight alkaline soil (in 10-60 days). For two soils PLFA varieties, contents and ratios of microbial community, slow-release compound fertilizer increased soil microbial PLFA varieties and contents, and decreased the influence to microbial survival

  18. Comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of inorganic and organic iron compounds in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrichka Dimitrova; Anna Arnaudova-Matey; Petar Dilov; Geno Angelov; Tandju Mehmedov; Toni Todorov; Denka Kushvalieva; Dimitrina Nikolova; Valija Dilova

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate was investigated in broiler chickens after intravenous injection and crop intubation. The iron compounds were injected intravenously in v. brachialis. After 20-day “wash-out” period the ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate were administered again by an elastic silicone tube into the crop. The serum concentrations of the iron were determined with bioanalyser. Two pharmacokinetic approaches were used – compartmental and non-comp...

  19. Prediction model of band gap for inorganic compounds by combination of density functional theory calculations and machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohwi; Seko, Atsuto; Shitara, Kazuki; Nakayama, Keita; Tanaka, Isao

    2016-03-01

    Machine learning techniques are applied to make prediction models of the G0W0 band gaps for 270 inorganic compounds using Kohn-Sham (KS) band gaps, cohesive energy, crystalline volume per atom, and other fundamental information of constituent elements as predictors. Ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) methods are applied with two levels of predictor sets. When the KS band gap by generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) or modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) is used as a single predictor, the OLSR model predicts the G0W0 band gap of randomly selected test data with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.59 eV. When KS band gap by PBE and mBJ methods are used together with a set of predictors representing constituent elements and compounds, the RMSE decreases significantly. The best model by SVR yields the RMSE of 0.24 eV. Band gaps estimated in this way should be useful as predictors for virtual screening of a large set of materials.

  20. Cd immobilization in a contaminated rice paddy by inorganic stabilizers of calcium hydroxide and silicon slag and by organic stabilizer of biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rongjun; Li, Lianqing; Bao, Dandan; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a Cd-contaminated rice paddy field to evaluate the effect of inorganic and organic metal stabilizers on Cd mobility and rice uptake. A dose of inorganic stabilizer of calcium hydroxide (CH), silicon slag (SS), and wheat straw biochar (BC) was amended respectively to topsoil before rice transplanting. Rice production was managed with the same water regime and fertilization practices consistently between treatments including a control without amendment. Samples of topsoil and rice plant were collected at rice harvest to analyze the Cd mobility and uptake by rice. Without affecting rice grain yield, the stabilizers significantly decreased CaCl2-extractable Cd in a range of 44 to 75 % compared to the control, corresponding to soil pH changes under the different treatments. Accordingly, Cd concentrations both in rice tissue and in rice grain were very significantly decreased under these treatments. The decrease in rice Cd uptake was correlated to the decrease in extractable Cd, which was again correlated to soil pH change under the different treatments, indicating a prevalent role of liming effect by the amendments. While applied at a large amount in a single year, organic stabilizer of BC decreased Cd extractability by up to 43 % and Cd rice uptake by up to 61 %, being the most effective on Cd immobilization. However, the long-term effect on soil health and potential tradeoff effects with different stabilizers deserve further field monitoring studies. PMID:26865487

  1. Calcium phosphate-based organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers with pH-responsive on/off switch for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Takahiro; Fukushima, Shigeto; Kumagai, Michiaki; Miyazaki, Kozo; Inoue, Aki; Mi, Peng; Maeda, Yoshinori; Toh, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Morimoto, Yuji; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-05-26

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors in a light-selective manner. To improve the PDT efficacy, numerous kinds of nanocarriers have been developed to deliver photosensitizers (PSs) selectively into the tumor through leaky tumor-associated vasculature. However, the corresponding prolonged retention of the nanocarrier in the bloodstream may lead to unfavorable photochemical damage to normal tissues such as skin. Here, we report an organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarrier with a pH-responsive on/off switch of PDT efficacy. This hybrid nanocarrier is constructed by hydrothermal synthesis after simple mixing of calcium/phosphate ions, chlorin e6 (amphiphilic low molecular weight PS), and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) (PEG-PAsp) copolymers in an aqueous solution. The hybrid nanocarrier possesses a calcium phosphate (CaP) core encapsulating the PSs, which is surrounded by a PEG shielding layer. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), the nanocarrier suppressed the photochemical activity of PS by lowering the access of oxygen molecules to the incorporated PS, while PDT efficacy was restored in a pH-responsive manner because of the dissolution of CaP and eventual recovery of access between the oxygen and the PS. Owing to this switch, the nanocarrier reduced the photochemical damage in the bloodstream, while it induced effective PDT efficacy inside the tumor cell in response to the acidic conditions of the endo-/lysosomes. PMID:26971562

  2. Effects of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) on calcium channel currents and catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinsberg, F. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bickmeyer, U. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wiegand, H. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    The effects of Hg{sup 2+} on calcium channel currents and the potassium-evoked catecholamine release of bovine chromaffin cells in culture were examined. The effects of Cd{sup 2+} were studied for comparison. Calcium channel currents were recorded in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. In a concentration of 100 {mu}M, Hg{sup 2+} blocked the currents completely; 100 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} had the same effect. Potassium-evoked catecholamine release from chromaffin cells was measured at different timepoints with HPLC under control conditions and in the presence of different Hg{sup 2+} concentrations. Low Hg{sup 2+} concentrations (0.1 and 1 {mu}M) did not affect the amount of the catecholamines epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) which was released. Under identical conditions 1 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} also had no effect on release. With 10 {mu}M Hg{sup 2+} there was a time-dependent increase in the potassium-evoked catecholamine release (by 27% after 8 min). The E/NE ratio was not altered. In contrast to this, the release was slightly reduced with 10 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+}. In the presence of 100 {mu}M Hg{sup 2+}, there was a reduction of the release during an early phase, followed by an increase. The calcium channel block by 100 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} also reduced the release significantly. Catecholamine release of bovine chromaffin cells is driven into two opposite directions by Hg{sup 2+}. On the one hand, a calcium channel block reduces the release, while on the other hand effects occur which can increase the release. Both tendencies occur simultaneously, but have different concentration- and time-dependencies. The catecholamine output at a given timepoint reflects the `sum` of these different effects. (orig.)

  3. Comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of inorganic and organic iron compounds in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrichka Dimitrova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate was investigated in broiler chickens after intravenous injection and crop intubation. The iron compounds were injected intravenously in v. brachialis. After 20-day “wash-out” period the ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate were administered again by an elastic silicone tube into the crop. The serum concentrations of the iron were determined with bioanalyser. Two pharmacokinetic approaches were used – compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. After i.v. injection we found statistically significantly longer and better distribution of the iron contained in the ferrous methionate compared to the ferrous sulphate. The АUC0→∞ was statistically significantly higher in the ferrous methionate. In the alimentary tract of broiler chickens, ferrous methionate was absorbed more rapidly than ferrous sulfate. It was also distributed at a higher volume as compared to the ferrous sulfate.

  4. Evaluation of organic and inorganic compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Sirén

    2015-03-01

    The wine products showed different profiles of carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Especially, saccharose (max. 0.21 g/L, rhamnose (max. 0.45 g/L, fructose (max. 1.9 g/L, and phosphate (max 1.4 g/L quantities were extremely high in some wines. The results also showed that yeast fermentation in winemaking agitated high production of lactic (max 5.7 g/L and tartaric (max 1.7 g/L acids. The red wines processed by cold maceration and natural fermentation gave similar profiles. Only one of the Pinot Noir wines entirely differentiated from the others with comparison of carbohydrates and organic acids.

  5. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  6. Effects of inorganic sulfur addition on fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in an artificially acidified (sulfuric and nitric acids) poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen) in Barrington, NH, USA. At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control (unacidified) and experimental sections within two major physiographic zones of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). The experimental segments of the mire received S amendments since 1983, in amounts equivalent to the annual S deposition in the highest polluted areas of Canada and U.S. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was the predominant VSC released from the mire and varied largely with time and space (i.e., from 2.5 to 127 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1)). Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days, although it stimulated production of DMS and MSH in the anoxic surficial regions of the peat. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic segment of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic segment, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were approximately 8 times higher from a Sphagnum site than from a bare peat site. Fluxes of VSC's were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments at both sites, while DMS and MSH concentrations increases greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. Our data indicated that although Sphagnum is not the direct source of DMS released from Sphagnum peatlands, it might play a role in regulating DMS emissions to the atmosphere.

  7. Application of molecular calcium compounds in catalysis and hydrogen storage; Anwendung von molekularen Calcium-Verbindungen in der Katalyse und der Wasserstoffspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielmann, Jan

    2010-07-20

    1. Applications in catalysis: In the course of this work new catalytic applications of calcium compounds and in particular hydrocarbon-soluble calcium hydride species have been investigated. The complex [(DIPP-nacnac)CaH(THF)]2 (1, DIPP-nacnac = HC[C(Me)N-2,6-(i-Pr)-C6H3]2) served as a model system to test reactivity of the calcium hydride in stoichiometric reactions on a molecular level. It has been found that the hydroboration of conjugated alkenes with catecholborane can be accelerated considerably by using catalytic amounts of calcium complexes. However it was shown that calcium hydride species catalyze the decomposition of catecholborane to BH3 which is probably the catalytically active species. Investigations on the catalytic hydrosilylation of ketones have demonstrated that calcium complexes are efficient catalysts for this reaction. In the proposed catalytic cycle of this reaction six-coordinate hypervalent silicon species play a crucial role. Furthermore it has been shown that molecular calcium compounds are catalysts for the hydrogenation of conjugated alkenes with H2 under relatively mild conditions (20 bar H2, 20 C). Both steps in the proposed catalytical cycle i.e. addition of a metal hydride to the C=C double bond and a heterolytic cleavage of H2 by a calcium alkyl compound have been confirmed experimentally. 2. Applications in hydrogen storage: Ligand stabilized metal amidoborane complexes in the form of (DIPP-nacnac)MNH(R)BH3(THF)x (M = Ca, Mg; R = H, Me, i-Pr, 2,6-(i-Pr)-C6H3; x = 0, 1, 2) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. These complexes are model systems for the metal amidoborane compounds M(NH2BH3)n (M = Li, Na, n = 1; M = Ca, n = 2), which are potential high capacity hydrogen storage materials. To get insights in their dehydrogenation mechanisms the thermal decomposition of the model compounds was investigated in solution. This allowed for the first isolation of well-defined dehydrogenated products which have been

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms of Organic-inorganic hybrid compound Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellibi, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-06-01

    A new organic-inorganic bis (4-acetylaniline) tetrachlorocadmate [C8H10NO]2[CdCl4] can be obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallized in an orthorhombic system (Cmca space group). The material electrical properties were characterized by impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 209 Hz-5 MHz and temperature 413 to 460 K. Besides, the impedance plots show semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to interpret the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of a resistance (R), capacitance (C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The variation of the exponent s as a function of temperature suggested that the conduction mechanism in Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate compound is governed by two processes which can be ascribed to a hopping transport mechanism: correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model below 443 K and the small polaron tunneling (SPT) model above 443 K.

  9. Thermal properties study on the ablation materials of inorganic silicon compound from organosilicone in high percent conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI MengZhong; WANG WenHua

    2007-01-01

    The new type of silicone rubber prepared by organosilicon polymer containing special groups presents the tensile strength of 3.92 MPa and the elongation at break of 285%. Compared with Sylgard(r)184 silicone rubber (Dow Corning Corporation), it has better high temperature resistance and almost no weightlessness from room temperature to 430℃. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to research the thermal degradation at different temperatures and the heat pyrolysis products were trace determined by FT-IR. The results show that with the increase of temperature, the organic groups of products are gradually decomposed. Organosilicon rubber is gradually changed into the typical inorganic SiCO compounds in the process of pyrolysis. Elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the pyrolyzates are mainly composed of Si, C and O elements above 1050℃. X-ray diffraction analysis showes that partial β-SiC crystal structure is brought about gradually from the pyrolysis products at 1050℃ to 1500℃ under nitrogen atmosphere. With the treatment temperature rising, the crystallinity of SiC and cristobalite obviously increases.

  10. Neurotoxic Effects of Platinum Compounds: Studies in vivo on Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis in the Immature Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Bernocchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Platinum compounds cause significant clinical neurotoxicity. Several studies highlight neurological complications especially in paediatric oncology patients with Central Nervous System (CNS and non-CNS malignancies. To understand the toxicity mechanisms of platinum drugs at cellular and molecular levels in the immature brain, which appears more vulnerable to injury than in the adult one, we compared the effects in vivo of the most used platinum compounds, i.e., cisdichlorodiammineplatinum (cisplatin, cisPt, and the new [Pt(O,O′-acac(γ-acac(DMS] (PtAcacDMS. As models of developing brain areas, we have chosen the cerebellum and hippocampus dentate gyrus. Both areas show the neurogenesis events, from proliferation to differentiation and synaptogenesis, and therefore allow comparing the action of platinum compounds with DNA and non-DNA targets. Here, we focused on the changes in the intracellular calcium homeostasis within CNS architecture, using two immunohistochemical markers, the calcium buffer protein Calbindin and Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase. From the comparison of the cisPt and PtAcacDMS effects, it emerges how essential the equilibrium and synergy between CB and PMCA1 is or how important the presence of at least one of them is to warrant the morphology and function of nervous tissue and limit neuroarchitecture damages, depending on the peculiar and intrinsic properties of the developing CNS areas.

  11. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  12. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  13. Anode material selection criteria for selective oxidation of inorganic compounds in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PtOx and carbon compounds. The experimental findings led to a better understanding of the role of the nitrates involved in multiple processes. From the standpoint of electro-activity, nitrates appear to contribute to the water oxidation mechanism and favor the evolution of oxygen at potentials above 2.05 VESH, while the electron transfer of the Ag2+/Ag+ couple is relatively unaffected by this counter-ion. The decreasing diffusivity of Ag+ ions as the nitric acid concentration increases affects the overall Ag2+ ion generation in over-concentrated nitric acid medium. The complexation qualities of the nitrate ions that make them suitable ligands for Ag2+ ions also induce specific effects: the potential is shifted by about 200 mV, and the water oxidation reaction is catalyzed. A qualitative analysis of this phenomenon involving the electrode/solution interface competition between the AgNO3+ complex and the Ago precipitate and a quantitative analysis of the diminishing electrolytic generation efficiency are discussed. Test results with various materials show that the classification based on a high oxygen over-potential is a necessary but insufficient criterion. Material selectivity is also related to chemical processes at the interface as noted above. For example, the redox chemistry of the anode material in nitric acid media accelerates the parasitic processes in the case of lead dioxide. Polarization of the electrode material at high anode potentials, as in the case of platinum, implies the formation of oxide layers that are relatively unstable in nitric acid media, and which must also be considered as a factor to be analyzed with respect to material selectivity. The proposed approach provides a rational interpretation of the search for new anode materials based on electron transfer kinetics and on the transport of various species, but primarily on the analysis of the chemical and electrochemical interference specific to nitric acid media. This approach can easily be

  14. Microdetermination of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Bi and U in inorganic and organometallic compounds with morpholinium morpholine-N-dithiocarboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakla, A B; Helmy, A A; Beyer, W; Harhhash, F E

    1979-07-01

    The chelates of morpholinium morpholine-N-dithiocarboxylate with manganese(II), iron(II), iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel, copper(II), zinc, silver, cadmium, mercury(II), lead, bismuth and uranium(VI) have been prepared and their compositions elucidated. Simple, accurate and relatively rapid procedures for the gravimetric and titrimetric microdetermination of these metals in inorganic and organometallic compounds are presented. PMID:18962480

  15. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Moilanen, A.; Norby, P.; Papadakis, K.; Posselt, D.; Sørensen, L. H.

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...

  16. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: thermogravimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. PMID:25638405

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence properties of one inorganic-organic hybrid compound [FTMA] 2[Co(NCS) 4] (FTMA = ferrocenylmethyltrimethylammonium cation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Dang, Dong-Bin; Ma, Peng-Tao; Niu, Jing-Yang

    2011-08-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid compound [FTMA] 2[Co(NCS) 4] (FTMA = ferrocenylmethyltrimethylammonium cation) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. Co(II) atom has a distorted tetrahedral environment with four N atoms of four NCS - anions. In the solid state there are C-H⋯π interactions between adjacent ferrocenyl cations, which generate one-dimensional (1-D) supramolecular chain, and C-H⋯S hydrogen bonds between [FTMA] + cations and cobalt thiocyanate anions. The title compound shows strong purple fluorescence emission in the solid state at room temperature.

  18. Influence of Electrolyte Composition on the Calcium-Phosphorus compound Coating on Titanium Substrate by Micro-arc Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUXiu-hong; WANGCong-zeng; KOUBin-da; SUXue-kuan; ZHANGWen-quan

    2004-01-01

    The compound bioceramic coating containing calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) on titanium alloy substrate was prepared by means of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. The results show that under the different electrolyte the coating with the color of gray or black and surface morphology of cauliflower or honeycomb, where Ca content and P contain can attain 30% and 20% respectively, can be obtained. Meanwhile, the influences of electrolyte temperature, current density and discharge time on morphology and thickness of coating are also discussed here.

  19. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in water and soil slurry utilizing a calcium peroxide compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, M

    2000-02-01

    The degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene was examined in pure water and contaminated soil slurry using calcium peroxide as a source of solid hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. The extent of TNT oxidation was compared with that obtained by using hydrated lime, which is normally generated by slurrying CaO2 in water and contained in CaO2 technical formulation (approximately 50%, w/w). Complete TNT degradation occurred between 280 min, 0.1% CaO2/Ca(OH)2 and 20 min, 1% CaO2/Ca(OH)2. A large part of the generated oxidation products, 80-90%, were absorbed on the solid calcium hydroxide, whereas the remaining 10-20% was detected in solution until 48 h. Removal of nitro groups was extremely effective in CaO2 slurry, where all the nitrogen (3 mol per mol of TNT) was removed from TNT within 240 min. Respect to calcium hydroxide, the peroxy compound liberated H2O2 in solution, 370 mg l-1 at 0.2% CaO2, w/v, which then decomposed within 480 min. Most of the 14C-TNT was retained more strongly on the calcium hydroxide generated by slurrying CaO2. This pool remained adsorbed on the solid until pH dropped below 5.8. The treatment of a contaminated soil slurry, 700 mg TNT kg-1, reduced CH3CN extractable TNT below 20 mg kg-1 at very low concentration of CaO2/Ca(OH)2, approximately 0.2%, w/w. Both oxidants do not lead to soil sterilization as the phosphorus added to neutralize the pH serves as a source of nutrient for the soil biomass. PMID:10665396

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUORIDE EMISSION FROM FIVE CLAY MINERALS AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE,HEATING TIME AND ADDITION OF CALCIUM COMPOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of fluoride emission from five clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, vermiculite, geothite, and allophane) as affected by temperature, heating time and addition of calcium compounds were studied. Marked increase of the fluoride emission rate was noticed with increase of temperature. The fluoride release, began at 500 ℃-600 ℃, and the main bulk of the fluoride emission occurred at the temperature of about 800 ℃. The loss of crystalline water was primarily responsible for the increase of fluoride emission. When minerals were heated at 800 ℃, The fluoride emission rate from the clay minerals reached the highest after heating for 1 hour. The samples treated by CaO, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, Ca3(PO4)2, and CaSO4 had 55.45%, 59.58%, 46.45%, 54.31%, 31.25% reduction in the fluoride emission from montmorillonite at the temperature of 800 ℃, respectively. CaCO3 had the highest fluoride fixing capacity compared to other calcium compounds.

  1. Posteffect of calcium compounds on growth and evolution of irradiated cotton plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aftereffect of calcium salts on the growth and development of radiated and non-radiated cotton plants was studied. It was found out that as a result of the application of calcium the first seed prosterity of radiated plants had almost none of the symptoms of the radiation injury, the growth, the development of cotton plants and crude cotton yields being restored. As a result of the treatment of seeds in the Ca(NO3)2 solution and the application of CaO to the soil the amount of long-chain fatty acids increased which is necessary for the regeneration of injured membranes in cells of radiated plants. For example, there were 75.2 per cent of fatty acids with long carbon chains in the control, i.e. without calcium; 85.9 per cent after the application of CaO to the soil and the treatment of seeds in the Ca(NO3)2 solution; 70.9 per cent in the variant with irradiation at the dose of 30 kr and 81.19 per cent of fatty acids with long carbon chains after the treatment of irradiated seeds in the Ca(NO3)2 solution and the application of CaO

  2. Organic-inorganic compounds with strong nonlinear optical properties based on 2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium and tetrahedral BF4- networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaś, Maciej; Bil, Andrzej; Jakubas, Ryszard; Gągor, Anna; Pietraszko, Adam; Czupiński, Olaf; Tylczyński, Zbigniew; Isakov, Dmitry

    2011-04-01

    A different organic-inorganic crystal—[2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium][BF4]—of nonlinear optical properties at room temperature was synthesized and characterized. The compound is built up of the organic [2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium] cations incorporated into inorganic, tetrahedral BF4 anions. It crystallizes at room temperature in the polar space group Pmn21, and undergoes three first-order phase transitions at [cooling (heating)] 241 (245) K, 297 (328) K, and 389 (406) K. The lowest temperature ferroic phase transition (ferroelastic; mm2→m type) is related to the significant pyroelectric effect. The compound was studied by single-crystal x-ray diffraction at several temperatures, using thermal (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis) methods and dielectric spectroscopy. The piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and second-harmonic generation (SHG) properties were determined. Density-functional theory calculations in two stable phases are given. The [2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium][BF4] crystal exhibits a SHG efficiency of 1.7 times that of KDP. The mechanism of structural phase transitions in the title compound is discussed.

  3. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA. Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications.

  4. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Wang; Heinz C. Schröder; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA) and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge s...

  5. Organic and inorganic compounds in the water streams of the paper machine; Haitta-ainevirrat ja -tasot paperikoneella - PMST 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, P.; Edelmann, K.; Kaijaluoto, S. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The tightening standards for environmental protection set forth in legislation and the green consideration has reduced the environmental load of the paper and pulp industry significantly during recent years. Paper mills have decreased their water consumption by increasing internal circulation and by improving external effluent treatment. The consequence is that the concentrations of organic and inorganic dissolved and colloidal substances in the paper mill waters have risen. The fresh water consumption of paper machine can be decreased by cleaning the different water streams from the wire- and press-section and by lowering the amount of organic and inorganic materials led to paper machine water. In this case also water from mechanical pulping process and pulp itself should be cleaned. In this project the water use of modern paper machine and stream connections are studied. In addition flows, interactions and retention of dissolved and colloidal materials in the wet end of the paper machine are investigated. By utilizing this knowledge accurate simulation models of paper machine wet end can be created. With this model the various methods and technologies for controlling the harmful components in paper machine wet end are analyzed. (orig.)

  6. Use of inorganic and organic compounds as decontaminates for cobalt T-60 and cesium-134 by clover plant grown on Inshas Sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out door lysimeter experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of four inorganic and three organic salts on 60 Co and 134 Cs uptake and dry matter yield of three cuts of clover in the soil Inshas A new concept was proposed for assessing the difference in capacity of soil to supply radionuclides (i.e. 60 Co and 134 Cs) to plants as affected by applied inorganic or organic compounds. The relation of plant tissues (Pc) Co/IR Cs content with increasing time can be expressed as log (Pc) = A + B log time (T), where A and B the regression. When the same plant species is grown on the same soil differ only in the applied compound (e.g. Fe-EDDHA, Fe-DTPA, Fe-O A C, Fe(Coo)z, A1(OH)3, Ca(H2 P O4)2 and Fe2 O3) the equation will change to, log (P'c) = A+ B' log (T) (I). Based on both equations, the relationship between (Pc) becomes; log (P'c) = [(A'B')/(AB + A B)[ +[1/A'B + A B)[ log (Pc) (II). The intercept (C) and slope (S) in Eq. (II) were determined among 7 treatments (for either 60 Co or 134 Cs). Then the difference of either Co or Cs accumulation with time between control and any other treatment was evaluated according to (C) and (S) values. The data also that Fe-DTPA is preferred for 60 Co as enhancing compound for plant uptake (for decontamination use); compared with other applied salts; on the other hand, any tested salts did not significantly effect 134 Cs taken by clover. Also, it was found that more than 70% of total cobalt uptake was accumulated in the roots which indicate that Co is less mobile in plants than Cs. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Ab Initio Discovery of Novel Crystal Structure Stability in Barium and Sodium-Calcium Compounds under Pressure using DFT

    CERN Document Server

    Taillon, Joshua A; Hennig, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Group I/II materials exhibit unexpected structural phase transitions at high pressures, providing potential insight into the origins of elemental superconductivity. We present here a computational study of elemental barium and binary sodium-calcium alloys to identify both known and unknown phases of barium under pressure, as well as stable high-pressure compounds in the immiscible Na-Ca system. To predict stability, we performed density functional theory calculations on randomly generated structures and evolved them using a genetic algorithm. For barium, we observed all of the expected phases and a number of new metastable structures, excluding the incommensurate Ba-IV structure. We also observed a heretofore unreported structure (\\alpha-Sm) predicted to be the ground state from 30-42 GPa. In the Na-Ca system, we demonstrate feasibility of our search method, but have been unable to predict any stable compounds. These results have improved the efficacy of the genetic algorithm, and should provide many promisin...

  8. Application of radioisotopes to the investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of reactions of some inorganic complex compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are invaluable tools in the study of many types of inorganic chemical reactions, particularly those involving complex ionic substances in aqueous solution. One important approach is through research on the rates and mechanisms of isotopic exchange processes. For example, a series of studies has been made of the exchange between carbon-14-labelled ''free'' carbonate and the ligand carbonate in octahedral complex ions of the type CoA2CO3+, where A = 2 NH3, ethylenediamine (en), propylenediamine (pn), or trimethylenediamine (tn). These studies have led to a rather thorough understanding of the nature of this kind of ligand substitution reaction, and of the part played by the non-exchanging amine ligands in the process. Similar studies of oxalate exchange with tris-oxalato complexes of the form M (C2O4)3-3, where M = Co (III), Cr (III), or Rh (III), have been equally fruitful. An alternative technique, applicable only when using low-atomic-weight radioisotopes such as carbon-14, is to observe the equilibrium or kinetic isotope effects in the reaction of interest. I t has, for instance, been possible to interpret differences in the ligand carbonate exchange mechanism of Coen2CO3+ and Cotn2CO3+ on the basis of equilibrium isotope-effect measurements made on the carbonate exchange reaction. Similarly, data on the kinetic isotope effect in the acid-catalysed aquation of the Co (NH3)4CO3+ ion has supported deductions as to the nature of the rate-determining bond-breakage step in such reactions. Finally, the mechanistic path of certain atoms or radicals in inorganic reactions, where a choice between alternative explanations must be made, is frequently facilitated by a radioactive tracer experiment. An example is the proof that cyanide does not appear as a rapidly exchanging intermediate in the oxidation of thiocyanate ion by hydrogen peroxide, although cyanide is an important end-product. (author)

  9. Effect of ammonium compounds on dissolution rate of South African calcium-based material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Hillary; Siagi, Zachariah; Mbarawa, M

    2009-09-15

    The rate at which limestone dissolves is very important in wet flue gas desulphurisation process (FGD). High dissolution rates provide better alkalinity that is important for sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) absorption. The dissolution characteristics have been studied by using a pH-Stat method at 60 degrees C, at pH value of 5, stirrer speed of 100 rpm and particle size of 44 microm. This paper examines the use of ammonium compound as the possible additives that will enhance the dissolution rate of limestone. The dissolution rates were measured according to the shrinking core model with surface control, i.e. (1-(1-X)(1/3))=k(r)t. It was found that the dissolution rate increases in the presence of ammonium compounds. Upon addition of 0.5 g of ammonium nitrate, the dissolution rate constants increased by 170%. As the pH is increased the dissolution rate decreases. The dissolution reaction follows a shrinking core model with the chemical reaction control as the rate-controlling step. PMID:19447546

  10. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N2 atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  11. Methods for estimating the enthalpy of formation of inorganic compounds; thermochemical and crystallographic investigations of uranyl salts of group VI elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this thesis is concerned with parameter methods for estimating the standard enthalpy of formation, ΔH0sub(f), of inorganic compounds. In this type of method the estimate is a function of parameters, assigned to cation and anion, respectively. The usefulness of a new estimation method is illustrated in the case of uranyl sulphide. In the second part of this thesis crystallographic and thermochemical properties of uranyl salts of group VI elements are described. Crystal structures are given for β-UO2SO4, UO2SeO3, and α-UO2SeO4. Thermochemical measurements have been restricted to the determination of ΔH0sub(f)(UO2SO3) and ΔH0sub(f)(UO2TeO3) by means of isoperibol solution calorimetry. (Auth.)

  12. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  13. Bipolar mass spectrometry of labile coordination complexes, redox active inorganic compounds, and proteins using a glass nebulizer for sonic-spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakis, Manolis M; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Kanaki, Katerina; Milios, Constantinos J; Pergantis, Spiros A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a novel nebulizer configuration for sonic-spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (MS), more specifically for a version of SSI that is referred to as Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) MS. The developed nebulizer configuration is based on a commercially available pneumatic glass nebulizer that has been used extensively for aerosol formation in atomic spectrometry. In the present study, the nebulizer was modified in order to achieve efficient V-EASI-MS operation. Upon evaluating this system, it has been demonstrated that V-EASI-MS offers some distinct advantages for the analysis of coordination compounds and redox active inorganic compounds over the predominantly used electrospray ionization (ESI) technique. Such advantages, for this type of compounds, are demonstrated here for the first time. More specifically, a series of labile heptanuclear heterometallic [Cu(II) 6Ln(III)] clusters held together with artificial amino acid ligands, in addition to easily oxidized inorganic oxyanions of selenium and arsenic, were analyzed. The observed advantages pertain to V-EASI appearing to be a "milder" ionization source than ESI, not requiring electrical potentials for gas phase ion formation, thus eliminating the possibility of unwanted redox transformations, allowing for the "simultaneous" detection of negative and positive ions (bipolar analysis) without the need to change source ionization conditions, and also not requiring the use of syringes and delivery pumps. Because of such features, especially because of the absence of ionization potentials, EASI can be operated with minimal requirements for source parameter optimization. We observed that source temperature and accelerating voltage do not seem to affect labile compounds to the extent they do in ESI-MS. In addition, bipolar analysis of proteins was demonstrated here by acquiring both positive and negative ion mass spectra from the same protein solutions

  14. Hot reactions between tritium atoms and inorganic compounds (H2O,H2S,NH3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot atom chemical reactions of tritium from nuclear reactions 3He(n,p)T and 6Li(n,α)T or from an accelerator with H2O,D2O,H2S,NH3,ND3 are studied in gaseous and liquid phases. Hot reactive collisions produce mainly HT or DT and the synthesis of the initial tritiated compound HTO, DTO, HTS, NH2T or ND2T. In ND3 the analysis of the conjugated action of scavengers and moderators allows the determination of integral reactivity corresponding to the different hot reactions. Influence of gas pressure or gas-liquid transition is interpreted by the competition between monomolecular decomposition of tritiated compounds and their stabilization by intermolecular energy transfer. Slight isotopic effects measured show a compensation between chemical reactivity and moderating power of H2O and D2O or NH3 and ND3 molecules. 99 refs

  15. Calcium carbonate interaction analysis in polypropylene compounds and their impact on the formation of beta crystalline phase of this polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insertion of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in polypropylene compound is a thoroughly known technique widely studied in the academic area and in the industry. Its wide application is due, mainly, to increase mechanical properties with low manufacturing cost. These improvements in this polymer make it more versatile and competitive compared to other expensive polymers. In this study, the incorporation of four types of CaCO3 from the same manufacturer were compared and the focus was on the size of this mineral filler. Furthermore, it was analyzed the interaction of graphitized polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) in the same samples. All these samples were analyzed by WAXS and SEM. The physical properties of tensile strength and impact were also analyzed. It was observed from this study that the smallest CaCO3 produced with PP-g-MA resulted in better physical properties with the formation of a crystalline phase beta, as originally studied by other authors using other raw materials. (author)

  16. The in vitro investigation of morphological changes of permanent teeth enamel surface under the influence of exogenous means for caries prevention containing different calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomenko L.O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rationalizing of the choice of the most effective means for exogenous prevention, especially during secondary mineralization, will increase cariesresistance of tooth enamel. Objective - in vitro study of changes of just erupted permanent teeth enamel surface under the influence of exogenous means for caries prevention containing different calcium compounds. Methods. For the study we used 35 enamel samples of permanent teeth that had erupted within the same term (premolars of 11-13 years old children, less than 6 months after eruption. 5 samples were the control group before the experiment. 30 samples were randomly divided equally into three groups (10 samples in each group and stored in boxes with artificial saliva. Enamel samples of the first group were treated with cream “TOOTH MOUSSE” (10% casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate, samples of the second group were treated with gel “R.O.C.S.® Medical minerals” (calcium glycerophosphate, magnesium chloride, xylitol. Samples of the first and second groups were treated at the beginning of the research and 3, 6 and 9 months later during 10 days, twice a day for 30 minutes. Samples of the third group were the control and were not treated. Investigation of the enamel surface was performed at the beginning of the experiment, after 6 and 12 months. The structure of the samples surface was studied at the equator zone with the scanning electron microscope. Results. At the beginning of the experiment signs of insufficient mineralization were observed on the surface of the enamel samples of the control group. After 12 months of treatment with cream with casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate and gel with calcium glycerophosphate, surface of the enamel samples of both groups had the signs of an increased mineralization due to the long-term preservation of a layer of additional chemical compounds. Conclusion. The surface of the permanent teeth enamel immediately

  17. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  18. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, samples 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, seven domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituent, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their minimum reporting levels

  19. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, samples 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, seven domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituent, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their minimum reporting levels.

  20. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level.

  1. Enriched inorganic compounds in diesel exhaust particles induce mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, cytoskeleton instability, and cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriani, Robson; Junqueira, Mara S; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia E; Arruda, Alessandra C T; Martinez, Diana; Alencar, Adriano M; Garippo, Ana L; Brito, Jôse Mara; Martins, Milton A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Negri, Elnara M; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of the diesel exhaust particles on ERK and JNK MAPKs activation, cell rheology (viscoelasticity), and cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial airway cells (BEAS-2B). Crude DEP and DEP after extraction with hexane (DEP/HEX) were utilized. The partial reduction of some DEP/HEX organics increased the biodisponibility of many metallic elements. JNK and ERK were activated simultaneously by crude DEP with no alterations in viscoelasticity of the cells. Mitochondrial activity, however, revealed a decrease through the MTT assay. DEP/HEX treatment increased viscoelasticity and cytotoxicity (membrane damage), and also activated JNK. Our data suggest that the greater bioavailability of metals could be involved in JNK activation and, consequently, in the reduction of fiber coherence and increase in the viscoelasticity and cytotoxicity of BEAS cells. The adverse findings detected after exposure to crude DEP and to DEP/HEX reflect the toxic potential of diesel compounds. Considering the fact that the cells of the respiratory epithelium are the first line of defense between the body and the environment, our data contribute to a better understanding of the pathways leading to respiratory cell injury and provide evidence for the onset of or worsening of respiratory diseases caused by inorganic compounds present in DEP. PMID:25769681

  2. Estimation of transport parameters of phenolic compounds and inorganic contaminants through composite landfill liners using one-dimensional mass transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We conduct 1D advection-dispersion modeling to estimate transport parameters. → We examine fourteen phenolic compounds and three inorganic contaminants. → 2-MP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP have the highest coefficients. → Dispersion coefficients of Cu are determined to be higher than Zn and Fe. → Transport of phenolics can be prevented by zeolite and bentonite in landfill liners. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) advection-dispersion transport modeling was conducted as a conceptual approach for the estimation of the transport parameters of fourteen different phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and three different inorganic contaminants (Cu, Zn, Fe) migrating downward through the several liner systems. Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors (0.25 m3) with different composite liners (R1: 0.10 + 0.10 m of compacted clay liner (CCL), Le = 0.20 m, ke = 1 x 10-8 m/s, R2: 0.002-m-thick damaged high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane overlying 0.10 + 0.10 m of CCL, Le = 0.20 m, ke = 1 x 10-8 m/s, R3: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick bentonite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, Le = 0.22 m, ke = 1 x 10-8 m/s, R4: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick zeolite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, Le = 0.22 m, ke = 4.24 x 10-7 m/s) were simultaneously run for a period of about 540 days to investigate the nature of diffusive and advective transport of the selected organic and inorganic contaminants. The results of 1D transport model showed that the highest molecular diffusion coefficients, ranging from 4.77 x 10-10 to 10.67 x 10-10 m2/s, were estimated for phenol (R4), 2-MP (R1), 2,4-DNP (R2), 2,4-DCP (R1), 2,6-DCP (R2), 2,4,5-TCP (R2) and 2,3,4,6-TeCP (R1). For all reactors, dispersion coefficients of Cu, ranging from 3.47 x 10-6 m2/s to 5.37 x 10-2 m2/s, was

  3. Formation of inorganic nanofibers by heat-treatment of poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakane K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers (precursors were formed by electrospinning employing water as a solvent for the spinning solution. The precursors were converted into oxide (ZrO2, carbide (ZrC or nitride (ZrN nanofibers by heating them in air, Ar or N2 atmospheres. Monoclinic ZrO2 nanofibers with high-specific surface area were obtained by heat-treatment of the precursors in air. ZrC and ZrN nanofibers could be obtained below theoretical temperatures calculated from thermodynamics data.

  4. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds to a tropical pasture site (Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Trebs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The input of nitrogen (N to ecosystems has increased dramatically over the past decades. While total (wet + dry N deposition has been extensively determined in temperate regions, only very few data sets of N wet deposition exist for tropical ecosystems, and moreover, reliable experimental information about N dry deposition in tropical environments is lacking. In this study we estimate dry and wet deposition of inorganic N for a remote pasture site in the Amazon Basin based on in-situ measurements. The measurements covered the late dry (biomass burning season, a transition period and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions (12 September to 14 November 2002 and were a part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate 2002 campaign. Ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, ozone (O3, aerosol ammonium (NH4+ and aerosol nitrate (NO3- were measured in real-time, accompanied by simultaneous meteorological measurements. Dry deposition fluxes of NO2 and HNO3 are inferred using the ''big leaf multiple resistance approach'' and particle deposition fluxes are derived using an established empirical parameterization. Bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of NH3 and HONO are estimated by applying a ''canopy compensation point model''. N dry and wet deposition is dominated by NH3 and NH4+, which is largely the consequence of biomass burning during the dry season. The grass surface appeared to have a strong potential for daytime NH3 emission, owing to high canopy compensation points, which are related to high surface temperatures and to direct NH3 emissions from cattle excreta. NO2 also significantly accounted for N dry deposition, whereas HNO3, HONO and N-containing aerosol species were only minor contributors. Ignoring NH3 emission from the vegetation surface, the annual net N deposition rate is estimated to

  5. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds to a tropical pasture site (Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The input of nitrogen (N to ecosystems has increased dramatically over the past decades. While total N deposition (wet + dry has been extensively determined in temperate regions, only very few data sets exist about wet N deposition in tropical ecosystems, and moreover, experimental information about dry N deposition in tropical environments is lacking. In this study we estimate dry and wet deposition of inorganic N for a remote pasture site in the Amazon Basin based on in-situ measurements. The measurements covered the late dry (biomass burning season, a transition period and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions (12 September to 14 November 2002, LBA-SMOCC. Ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, ozone (O3, aerosol ammonium (NH4+ and aerosol nitrate (NO3- were measured in real-time, accompanied by simultaneous (micro-meteorological measurements. Dry deposition fluxes of NO2 and HNO3 are inferred using the ''big leaf multiple resistance approach'' and particle deposition fluxes are derived using an established empirical parameterization. Bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of NH3 and HONO are estimated by applying a ''canopy compensation point model''. Dry and wet N deposition is dominated by NH3 and NH4+, which is largely the consequence of biomass burning during the dry season. The grass surface appeared to have a strong potential for daytime NH3 (re-emission, owing to high canopy compensation points, which are related to high surface temperatures and to direct NH3 emissions from cattle excreta. NO2 also significantly accounted for dry N deposition, whereas HNO3, HONO and N-containing aerosol species were only minor contributors. We estimated a total (dry + wet N deposition of 7.3–9.8 kgN ha-1 yr-1 to the tropical pasture site, whereof 2–4.5 kgN ha-1 yr-1 are attributed to dry N deposition and ~5.3 kgN ha-1 yr-1 to wet N deposition. Our estimate exceeds total

  6. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds to a tropical pasture site (Rondônia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebs, I.; Lara, L. L.; Zeri, L. M. M.; Gatti, L. V.; Artaxo, P.; Dlugi, R.; Slanina, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2006-02-01

    The input of nitrogen (N) to ecosystems has increased dramatically over the past decades. While total (wet + dry) N deposition has been extensively determined in temperate regions, only very few data sets of N wet deposition exist for tropical ecosystems, and moreover, reliable experimental information about N dry deposition in tropical environments is lacking. In this study we estimate dry and wet deposition of inorganic N for a remote pasture site in the Amazon Basin based on in-situ measurements. The measurements covered the late dry (biomass burning) season, a transition period and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions) (12 September to 14 November 2002) and were a part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate) 2002 campaign. Ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3), aerosol ammonium (NH4+) and aerosol nitrate (NO3-) were measured in real-time, accompanied by simultaneous meteorological measurements. Dry deposition fluxes of NO2 and HNO3 are inferred using the ''big leaf multiple resistance approach'' and particle deposition fluxes are derived using an established empirical parameterization. Bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of NH3 and HONO are estimated by applying a ''canopy compensation point model''. N dry and wet deposition is dominated by NH3 and NH4+, which is largely the consequence of biomass burning during the dry season. The grass surface appeared to have a strong potential for daytime NH3 emission, owing to high canopy compensation points, which are related to high surface temperatures and to direct NH3 emissions from cattle excreta. NO2 also significantly accounted for N dry deposition, whereas HNO3, HONO and N-containing aerosol species were only minor contributors. Ignoring NH3 emission from the vegetation surface, the annual net N deposition rate is estimated to be about

  7. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds to a tropical pasture site (Rondónia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebs, I.; Lara, L. L.; Zeri, L. M. M.; Gatti, L. V.; Artaxo, P.; Dlugi, R.; Slanina, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2005-05-01

    The input of nitrogen (N) to ecosystems has increased dramatically over the past decades. While total N deposition (wet + dry) has been extensively determined in temperate regions, only very few data sets exist about wet N deposition in tropical ecosystems, and moreover, experimental information about dry N deposition in tropical environments is lacking. In this study we estimate dry and wet deposition of inorganic N for a remote pasture site in the Amazon Basin based on in-situ measurements. The measurements covered the late dry (biomass burning) season, a transition period and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions) (12 September to 14 November 2002, LBA-SMOCC). Ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3), aerosol ammonium (NH4+) and aerosol nitrate (NO3-) were measured in real-time, accompanied by simultaneous (micro-)meteorological measurements. Dry deposition fluxes of NO2 and HNO3 are inferred using the ''big leaf multiple resistance approach'' and particle deposition fluxes are derived using an established empirical parameterization. Bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of NH3 and HONO are estimated by applying a ''canopy compensation point model''. Dry and wet N deposition is dominated by NH3 and NH4+, which is largely the consequence of biomass burning during the dry season. The grass surface appeared to have a strong potential for daytime NH3 (re-)emission, owing to high canopy compensation points, which are related to high surface temperatures and to direct NH3 emissions from cattle excreta. NO2 also significantly accounted for dry N deposition, whereas HNO3, HONO and N-containing aerosol species were only minor contributors. We estimated a total (dry + wet) N deposition of 7.3-9.8 kgN ha-1 yr-1 to the tropical pasture site, whereof 2-4.5 kgN ha-1 yr-1 are attributed to dry N deposition and ~5.3 kgN ha-1 yr-1 to wet N deposition. Our estimate exceeds total (wet + dry) N

  8. Determination of (210)Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium (210)Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between (210)Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, (210)Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of (210)Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest (210)Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk - 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g(-1) respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate - 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk - 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite - 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year(-1). PMID:26318774

  9. The in vitro investigation of morphological changes of permanent teeth enamel surface under the influence of exogenous means for caries prevention containing different calcium compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Khomenko L.O.; Sorochenko G.V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rationalizing of the choice of the most effective means for exogenous prevention, especially during secondary mineralization, will increase cariesresistance of tooth enamel. Objective - in vitro study of changes of just erupted permanent teeth enamel surface under the influence of exogenous means for caries prevention containing different calcium compounds. Methods. For the study we used 35 enamel samples of permanent teeth that had erupted within the same term (premolars of 11-13...

  10. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson; Vanessa Palermo Bolsoni; Debora Pinheiro de Oliveira; Maria Tereza Gromboni Guaratini; Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar; Mauro Alexandre Marabesi; Edenise Segala Alves; Silvia Ribeiro de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morph...

  11. Trends in air concentration and deposition at background monitoring sites in Sweden - major inorganic compounds, heavy metals and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K.; Svensson, Annika; Sjoeberg, K.; Pihl Karlsson, G.

    2001-09-01

    This report describes concentrations in air of sulphur compounds, soot, nitrogen compounds and ozone in Sweden between 1985-1998. Time trends of concentration in precipitation and deposition of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity, base cations and chloride in six different regions covering Sweden are evaluated during the period 1983-1998. Trends of heavy metals in precipitation have been analysed for the period 1983-1998 and the change in heavy metal concentration, 1975-1995, in mosses is described. Data used in the trend analyses originates from measurements performed at six Swedish EMEP stations and from approximately 25 stations within the national Precipitation Chemistry Network. Two different statistical methods, linear regression and the non-parametric Mann Kendall test, have been used to evaluate changes in annual mean values. Time trends of concentration of sulphur dioxide, particulate sulphate, soot, nitrogen dioxide, total nitrate and total ammonium in air show highly significant decreasing trends, except for soot at one station in northern Sweden. Concentrations of ozone have a strong seasonal variation with a peak occurring in spring every year. However, annual ozone concentrations show no obvious trends in spite of decreasing emissions of the precursors NOx and VOC. A slight indication of a decreasing trend in the number of ozone episodes might be seen from 1990 to 1998. Sulphate concentrations in precipitation and deposition show strongly significant decreasing trends in the whole country. Concentrations and deposition of nitrate and ammonium have been decreasing in all areas except for nitrate at stations in south-west and north-west Sweden and ammonium in south-west Sweden. Acidity has decreased in all areas since 1989, resulting in increasing pH values in Sweden. The interannual variations of concentration and deposition of base cations and chloride are large and few general trends can be seen during 1983-1997. Time trends of four heavy metals in

  12. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Reshef Tenne; Enyashin, Andrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF) and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT) combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects...

  13. Processing and characterisation of Calcium SulfoAluminate (CSA) eco-cements coated with a hybrid organo-inorganic material for photocatalytic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Cantero, Alejandro; Cabeza, Aurelio; De la Torre, Ángeles G.; Aranda, M. A. G.; Santacruz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    On the one hand, Calcium SulfoAluminate (CSA) eco-cements are receiving increasing attention since their manufacture produces up to 40% less CO2 than ordinary Portland cement (OPC). In addition, they show interesting properties such as high early-age strengths, short setting times, impermeability, sulfate and chloride corrosion resistance and low alkalinity. On the other hand, water treatment is a key issue and it will become much more important in the decades ahead. We have developed a p...

  14. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  15. Preparation of polymeric fibers immobilizing inorganic compounds, enzymes, and extractants designed for radionuclide decontamination, ultrapure water production, and rare-earth metal purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To remove and recover targeted ions and molecules at a high rate, inorganic compounds, enzymes, and extractants were immobilized onto a commercially available 6-nylon fiber by radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modifications. Fibrous supports with a smaller diameter provide a larger external interface area with liquids. Modified fibers are fabricated into various shapes such as wound filter and braid according to application sites. First, insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide-impregnated fiber was prepared via precipitation by immersing ferrocyanide ion-bound anion-exchange fiber in cobalt chloride solution. Cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated onto the polymer chain grafted onto the fiber specifically captured cesium ions in seawater. Similarly, sodium titanate impregnated onto a cation-exchange fiber selectively captured strontium ions in seawater. Second, urease was bound by an anion-exchange graft chain, followed by enzymatic cross-linking among urease molecules with transglutaminase. The bed charged with the urease-immobilized fiber exhibited a quantitative hydrolysis of urea at a high space velocity of urea solution. Third, an acidic extractant (HDEHP, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate) was impregnated onto a dodecylamino-group-containing polymer chain grafted onto the 6-nylon fiber. Distribution coefficients of the HDEHP-impregnated fiber for neodymium and dysprosium agreed well with those in n-dodecane. (author)

  16. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  17. Performance of calcium peroxide for removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds in waste activated sludge and promotion of sludge solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai; Wang, Jie; Li, Yongmei

    2015-03-15

    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using calcium peroxide (CaO2) oxidation. Effects of initial pH and CaO2 dosage were investigated. The impacts of CaO2 treatment on sludge solubilization and anaerobic digestion were also evaluated. Specifically, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EDC degradation during CaO2 oxidation was tested. Effects of 6 metal ions contained in the sludge matrix on EDC degradation were also evaluated. The results showed that CaO2 treatment can be a promising technology for EDC removal and facilitating sludge reuse. The EDC removal efficiencies increased with the increase in CaO2 dosage. At CaO2 doses of more than 0.34 g per gram of total solid (g g(-1) TS), more than 50% of EDCs were removed in a wide pH range of 2-12. Higher removal efficiencies were achieved at initial pH values of 12 and 2. The products of EDCs during CaO2 oxidation had less estrogenic activity than the originals. Under the conditions of neutral pH and CaO2 dosage = 0.34 g g(-1) TS, the sludge solubilization can be improved by increasing the soluble total organic carbon (STOC) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction by 25% and 27% in 7 d, respectively; the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was enhanced by 96% in the 15 d following anaerobic digestion. The ROS released by CaO2 are the main factors contributing to EDC removal, among which, hydroxyl radicals (OH) play the most important role. Metal ions contained in the sludge matrix also affected EDC removal. For most cases, Fe, Cu, and Zn had positive effects; Mn and Ag had negative effects; and Mg had an insignificant effect on EDC removal. PMID:25613412

  18. Sprayed microspheres of poly(lactic acid) obtained with calcium compounds; Microesferas aspergidas de poli(acido latico) obtidos com compostos de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Raquel P.; Picciani, Paulo H. de Souza; Dias, Marcos L., E-mail: raquelpires@ima.ufrj.br [Instituto de Macromoleculas - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work PLLA and PDLA were synthesized using calcium methoxide (Ca(OMe){sub 2}) as initiator. This compound shows good activity in the bulk polymerization of L-lactide (LLA) and D-lactide (DLA) producing polymers with average molecular weight up to 22,300 g/mol, but with microstructure containing a significant amount of estereoerros, as revealed by {sup 13} C NMR. Block copolymers containing blocks of L-and D-lactic acid were also prepared, using the method of sequential addition of LLA and DLA in an attempt to obtain stereo complexes. Analyses of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the polymers obtained with catalysts of calcium produced PLA microspheres with diameters of around 5 {mu}m via electro spray technique. (author)

  19. 蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥及其应用%Castor Bean Cereal Based Bio-Organic-Inorganic Compound Fertilizers and Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍荣; 邵建华; 赵立新; 刘园园

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥的性能及特点。通过玉米、水稻、花生大田肥效试验,结果证明蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥具有较好的增产改土效果,可在粮油作物上推广应用。%A brief account is given of the properties and features of castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.By field experiment of fertilizer efficiency with corn, rice and peanut , it is proved that castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers have better effects on increasing production and improving the properities of soil, and can be widely applied to grain and oil crops.

  20. Microbial oxidation and reduction of inorganic sulphur compounds in relation to the development and control of microorganisms active in leaching operations. Part of a coordinated programme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project considers the use of Thiobacillus ferroxidans type bacteria for the leaching of metals from ores. The various ways by which Thiobacillus ferroxidans utilizes inorganic sulfur compounds for oxidation, energy, growth and synthesis of cellular material were studied. The report briefly describes the scope and background of the project, and a list of publications describing experimental methods and research materials used is given. Unpublished work commenced during the Research Contract includes three major projects: (1) Transition of Thiobacillus ferroxidans from heterotrophic growth on fucose to autotropic growth on ferrous-iron; (2) development of a method to determine the ATP-content of bacteria attached to ore particles; (3) microbiological and chemical interactions of inorganic sulfur compounds. These three projects are summarized briefly

  1. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae: metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson

    Full Text Available Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC, specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA, mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC in the defence against ozone (O3 oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3 that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  2. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  3. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca2+ uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and suppressed the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective tetracyclines protect by

  4. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lemasters, John J., E-mail: JJLemasters@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective

  5. Calcium controls the assembly of the photosynthetic water-oxidizing complex: a cadmium(II) inorganic mutant of the Mn4Ca core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, John E; Baranov, Sergei V; Ananyev, Gennady M; Dismukes, G Charles

    2008-03-27

    Perturbation of the catalytic inorganic core (Mn4Ca1OxCly) of the photosystem II-water-oxidizing complex (PSII-WOC) isolated from spinach is examined by substitution of Ca2+ with cadmium(II) during core assembly. Cd2+ inhibits the yield of reconstitution of O2-evolution activity, called photoactivation, starting from the free inorganic cofactors and the cofactor-depleted apo-WOC-PSII complex. Ca2+ affinity increases following photooxidation of the first Mn2+ to Mn3+ bound to the 'high-affinity' site. Ca2+ binding occurs in the dark and is the slowest overall step of photoactivation (IM1-->IM1* step). Cd2+ competitively blocks the binding of Ca2+ to its functional site with 10- to 30-fold higher affinity, but does not influence the binding of Mn2+ to its high-affinity site. By contrast, even 10-fold higher concentrations of Cd2+ have no effect on O2-evolution activity in intact PSII-WOC. Paradoxically, Cd2+ both inhibits photoactivation yield, while accelerating the rate of photoassembly of active centres 10-fold relative to Ca2+. Cd2+ increases the kinetic stability of the photooxidized Mn3+ assembly intermediate(s) by twofold (mean lifetime for dark decay). The rate data provide evidence that Cd2+ binding following photooxidation of the first Mn3+, IM1-->IM1*, causes three outcomes: (i) a longer intermediate lifetime that slows IM1 decay to IM0 by charge recombination, (ii) 10-fold higher probability of attaining the degrees of freedom (either or both cofactor and protein d.f.) needed to bind and photooxidize the remaining 3 Mn2+ that form the functional cluster, and (iii) increased lability of Cd2+ following Mn4 cluster assembly results in (re)exchange of Cd2+ by Ca2+ which restores active O2-evolving centres. Prior EPR spectroscopic data provide evidence for an oxo-bridged assembly intermediate, Mn3+(mu-O2(-))Ca2+, for IM1*. We postulate an analogous inhibited intermediate with Cd2+ replacing Ca2+. PMID:17954439

  6. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples

  7. Investigation of the influence of liquid water films on O3 and PAN deposition on plant leaf surfaces treated with organic / inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water films on environmental surfaces play an important role in various fields of interest (Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994). For example, the deposition of water soluble trace gases could be increased by surface moisture. Chameides and Stelson (1992) found out that the dissolution of trace gases in airborne particulate matter increases with rising water/solid ratio of the particles. Further, Flechard et al. (1999) concluded that deliquescent salt particles represent a potential sink for trace gases, depending on their chemical property. The formation of surface water films and its influence on the gas deposition was proposed by many previous studies (Fuentes and Gillespie, 1992, Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994, van Hove et al., 1989, Burkhardt et al., 1999, Flechard et al., 1999). In this study we investigate the influence of leaf surface water films on the deposition of O3 and PAN under controlled laboratory conditions. A twin cuvette system described in Sun et al. (2015) was used to control the environmental parameters such as light, temperature, trace gas mixing ratio and humidity. Furthermore, the leaf surface was treated with various organic and inorganic solutions to investigate the influence of deposited compounds on the electrical surface conductance of the leaves and the surface deposition of O3 and PAN at various relative humidities. The result shows that RHcrit, where the electrical surface conductance (G) increases exponentially, was 40 % during the light period and 50 % during the dark period. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of the leaf surface liquid film was depended on the deposited compounds on the leaf cuticles. For the O3 deposition on plants (Quercus ilex) a clear enhancement at rising environmental air humidity under light and dark condition was found. The increase during light conditions can be related partly to increasing stomatal conductance with higher RH. From the non-stomatal deposition measured in dark experiments, we could

  8. Utilizing Model Nanostructured Porous Inorganic Compounds Such as Silica to Beneficially Confine “Bio”-Relevant Molecules and Demonstrate their Potential in Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Aninda J; Mandal, Soumit S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract | The importance of well-defined inorganic porous nanostructured materials in the context of biotechnological applications such as drug delivery and biomolecular sensing is reviewed here in detail. Under optimized conditions, the confinement of “bio”-relevant molecules such as pharmaceutical drugs, enzymes or proteins inside such inorganic nanostructures may be remarkably beneficial leading to enhanced molecular stability, activity and performance. From the point of view of bas...

  9. Effects of uncertainties in the thermodynamic properties of aerosol components in an air quality model – Part I: Treatment of inorganic electrolytes and organic compounds in the condensed phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Seinfeld

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Air quality models that generate the concentrations of semi-volatile and other condensable organic compounds using an explicit reaction mechanism require estimates of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds that affect gas/aerosol partitioning: vapour pressure (as a subcooled liquid, and activity coefficients in the aerosol phase. The model of Griffin, Kleeman and co-workers (e.g., Griffin et al., 1999; Kleeman et al., 1999 assumes that aerosol particles consist of an aqueous phase, containing inorganic electrolytes and soluble organic compounds, and a hydrophobic phase containing mainly primary hydrocarbon material. Thirty eight semi-volatile reaction products are grouped into ten surrogate species which partition between the gas phase and both phases in the aerosol. Activity coefficients of the organic compounds are calculated using UNIFAC. In a companion paper (Clegg et al., 2007 we examine the likely uncertainties in the vapour pressures of the semi-volatile compounds and their effects on partitioning over a range of atmospheric relative humidities. In this work a simulation for the South Coast Air Basin surrounding Los Angeles, using lower vapour pressures of the semi-volatile surrogate compounds consistent with estimated uncertainties in the boiling points on which they are based, yields a doubling of the predicted 24-h average secondary organic aerosol concentrations. The dependency of organic compound partitioning on the treatment of inorganic electrolytes in the air quality model, and the performance of this component of the model, are determined by analysing the results of a trajectory calculation using an extended version of the Aerosol Inorganics Model of Wexler and Clegg (2002. Simplifications are identified where substantial efficiency gains can be made, principally: the omission of dissociation of the organic acid surrogates; restriction of aerosol organic compounds to one of the two phases (aqueous or

  10. Effects of uncertainties in the thermodynamic properties of aerosol components in an air quality model ─ Part 1: Treatment of inorganic electrolytes and organic compounds in the condensed phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Seinfeld

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Air quality models that generate the concentrations of semi-volatile and other condensable organic compounds using an explicit reaction mechanism require estimates of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds that affect gas/aerosol partitioning: vapour pressure (as a subcooled liquid, and activity coefficients in the aerosol phase. The model of Griffin, Kleeman and co-workers (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003; Kleeman et al., 1999 assumes that aerosol particles consist of an aqueous phase, containing inorganic electrolytes and soluble organic compounds, and a hydrophobic phase containing mainly primary hydrocarbon material. Thirty eight semi-volatile reaction products are grouped into ten surrogate species which partition between the gas phase and both phases in the aerosol. Activity coefficients of the organic compounds are calculated using UNIFAC. In a companion paper (Clegg et al., 2008 we examine the likely uncertainties in the vapour pressures of the semi-volatile compounds and their effects on partitioning over a range of atmospheric relative humidities. In this work a simulation for the South Coast Air Basin surrounding Los Angeles, using lower vapour pressures of the semi-volatile surrogate compounds consistent with estimated uncertainties in the boiling points on which they are based, yields a doubling of the predicted 24-h average secondary organic aerosol concentrations. The dependency of organic compound partitioning on the treatment of inorganic electrolytes in the air quality model, and the performance of this component of the model, are determined by analysing the results of a trajectory calculation using an extended version of the Aerosol Inorganics Model of Wexler and Clegg (2002. Simplifications are identified where substantial efficiency gains can be made, principally: the omission of dissociation of the organic acid surrogates; restriction of aerosol organic compounds to one of the two phases (aqueous or

  11. Calcium-Tracers disclose the Site of Biomineralisation in inner Ear Otoliths of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, M.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Since changing gravity (concerning direction and amplitude) strongly affects inner ear otolith growth and otolithic calcium incorporation in developing fish, it was the aim of the present study to locate the site of mineralisation in order to gain cues and insights into the provenance of the otoliths inorganic compounds. Therefore, larval cichlid fish ( reochromis mossambicus) were incubated in theO calcium-tracer alizarin complexone (AC; red fluorescence). After maintenance in aquarium water for various periods (1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h, 12h, 1d, 2d, 3d, 5d, 6d, 7d, 15d, 29d, 36d and 87d), the animals were incubated in the calcium-tracer calcein (CAL; green fluorescence). AC thus labelled calcium being incorporated at the beginning of the experiment and would subsequently accompany calcium in the course of a possible dislocation, whereas CAL visualized calcium being deposited right at the end of the test. Subsequently, the otoliths were analysed using a laser-scanning microscope and it was shown that the initial site of calcium incorporation was located directly adjacent to the sensory epithelium and the otolithic membrane. Later, calcium deposits were also found on further regions of the otoliths' surface area, where they had been shifted to in the course of dislocation. This finding strongly indicates that the sensory epithelium plays a prominent role in otolithic biomineralisation, which is in full agreement with an electron microscopical study (Ibsch et al., this issue). Future studies will address the question, as of whether either the sensory epithelium is directly involved in the provision of calcium (and possibly further inorganic compounds of the otoliths) or, in contrast, that the otoliths' proteinacious matrix exclusively exhibits nucleation centers for calcium incorporation in an area adjacent to the receptor epithelium. This work was financially supported by the German A erospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  12. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them.Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and

  13. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S.; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L.; de Almeida, Aline; dos Santos, Carla Eliete I.; Dias, Johnny F.; Allgayer, Mariangela C.; dos Santos, Marcela S.; Pereira, Patrícia; Picada, Jaqueline N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200–2,000 mg kg−1). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg−1. However, PSAE (50–200 mg·kg−1) and the phenolic compounds (10–100 mg·kg−1) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10–100 mg·kg−1) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients. PMID:27525021

  14. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  15. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, four domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, three dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituent, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that equaled or exceeded their reporting levels. The ethylbenzene concentration in one water sample exceeded the reporting level

  16. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  17. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L; Smith, Charles D; Lemasters, John J

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500μM iodoacetic acid plus 1mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH6.2 for 4h prior to reoxygenation at pH7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca(2+) uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and suppressed the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. PMID:24012766

  18. Effects of Lattice Defects and Niobium Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of Calcium Manganate Compounds for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Ayelet; Amouyal, Yaron

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric (TE) properties of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) CaO(CaMnO3) m n-type compounds, to be applied for TE waste heat recovery at elevated temperatures. We prepared several Nb-doped and undoped CaO(CaMnO3) m compounds having different CaO planar densities by controlling the Ca content via solid-state reaction, and characterized the resulting microstructures by x-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and TE thermopower of the different compounds were measured in the range from 300 K through 1000 K. We observed a remarkable reduction in thermal conductivity as a result of increasing the CaO planar density for the Nb-doped RP compounds, from a value of 2.9 W m-1 K-1 for m = ∞ down to 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for m = 1 at 1000 K. This trend was, however, accompanied by a corresponding reduction in electrical conductivity from 76 Ω-1 cm-1 to 2.9 Ω-1 cm-1, which is associated with electron scattering. Finally, we propose an approach that enables optimization of the TE performance of these RP compounds.

  19. Effect of Preharvest Calcium Treatments on Sweet Cherry Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz EROGUL

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different foliar calcium compounds on fruit cracking and quality of sweet cherry variety ‘0900 Ziraat’ were investigated. Calcium caseinate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide and calcium nitrate were used as foliar sprays. Calcium applications reduced the cracking index 38% to 66% compared to cherries that did not receive foliar treatment. The most efficient applications for decreasing cracking were calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride. Calcium chloride and c...

  20. Welcome to Inorganics: a new open access, inclusive forum for inorganic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Duncan H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a ...

  1. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  2. Synthesis and Characterizaion of a New Inorganic-organic Sulfate Compound--Crystal Structure of [Ni(H2O)6][H2N(C2H4)2NH2](SO4)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG He; XING Yan; FU Yun-long; SHI Zhan; PANG Wen-qin

    2004-01-01

    [Ni(H2O)6][H2N(C2H4)2NH2](SO4)2 is an inorganic-organic compound with a new open framework synthesized by hydrothermal method, and characterized by means of single-crystal diffraction and spectroscopic data. The compound crystallized in a monoclinic space group P21/n with a=1.29089(2) nm, b=1.06301(3) nm, c=1.33202(4) nm, β=114.0870(10)°, V=1.67127(8) nm3, Z=4, and was solved by using the direct method and the least-squares refinement converged at R=0.0214[I>2σ(I)]. The structure consists of isolated Ni(H2O)6 octahedra and SO4 tetrahedra, with both of them hydrogen-bonded to piperazine cations.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and luminescent properties of one new inorganic-organic hybrid compound [O 2NBzQL] 4[Cd(SCN) 4(NCS) 2] (O 2NBzQL = 1-(4'-NO 2-benzyl)quinolinium cation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Hu, Xue-Fu; Dang, Dong-Bin; Bi, Feng-Lei; Niu, Jing-Yang

    2011-01-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid compound [O 2NBzQL] 4[Cd(SCN) 4(NCS) 2] (O 2NBzQL = 1-(4'-NO 2-benzyl)quinolinium cation) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. Cd(II) atom has an distorted octahedral environment with an N 4S 2 donor set. In solid state there are three types of face-to-face π-π interactions between adjacent cations and multiform C-H⋯S and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between [O 2NBzQL] + cations and cadmium thiocyanate anions. The luminescent properties of the title compound were both investigated in H 2O solution and in solid state at room temperature, respectively.

  4. Radiolead (210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in calcium supplements and the assessment of their possible dose to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2016-08-23

    This paper presents the results of pioneer study of the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of radiolead (210)Pb in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some came from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The idea was to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Pb activity in different calcium supplements and calculate the annual effective radiation dose from radiolead (210)Pb decay in consumed calcium supplement. The results showed (210)Pb concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were significantly higher. The highest (210)Pb activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from dolomite - 2.97 ± 0.18 mBq g(-1), while the lowest was observed in organic calcium compounds - both calcium lactate - 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was calculated for soluble calcium lactate sample - 1.19 ± 0.03 µSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken daily with 1 g of pure Ca for dolomite - 5.57 ± 0.34 µSv year(-1). PMID:27253716

  5. Effect of Compounding of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Super Plasticizers on the Hydration of α-calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei; WANG Peiming

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition and its mechanism of sodium tripolyphosphate(STP)composited with super plasticizers(SPs)on hydration of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate were studied by setting time,strength,hydration heat,X-ray diffraction(XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),electronic probe micro analysis (EPMA),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)measurements.The experimental results show that compared with STP addition,compositing STP with polycarboxylate(PC)plasticizer,the final setting time is prolonged from 0.5h to 2hs.While formulating STP with naphthalene-based plasticizer(NAP)or sulfonate melamine formaldehyde plasticizer(SMF),the final setting time is reduced to quarter of an hour Similar changes can also be found in the rate of exothermic hydration and hydration degree.Formulating STP with suitable addition of PC can enhance the strength,while compositing STP and NAP or SMF weakens the strength.Besides,adding STP or STP and SMF,obvious movement(more than lev)of binding energy of Ca2p1/2 and Ca2p3/2 is detected.Compared with STP addition,content of the characteristic element(P)of STP is cut down form 1.1% to 0.49% by compositing STP with SMF.Furthermore,as hydration age increases,hydration inhibition in the presence of admixtures weakens and even disappears within 56 h.

  6. Characteristics and source of inorganic and organic compounds in the sediments from two hydrothermal fields of the Central Indian and Mid-Atlantic Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Wu, Zijun; Li, Jiangtao; Chen, Shun; Yao, Huiqiang

    2011-05-01

    A combined inorganic and organic geochemical study was carried out on sediments collected from the Kairei hydrothermal field on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Analysis of the major and trace elements as well as the minerals shows that the Kairei hydrothermal sediments are formed by the mixing of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids with Mg-rich seawaters, but the Logatchev sediments are associated with pelagic carbonate oozes containing some precipitates derived from hydrothermal plume fall-out. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of Kairei sediments show a character of light REE (LREE) enrichment and positive Eu anomaly, whereas two of the three Logatchev sediment samples lack positive Eu anomaly and have negative Ce anomaly. Patterns of aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions in the sediments from both hydrothermal fields exhibit high relative concentrations of volatile resolved components, smooth n-alkane distributions and high concentrations of the isoprenoids pristane and phytane. The composition of organic matter and C isotope composition of individual n-alkanes indicate that they come from marine photosynthetic autotrophs and hydrothermal organisms, as well as terrestrial inputs in the Kairei and the Logatchev hydrothermal fields. Several parameters of organic geochemistry, used for assessing the maturity of bitumen, are well correlated with one another. In general, these parameters indicate that the Kairei sediments are more mature than the Logatchev sediments. The relationship between the inorganic parameters (REE/Fe and Eu/Eu ∗) and the organic parameter (bitumen maturity) might reflect changes of the hydrothermal influence on the sediments. The results of this study provide an insight into the variation of inorganic and organic geochemistry in deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  7. Calcium-tracers disclose the site of biomineralization in inner ear otoliths of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, M.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Since changing gravity (concerning direction and amplitude) strongly affects inner ear otolith growth and otolithic calcium incorporation in developing fish, it was the aim of the present study to locate the site of mineralization in order to gain cues and insights into the provenance of the otoliths inorganic compounds. Therefore, larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin complexone (AC; red fluorescence). After maintenance in aquarium water for various periods (1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h; 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 15, 29, 36 and 87 d), the animals were incubated in the calcium-tracer calcein (CAL; green fluorescence). AC thus labeled calcium being incorporated at the beginning of the experiment and would subsequently accompany calcium in the course of a possible dislocation, whereas CAL visualized calcium being deposited right at the end of the test. Subsequently, the otoliths were analyzed using a laser scanning microscope and it was shown that the initial site of calcium incorporation was located directly adjacent to the sensory epithelium and the otolithic membrane. Later, calcium deposits were also found on further regions of the otoliths' surface area, where they had been shifted to in the course of dislocation. This finding strongly indicates that the sensory epithelium plays a prominent role in otolithic biomineralization, which is in full agreement with an own electron microscopical study [ELGRA News 23 (2003) 63].

  8. Spontaneous Aerosol Ejection: Origin of Inorganic Particles in Biomass Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Gantt, Rachel; Joseph, Kristeen E; Maduskar, Saurabh; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Zhu, Cheng; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    At high thermal flux and temperatures of approximately 500 °C, lignocellulosic biomass transforms to a reactive liquid intermediate before evaporating to condensable bio-oil for downstream upgrading to renewable fuels and chemicals. However, the existence of a fraction of nonvolatile compounds in condensed bio-oil diminishes the product quality and, in the case of inorganic materials, catalyzes undesirable aging reactions within bio-oil. In this study, ablative pyrolysis of crystalline cellulose was evaluated, with and without doped calcium, for the generation of inorganic-transporting aerosols by reactive boiling ejection from liquid intermediate cellulose. Aerosols were characterized by laser diffraction light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and high-speed photography. Pyrolysis product fractionation revealed that approximately 3 % of the initial feed (both organic and inorganic) was transported to the gas phase as aerosols. Large bubble-to-aerosol size ratios and visualization of significant late-time ejections in the pyrolyzing cellulose suggest the formation of film bubbles in addition to the previously discovered jet formation mechanism. PMID:27125341

  9. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  10. Synthesis, microstructural and electrical characterization of ceramic compounds based on strontium and calcium titanates and iron-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CaxSr1-xTi1-yFeyO3-δ, X = 0, 0.5 and 1.0, y = 0 and 0.35, ceramic compounds were synthesized by reactive solid state synthesis of CaCO3, SrCO3, TiO2 and Fe2O3, and by the polymeric precursor technique. The ceramic powders were evaluated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Sintered ceramic pellets were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The electromotive force resulting from the exposing the pellets to partial pressure de oxygen in the ∼50 ppm in the 600-1100 ℃ range was monitored using an experimental setup consisting of an oxygen electrochemical pump with yttria-stabilized zirconia transducer and sensor. Rietveld analysis of the X-ray data allowed for determining the crystalline structures: cubic perovskite (y = 0) and orthorhombic perovskite (y ≠ 0). The electrical conductivity was determined by the two probe impedance spectroscopy measurements in the 5 Hz-13 MHz frequency range from room temperature to approximately 200 ℃. The deconvolution of the [-Z(ω) x Z'(ω)] impedance diagrams in the 300 < T(K) < 500 range shows two semicircles due to intragranular (bulk) and intergranular (grain boundary) contributions to the electrical resistivity. Sintered pellets using powders prepared by the ceramic route present higher inter- and intragranular resistivity values than pellets prepared with chemically synthesized powders. The emf signal under exposure oxygen shows that these compounds may be used in oxygen sensing devices in the 600 - 1100 ℃ range. Scanning probe microscopy topographic analysis of the polished and thermally etched surfaces of the pellets gave details of grain morphology, showing that pellets prepared with powders synthesized by the chemical route are less porous than the ones obtained by the ceramic route. These results are in agreement with the impedance spectroscopy results. (author)

  11. Structural study and crystallography of the major compound of anhydrous cement: tri-calcium silicate; Etude structurale et cristallographie du compose majoritaire du ciment anhydre: le silicate tricalcique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirfontaine, M.N. de

    2000-01-01

    Anhydrous (Portland) cement is mainly composed of a synthetic material, the clinker, whose major compound is tri-calcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), often referred as C{sub 3}S with the compact oxides notations, C = CaO et S = SiO{sub 2}. The polymorphism of C{sub 3}S, still not well known, is the main subject of the thesis. Various crystal structures (rhombohedral R, monoclinic M1, M2, M3 and triclinic T1, T2, T3) can be found, depending on temperature and impurities. The only known structures are T1, M1 and M3, involving large unit cells with an orientational disorder of silicate tetrahedra. The single crystal studies exhibit no clear relation between the various polymorphs. Starting from known results from literature single crystal experiments, we establish the metric and structural relations between the different structures. Averaged structures for the T1, M1 and M3 polymorphs are proposed, together with all the matrices of transformation between the unit cells. We also introduce new 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D structural units, which make easier the understanding of the structures of C{sub 3}S, with the result of a better description of the orientational disorder. The effects of impurities on the structure are discussed. In industrial clinkers, impurities stabilize mainly M1 and M3 monoclinic forms. We propose a space group (Pc) and two structural models (a superstructure and an approximate averaged structure) for the M1 form. All the models are validated on synthetic compounds (M3, M2, M1 et T1) and industrial clinkers analysed by X-Ray powder diffraction with Rietveld analysis. (author)

  12. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  13. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  14. Utilização da múltipla voltametria de onda quadrada na determinação eletroanalítica de compostos orgânicos e inorgânicos Use of the multiple square wave voltammetry in the electroanalytical determination of organic and inorganic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djenaine De Souza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development of multiple square wave voltammetry and the possibilities of its use for electroanalytical determinations of organic and inorganic compounds with the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratios and detection limits 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those obtained with conventional square wave voltammetry. The theoretical aspects and analytical applications were demonstrated as an increased analytical response (current and application of different pulse modes for different redox processes. Preliminary results obtained for several redox systems using different electrode surfaces are shown, demonstrating also that MSWV represents an excellent alternative for the determination of ultra-traces of organic and inorganic compounds.

  15. Calcium Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlyin...

  16. The synthesis, characterization and optical properties of Si4+ and Pr4+ doped Y6 MoO12 compounds: environmentally benign inorganic pigments with high NIR reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Much interest has attended roofing materials with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance, so that interiors stay cool, thereby reducing the demand for air conditioned buildings. The heat producing region of the infrared radiations ranges from 700-1100 nm. Replacing conventional pigments with 'cool pigments' that absorb less NIR radiation can provide coatings similar in color to that of conventional roofing materials, but with higher solar reflectance. NIR reflective pigments have been used in the military, construction, plastics and ink industries. Complex inorganic pigments based on mixed metal oxides (eg., chromium green, cobalt blue, cadmium stannate, lead chromate, cadmium yellow and chrome titanate yellow), which have been used in camouflage, absorb visible light but reflect the NIR portion of incident radiation. However, many of these pigments are toxic and there is a need to develop novel colored, NIR-reflecting inorganic pigments that are less hazardous to the environment. In this work, a series of NIR reflective colored pigments of formula Y6-xMxMoO12+δ (where M Si4+ or Pr4+ and x ranges from 0 to 1.0) were synthesized by traditional solid-state route and applied to asbestos cement roofing material so as to evaluate their use as 'cool pigments'. The phase purity of the calcined pigment samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectance of the powdered pigment samples were measured using a UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer. The Lab color coordinates were evaluated by CIE 1976 color scale. Replacing Si4+ for Y3+ in Y6MoO12 changed the color from light-yellow to dark-yellow and the band gap decreased from 2.60 to 2.45 eV due to O2p-Mo4d charge transfer transitions. In contrast, replacing Pr4+ for Y3+ changed the color from light yellow to dark brown and the band gap shifted from 2.60 to 1.90 eV. The coloring mechanism is based on the introduction of an additional 4f1 electron energy level of Pr4+ between the valence

  17. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  18. Inorganic Sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic sunscreens, based on TiO2 and ZnO, are a rapidly growing segment of the overall UV protection market. They offer the advantages of high SPF, broad-spectrum coverage and reduced potential irritancy to users. Lack of transparency has traditionally been a drawback regarding acceptance of these products. Recent development work has therefore prioritised the achievement of transparency through superior control of particle size, shape and particle size distribution. The properties of TiO2 and ZnO are discussed as sunscreen actives, and the key factors affecting efficacy and cosmetic elegance. The pros and cons of different product forms (powders and dispersions) are discussed. physical sunscreens can be used either as the sole active in a formulation, or in combination with each other or with organic sunscreens; the relative benefits of these approaches are assessed. The paper concludes with a review of work undertaken to achieve transparency along with developments to improve efficacy (SPF and UVA coverage) and photostability. (author)

  19. Inorganic Sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dransfield, G.P

    2000-07-01

    Inorganic sunscreens, based on TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, are a rapidly growing segment of the overall UV protection market. They offer the advantages of high SPF, broad-spectrum coverage and reduced potential irritancy to users. Lack of transparency has traditionally been a drawback regarding acceptance of these products. Recent development work has therefore prioritised the achievement of transparency through superior control of particle size, shape and particle size distribution. The properties of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO are discussed as sunscreen actives, and the key factors affecting efficacy and cosmetic elegance. The pros and cons of different product forms (powders and dispersions) are discussed. physical sunscreens can be used either as the sole active in a formulation, or in combination with each other or with organic sunscreens; the relative benefits of these approaches are assessed. The paper concludes with a review of work undertaken to achieve transparency along with developments to improve efficacy (SPF and UVA coverage) and photostability. (author)

  20. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  1. DFT (B3LYP/LanL2DZ and B3LYP/6311G+(d,p)) comparative vibrational spectroscopic analysis of organic-inorganic compound bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkari, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-07-01

    The organic-inorganic salt, bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II), was synthesized and characterized by means of FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Raman (3500-50 cm-1) in solid phase. The structure of [C8H10NO]2CuCl4 compound which was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method showed that the calculated values obtained by B3LYP with LanL2DZ and 6311G+(d,p) basis sets are in better agreement with the experimental data. The computed vibrational frequencies were scaled by different scale factors to yield a good agreement with the experimental vibrational frequencies. The latter have been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6311G+(d,p) and B3LYP/LanL2DZ method approach in gas phase. Besides, the effects due to the substitutions and the intermolecular interactions were investigated. The comparative analysis of the Raman spectra of the title compound with that of the free ligand was also discussed. The geometries and normal modes of the vibrations obtained from B3LYP/6311G+(d,p) calculation are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed data. The complete vibrational assignments and analysis of the observed fundamental bands of molecule were carried out.

  2. Evaluation of radionuclide, inorganic constituent, and organic compound data from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1989--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, evaluated the water quality data collected from 55 wells and springs during 1989 and 1990 through 1992 from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho. Water samples collected in 1989-92 were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. A statistical comparison between data collected in 1989 and data collected in 1990-92 along with a comparison of replicate pairs was used to evaluate changes in water quality between samples and to assess sampling and analysis precision for individual constituents. The comparisons of radionuclide data showed no pattern of water quality change between samples as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. Tritium concentrations did show a consistent pattern with location in the aquifer. The largest tritium concentrations occurred in water from wells in the Big Wood and Little Wood River drainages and in the southern part of the study area where heavy irrigation occurs. The variability of radionuclide concentrations may be attributed to the change in the contract laboratory used for radiochemical analyses between 1989 and 1990. The replicate data for radionuclides showed better overall reproducibility for data collected in 1990-92 than for 1989, as 70 of 76 replicate pairs were statistically equivalent for 1990-92 data whereas only 55 of 73 replicate pairs were equivalent for 1989 data. The comparisons of most of the inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between samples. Exceptions include nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and orthophosphate as phosphorus data. Fifteen sample pairs for nitride plus nitrate and 18 sample pairs for orthophosphate were not statistically equivalent and concentrations randomly increased or decreased

  3. The effect of organolead and -tin compounds on signal transduction in vitro: Investigations on the cytosolic free calcium concentration; Der Einfluss von organischen Blei- und Zinnverbindungen auf die Signaltransduktion in vitro: Untersuchungen zur Veraenderung der zytosolischen freien Calciumkonzentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, T.

    1996-03-01

    The cellular effects of organolead and -tin compounds are not yet precisely understood. However, on the basis of their immuno- and neurotoxicity it is most likely that these substances interfere with cellular signal transduction. For this reason the effect on cytosolic free calcium concentration was investigated in this study. The organometals used induce a persistent increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration in human leukaemia HL-60 cells as well as in neuroblastoma NG-108-15 cells. Studies of the mechanism of the organometal effect with EGTA and calcium channel blockers revealed that an influx of calcium from the extracellular space is responsible for the organometal-induced calcium elevation in HL-60 cells. The effect of the investigated lead compounds and tributyltin is due to calcium channel opening in the plasma membrane. The same is true for the NG108-15 cells. Activation of distinct receptor-mediated signal transduction is not the reason for channel opening. The regulation of cytosolic free calcium concentration was affected by inhibition of plasmamembrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases as well as by disturbance of other ion gradients. A consequence of the organometal effect on the cytosolic calcium concentration is the activation of a cPLA{sub 2} and perhaps the induction of apoptosis. These results contribute towards the understanding of biochemical mechanisms causing the injury of vells by organometals. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zellulaeren Wirkungsmechanismen organischer Blei- und Zinnverbindungen sind zum grossen Teil nicht verstanden. Die immuno- und neurotoxischen Effekte dieser Xenobiotika lassen jedoch die Beeinflussung der Signalwege in den Zellen vermuten. Daher lag der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit in der Untersuchung der Signaluebertragungswege und der damit verbundenen Regulation des Calciums. Sowohl in immunkompetenten Zellen (HL-60) wie auch in neuronalen Zellen (NG108-15) induzierten die untersuchten Organometalle eine persistente Erhoehung der

  4. Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bechir, M.; Karoui, K.; Tabellout, M.; Guidara, K.; Ben Rhaiem, A.

    2014-04-01

    [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4 has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and impedance spectroscopy. The [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4 hybrid compound is crystallized at room temperature (T ≈ 300 K) in the orthorhombic system with Pnma space group. Five phase transitions (T1 = 255 K, T2 = 282 K, T3 = 302 K, T4 = 320 K, and T5 = 346 K) have been proved by DSC measurements. The electrical technique was measured in the 10-1-107 Hz frequency range and 233-363 K temperature interval. The frequency dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law. The AC electrical conduction in [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4 is analyzed by different processes, which can be attributed to several models: the correlated barrier hopping model in phase I, the overlapping large polaron tunneling model in phase II, the quantum mechanical tunneling model in phase IV, and the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in phases III, V, and VI. The conduction mechanism is studied with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are determined.

  5. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel L-cysteine electrochemical sensor: Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopy and crystal structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zohreh Derikvand; Azadeh Azadbakht

    2015-11-01

    Dinuclear coordination compound of Cu(II), namely, [Cu2(pydc)2(pz)(H2O)2]·2H2O, where pydc = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid) and pz = pyrazine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectra (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis, magnetic measurements and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the dimeric structure, the planar tridentate pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dianion coordinates to a Cu(II) ion in a meridional fashion and defines the basal plane of the complex. The fourth equatorial coordination site is then occupied by a pyrazine molecule that functions as a linear bidentate ligand bridging two Cu(II) complexes to form a dimer. The axial positions of each Cu(II) complex are occupied by one water molecule to form a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The complicated hydrogen bonding network accompanied with C–O· · · and C–H· · · stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 into a fascinating supramolecular architecture. Electrochemical behavior of [Cu2(pydc)2(pz)(H2O)2] (Cu-PDAP) on the surface of carbon nanotube (CNTs) glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is described. Oxidation of cysteine on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the Cu-PDAP/CNTs film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards L-cysteine oxidation.

  6. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  7. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in the organic-inorganic hybrid compound bis(4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium) tetrathiocyanatozinc(II)-4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine-water (1/2/2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Zeller, Matthias; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan

    2016-04-01

    Zinc thiocyanate complexes have been found to be biologically active compounds. Zinc is also an essential element for the normal function of most organisms and is the main constituent in a number of metalloenzyme proteins. Pyrimidine and aminopyrimidine derivatives are biologically very important as they are components of nucleic acids. Thiocyanate ions can bridge metal ions by employing both their N and S atoms for coordination. They can play an important role in assembling different coordination structures and yield an interesting variety of one-, two- and three-dimensional polymeric metal-thiocyanate supramolecular frameworks. The structure of a new zinc thiocyanate-aminopyrimidine organic-inorganic compound, (C6H9ClN3)2[Zn(NCS)4]·2C6H8ClN3·2H2O, is reported. The asymmetric unit consist of half a tetrathiocyanatozinc(II) dianion, an uncoordinated 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium cation, a 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine molecule and a water molecule. The Zn(II) atom adopts a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry and is coordinated by four N atoms from the thiocyanate anions. The Zn(II) atom is located on a special position (twofold axis of symmetry). The pyrimidinium cation and the pyrimidine molecule are not coordinated to the Zn(II) atom, but are hydrogen bonded to the uncoordinated water molecules and the metal-coordinated thiocyanate ligands. The pyrimidine molecules and pyrimidinium cations also form base-pair-like structures with an R2(2)(8) ring motif via N-H...N hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular N-H...O, O-H...S, N-H...S and O-H...N hydrogen bonds, by intramolecular N-H...Cl and C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, and also by π-π stacking interactions. PMID:27045184

  8. Comparison between GC-MS and GC-ICPMS using isotope dilution for the simultaneous monitoring of inorganic and methyl mercury, butyl and phenyl tin compounds in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, J; Preud'homme, H; Amouroux, D; Tessier, E; Monperrus, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is to compare simultaneous isotope dilution analysis of organotin and organomercury compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP/MS) on certified bivalve samples. These samples were extracted by microwave with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Derivatization with both NaBEt4 and NaBPr4 was evaluated, and analytical performances were compared. Two CRM materials, BCR-710 and CRM-477, were analyzed by both techniques to verify accuracy. A mixed spike containing (201)Hg-enriched methylmercury (MeHg), (199)Hg-enriched inorganic mercury (iHg), (119)Sn-enriched monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) as well as homemade (116)Sn-enriched monophenyltin (MPT), diphenyltin (DPT), and triphenyltin (TPT) was used for the isotope dilution analysis of samples. The two techniques studied were compared in terms of classic analytical parameters: linearity, precision or repeatability (i.e., percent relative standard deviation, RSD%), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ), showing excellent linearity, precision below 12% for all analytes, and LOQs of 0.06-1.45 pg for GC-MS and 0.02-0.27 pg for GC-ICP/MS. PMID:24136249

  9. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca2+]i) in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = −0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 μM), Nimodipine (10 μM), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 μM) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca2+]i. Overall, elevation of [Ca2+]i by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca2+]i should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells

  10. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca2+]i in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Varghese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in breast cancer cells (MCF-7. Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM with a strong negative correlation (r = −0.713 to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 μM, Nimodipine (10 μM, Caffeine (10 mM, SKF 96365(20 μM were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca2+]i. Overall, elevation of [Ca2+]i by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca2+]i should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells.

  11. Inorganic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Biofunctional Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Choy

    2007-01-01

    1 Results We have attempted to conjugate inorganic nanoparticles with biofunctional molecules.Recently we were quite successful in demonstrating that a two-dimensional inorganic compound like layered double hydroxide (LDH),and natural and synthetic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers1-4.To the best of our knowledge,such inorganic vectors are completely new and different from conventionally developed ones such as viruses and cationic liposomes,those which are limited in certain cases of ap...

  12. L-lactide ring open polymerization with catalyst based on calcium compounds; Polimerizacao via abertura de anel de L-lactideo com compostos a base de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Luiz C.M.; Dias, Marcos L.; Silvino, Alexandre C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2009-07-01

    The bulk ring opening polymerization of L-lactide using calcium methoxide and calcium octoate as catalysts at different lactide/calcium (LA:Ca) molar ratio was investigated. The reactions were carried out at LA:Ca ratio of 100, 250, 500, 1,000 and 5,000 at 180 deg C. The poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were characterized according the molecular weight, microstructure and thermal properties. Higher polymerization yields was 66 wt % in the LA:Ca ratio= 100. The polydispersity ranged from 1.20 to 1.44 and the molecular weight varied from 8,500 to 19,500. Results of X-ray diffraction indicated that the polymers present high crystallinity, particularly the PLLA obtained with LA:Ca molar ration= 1,000 and 5,000. (author)

  13. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Elizabeth; Büsselberg, Dietrich, E-mail: dib2015@qatar-med.cornell.edu [Weil Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, P.O. Box 24144 Doha (Qatar)

    2014-11-06

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = −0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 μM), Nimodipine (10 μM), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 μM) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Overall, elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca{sup 2+}-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells.

  14. Assessment of ethylene dibromide, dibromochloropropane, other volatile organic compounds, radium isotopes, radon, and inorganic compounds in groundwater and spring water from the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers near McBee, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Public-supply wells near the rural town of McBee, in southwestern Chesterfield County, South Carolina, have provided potable water to more than 35,000 residents throughout Chesterfield County since the early 1990s. Groundwater samples collected between 2002 and 2008 in the McBee area by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) officials indicated that groundwater from two public-supply wells was characterized by the anthropogenic compounds ethylene dibromide (EDB) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) at concentrations that exceeded their respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). Groundwater samples from all public-supply wells in the McBee area were characterized by the naturally occurring isotopes of radium-226 and radium-228 at concentrations that approached, and in one well exceeded, the MCL for the combined isotopes. The local water utility installed granulated activated carbon filtration units at the two EDB- and DBCP-contaminated wells and has, since 2011, shut down these two wells. Groundwater pumped by the remaining public-supply wells is currently (2014) centrally treated at a water-filtration plant.

  15. Stereochemistry of organometallic and inorganic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this fourth volume in the series have reviewed the making and breaking of chemical bonds in a sophisticated manner. In particular, new pressures brought about by environmental concerns, larger demands for the medical and pharmaceutical sectors and economics of the market place are forcing us into demanding greater stereochemical control and better product yields for chemical reactions capable of producing useful products. The chapters are written by leading experts in this area and give excellent overviews of the strengths and weaknesses of the various methodologies.In C

  16. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca2+]i) in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Varghese; Dietrich Büsselberg

    2014-01-01

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death a...

  17. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  18. Effect of Ligand Structural Isomerism in Formation of Calcium Coordination Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonka A. M.; Parise J.; Banerjee, D.

    2012-03-28

    Using different structural isomers (2,5-; 2,4-; 2;6-; 3,4-; 3,5-) of pyridinedicarboxylic acid, nine calcium-based coordination networks were synthesized under hydro-/solvothermal conditions and/or were produced via solvent recrystallization of previously synthesized compounds. The coordination networks reported were characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal methods. They show diverse structural topologies, depending on the ligand geometry and coordinated solvent molecules, with inorganic connectivity motifs ranging from isolated octahedra to infinite chains, layer and a three-dimensional dense framework. The as-synthesized and desolvated networks further show structural transformation to hydrated phases through dissolution/reformation pathways. The process is likely driven by the high hydration energy of the calcium metal center.

  19. Minocycline and Doxycycline, but not Other Tetracycline-Derived Compounds, Protect Liver Cells from Chemical Hypoxia and Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasters, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were...

  20. An overview of the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation, or the biological treatment of wastes, usually is associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. Similarly, there is an increasing body of literature and expertise in applying biological systems to assist in the bioremediation of soils, sediments, and water contaminated with inorganic compounds including metals, radionuclides, nitrates, and cyanides. Inorganic compounds can be toxic both to humans and to organisms used to remediate these contaminants. However, in contrast to organic contaminants, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degraded, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization, or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, metal-organic complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are the various processes applied in the bioremediation of inorganic compounds. This paper briefly describes these processes, referring to other contributors in this book as examples when possible, and summarize the factors that must be considered when choosing bioremediation as a cleanup technology for inorganics. Understanding the current state of knowledge as well as the limitations for bioremediation of inorganic compounds will assist in identifying and implementing successful remediation strategies at sites containing inorganic contaminants. 79 refs

  1. A review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a literature review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium are presented. Compounds with physical and chemical properties compatible with the requirements of an ir laser zirconium isotope separation process have been identified

  2. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  3. 有机无机杂化物作乳化剂的苯丙乳液制备及其性能表征%Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(St-co-BA) Latex with an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compound as Emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊杰; 周树学; 廖建和; 武利民

    2003-01-01

    A poly (St-co-BA) latex was successfully synthesized by using an organic-inorganic hybrid compound(OIHC), an aliphatic carboxylate sodium/nano-silica composite, as the emulsifier, and investigated by particlesize analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), optical contact angle measurement (OCA) and dynamicmechanical analyzer (DMA). It was found that the protective agent, sodium polyacrylate (PA),could obviouslyimprove the polymerization stability and the functional monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), could enhancethe store stability of the latex. The particle size of poly(St-co-BA) latex decreased and then leveled off as OIHCcontent increased. TEM shows that the prepared polymers were actually organic-inorganic nanocomposites, andthese films have better waterproof property than those prepared by traditional poly(St-co-BA) latex or organicsilicone modified poly(St-co-BA) latex. The nanocomposite polymer has much higher glass transition temperaturethan organic silicone modified poly(St-co-BA) polymer containing the same organic silicone content.

  4. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  5. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p<0.0001) or...

  6. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  7. A low-temperature sol-gel route for the synthesis of bioactive calcium silicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Sen Sun; Ai-Ling Li; Fu-Jian Xu; Dong Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Sol-gel-derived bioactive calcium silicates,synthesized from calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and calcium 2-methoxyethoxide as calcium precursor respectively,were calcified under different temperatures.A series of techniques including SEM,TGA,solid 29Si NMR,nitrogen adsorption,and simulated body fluids (SBF) soaking were employed to study their textural features and in vitro bioactivity.It was confirmed that calcium 2-methoxyethoxide is a promising candidate of calcium precursor for bioactive calcium silicates stabilized under low temperatures.This has implications in fabrication of organic-inorganic hybrid composites.

  8. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble a

  9. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  10. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275. ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  11. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  12. Purkinje cell long-term depression is prevented by T-588, a neuroprotective compound that reduces cytosolic calcium release from intracellular stores

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Tatsuo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of the parallel-fiber (PF) Purkinje synapse induced by four different experimental paradigms could be prevented in rat cerebellar slices by T-588, a neuroprotective compound. The paradigms consisted of pairing PF activation with climbing-fiber activation, direct depolarization, glutamic iontophoretic depolarization, or caffeine. In all cases, LTD was determined by patch-clamp recording of PF excitatory postsynaptic currents at the Purkinje cell somata. T-588 at 1 μM...

  13. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  14. 有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响%Influence of the Combined Pollution of Organic and Inorganic Compounds on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍; 姜雪梅; 柳瑞翠; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[方法]在实验室模拟条件下研究石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染对栉孔扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[结果]单一石油烃污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间的延长及石油烃浓度的增大都有明显增大趋势;复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间及污染物种类及浓度的变化发生着动态变化,且不同浓度处理组间差异很大,当石油烃浓度固定为0.6 mg/L时,不同处理浓度组的Cu、Pb及Cu与Pb组合都促进了栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累,但低处理浓度组的Cu、高处理浓度组的Pb、低处理浓度组的Cu与Pb组合更有利于促进栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累.[结论]石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况比单一石油烃污染条件下要复杂得多.%[Objective] To study the influence of the combined pollution of organic and inorganic compounds on petroleum hydrocarbon accumulation in Chlamys farreri. [ Method ] The accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri under the condition of combined pollution of petroleum hydrocarbon with copper, plumbum was experimentally studied. [ Result] Under pollution of single petroleum hydrocarbon , the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri presented an obvious trend of growth with the increase of exposure time and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon as well; Under the condition of combined pollution, the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri had a dynamic trend with the increase of exposure time and the changes in the types and concentrations of pollutants. When the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was fixed at 0.6 mg/L, Cu, Pb and the combination of Cu and Pb in different treatment groups with different concentrations all had positive contribution to the Chlamys

  15. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...... FHH, while in homozygous patients as well as in compound heterozygous or dominant negative heterozygous patients, it may result in neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). Parathyroid surgery is not indicated in FHH and does not lower plasma calcium unless total parathyroidectomy is performed, in...

  16. 有机无机复合肥在西藏粮草复种模式中应用的效应分析%Effect of organic/inorganic compound fertilizer on the yield of crop and fodder double-cropping system in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永涛; 孙维; 张宪洲; 石培礼; 余成群; 钟志明; 胡军; 赵海珍

    2011-01-01

    一年两收粮草复种模式是西藏农牧结合的一条重要发展途径,本研究以冬青稞-箭舌豌豆(青饲玉米)复种模式为例,通过田间小区对比施肥试验,探讨了有机无机复合肥料对高原地区复种模式生产效应的影响.结果表明,施用有机无机复合肥可使农田土壤温度在冬青稞越冬期和返青期升高0.5~0.8℃,并促进冬青稞根系生长,使其能更好地从土壤中获取营养成分,从而提高产量;同时,施用有机无机复合肥还可使冬青稞的生育期提前3~4 d,为第2季牧草的生长赢得宝贵时间;而从鲜草产量来看,豆科植物的牧草更适宜于在当地复种;另一方面有机无机复合肥的施用能更有效地保持农田土壤肥力,使有限土壤资源得到可持续利用.总之,施用有机无机复合肥可有效提高冬青稞-箭舌豌豆(青饲玉米)复种模式的产出和效益.%Double-cropping system in the Tibetan Plateau refers to harvesting fodder after main grain harvests in the year.This not only provides fodder for livestock in winter and spring, but also enhances farmers' income.It serves as an important overall driver of socio-economic development in the Tibetan Plateau region.In this study the effects of organic/inorganic compound fertilizer on the yield of double-cropping systems in the Tibetan Plateau were analyzed in a controlled field experiment using winter naked barley,fodder vetch or fodder maize.Results showed that organic/inorganic compound fertilizer increased soil temperature by 0.5~0.8 ℃during over-wintering and reviving periods in winter naked barley.Compared with inorganic fertilizer, organic/inorganic compound fertilizer shortened the growth period of winter naked barley by 3~4 days.This served a beneficial effect for fodder vetch or fodder maize yield in the region.Leguminous plants were more adapted to the double-cropping system according to the fresh grass yield.Organic/inorganic compound fertilizer

  17. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanhang Ren; Meiyin Wang; Xueying Chen; Bin Yue; Heyong He

    2015-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous c...

  18. Inorganic Janus particles for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Schick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent developments regarding the synthesis and design of Janus nanoparticles, they have attracted increased scientific interest due to their outstanding properties. There are several combinations of multicomponent hetero-nanostructures including either purely organic or inorganic, as well as composite organic–inorganic compounds. Janus particles are interconnected by solid state interfaces and, therefore, are distinguished by two physically or chemically distinct surfaces. They may be, for instance, hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other, thus, creating giant amphiphiles revealing the endeavor of self-assembly. Novel optical, electronic, magnetic, and superficial properties emerge in inorganic Janus particles from their dimensions and unique morphology at the nanoscale. As a result, inorganic Janus nanoparticles are highly versatile nanomaterials with great potential in different scientific and technological fields. In this paper, we highlight some advances in the synthesis of inorganic Janus nanoparticles, focusing on the heterogeneous nucleation technique and characteristics of the resulting high quality nanoparticles. The properties emphasized in this review range from the monodispersity and size-tunability and, therefore, precise control over size-dependent features, to the biomedical application as theranostic agents. Hence, we show their optical properties based on plasmonic resonance, the two-photon activity, the magnetic properties, as well as their biocompatibility and interaction with human blood serum.

  19. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    I. Trebs

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble aerosol species, ammonium (NH,,1), nitrate (NO3 ), nitrite (NO,), chloride (CI) and sulfate (SO,") were measured at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondónia, Brazil). Sampling was performed from...

  20. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  1. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  2. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  3. X-Ray Diffraction Technique in the Analysis of Phases of Hydroxylapatite and Calcium Phosphate in a Human Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Poštić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human jawbones consist mainly of hydroxylapatite. The aim of this study was to assess the structure of solid calcium phosphate compounds of the jawbone in cases of normal and osteoporotic JBs. Design: The X-ray diffraction technique was used to analyze the structure of samples of cadavers’ jawbones. The experimental JB samples were taken from an osteoporotic and atrophic jawbone, and control samples were from normal and nonosteoporotic bone samples. Results: Hydroxylapatite was the only phase in control bone samples. In experimental bone samples, the above-mentioned phase was registered, as well as monetite and brushite. Conclusion: The obtained data indicated that the changes of crystalographic forms of calcium phosphate in the physiologic system were balanced according to the possibility of change in the inorganic chemical system.

  4. Nomenclature for labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper report on isotopically labelled compounds. The first indexing system for isotopically labelled organic compounds is generally credited to Boughton and named after him. An extension of his principles for designating compounds containing hydrogen isotopes has been part of the Chemical Abstracts Service index nomenclature system for many years. After close on five years labor the IUPAC sponsored Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry presented in 1979 their findings on Isotopically Modified Compounds. The system codified in their rules provides for recognition of various types of isotopic modification and is therefore of more general applicability. Concurrently the rules for the nomenclature of isotopically modified inorganic compounds are developed. These are to be seen as supplementing and extending the guidelines laid down in the IUPAC Inorganic Nomenclature Rules already published

  5. Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteleski, Adrian John

    The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound

  6. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  7. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Maestre, Salvador E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es

    2006-03-15

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l{sup -1} in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l{sup -1} for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min.

  8. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l-1 in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l-1 for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min

  9. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of porous calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The porous calcium phosphate was prepared by the continuous precipitation method using Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and NH4H2PO4 salts. The synthesized material was structurally and superficially characterized using the XRD, BET, IR TGA and SEM techniques. The obtained inorganic material was identified as calcium phosphate that presents a great specific area for what can be efficiently used as adsorbent material for adsorption studies in the radioactive wastes treatment present in aqueous solution. (Author)

  11. Effects of polymer concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals formed in polyacrylamide hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Taishi; Kawashita, Masakazu; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2013-11-01

    Growing crystals in hydrogels is an attractive method to form inorganic solids with designed morphology under ambient conditions. Precipitation of the inorganic solids in a hydrogel matrix can be regarded as mimicking the process of biomineralization. In the construction of biominerals, an organic template composed of insoluble macromolecules is used to control the crystal growth of the inorganic compounds. The morphological control in biomineralization can be applied to artificial reaction systems. In this study, the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals formed in polymeric hydrogels of various polymer concentrations was investigated. Spherical octacalcium phosphate (OCP) precipitated in the polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. Fibrous crystals gradually covered the surface of the spherical crystals as the polymer concentration of the gel increased. The morphology of the OCP crystals changed from sea urchin shapes to wool-ball shapes with increasing PAAm concentration. The morphological change is generated by the template effect of the polymer wall, which is made up of stacked PAAm sheets, surrounding the spherical OCP crystals.

  12. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W...

  13. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  14. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  15. Effects of oral administration of a calcium-containing gel on serum calcium concentration in postparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, W G; Miller, G Y; Masterson, M A

    1993-02-15

    Various nutritious nutritional-supplement gels are being marketed for use in veterinary medicine. This study was designed to determine whether serum calcium, phosphorous, or magnesium concentrations were different between cows given a gel containing calcium chloride as its active ingredient (treated) and cows given inert carrier gel (control). The study revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum total calcium concentration within 5 minutes of administration of a calcium gel given to cows within 1 hour of parturition. Serum total calcium concentration had returned to baseline value by 24 hours after calcium gel administration. Serum inorganic phosphorus concentration also increased significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment. Significant changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not detected. PMID:8449800

  16. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  17. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  18. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  19. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  20. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - calcium ... Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the human body. It helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. A proper level of calcium in the body over a lifetime can help ...

  1. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Organic Inorganic Hybrid Compound [Co(dien)2](dienH3)(H3O)7[P2Mo5O23]2·14H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Weifeng; ZHANG Lianmeng; JIN Surong

    2007-01-01

    A new compound,[Co(dien)2](dienH3)(H3O)7[P2Mo5O23]2·14H2O, has been hydrothermallly synthesized by using Na2MoO4,CoC12, H3PO4 and dien, and structurally characterized by elemental analysis,X-ray powder diffraction analysis, SEM, IR and TG analysis. The results show that the compound is composed of a polyanion [P2Mo5O23]212- , complex [Co(dien)2]2+ cation, protonated [dienH3]3+ , and forteen crystallization water molecule.

  3. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  4. Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Yongpeng [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China)], E-mail: yongpengt@yahoo.com.cn; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Liang Feng [Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen Jianmin [Shenzhen Municipal Hospital for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong 518020 (China); Zhang Hong; Liu Guoqing; Sun Huibin [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luong, John H.T. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Quebec, H4P 2R2 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl{sub 2}) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to cell death. ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, however, showed a protective effect against these two organic compounds. Such inorganic nanoparticles complexed with BaP or EB which became less toxic to the cell. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as an insoluble particle model scavenged by macrophage were investigated in rats. They were scavenged out of the lung tissue about 48 h after infection. This result suggest that some insoluble inorganic nanoparticles of PM (particulate matters) showed protective effects on organic toxins induced acute toxic effects as they can be scavenged by macrophage cells. Whereas, some inorganic ions such as calcium ion in PM may help environmental organic toxins to penetrate cell membrane and induce higher toxic effect.

  5. Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl2) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to cell death. ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles, however, showed a protective effect against these two organic compounds. Such inorganic nanoparticles complexed with BaP or EB which became less toxic to the cell. Fe2O3 nanoparticles as an insoluble particle model scavenged by macrophage were investigated in rats. They were scavenged out of the lung tissue about 48 h after infection. This result suggest that some insoluble inorganic nanoparticles of PM (particulate matters) showed protective effects on organic toxins induced acute toxic effects as they can be scavenged by macrophage cells. Whereas, some inorganic ions such as calcium ion in PM may help environmental organic toxins to penetrate cell membrane and induce higher toxic effect.

  6. Preparation of Hollow Calcium Silicate Microparticles by Simple Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi Toorisaka; Syotaro Nagamatsu; Yasunobu Saruwatari; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2014-01-01

    Hollow calcium silicate microparticles were prepared by mixing a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion containing silicate ions in aqueous phase with an oil phase containing a calcium/di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) complex. The inorganic precipitation reaction at the oil-water interface was accelerated by using a simple W/O emulsion. Hollow microparticles were obtained when the mole ratio of D2EHPA and calcium in the oil phase was nearly 2:1. The shell formation of the par-ticles depended on ...

  7. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. II. Water-rich calcium bromide and iodide hydrates: CaBr2 · 9H2O, CaI2 · 8H2O, CaI2 · 7H2O and CaI2 · 6.5H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Single crystals of calcium bromide enneahydrate, CaBr(2) · 9H2O, calcium iodide octahydrate, CaI(2) · 8H2O, calcium iodide heptahydrate, CaI(2) · 7H2O, and calcium iodide 6.5-hydrate, CaI(2) · 6.5H2O, were grown from their aqueous solutions at and below room temperature according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The crystal structure of CaI(2) · 6.5H2O was redetermined. All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. The antiprisms of the iodide hydrate structures are connected either via trigonal-plane-sharing or edge-sharing, forming dimeric units. The antiprisms in calcium bromide enneahydrate are monomeric. PMID:25186361

  8. Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Kui-Hua; Mo Xiu-Mei; Chen Feng; Zhu Ying-Jie; Wu Jin; Wang Ke-Wei; Tang Qi-Li

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area ...

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  10. Supramolecular Assembly of Calcium Metal - Organic Frameworks with Structural Transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liang, P.-Ch.; Liu, H.-K.; Yeh, Ch.-T.; Lin, Ch.-H.; Zima, Vítězslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2011), 699-708. ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : metal - organic frameworks * calcium * structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.720, year: 2011

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of [Ga(phen)(H1.5PO4)2].H2O and [Ga(phen)(HPO4)(H2PO4)].1.5H2O (phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), two organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with 1-D chain structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, [Ga(phen)(H1.5PO4)2].H2O (1) and [Ga(phen)(HPO4)(H2PO4)].1.5H2O (2) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline), have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Their structures consist of 1-D chains of strictly alternating GaO4N2 octahedra and phosphate tetrahedra. The phen ligands in both compounds bind in a bidentate fashion to the gallium atoms and the 1-D structures extend into 3-D supramolecular arrays via π-π stacking interactions of phen ligands and hydrogen bonds. 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy was applied to study the deuterated sample of 1 which contains very short hydrogen bonds with an O-O distance of 2.406(2) A. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15), a=11.077(1) A, b=21.496(2) A, c=7.9989(7) A, β=127.211(2)o, and Z=4. The crystal symmetry is the same for 2 as for 1 except a=27.555(2) A, b=6.3501(5) A, c=21.327(2) A, β=122.498(1)o, and Z=8

  12. A Multiplexed Fluorescent Calcium and NFAT Reporter Gene Assay to Identify GPCR Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Heeral; Gorey, Colleen; Roush, Nicole; Smallman, Shelly; Collantes, Elizabeth; Santoro, Maxine; Olson, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Laura; Paul H. Lee; Shen, Xiqiang John

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular calcium response and resulting calcium signaling to an agonist-GPCR interaction are important for the measurement of compound activity in the GPCR drug development. The increase in cytosol calcium concentration can be measured by the fluorescent calcium indicator dye such as Fluo-4 in a quick assay (in 3-5 minutes) using the fluorescence imaging plate reader. The calcium signaling through the transcription factors such as NFAT that induces gene expression can be measured by the ...

  13. Report of the Polymer Core Course Committee: Inclusion of Polymer Topics into Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Suggests polymer topics for study in inorganic chemistry courses. Commercial materials (including list of inorganic compounds utilized in polymer industry), anchored metal catalysis, polymers modified or formed by coordination, polysiloxanes, phosphazene or phosphonitrilic halide polymers, and hetergeneous polymerization catalysts are considered.…

  14. Importance of Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    TANDOĞAN, Berivan; ULUSU, N. Nuray

    2005-01-01

    Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Calcium regulates many cellular processes and has important structural roles in living organisms. Skeletal muscle structure and function, polymerisation of fibrin and the conduction of impulses in the nervous system are regulated by calcium. Calcium is an important intracellular messenger in protozoa, plants, and animals. Calcium-transporting systems which are located in the plasma membrane and in the organelles, regulate the ionic concentrati...

  15. Monitoring dehydration of the organic-inorganic [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound using simultaneous thermal and Raman studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajlaoui, S.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.; Bulou, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report the experimental studies of the structural phase transition in the [(C3H7)4N]SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman spectroscopic. The X-ray powder diffraction study of the [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O sample at room temperature showed that this compound is monoclinic and has P121/c1 space group. Differential scanning calorimetric disclosed two types of phase transitions in the temperature range 356-376 (T1) K and at 393 K (T2) characterized, by a loss of water molecules and probably a reconstruction of new anionic parts after T2 transition. The Raman scattering spectra recorded at various temperatures in the wavenumber range from 100 to 3800 cm- 1 covering the domains of existence of changes in the vicinity of the two phase transitions detected by DSC measurement. A detailed study of the spectral parameters (wave number, reduced intensity and the full width at half maximum) as a function of temperature of a chosen band, associated with (νs(Snsbnd O) + νs(Snsbnd Cl)), based on an order-disorder model allowed us to obtain information relative to the activation energy and correlation length.

  16. Monitoring dehydration of the organic-inorganic [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound using simultaneous thermal and Raman studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajlaoui, S; Chaabane, I; Guidara, K; Bulou, A

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report the experimental studies of the structural phase transition in the [(C3H7)4N]SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman spectroscopic. The X-ray powder diffraction study of the [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O sample at room temperature showed that this compound is monoclinic and has P121/c1 space group. Differential scanning calorimetric disclosed two types of phase transitions in the temperature range 356-376 (T1) K and at 393K (T2) characterized, by a loss of water molecules and probably a reconstruction of new anionic parts after T2 transition. The Raman scattering spectra recorded at various temperatures in the wavenumber range from 100 to 3800cm(-1) covering the domains of existence of changes in the vicinity of the two phase transitions detected by DSC measurement. A detailed study of the spectral parameters (wave number, reduced intensity and the full width at half maximum) as a function of temperature of a chosen band, associated with (νs(SnO)+νs(SnCl)), based on an order-disorder model allowed us to obtain information relative to the activation energy and correlation length. PMID:27070530

  17. Influence of electron irradiation on optical properties of inorganic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of electron radiation on optical properties and structure parameters of compound inorganic compositions (silicon nitrides, bor carbide, mono aluminates of rare-earth elements, high-temperature superconducting ceramics) was investigated. Mechanism of radiation defect formation was determined as a consequent development of lattice disorders and diffusion mass transfer of the substance

  18. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  19. Inorganic mercury poisoning due to the use of beauty cream in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, TT; Tsoi, MF; Cheung, BMY

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of inorganic mercury compounds in cosmetic products is prohibited as it can cause significant nephrotoxicity. However, the public continues to have access to these illegal products in Hong Kong ...

  20. All-Inorganic Spin-Cast Nanoparticle Solar Cells with Non-Selective Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, I. E.; Olson, J. D.; Yang, L.; Carter, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Spin-cast all-inorganic nanoparticle solutions have been used to make a CdTe/CdSe solar cell with an efficiency of up to 2.8% without alumina or calcium buffer layers. The type of junction and non-selective nature of the contacts made to these devices is explored.

  1. Hydrothermal Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Property of a Novel Inorganic-organic Hybrid Compound Based On Phosphomolybdate Anion[H-IDP]4[PMo12O40]·8H2O(IDP=4-(Imidazole-1-y1)phenol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-Hong; ZHANG Hong; GUAN Li; CUI Shu-Xin; PANG Yuan-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A novel compound[H-IDP]4[PMo12O40]·8H2O 1 based on Keggin-type phosphormolybdate has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.The composite crystallizes in the moflo- clinic system,space group C2/m with a=13.937(5),b=27.033(5),C=10.857(5)(A),β= 122.489(5)°.V=3450(2)(A)3,Mr=2611.11,Z=2,Dc=2.498g/cm3,F(000)=2486,μ=2.243 mm-1.the final R=0.0568 and wR=0.1216 for 2707 observed reflections with I>2σ(I).X-ray structural study shows that 1 consists of a[PMo12O40]4- polyanion.four protonated IDP cations and eight H2O molecules.In the structure of 1,a 3D network forms by hydrogen bond of [PMo12O40]4- polyanion,HIDP+cation and H2O molecules.Upon excitation wavelength of 280 nm in hydroxylic solvents at room temperature,1 shows fluorescence property.

  2. In vitro studies of calcium mixed minerals growth in different growth faces and semiconductor laser induced suppression of nuclei strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kanchana; P Sundaramoorthi

    2008-12-01

    Kidney stone consists of various organic, inorganic and semi organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate are the main organic constituents of kidney stones. However, mechanisms leading to the formation of mineral oxalate kidney stones are not clearly understood. The effect of some urinary stone constituents such as ammonium oxalate, calcium citrate, proteins and trace elements were reported by us. The calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals were grown in SMS gel medium which provides the necessary kidney stimuli growth medium. The growth processes were done by single diffusion method for different physical and chemical parameters. The pH range in which HPO$^{2-}_{4}$ ions dominates were considered which in turn is necessary for the growth of CaMHP crystals. In the present study, calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals are grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reduction. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out like XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM and etching and the results are reported.

  3. INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC ADDITIVES ON CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE DIHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustinova Yulia Valer’evna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, functional additives are widely spread in the production of inorganic dry mixtures. However, their impact on the microstructure of products, generated in the process of hardening of inorganic binders, is understudied. In this context, the goal of the work is the study of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO •2H O crystallization. Super plasticizer based on sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resin, methylcellulose and vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride copolymer powder were selected for studies. First, pure calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were synthesized. Then, synthesized calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were exposed to the X-ray analysis to determine the nature of influence of polymer additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals. Possible combinations of simple forms of CaSO •2H O were identified by the X-ray analysis and the special software. Electronic microscopy analysis was performed to validate models of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals. All plasticizers influence the crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The influence of additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals of calcium sulfate dihydrate can be explained by the fact that molecules of sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resins, methylcellulose, and copolymers of vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride are absorbed by crystal faces. It is proven that the method of X-ray analysis can be used to predict the shape and habitus of crystals.

  4. Skin injuries afflicting three oil workers following contact with calcium bromide and/or calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, W R; Distante, S; Holmes, J D; Kolhe, P S

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bromide brine is a highly concentrated aqueous solution of calcium bromide and calcium chloride. It is used extensively in the oil industry. This solution and its components are recognized as causes of skin injury and information is available from the manufacturers on their safe use and handling. Two patients who were injured following unprotected skin exposure to this solution and one patient who was injured following exposure to calcium chloride powder are reported. All sustained skin injuries characterised by an absence of pain and a delayed clinical appearance of the full extent of the injury. Furthermore healing was complicated by graft loss or was slow. Although organic bromine compounds are recognized as a cause of skin injuries, no previous reports of such injuries to humans secondary to calcium chloride or bromide exposure were found in the medical literature. Our experience with these patients is described. PMID:9568340

  5. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  6. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  7. Thin-layer chromatography in analysis of inorganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and determination of inorganic compounds is briefly considered. Universal character of the method, its simplicity, rapidness, high efficiency, clear separation and visual demonstration of results are pointed out, which permits to use TLC extensively for solving scientific and practical problems related to the determination of trace amounts of inorganic substances. TLC method permits to work with nano- and microgram amounts of substances and ensures the absolute limit of determination in the optimal conditions, which is 10-2-10-7 g. Techniques of chromatographic determination of Te, rare earths, Y, Pu in various objects and their metrological characteristics are presented

  8. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a form of calcium ... the amount of calcium in a dairy product. Yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of ...

  9. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  10. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  11. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  12. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  13. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  14. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  15. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  16. State calcium-phosphorus metabolism in a set of generations in rats after prolonged stay in hazardous of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied some of the indicators of calcium-phosphorus metabolism (total alkaline phosphatase, its bone and liver isoenzymes, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus) in the number of generations of rats, long stationed in the exclusion zone of Chernobyl APS. (authors)

  17. Hybrid Composites from Wheat Straw, Inorganic Filler, and Recycled Polypropylene: Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Runzhou Huang; Chunxia He; Qinglin Wu; Xueni Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcing effect of hybrid filler including wheat straw (WS) and inorganic filler (heavy calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, and fly ash) in recycled polypropylene (R-PP) has been investigated. The effects of individual filler (WS) and combined fillers (WS and inorganic filler) on morphological, mechanical, and thermal expansion and water absorption properties of hybrid composites were investigated. The flexural modulus and flexural strength were both reduced when reinforced with three kind...

  18. PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COM-POUND COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2013-01-01

    Compound compost during its formation involving organic and mineral wastes retains the organic matter by reducing its degradation products with nitrifying and denitrifying organisms due to its economical ex-penditure of phosphorus and calcium, increased am-monia and total nitrogen, formation in the process of development of calcium sulfate with participation in its formation of residue calcium salt and ammonia

  19. Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Based-Microparticles for Peptide Pulmonary Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Frederic; Gobbo, Oliviero L; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2016-01-20

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to interact with proteins, for example, in biogenic ACC, to form stable amorphous phases. The control of amorphous/crystalline and inorganic/organic ratios in inhalable calcium carbonate microparticles may enable particle properties to be adapted to suit the requirements of dry powders for pulmonary delivery by oral inhalation. For example, an amorphous phase can immobilize and stabilize polypeptides in their native structure and amorphous and crystalline phases have different mechanical properties. Therefore, inhalable composite microparticles made of inorganic (i.e., calcium carbonate and calcium formate) and organic (i.e., hyaluronan (HA)) amorphous and crystalline phases were investigated for peptide and protein pulmonary aerosol delivery. The crystalline/amorphous ratio and polymorphic form of the inorganic component was altered by changing the microparticle drying rate and by changing the ammonium carbonate and HA initial concentration. The bioactivity of the model peptide, salmon calcitonin (sCT), coprocessed with alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), a model protein with peptidase inhibitor activity, was maintained during processing and the microparticles had excellent aerodynamic properties, making them suitable for pulmonary aerosol delivery. The bioavailability of sCT after aerosol delivery as sCT and AAT-loaded composite microparticles to rats was 4-times higher than that of sCT solution. PMID:26692360

  20. Physicochemical investigation of calcium bromtechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium hexabromotechnetate is extracted for the first time and its composition corresponding to the CaTcBr6 formula is determined. Using the thermal analysis method the anhydrous salt stability boundaries are found. The X-ray phase analysis has shown the compound to be isostructural with (NH4)2TcI6 and has a rhombic b.c.c. crystal lattice with the following parameters: a=10.39+-0.01, b=7.34+-0.01 and c=7.45+-0.001A. At 380-420 deg C CaTcBr6 decomposes to Tc, CaBr2 and Br

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2 as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous, based on a dossier submitted by Calibre Europe SPRL/BVBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium iodate anhydrous is considered a safe source of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum content of iodine in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from the consumption of milk and to a minor extent from eggs. The UL for adults (600 µg/day and for toddlers (200 µg/day would be exceeded by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively. If the authorised maximum iodine concentrations in feed for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold. Calcium iodate is considered as irritant to the eye, skin and respiratory tract, and a dermal sensitiser. The exposure by inhalation should be avoided. The use of calcium iodate in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. Calcium iodate is efficacious to meet animal iodine requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: dairy cows and minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; dogs, 4 mg I/kg; cats, 5 mg I/kg.

  2. Substitution of calcium by strontium within selected calcium phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, E.; Hermes, C.; Nolting, H.-F.; Ryczek, J.

    1993-06-01

    Sr incorporation in the molecules of amorphous calcium phosphate, apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was investigated. The concentration of Sr ranged from 225 to 1010 μ g / g, i.e. it overlapped with the physiological range of Sr concentrations in human bone. The leading experimental technique was extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Sr K edge. Results of these studies demonstrated the following: (1) Sr incorporation in the calcium phosphates is compound-dependent, (2) the coordination of incorporated Sr atoms in the Ca-P molecules is similar to that of Ca atoms, but interatomic distances are ≈0.015 nm larger, (3) in apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate lattices Sr atoms may occupy selected Ca sites, which was not the case for dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (4) in the apatite lattice Sr atoms are coordinated by 6 PO 4 tetrahedrals and (5) EXAFS spectra at the K edge of the incorporated Sr may be used to distinguish the structures of amorphous calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as well as apatite and its derivatives (apatitic tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate).

  3. Stabilized lanthanum sulphur compounds. [thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G. H.; Elsner, N. B.; Shearer, C. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium, or strontium. This compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.

  4. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  5. EXERCISE ENHANCING CALCIUM ABSORPTION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Muliani

    2013-01-01

    Calcium has important role in many biological processes therefore calcium homeostasis should be maintained. Imbalance in calcium homeostasis would affects the bone metabolism, neuromuscular function, blood coagulation, cell proliferation and signal transduction. Homeostasis of calcium is maintained by three major organs: gastrointestinal tract, bone and kidney. Intestinal calcium absorption is the sole mechanism to supply calcium to the body. Calcium absorption controlled by calcitropic hormo...

  6. Ball-like inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are the results of works aimed at developing the method of obtaining ball-shaped inorganic ion exchangers with suitable exchange and mechanical properties. Satisfactory results have been obtained at using the sol-gel method, which is characterized by its product of spherical particles. The preparation method of hydrooxidic gels of aluminium, chromium, iron, silicon, germanium, titanium, zirconium, tin, niobium, tantalum, thorium and uranium has been mastered. By the gel conversion of hydrooxidic character, low-soluble compounds, possessing ion exchange properties have been prepared. Among them, phosphates, ferrocyanides, sulfides, molybdates, vanadates are of special significance. Cesium capture on zirconium phosphate, possessing interesting properties from the veiwpoint of nuclear technique, has been considered in detail

  7. Intercalation Compounds of Barium and Strontium Phenylphosphonate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, L.; Melánová, Klára; Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav; Růžička, A.

    Pardubice : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2011. s. 172. ISBN 978-80-85009-66-8. [16th International Symposium on Intercalation Compounds. 23.05.2011-26.05.2011, Seč] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : intercalates * layered compounds * structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  8. Investigation of some inorganic compounds in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The S and Ca content of human hair has been investigated with radioisotope excited X-ray emission analytical method. The X-ray spectra were taken on a Si(Li) semiconductor detector with an X-ray spectrometer and an ICA-70 type 4096-channel pulse height analyzer (KFKI). The evaluation of spectra has been carried out with a TPA-i type small computer (KFKI). Ring-shaped I-125 and Fe-55 sources served for excitation of X-rays of the samples. By the investigation of 204 samples the average S content of hair was found to fluctuate between 6+-1%, the Ca content between 0.03-1.0%. The Ca concentration of hair for infarction suffered patients is significantly lower (0.091%) than for healthy persons (0.241%). (T.I.)

  9. A Laboratory Exercise to Introduce Inorganic Biomimetic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Donald M.

    1985-01-01

    Biomimetic chemistry is concerned with the synthesis of small, molecular weight molecules which mimic the properties of metal-containing sites within certain biologically significant species. A series of experiments for an advanced undergraduate laboratory is described as a way to introduce this area into the chemistry curriculum. (JN)

  10. Distribution of inorganic elements in single cells of Chara corallina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are actually 20 chemical elements necessary or beneficial for plant growth. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are supplied by air and water. The six macronutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium., calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are required by plants in large amounts. The rest of the elements are required in trace amounts (micronutrients). Essential trace elements include boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, zinc, molybdenum, and nickel. Beneficial mineral elements include silicon and cobalt. The functions of the inorganic elements closely related to their destinations in plant cells. Plant cells have unique structures, including a central vacuole, plastids, and a thick cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane. Generally, it is very difficult to determine concentrations of inorganic elements in a single plant cell. Chara corallina is a freshwater plant that inhabits temperate zone ponds and lakes. It consists of alternating nodes and internodes. Each internodal segment is a single large cell, up to 10 cm in length, and 1 mm in diameter. With this species it was possible to isolate subcellular fractions with surgical methods with minimal risk of cross contamination. In this study, concentrations of magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and molybdenum in the cell wall, cytoplasm, and vacuole of single cells of Chara corallina were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution characteristics of these elements in the cell components were discussed.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Iodine compounds (E2 as feed additives for all species: calcium iodate anhydrous (coated granulated preparation, based on a dossier submitted by Doxal Italia S.p.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium iodate anhydrous is considered a safe source of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Consumers exposure was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum iodine content in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from milk consumption and to a minor extent from eggs. The UL for adults (600 µg/day and for toddlers (200 µg/day would be exceeded by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively. If the authorised maximum iodine concentrations for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold. The formulated additive could pose a risk by inhalation to users. The preparation is non irritant to skin and eyes but may be a dermal sensitiser; coating may prevent the contact of the active substance to skin and eyes. The use of calcium iodate in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. Calcium iodate is efficacious to meet iodine requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced: dairy cows/minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; dogs, 4 mg I/kg; cats, 5 mg I/kg.

  12. Phosphorescent columnar hybrid materials containing polyionic inorganic nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S K; Amela-Cortes, M; Neidhardt, M M; Beardsworth, S; Kirres, J; Mansueto, M; Cordier, S; Laschat, S; Molard, Y

    2016-02-21

    The ternary polyionic inorganic compound Cs2Mo6Br14 and 18-crown-6 ethers bearing two o-terphenyl units have been combined to design phosphorescent columnar liquid crystalline hybrid materials. The obtained host-guest complexes are very stable even at high temperatures. Depending on their surrounding atmosphere, these hybrids switch reversibly from a high-to-low luminescence state and show a very stable emission intensity up to 140 °C. PMID:26806469

  13. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  14. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous, based on a dossier submitted by Calibre Europe SPRL/BVBA

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Calcium iodate anhydrous is considered a safe source of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying th...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all species: calcium iodate anhydrous (coated granulated preparation), based on a dossier submitted by Doxal Italia S.p.A.

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Calcium iodate anhydrous is considered a safe source of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Consumers exposure was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently ...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by Ajay Europe SARL

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide are considered safe sources of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two ...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide are considered safe sources of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two ...

  19. Recent developments in Inorganic polymers: A Review with focus on Si-Al based inorganic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Shrray Srivastava; Ravindra Gadhave

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic polymers are a unique classification of polymers. They contain inorganic atoms in the main chain. Hybrids with organic polymers as well as those chains that contain metals as pendant groups are considered in a special sub-classification as organo-metallic polymers. The networks containing only inorganic elements in main chain are called inorganic polymers. The silicone rubber is the most commercial inorganic polymer. The organo-metallic and inorganic polymers have a different set of...

  20. Inorganic nutrients in natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain inorganic nutrients contained in the natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae were determined by neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry. The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and phosporus was reported for the olive fruit mesocarp at three stages of maturity, brewer's yeast, soybean hydrolysate and roasted peanuts. Several differences were found between the inorganic nutrient content of the natural food (olive fruit) and artificial diet of D. oleae larvae. The differences which may be important in the nutrition and metabolism of this insect were estimated and discussed

  1. Recent developments in Inorganic polymers: A Review with focus on Si-Al based inorganic polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrray Srivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic polymers are a unique classification of polymers. They contain inorganic atoms in the main chain. Hybrids with organic polymers as well as those chains that contain metals as pendant groups are considered in a special sub-classification as organo-metallic polymers. The networks containing only inorganic elements in main chain are called inorganic polymers. The silicone rubber is the most commercial inorganic polymer. The organo-metallic and inorganic polymers have a different set of applications. The current paper is a review of current applications of polymers with inorganic back-bone networks, especially focusing on Si and Al based inorganic polymeric materials.

  2. Spectroscopic Studies of Azul Maya: Novel Organic/Inorganic Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Torres, Brenda; Polette, Lori; Chianelli, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Maya pigments are novel organic/inorganic hybrid materials with multiple technological applications. The materials are surface compounds formed by heating an organic molecule such as indigo with an inorganic compound such as palygorskite, which is a common clay. The organic molecule upon heating forms a strong interaction with the clay surface stabilizing both entities. This strong interaction is exhibited through a color change from deep blue to the well-known Maya Blue indicating an exchange of electron density at the surface. Analysis by infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate the disappearance of nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) bonding, as the indigo molecule incorporates into the inorganic palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Carbon and oxygen studies at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory by X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), respectively, suggest possible cationic (Al^+3) bonding of the organic molecule to palygorskite compound.

  3. The application status and advantages of calcium sulfate in dietary calcium%硫酸钙在膳食钙中的应用现状及优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘荆丽; 张杰; 黄明杰

    2014-01-01

    In the context of supplement of the calcium in China, nutritionists generally advice that people should sup-plement calcium through high calcium food, reduce supplement intake. In this paper, the substances relatively com-monly used in dietary were discussed. The four kinds of inorganic calcium salt discussed were calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcium phosphate. It was concluded that natural, non-toxic, and high cost-efficiency calcium sulfate was the best in the application in dietary calcium.%中国式补钙的背后,国内外营养学界普遍建议,通过高钙食物来补充钙,减少补充剂摄入量。通过探讨在膳食中较为常用的硫酸钙、碳酸钙、氯化钙和磷酸钙4种无机钙盐在食品中的应用及其优缺点,最终认为天然、无毒、高性价比的硫酸钙在膳食钙的应用中更胜一筹。

  4. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles; Determinacao de componentes organicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em forma de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF). Determinacao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio M.; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: lawless@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N{sub 2} atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  5. Rejection and Critical Flux of Calcium Sulphate in a Ceramic Titanium Dioxide Nanofiltration Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Amer Naji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis thesis describes the rejection efficiency and the fouling behaviour of calcium sulphate solutes in a 1 nm tubular ceramic titanium dioxide nanofiltration membrane.Calcium sulphate is considered as one of the greatest scaling potential inorganic salts that responsible for membrane fouling which represents a main challenge in the expansion of membrane processes for desalination of brackish and saline water. The surface charge type and magnitude for the composite amphoteric TiO_2 me...

  6. Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew P. E.

    2004-01-01

    Buckminsterfullerene, which is in the shape of a soccer-ball was first discovered in 1985, has many applications as a good lubricant, or as a new superconductor. The synthesis of these inorganic fullerenes involves a great deal of interdisciplinary research between physicists, material scientists, engineers and chemists from various fields.

  7. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak;

    2013-01-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion...

  8. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  9. Serum Calcium Level in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari, Mohammed Abdul Hannan; Arifuddin, Mehnaaz Sameera; Muzzakar, Syed; Reddy, Vontela Devender

    2012-01-01

    Background: The alterations in extracellular calcium level may influence intracellular calcium level and possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Aim: The purpose was to find out the association between serum calcium levels and hypertension; and to compare the serum calcium levels between normotensive controls, hypertensive subjects on calcium channel blockers, and hypertensive subjects on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Materials an...

  10. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  11. Aparência, compostos fenólicos e enzimas oxidativas em uva 'Itália' sob influência do cálcio e do armazenamento refrigerado Appearance, phenolic compounds and oxidative enzymes of 'Italia' grapes under calcium influence and refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA AUXILIADORA COÊLHO DE LIMA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da aplicação pré-colheita de cálcio na aparência (secamento do engaço, danos mecânicos e podridões, teor de fenólicos e enzimas oxidativas (polifenoloxidase e peroxidase em uva. Os cachos de uva 'Itália' de um cultivo comercial em Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil, foram marcados e imersos por 10 segundos, em soluções de Ca a 0 e 1,5%, na forma de cloreto de cálcio, aos 57 dias após o início da formação dos frutos (quando as bagas começaram a mudar de cor e amolecer. Após a colheita, os frutos foram armazenados a 3,5±0,2°C e 93±6% UR e avaliados aos 0; 14; 28; 42; 56 e 70 dias. Houve um incremento no secamento do engaço, no aparecimento de sintomas de danos mecânicos e de podridões nas bagas com o tempo de armazenamento. A aplicação de cálcio reduziu a atividade de polifenoloxidase e, conseqüentemente, os sintomas de danos mecânicos, resultando numa melhor aparência. A vida útil das uvas foi de aproximadamente 56 dias, quando sintomas de senescência, podridões e o nível dos sintomas de danos mecânicos começaram a aumentar de forma significativa.The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pre-harvest calcium sprays on appearance (rachis drying, mechanical injuries and rotting symptoms, phenolic compounds and oxidative enzymes (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in grapes. 'Italia' grapes from a commercial orchard from Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil, were labelled and immersed during 10 seconds in 0 and 1,5% of calcium solution as calcium chloride 57 days after fruit set (when the berries began to change color and soften. After harvest, fruits were stored at 3,5±0,2°C e 93±6% RH and evaluated after 0, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days. Increments in rachis drying, symptoms of mechanical injuries and rotting on berries were observed during storage. Application of calcium reduced polyphenoloxidase activity and consequently symptoms of mechanical injury

  12. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Shao Jun Dong

    2007-01-01

    The organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes were designed and synthesized. The organic/inorganic nanocom posites membrane materials and their lithium salt complexes have been found thermally stable below 200 ℃. The conductivity of the organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes prepared at room temperature was at magnitude range of 10-6 S/cm.

  13. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  14. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  15. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-11-01

    Calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs widely used in combination with other therapeutic agents. The potential exists for many clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between these and other concurrently administered drugs. The mechanisms of calcium channel antagonist-induced changes in drug metabolism include altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme metabolising activity. Increases in serum concentrations and/or reductions in clearance have been reported for several drugs used with a number of calcium channel antagonists. A number of reports and studies of calcium channel antagonist interactions have yielded contradictory results and the clinical significance of pharmacokinetic changes seen with these agents is ill-defined. The first part of this article deals with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. PMID:1773549

  16. Neuronal calcium sparks and intracellular calcium “noise”

    OpenAIRE

    Melamed-Book, Naomi; Kachalsky, Sylvia G.; Kaiserman, Igor; Rahamimoff, Rami

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular calcium ions are involved in many forms of cellular function. To accommodate so many control functions, a complex spatiotemporal organization of calcium signaling has developed. In both excitable and nonexcitable cells, calcium signaling was found to fluctuate. Sudden localized increases in the intracellular calcium concentration—or calcium sparks—were found in heart, striated and smooth muscle, Xenopus Laevis oocytes, and HeLa and P12 cells. In the nervous system, intracellular...

  17. The use of calcium carbide in one-pot synthesis of symmetric diaryl ethynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wu, Huayue; Liu, Zhiqing; Zhong, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Jiang

    2006-12-14

    An efficient Pd-catalyzed copper and amine free coupling reaction of acetylene and aryl bromides was achieved with calcium carbide as an acetylene source, using inorganic base and easily prepared, air-stable aminophosphine ligand in common organic solvents, providing symmetric diaryl ethynes in one-pot with yields ranged from moderate to excellent. PMID:17345742

  18. General synthesis of inorganic single-walled nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Wang, Peng-Peng; He, Jie; Wang, Xun

    2015-10-01

    The single-walled nanotube (SWNT) is an interesting nanostructure for fundamental research and potential applications. However, very few inorganic SWNTs are available to date due to the lack of efficient fabrication methods. Here we synthesize four types of SWNT: sulfide; hydroxide; phosphate; and polyoxometalate. Each type of SWNT possesses essentially uniform diameters. Detailed studies illustrate that the formation of SWNTs is initiated by the self-coiling of the corresponding ultrathin nanostructure embryo/building blocks on the base of weak interactions between them, which is not limited to specific compounds or crystal structures. The interactions between building blocks can be modulated by varying the solvents used, thus multi-walled tubes can also be obtained. Our results reveal that the generalized synthesis of inorganic SWNTs can be achieved by the self-coiling of ultrathin building blocks under the proper weak interactions.

  19. Control of the spread of inorganic elements by shelterbelt in agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Życzyńska-Bałoniak, Irena; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Non-point pollution from agricultural lands involves primarily three transport processes: runoff, leaching, and erosion-sedimentation. The primary transport medium for all three processes is water, which is also a significant carrier of nutrients and sediments. Hydrologic processes important relative to non-point pollution are: (a) infiltration, (b) subsurface flow, (c) overland flow. A better understanding of the impact of shelterbelt on the decrease the quantities of chemical compounds in ground water should increase our ability to predict the improvement of the quality of ground water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of shelterbelt on the decrease of calcium, magnesium and inorganic carbon in ground water passing through the shelterbelt from adjoining cultivated fields. The investigations were carried out in Turew in Chlapowski's Agroecological Park situated 40 km South-West of Poznań (West Polish Lowland). Afforestations represent well developed network of shelterbelts (mid-field rows of trees afforestation). The established network of shelterbelts in Turew is the unique in Europe. Ground water under cultivated field and shelterbelt from the artificial wells ones a month during 7 years from 2000 to 2006 was sampled and investigated. Ground water under shelterbelt flows away from adjoining cultivated field and passing through the shelterbelt. The first distance of this shelterbelt 104 m long is located on mineral soils (division-autogenic soils, order-brown forest soils, type-hapludalfs, subtype-glossudalfs) next from 104 to 125 m on mineral organic soils (division-hydrogenic soils, order-post-bog, soils, type-mucky soils, subtype-muckous). Calcium, magnesium and mineral carbon quantities have been investigated in the ground water of shelterbelts. The direction of water flow was estimated on the basis of the water level in the wells. Shelterbelt includes different species with the dominations of the maple, ash, beech, and hawthorn. Ground

  20. Control of the spread of inorganic elements by shelterbelt in agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Życzyńska-Bałoniak, Irena; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Non-point pollution from agricultural lands involves primarily three transport processes: runoff, leaching, and erosion-sedimentation. The primary transport medium for all three processes is water, which is also a significant carrier of nutrients and sediments. Hydrologic processes important relative to non-point pollution are: (a) infiltration, (b) subsurface flow, (c) overland flow. A better understanding of the impact of shelterbelt on the decrease the quantities of chemical compounds in ground water should increase our ability to predict the improvement of the quality of ground water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of shelterbelt on the decrease of calcium, magnesium and inorganic carbon in ground water passing through the shelterbelt from adjoining cultivated fields. The investigations were carried out in Turew in Chlapowski's Agroecological Park situated 40 km South-West of Poznań (West Polish Lowland). Afforestations represent well developed network of shelterbelts (mid-field rows of trees afforestation). The established network of shelterbelts in Turew is the unique in Europe. Ground water under cultivated field and shelterbelt from the artificial wells ones a month during 7 years from 2000 to 2006 was sampled and investigated. Ground water under shelterbelt flows away from adjoining cultivated field and passing through the shelterbelt. The first distance of this shelterbelt 104 m long is located on mineral soils (division-autogenic soils, order-brown forest soils, type-hapludalfs, subtype-glossudalfs) next from 104 to 125 m on mineral organic soils (division-hydrogenic soils, order-post-bog, soils, type-mucky soils, subtype-muckous). Calcium, magnesium and mineral carbon quantities have been investigated in the ground water of shelterbelts. The direction of water flow was estimated on the basis of the water level in the wells. Shelterbelt includes different species with the dominations of the maple, ash, beech, and hawthorn. Ground

  1. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  2. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2 as feed additives for all species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide are considered safe sources of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum content of iodine in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from the consumption of milk and to a minor extent from eggs. The UL for adults (600 µg/day and for toddlers (200 µg/day would be exceeded by a factor of 2 and  4, respectively. If the authorised maximum iodine in feed for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold. The additives are considered as irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and as dermal sensitisers. Exposure by inhalation should be avoided. The use of the additives in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. The additives are efficacious to meet animal iodine requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: dairy cows and minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; dogs, 4 mg I/kg; cats, 5 mg I/kg.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2 as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by Ajay Europe SARL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide are considered safe sources of iodine for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iodine in complete feed, with the exception of horses and dogs, for which maximum tolerated levels are 3 and 4 mg I/kg complete feed, respectively. The limited data available on iodine tolerance in cats support a provisional tolerated level of 5 mg I/kg complete feed. Exposure of consumers was calculated in two scenarios applying the currently authorised maximum iodine contents in feed and reduced contents. The iodine content of food of animal origin, if produced taking account of the currently authorised maximum content of iodine in feed, would represent a substantial risk to high consumers. The risk would originate primarily from the consumption of milk and to a minor extent from eggs. The UL for adults (600 µg/day and for toddlers (200 µg/day would be exceeded by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively. If the authorised maximum iodine in feed for dairy cows and laying hens were reduced to 2 and 3 mg I/kg feed, respectively, the exposure of adult consumers would be below the UL. However, iodine intake in high-consuming toddlers would remain above the UL (1.6-fold. The additives are considered as irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and as dermal sensitisers. Exposure by inhalation should be avoided. The use of the additives in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk to the environment. The additives are efficacious to meet animal iodine requirements. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iodine contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: dairy cows and minor dairy ruminants, 2 mg I/kg; laying hens, 3 mg I/kg; horses, 3 mg I/kg; dogs, 4 mg I/kg; cats, 5 mg I/kg.

  5. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe2O3) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers

  6. INORGANIC STATUS OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Dattatraya Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus marsupium is well known for its sugar lowering potential. In the present examination different bark samples (Apical bark, middle bark and mature inner bark of Pterocarpus marsupium were screened for inorganic status. The levels of macro-minerals Nitrogen (1.50-3.13%, Phosphorus (0.023-0.163%, Calcium (0.60-1.848%, and Magnesium (0.21-0.339%, levels of trace minerals Copper (0.68-3.2mg/100g, Zinc (1.98-3.62mg/100g, Manganese (2.0-4.94mg/100g and Iron (11.38-44.34mg/100g and heavy metals Chromium (2.08-3.94mg/100g and Nickel (0.32-1.26mg/100g were evaluated in the present study. Cadmium and Lead were found to be absent in all the bark samples analyzed.

  7. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  8. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  9. Synthesis of Calcium Silicate (Casio3 Using Calcium Fluoride, Quartz and Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gopal Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes like bacteria, algae, fungi and virus play an important role to catalyst chemical reactions. In Nature, ores or minerals of different compounds are formed due to microbial environment and other factors like weathering. Microbial environment is also instrumental in forming calcium containing silicate minerals. Chemical reactions occur under microbial environment because microbes have the ability to control or modify different factors like pH, chemical potential and temperature during reactions. In this paper, synthesis of calcium silicate (CaSiO3 using calcium fluoride (CaF2 and quartz (SiO2 under microbial environment in a laboratory is being adopted to produce the required material. XRD technique is used to confirm the formation of CaSiO3.

  10. Inorganic Phosphor Materials for Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chih; Karlsson, Maths; Bettinelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This chapter addresses the development of inorganic phosphor materials capable of converting the near UV or blue radiation emitted by a light emitting diode to visible radiation that can be suitably combined to yield white light. These materials are at the core of the new generation of solid-state lighting devices that are emerging as a crucial clean and energy saving technology. The chapter introduces the problem of white light generation using inorganic phosphors and the structure-property relationships in the broad class of phosphor materials, normally containing lanthanide or transition metal ions as dopants. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation mechanisms are briefly described. Phosphors emitting light of different colors (yellow, blue, green, and red) are described and reviewed, classifying them in different chemical families of the host (silicates, phosphates, aluminates, borates, and non-oxide hosts). This research field has grown rapidly and is still growing, but the discovery of new phosphor materials with optimized properties (in terms of emission efficiency, chemical and thermal stability, color, purity, and cost of fabrication) would still be of the utmost importance. PMID:27573146

  11. PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COM-POUND COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compound compost during its formation involving organic and mineral wastes retains the organic matter by reducing its degradation products with nitrifying and denitrifying organisms due to its economical ex-penditure of phosphorus and calcium, increased am-monia and total nitrogen, formation in the process of development of calcium sulfate with participation in its formation of residue calcium salt and ammonia

  12. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  13. 添加含钙化合物对茶园土壤pH及有效氟的影响%Influence of Addition of Calcium compounds on pH and Available Fluoride Content in Tea Garden Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永利; 廖万有; 王烨军; 苏有健; 孙力

    2013-01-01

    鉴于长期饮用高氟茶可引起饮茶型氟中毒,拟通过探明茶园土壤有效氟的调控机制,为治理土壤氟污染并降低茶叶中氟含量提供理论依据.以湖南某茶园0~20 cm和20~40 cm土壤为对象,通过室内模拟培养,研究不同形态和添加量的钙离子对土壤pH和有效氟含量的影响.结果表明,添加200~400 mg/kg Ca2+[Ca(NO3)2]和100~1000 mg/kg Ca2+[CaCl2]后2层土壤pH由4.0降至3.5~3.7,土壤水溶态氟含量明显增加;添加60~1400 mg/kg Ca2+[Ca(OH)2]时,随Ca(OH)2添加量的增加,2层土壤pH分别升至5.13、5.23,土壤水溶态氟含量呈现先增加再降低最后增加的趋势;添加3种形态含钙化合物均降低土壤交换态氟含量.当土壤pH在3.5~6.0间变化时,以pH 5.0为拐点,土壤pH降低或升高水溶态氟含量均增加,土壤酸化时尤甚.因此,可在酸性土壤上施用白云石粉、Ca(OH)2,在偏碱性土壤上施用Ca(NO3)2、CaCl2,调整土壤pH至5.0左右,以有效降低茶园土壤有效氟含量.%Long-term consumption of high-fluoride tea probably causes drinking tea fluorosis. This article ascertained the regulation mechanism of available fluoride content in tea garden soil, to provide theory of controlling soil fluoride pollution and reducing fluoride content of tea leaves. Laboratory incubation tests were conducted, using 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers soils from two tea gardens of Hunan Province as experiment materials, to study the influence of different forms and addition amount of calcium ion on soil pH and available fluoride content. The results showed that soil pH value fell to 3.5 from 4.0-3.7 and soil water soluble fluoride content increased obviously when the addition amount of Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2 was increased. With the increase of addition amount of Ca(OH)2, the soil pH value change ranged from 4.0 to 5.2, soil water soluble fluorine content was decreased obviously at first, then increased. Soil exchangeable fluoride content was

  14. Attenuation contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. L. J.; Bjarnason, J. E.; Lee, A. W. M.; Celis, M. A.; Brown, E. R.

    2004-09-01

    Wideband photomixing spectroscopy is used in the present work to contrast the transmission spectra of macromolecules commonly found in biomaterials such as potato starch, wheat flour and cornstarch, and proteins (Cytoplex™), and micromolecules such as sucrose, and inorganic materials such as sodium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate. Powdered samples were measured at 0.1-0.5THz frequencies. A significant difference in attenuation is found between these samples. At 300GHz starch shows an absorption coefficient of ˜6cm-1 whereas Cytoplex shows 1-3cm-1, while inorganic micromolecules have ˜1cm-1. The absorption in starch increases rapidly with frequency tending to follow a power law α =fn with n typically between 1.5 and 2.0. In contrast, protein materials display a slower dependence on frequency with n between 1.0 and 1.5, and simple molecules show the least n among all three categories. The difference between these ubiquitous macromolecular and micromolecular materials is explained in terms of water content and molecular structure.

  15. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  16. Interaction of calcium with sugar type ligands in solutions related to the Bayer process

    OpenAIRE

    Pallagi Attila

    2012-01-01

    The calcium ion (particularly in the form of lime) is one of the most useful processing aids available to alumina refinery operators. In some cases the benefits provided arises through the actions of some soluble form of the calcium cation. Sugar derivatives increase the concentration of the calcium in the liquor phase, therefore investigating their complexation with compounds relevant to the Bayer process (i. e. Ca2+, Al(OH)4−) is important to the industry. Investigating the H+/Gluc– syst...

  17. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, K S; Zareena,; Shashikanth Hegde; Arun Kumar, M S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, perio...

  18. Association of salivary calcium, phosphate, pH and flow rate on oral health: A study on 90 subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Fiyaz, Mohamed; Ramesh, Amitha; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Sucheta; Prakash, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, flow rate and pH of un-stimulated saliva and oral hygiene of healthy subjects, patients with periodontitis and dental caries and to correlate salivary calcium level with the number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 and 55 years and were divided into three groups, periodontitis, dental caries and controls. Oral hygiene index-simpl...

  19. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  20. Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamonti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials The research has focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood. The wood preservatives synthesized and tested for biocidal activity are polyamidoamines functionalized with hydroxyl and siloxane groups, while the coatings applied on the stones are water based TiO2 nanosols with ...

  1. CALCIUM SOAP LUBRICANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alaz, Izer; Tugce, Nefise; Devrim, Balköse

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the properties of calcium stearate (CaSt2) and lubricants produced on its basis. These lubricants were prepared using sodium stearate and calcium chloride by subsidence from aqueous solutions. The CaSt2 and the light fraction of crude oil were mixed together to obtain lubricating substances. The article shows that CaSt2 had the melting temperature of 142.8 C that is higher than the melting temperature of crude oil (128 C). The compositions of obtained lubricants were stu...

  2. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cleaves, H. James; Miller, Stanley L.

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecul...

  3. The essential activated carboxyl group of inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaeva, S M; Bakuleva, N P; Baratova, L A; Nazarova, T I; Fink, N Y

    1977-05-12

    1. A carboxyl group of high reactivity has been found in inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.1) from yeast. This group interacts with agents which react neither with carboxyl groups of low molecular weight compounds nor with other carboxyl groups of the protein. 2. The reaction of this activated carboxyl group with inorganic phosphate, hydroxylamine, N-methyl- and O-methylhydroxylamines, and glycine methyl ester has been studied. 3. Homoserine and homoserine lactone were found in the hydrolyzate of phosphorylated and NaBH4-reduced pyrophosphatase, indicating that an aspartyl residue is phosphorylated. 4. Hydroxylamine and other nucleophilic agents cause inactivation of pyrophosphatase as a result of interaction with a carboxyl group. Both diaminobutyric and diaminopropionic acids were seen in the acid hydrolyzate of the protein treated with hydroxylamine and subjected to rearrangement in the presence of carbodiimide. 5. The ways in which the activation of a carboxyl group in the enzyme is achieved and the presumed mechanism of action of inorganic pyrophosphatase are discussed. PMID:16652

  4. In vivo degeneration and the fate of inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Neus; Docter, Dominic; Heine, Markus; Del Pino, Pablo; Ashraf, Sumaira; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Macchiarini, Paolo; Nielsen, Peter; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence; Stauber, Roland H; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2016-05-01

    What happens to inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), such as plasmonic gold or silver, superparamagnetic iron oxide, or fluorescent quantum dot NPs after they have been administrated to a living being? This review discusses the integrity, biodistribution, and fate of NPs after in vivo administration. The hybrid nature of the NPs is described, conceptually divided into the inorganic core, the engineered surface coating comprising of the ligand shell and optionally also bio-conjugates, and the corona of adsorbed biological molecules. Empirical evidence shows that all of these three compounds may degrade individually in vivo and can drastically modify the life cycle and biodistribution of the whole heterostructure. Thus, the NPs may be decomposed into different parts, whose biodistribution and fate would need to be analyzed individually. Multiple labeling and quantification strategies for such a purpose will be discussed. All reviewed data indicate that NPs in vivo should no longer be considered as homogeneous entities, but should be seen as inorganic/organic/biological nano-hybrids with complex and intricately linked distribution and degradation pathways. PMID:26862602

  5. Reduced sulfur compound oxidation by Thiobacillus caldus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, K. B.; Dopson, M; Lindström, E B

    1996-01-01

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds was studied by using resting cells of the moderate thermophile Thiobacillus caldus strain KU. The oxygen consumption rate and total oxygen consumed were determined for the reduced sulfur compounds thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur, sulfide, and sulfite in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors and uncouplers. The uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone had no affect on the oxidation of thiosulfate, ...

  6. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Characterization of a New Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material:

    OpenAIRE

    Hela Ferjani; Habib Boughzala; Ahmed Driss

    2013-01-01

    The title compound is an organic-inorganic hybrid material. The single crystal X-ray diffraction investigation reveals that the studied compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca with the following lattice parameters:  (4) Å,  (3) Å,  (6) Å, and . The crystal lattice is composed of a discrete anion surrounded by piperazinium cations, chlorine anions, and water molecules. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between , , organic cations, and water molecules form a three...

  7. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  8. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  9. Synthesis of Calcium Silicate (Casio3) Using Calcium Fluoride, Quartz and Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gopal Krishna; M. Jagannadha Rao

    2015-01-01

    Microbes like bacteria, algae, fungi and virus play an important role to catalyst chemical reactions. In Nature, ores or minerals of different compounds are formed due to microbial environment and other factors like weathering. Microbial environment is also instrumental in forming calcium containing silicate minerals. Chemical reactions occur under microbial environment because microbes have the ability to control or modify different factors like pH, chemical potential and tempera...

  10. Thermodynamics of the nickel, cobalt and zinc removal from ethanolic solution by p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on layered calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Intercalation scheme for p-aminobenzoic acid inside the free inorganic host cavity. • The p-aminobenzoic acid is perpendicular orientation to the inorganic layer. • Forming a bilayer arrangement in the cavity. • The metallic ions were adsorbed on intercalated crystalline lamellar compound. - Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained p-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44, 3.34 and 1.62 mmol g−1 for nickel, cobalt and zinc, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metallic cation interactions were determined through calorimetric titration at the solid/liquid interface and gave a net thermal effect that enabled enthalpy and equilibrium constant calculations. Complete thermodynamic data composed of exothermic enthalpy, negative free Gibbs energy and positive entropy conformed to a set of favorable cation/basic center interactions, to indicate that these materials could be useful tools to eliminate undesirable cations from ethanolic systems

  11. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  12. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  13. Calcium carbonate interaction analysis in polypropylene compounds and their impact on the formation of beta crystalline phase of this polymer; Analise da interacao de diferentes tipos de carbonato de calcio em compositos de polipropileno e suas consequencias na formacao da fase cristalina beta do PP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The insertion of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in polypropylene compound is a thoroughly known technique widely studied in the academic area and in the industry. Its wide application is due, mainly, to increase mechanical properties with low manufacturing cost. These improvements in this polymer make it more versatile and competitive compared to other expensive polymers. In this study, the incorporation of four types of CaCO3 from the same manufacturer were compared and the focus was on the size of this mineral filler. Furthermore, it was analyzed the interaction of graphitized polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) in the same samples. All these samples were analyzed by WAXS and SEM. The physical properties of tensile strength and impact were also analyzed. It was observed from this study that the smallest CaCO3 produced with PP-g-MA resulted in better physical properties with the formation of a crystalline phase beta, as originally studied by other authors using other raw materials. (author)

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  16. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  17. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  18. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  19. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  20. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and...... renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  1. Calcium and lanthanum solid base catalysts for transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K. Y. Simon; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.

    2015-07-28

    In one aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium hydroxide and lanthanum hydroxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises a calcium compound and a lanthanum compound, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g, and a total basicity of about 13.6 mmol/g. In further another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium oxide and lanthanum oxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In still another aspect, a process for preparing a catalyst comprises introducing a base precipitant, a neutral precipitant, and an acid precipitant to a solution comprising a first metal ion and a second metal ion to form a precipitate. The process further comprises calcining the precipitate to provide the catalyst.

  2. An investigation on physical properties of polyethylene composite with bentonite, kaolin and calcium carbonate additives

    OpenAIRE

    Karabeyoğlu, Sencer S.; , Nurşen Öntürk

    2014-01-01

    Bentonite, Kaolin, Calcium carbonate easily obtained in nature as mineral products are widely used in plastics industry for additive materials. In this study, Bentonite, Kaolin, and Calcium carbonate minerals were compounded with polyethylene matrix used in specific rates. Prepared compounds melted in sheet metal molds and cooled down under appropriate conditions. Thus, production of composite material was achieved. Hardness, water absorption, and physical properties of manufactured composite...

  3. In vitro macrophage cytotoxicity of five calcium silicates.

    OpenAIRE

    Skaug, V; Davies, R.; Gylseth, B

    1984-01-01

    Five calcium silicate minerals (two naturally occurring and three synthetic compounds) with defined morphology and chemical composition were compared for their cytotoxic and lysosomal enzyme releasing effects on unstimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. One synthetic material, a fibrous tobermorite, was cytotoxic towards the cells, and two naturally occurring wollastonites induced selective release of beta-glucuronidase from the cells.

  4. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  5. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  6. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate and production of organic acids by bacteria isolated from a Moroccan mineral phosphate deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Mardad, Illham; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Three efficient inorganic-phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were isolated from a phosphate rock deposit of a Moroccan mine. The phosphate solubilization index of these isolates, determined in National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate (NBRIP) medium supplemented with tribasic calcium phosphate, ranging from 2.8 to 4.4. The medium pH dropped from 7.0 to 3.5 units after growth under continuous agitation for seven days. PSB6, the most efficient PSB, closely related to Enterobacter hor...

  7. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  8. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  9. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  10. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  11. Calcium and calcitonin responses to calcium infusion in type I diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Amado, J. A.; C. Gomez; Obaya, S.; Otero, M; Gonzalez-Macias, J

    1987-01-01

    We studied calcium and calcium and calcitonin responses to intravenous calcium infusion (3 mg of elemental calcium/kg of body weight in 10 minutes) in 21 type I diabetic males and 17 age-matched normal males. Baseline total calcium, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin levels were normal in the diabetic group, but ionized calcium was lowered. Cortical bone status and osteocalcin levels were normal, suggesting a normal osteoblastic function. Total calcium and ionized calcium responses to calcium...

  12. Stability of Sunscreens Containing CePO4: Proposal for a New Inorganic UV Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor C. Seixas; Osvaldo A. Serra

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic UV filters have become attractive because of their role in protecting the skin from the damage caused by continuous exposure to the sun. However, their large refractive index and high photocatalytic activity have led to the development of alternative inorganic materials such as CePO4 for application as UV filters. This compound leaves a low amount of white residue on the skin and is highly stable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of a cosmet...

  13. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  14. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  15. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  16. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  17. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  18. Changes in the inorganic status and enzyme activities in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekkhar V. Murumkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the level of some inorganic constituents and the activities of some important enzyme systems in senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been studied. In senescent leaves, a marked decline in the potassium and phosphorus contents was evident which was accompanied by the accumulation of calcium, silicon, chloride and manganese. Leaf senescence was accompanied by a great increase in hydrolytic processes, as revealed by the increase in the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ATPase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and 3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of nitrogen metabolism enzymes, namely nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase and alanine aminotransferase, and of photorespiratory enzymes -- phosphoglycolate phosphatase, glycolate oxidase and catalase, were lower in senescent leaves. Leaf senescence was further associated with an increase in the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, a considerable depression in pyruvate kinase activity, and a slight elevation in aldolase activity.

  19. A study on hormonal control of calcium homeostasis in egyptian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was conducted to study the possible role of circulating hormones that regulate the calcium flux, in addition to serum levels of the inorganic mineral contents, calcium and phosphorus, on the pathogenesis of post-menopausal osteoporosis in egyptian women. The investigation studied also the response of these variables to both of estradiol withdrawal and age progress. Five groups of 11 postmenopausal osteoporotic (mean age 73 -+ 2.3 years), 26 postmenopausal women (mean age 56.2 -+ 2.4 years), 17 premenopausal women (mean age 48.8 -+ 0.7 years), 26 premenopausal women (mean age 41.5 -+ o.7 years) and 11 young adult premenopausal women(mean age 27.3 -+ 0.9 years) were recruited for this study. The post-peri- and pre- groups were further classified into subgroups according to their chronological age. Serum was assayed for parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25-OHD3), calcitonin (CT) total calcium (Ca), and inorganic phosphorus (ph), concentrations of estradiol (E2) in all subjects were also assayed for further correlation. The obtained data showed that the levels of hormones were not significantly changed among the different groups and subgroups leading to normal calcium homeostasis. PTH and total calcium were significantly correlated with both estrodial levels and chronological age

  20. Inorganic protocells: Gated access to microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Christine D.

    2013-06-01

    A pH-responsive inorganic membrane has been devised that acts as a gatekeeper for the transport of charged solutes into and out of its interior volume. This behaviour was further used to regulate an enzymatic reaction.

  1. Inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work is devoted to application of inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide. The elaboration of method is conducted under controlled concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from 1.00 til 0.01 mg/l.

  2. Reverse calcium affinity purification of Fab with calcium derivatized hydroxyapatite

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Pete; Cheung, Chia-wei; Yazaki, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces the application of calcium-derivatized hydroxyapatite for purification of Fab. Fab binds to native hydroxyapatite but fails to bind to the calcium derivatized form. IgG, Fc, and most other protein contaminants bind to the calcium form. This supports Fab purification by a simple flow-through method that achieves greater than 95% purity from papain digests and mammalian cell culture supernatants. Alternatively, Fab can be concentrated on native hydroxyapatite then eluted s...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of porous calcium phosphate; Sintesis y caracterizacion del fosfato de calcio poroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.; Bonifacio M, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The porous calcium phosphate was prepared by the continuous precipitation method using Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} salts. The synthesized material was structurally and superficially characterized using the XRD, BET, IR TGA and SEM techniques. The obtained inorganic material was identified as calcium phosphate that presents a great specific area for what can be efficiently used as adsorbent material for adsorption studies in the radioactive wastes treatment present in aqueous solution. (Author)

  4. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pyatina, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  5. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pyatina, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  6. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation in vitro by preventing the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to calcium hydroxyapatite.

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, S M; Wen, G.; Hirakawa, N; Soloway, R D; Hong, N K; Crowther, R S

    1991-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite can be a significant component of black pigment gallstones. Diverse molecules that bind calcium phosphate inhibit hydroxyapatite precipitation. Because glycine-conjugated bile acids, but not their taurine counterparts, bind calcium phosphate, we studied whether glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite formation. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (2 mM) totally inhibited transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate microprecipitates to macroscopic crystalline...

  7. Inorganic arsenic - SPE HG-AAS method for RICE tested in-house and collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Qian, Yiting; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    Arsenic (As) is a trace element present in the environment and consequently in various food items, e.g. rice, which may contain relatively high concentration of arsenic compared to other foodstuffs of plant origin. Rice contains most often three forms of arsenic; inorganic arsenic (iAs) and the m......Arsenic (As) is a trace element present in the environment and consequently in various food items, e.g. rice, which may contain relatively high concentration of arsenic compared to other foodstuffs of plant origin. Rice contains most often three forms of arsenic; inorganic arsenic (i...... and is one of the major contributors to the iAs exposure in many countries. The work presented here describes the development, validation and application of a simple and inexpensive method for inorganic arsenic (iAs) determination in rice samples. The separation of iAs from organoarsenic compounds (MA...

  8. IR studies of EDTA alkaline salts interaction with the surface of inorganic oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczkowski, J.

    2005-10-01

    The adsorption of alkaline salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on inorganic supports characterized by the different value of the isoelectric point of the surface (IEPS) has been investigated by transmission and photoacoustic (PA) FT-IR. The IR spectra in the 1800-1200 cm -1 region of the supported complexones are different from those of the unsupported compounds. The results obtained imply that the observed changes in the properties of adsorbed complexones are mainly due to interaction of the carboxyl groups of chelate molecule with inorganic oxide hydroxyl groups. The models of those interactions have been proposed. The IEPS value has a noticeable influence on the nature of the interactions observed. Based on the experimental data the ability of inorganic oxide interaction with the chelate molecule can be presented as follows: V 2O 5 < SiO 2 < TiO 2 < MgO < Al 2O 3 < ZrO 2-La < ZrO 2.

  9. Synthesis, structure, and frequency-doubling effect of calcium cyanurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmutzki, Markus; Ströbele, Markus; Wackenhut, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Meyer, H-Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    Calcium cyanurate is synthesized by reacting calcium chloride with potassium cyanate following a solid-state reaction. The formation of the new compound Ca3(O3C3N3)2 (CCY), which occurs by the cyclotrimerization of cyanate ions, was examined thermoanalytically and the crystal structure was determined by single-crystal structure analysis. The structure of CCY is closely related to the structure of the well-known oxoborate β-BaB2O4 (BBO). Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on crystal powders show a higher SHG efficiency for CCY than for BBO by about one order of magnitude. PMID:25345390

  10. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-12-01

    Since calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs frequently administered in combination with other agents, the potential for clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions exists. These interactions occur most frequently via altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme activity. Part I of the article, which appeared in the previous issue of the Journal, dealt with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. Part II examines interactions with cyclosporin, anaesthetics, carbamazepine and cardiovascular agents. PMID:1782739

  11. Study of the emission oxidative reactions of ruthenium (II) complex by cationic compounds in anionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidative quenching of the emission of the tetraanionic complex tris (4,4' dicarboxylate - 2,2' - bipyridine ruthenium (II) in aqueous solution, by both organic and inorganic compounds in presence of anionic detergents, above and below the critical micelle concentration is studied. The organic cations, the inorganic ion and detergents used are shown. (M.J.C.)

  12. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  13. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  14. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  15. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  16. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  17. Cytotoxic effects of S-(dimethylarsino)-glutathione: A putative intermediate metabolite of inorganic arsenicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in the metabolism of arsenite and arsenate by generating arsenic-glutathione complexes. Although dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) is the major metabolite of inorganic arsenicals (iAs) in urine, it is not clear how DMAV is produced from iAs. In the present study we report that S-(dimethylarsino)-glutathione (DMAIII(SG)), a putative precursor of dimethylarsinic acid DMAV, was unstable in the culture medium without excess GSH and generated volatile substances which were highly cytotoxic for both rat heart microvascular endothelial cells and HL60, a human leukemia cell line. Cytotoxicity of DMAIII(SG) was higher than that of iAs and its LC5 value was calculated to be 7.8 μM in the endothelial cells. To our surprise DMAIII(SG) effectively killed cells in the neighbor wells of the same multi-well dish, indicating that volatile toxic compounds generated from DMAIII(SG) in the culture medium. High performance lipid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) analyses suggested that the freshly generated volatile compounds dissolved into aqueous solution and formed an unstable arsenic compound and the unstable compound was further converted to DMAV. These results suggested that DMAIII(SG) exerts its cytotoxicity by generating volatile arsenicals and is implicated in the metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenicals into DMAV, a major final metabolite of inorganic arsenicals in most mammals

  18. Bony fish and their contribution to marine inorganic carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael; Perry, Chris; Wilson, Rod; Harborne, Alistair

    2016-04-01

    Conventional understanding of the marine inorganic carbon cycle holds that CaCO3 (mostly as low Mg-calcite and aragonite) precipitates in the upper reaches of the ocean and sinks to a point where it either dissolves or is deposited as sediment. Thus, it plays a key role controlling the distribution of DIC in the oceans and in regulating their capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2. However, several aspects of this cycle remain poorly understood and have long perplexed oceanographers, such as the positive alkalinity anomaly observed in the upper water column of many of the world's oceans, above the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons. This anomaly would be explained by extensive dissolution of a carbonate phase more soluble than low Mg-calcite or aragonite, but major sources for such phases remain elusive. Here we highlight marine bony fish as a potentially important primary source of this 'missing' high-solubility CaCO3. Precipitation of CaCO3 takes place within the intestines of all marine bony fish as part of their normal physiological functioning, and global production models suggest it could account for up to 45 % of total new marine CaCO3 production. Moreover, high Mg-calcite containing >25 % mol% MgCO3 - a more soluble phase than aragonite - is a major component of these precipitates. Thus, fish CaCO3 may at least partially explain the alkalinity anomaly in the upper water column. However, the issue is complicated by the fact that carbonate mineralogy actually varies among fish species, with high Mg-calcite (HMC), low Mg-calcite (LMC), aragonite, and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) all being common products. Using data from 22 Caribbean fish species, we have generated a novel production model that resolves phase proportions. We evaluate the preservation/dissolution potential of these phases and consider potential implications for marine inorganic carbon cycling. In addition, we consider the dramatic changes in fish biomass structure that have resulted

  19. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  20. A novel speciation alternative for the determination of inorganic arsenic in marine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Herbst, M. Birgitte Koch;

    Arsenic (As) is bioaccumulated from seawater to concentrations in the mg/kg range in marine animals. More than 50 naturally-occurring arsenic containing species, both inorganic and organic forms, have been identified in marine animals. The organic forms are mainly considered to be non-toxic, wher......Arsenic (As) is bioaccumulated from seawater to concentrations in the mg/kg range in marine animals. More than 50 naturally-occurring arsenic containing species, both inorganic and organic forms, have been identified in marine animals. The organic forms are mainly considered to be non......-toxic, whereas inorganic arsenic is highly toxic and exposure may lead to severe adverse effects including cancer. Since seafood is the major dietary source for arsenic exposure in the European population, arsenic speciation analysis of marine samples is highly relevant for food safety. However, most data...... of inorganic arsenic in marine based food is based on microwave extraction, species separation by strong anion solid phase extraction (SPE) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) detection. Separation organic arsenic compounds (e.g. MA, DMA and AB) and inorganic arsenic in the form...

  1. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced......Direct plant uptake of organic nitrogen (N) is often studied using the dual-labeling approach (15N + 13C or 15N + 14C). However, the method might be hampered by uptake of labeled inorganic carbon (C) produced by mineralization of labeled organic compounds. Here we report the results from a triple...... labeling experiment (15N + 13C + 14C) investigating whether root uptake of labeled inorganic C can bias the results obtained in studies of organic N uptake using dual-labeled amino acids (15N, 13C). In a rhizosphere tube experiment we investigated 13C and 14C uptake by maize either supplied with labeled...

  2. Compartmentalization of the submembrane calcium activity during calcium influx and its significance in transmitter release.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, S M; Llinás, R R

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative modeling indicates that, in presynaptic terminals, the intracellular calcium concentration profile during inward calcium current is characterized by discrete peaks of calcium immediately adjacent to the calcium channels. This restriction of intracellular calcium concentration suggests a remarkably well specified intracellular architecture such that calcium, as a second messenger, may regulate particular intracellular domains with a great degree of specificity.

  3. The phospholipid vesicles coating on metal chelated inorganic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work showed the formation of phospholipid vesicle coating on inorganic sericite surface with characterization by combining electron microscopy of FE-SEM, TEM, AFM, and qualitatively evaluated the coated phospholipid vesicle by XPS as a function of etching time. The possibility of phospholipid vesicle mobility on the surface was restrained by the chelation effect of magnesium cation. The stabilization properties of phospholipid vesicles on sericite surface were demonstrated by the various concentration of magnesium cation. The presence of magnesium was found to have a much more pronounced influence on the lipid deposition process. The Mg cation plays an important role for attaching the phospholipids with optimum concentration of 7 mM. Totally, the phospholipid vesicles coating on inorganic powder could be useful for bio-related fields such as cosmetics and drug delivery system as the key functional compounds. We hope this basic result lead to a general and simple approach to prepare a wide a range of controlled releasing materials including an encapsulation with cosmetics or drugs

  4. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  5. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  6. RIVERINE INORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guan-rong; GAO Quan-zhou

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon, the great part of the riverine carbon exported to the ocean, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and ultimately impacts the coupled carbon-climate system. An overview was made on both methods and results of the riverine inorganic carbon researches. In addition to routine in situ survey, measurement and calculation,the direct precipitation method and the gas evolution technique were commonly used to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. Soil CO2, carbonate minerals and atmospheric CO2 incorporated into riverine inorganic carbon pool via different means, with bicarbonate ion being the dominant component. The concentration of inorganic carbon, the composition of carbon isotopes (δ13C and △14C), and their temporal or spatial variations in the streams were controlled by carbon input, output and changes of carbon biogeochemistry within the riverine system. More accurate flux estimation, better understanding of different influential processes, and quantitative determination of various inputs or outputs need to be well researched in future.

  7. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  8. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  9. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidirectional 45Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (JnetCa) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed JnetCa to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that JnetCa was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, JnetCa decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, JnetCa was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca2+-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na+-K+-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  10. An Improved Calcium Flame Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Indicates that the true red color of calcium can be obtained (using the procedure described by Sorm and Logowski) if the calcium ion solution is mixed with an equal volume of saturated ammonium bromide solution. Suggestions for flame tests of other elements are also noted. (JN)

  11. High-efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with all-inorganic Cu2ZnSnSe4 counter-electrode by ligand exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, we synthesized all-inorganic Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanocrystals (CZTSe NCs) by ligand exchange strategy using a simple metal-free chalcogenide compound [(NH4)2S] as the inorganic ligand. The results of I–V and Hall-effect measurement illuminated that all-inorganic CZTSe films reveal the excellent electron-transfer performance. When the all-inorganic CZTSe NCs films used as counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the photocurrent density increases significantly from 4.48 (OLA-capped CZTSe NCs) to 14.17 mA/cm2 (all-inorganic CZTSe NCs). A higher efficiency of η = 7.06% was achieved for all-inorganic CZTSe films as CE in DSSCs. The photovoltaic results showed that high temperature annealing can be avoided for all-inorganic CZTSe films as CE. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the all-inorganic CZTSe films as CE exhibited good electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity, which demonstrated that all-inorganic CZTSe NCs would serve as an effective CE material in DSSCs

  12. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  13. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  14. Electrosorption of inorganic salts from aqueous solution using carbon aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelich, Christopher J; Tran, Tri D; Suffet, I H Mel

    2002-07-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) with carbon aerogels has been shown to remove various inorganic species from aqueous solutions, though no studies have shown the electrosorption behavior of multisolute systems in which ions compete for limited surface area. Several experiments were conducted to determine the ion removal capacity and selectivity of carbon aerogel electrodes, using both laboratory and natural waters. Although carbon aerogel electrodes have been treated as electrical double-layer capacitors, this study showed that ion sorption followed a Langmuir isotherm, indicating monolayer adsorption. The sorption capacity of carbon aerogel electrodes was approximately 1.0-2.0 x 10(-4) equiv/g aerogel, with ion selectivity being based on ionic hydrated radius. Monovalent ions (e.g., sodium) with smaller hydrated radii were preferentially removed from solution over multivalent ions (e.g., calcium) on a percent or molar basis. Because of the relatively small average pore size (4-9 nm) of the carbon aerogel material, only 14-42 m2/g aerogel surface area was available for ion sorption. Natural organic matter may foul the aerogel surface and limit CDI effectiveness in treating natural waters. PMID:12144279

  15. Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to analyze the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses, for the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. The irradiation doses with the electron beam were from 0.015 to 9 MGy, and with Carbon beam from 1.5 kGy to 8 kGy. High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. These measurements are reproducible; the preparation of the sample is simple and inexpensive; and the signal is stable for several months. The response curves show that the dosimeter tends to saturate at 10 MGy. Based on these properties, we propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation. - Highlights: • This work analyzed the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses. • The main goal is to search the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. • High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). • An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. • We propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation

  16. Inorganic nanocarriers for platinum drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping’an Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays platinum drugs take up almost 50% of all the clinically used anticancer drugs. Besides cisplatin, novel platinum agents including sterically hindered platinum (II drugs, chemically reductive platinum (IV drugs, photosensitive platinum (IV drugs, and multinuclear platinum drugs have been developed recently, with a few entering clinic trials. Rapid development of nanobiotechnology makes targeted delivery of anticancer platinum agents to the tumor site possible, while simultaneously minimizing toxicity and maximizing the drug efficacy. Being versatile drug carriers to deliver platinum drugs, inorganic nanovehicles such as gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous nanosilica, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, have been extensively studied over the past decades. In contrast to conventional polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles based drug carriers are peculiar as they have shown excellent theranostic effects, revealing themselves an indispensable part of future nanomedicine. Here, we will elaborate recent research advances on fabrication of inorganic nanoparticles for platinum drug delivery.

  17. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed

  18. Inorganic nanoclusters in organic glasses — Novel materials for electro-optical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Martin; Künstle, Holger; Kunz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Polymer glasses which contain regularly arranged ultrasmall inorganic crystallites or clusters of CdS, CoS, NiS, ZnS have been prepared from functionalized diblock copolymers. Size and surface structure dependent variation of the ionization or redox potential respectively the band gap energy of the semiconductor particles in the polymeric glasses can be exploited to control photochemical processes and optical properties. The combination of anorganic and organic compounds provides a simple rou...

  19. Multidrug Efflux Transporters Limit Accumulation of Inorganic, but Not Organic, Mercury in Sea Urchin Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    BOŠNJAK, IVANA; Uhlinger, Kevin R.; Heim, Wesley; Smital, Tvrtko; Franekić-Čolić, Jasna; Coale, Kenneth; Epel, David; Hamdoun, Amro

    2009-01-01

    Mercuric compounds are persistent global pollutants that accumulate in marine organisms and in humans who consume them. While the chemical cycles and speciation of mercury in the oceans are relatively well described, the cellular mechanisms that govern which forms of mercury accumulate in cells and why they persist are less understood. In this study we examined the role of multidrug efflux transport in the differential accumulation of inorganic (HgCl2) and organic (CH3HgCl) mercury in sea urc...

  20. Organic and inorganic decomposition products from the thermal desorption of atmospheric particles

    OpenAIRE

    B. J. Williams; Zhang, Y.; Zuo, X.; R. E. Martinez; Walker, M J; N. M. Kreisberg; Goldstein, A. H.; K. S. Docherty; Jimenez, J. L

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition is often analyzed using thermal desorption techniques to evaporate samples and deliver organic or inorganic molecules to various designs of detectors for identification and quantification. The organic aerosol (OA) fraction is composed of thousands of individual compounds, some with nitrogen- and sulfur-containing functionality, and often contains oligomeric material, much of which may be susceptible to decomposition upon heating. Here we analy...

  1. 2007 Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Gordon Research Conference-February 18-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreja Bakac

    2008-01-01

    This conference focuses on kinetic, mechanistic, and thermodynamic studies of reactions that play a role in fields as diverse as catalysis, energy, bioinorganic chemistry, green chemistry, organometallics, and activation of small molecules (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, alkanes). Participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories present results and engage in discussions of pathways, intermediates, and outcome of various reactions of inorganic, organic, coordination, organometallic, and biological species. This knowledge is essential for rational development and design of novel reactions, compounds, and catalysts.

  2. Reproductive effects of inorganic borates on male employees: birth rate assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Whorton, D; Haas, J.; Trent, L

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for reproductive effects of inorganic borate compounds on male employees. The standardized birth ratio (SBR) methodology was used to assess fertility among male employees, using live births as the measured end point. The ratio of female to male births was also assessed. Data were collected via questionnaires and telephone follow-up interviews. Medical insurance records were assessed for nonresponders. Exposures were assessed using thr...

  3. Inorganic caesium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eperon, GE; Paterno', GM; Sutton, RJ; Zampetti, A.; Haghighirad, A; Cacialli, F.; Snaith, H.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of perovskite solar cell research has focused on organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites. Herein, we present working inorganic CsPbI3 perovskite solar cells for the first time. CsPbI3 normally resides in a yellow non-perovskite phase at room temperature, but by careful processing control and development of a low-temperature phase transition route we have stabilised the material in the black perovskite phase at room temperature. As such, we have fabricated solar cell dev...

  4. Utilising inorganic nanocarriers for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Xian Jun; Lee, Tung-Chun; Dou, Qingqing; Deen, G Roshan

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of genetic materials into cells to elicit cellular responses has been extensively studied by biomaterials scientists globally. Many materials such as lipids, peptides, viruses, synthetically modified cationic polymers and certain inorganic nanomaterials could be used to complex the negatively charged plasmids and deliver the formed package into cells. The recent literature on the delivery of genetic materials utilising inorganic nanoparticles is carefully examined in this review. We have picked out the most relevant references and concisely summarised the findings with illustrated examples. We further propose alternative approaches and suggest future pathways towards the practical use of multifunctional nanocarriers. PMID:26484365

  5. The role of inorganic ions in the calcium carbonate scaling of seawater reverse osmosis systems

    KAUST Repository

    Waly, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    In supersaturated solutions the period preceding the start of \\'measurable\\' crystallization is normally referred to as the \\'induction time\\'. This research project aimed to investigate the induction times of CaCO 3 in the presence of Mg 2+ and SO 4 2-. The prepared synthetic solutions have the same ionic strength values found in the Gulf of Oman SWRO concentrates at 30% and 50% recovery. The results showed a significant increase in the induction time by 1140%, 2820%, and 3880% for a recovery of 50%, when adding SO 4 2- only, Mg 2+ only, or both Mg 2+ and SO 4 2-, respectively, to synthetic SWRO concentrate compared to that obtained in the absence of Mg 2+ and SO 4 2- at an initial pH of 8.3. The increase in the induction time in the presence of SO 4 2- was more than likely to be due to nucleation and growth inhibition while the presence of Mg 2+ affected the nucleation and growth through both complexation and inhibition. After a 5-month solution stabilization period, ESEM and XRD analyses showed aragonite in solutions containing Mg 2+. On the contrary, calcite was the final crystal phase formed in solutions with no Mg 2+. This suggests that magnesium may play an important role in inhibiting the formation of calcite. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

  6. A Brief Review on Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (Pseudogout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD or pseudo gout is a metabolic arthropathy caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in and around joints especially in articular cartilage and fibro cartilage. Pseudo gout is a joint disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like gout, the condition involves the formation of crystals in the joints. But in pseudo gout, the crystals are formed from a salt instead of uric acid. Almost any joint may be involved by CPDD, although the knees, wrists, and hips are most often affected. Exact mechanism for the development of CPDD is still not known, but increased adenosine triphosphate breakdown which leads to increased inorganic pyrophosphate in the joints results from aging, genetic factors, or both. CPDD is a common condition that occurs with aging in all races. About 50% of people above 85 years have chondrocalcinosis in the United States. Physical examination findings show an acutely inflamed joint with swelling, effusion, warmth, tenderness and pain on motion similar to acute gouty arthritis and occur in the knee but may be present in the wrists, shoulders, ankles, hands and feet. Laboratory tests include serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, alkaline phosphatase levels, iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and ferritin, thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Imaging studies like radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and Ultrasonography is done. Management of CPPD includes surgery and pharmacotherapy with Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, anti-inflammatory agents like colchicine and corticosteroids such as prednisone and methylprednisolone.

  7. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction

  8. Improvement of photofatigue resistance of spirooxazine entrapped in organic-inorganic composite synthesized via the sol-gel process

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Lisong; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1994-01-01

    A photochromic dye, spirooxazine (SO), was incorporated in organic-inorganic composite (OIC) materials by taking the advantages of sol-gel processing. It has been found that the photochromic respnonse is high enough and the fading rate is similar to the dye-in-ethanol solution while the photofatigue resistance is strongly dependent on the matrix composition and the starting compounds. In the present work, we present results on the effect of matrix composition and starting compounds as well as...

  9. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  10. Síntese e caracterização de fosfatos de cálcio a partir da casca de ovo de galinha Synthesis and characterization of calcium phosphates produced from chicken eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fosfatos de cálcio são compostos cerâmicos atualmente utilizados para o desenvolvimento de biomaterais que atuam como substitutos ósseos nas áreas da ortopedia e odontologia clínica. Este trabalho teve como objetivo explorar rotas químicas para a conversão de casca de ovo de galinha, uma fonte rica em CaCO3, em fosfatos de cálcio inorgânicos, como o beta tricálcio fosfato (β-Ca3(PO42 e hidroxiapatita (Ca10(PO46(OH2 para a utilização como substitutos ósseos. Uma análise termodinâmica preliminar permitiu estabelecer quais os ácidos apresentam viabilidade reacional para o ataque químico à casca do ovo. Os sais inorgânicos produzidos, a partir do ataque ácido, utilizando HCl, HNO3 e H3PO4, foram convertidos em derivados de fosfato de cálcio, através de uma segunda etapa reacional. Os materiais obtidos foram aquecidos em forno elétrico por 2 h a 900 ºC. A análise por difração de raios X mostrou misturas de diferentes fases de fosfatos de cálcio e também a obtenção deβ-Ca3(PO42 como fase única, de acordo com a rota e procedimentos de síntese adotados.Calcium phosphates are ceramic compounds employed nowadays in development of biomaterials used as bone substitutes in clinical orthopedic and odontologic areas. The aim of this work was explore chemical routes able to convert chicken eggshell, a rich material in CaCO3, in inorganic calcium phosphates, as beta tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO42 and hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, materials used as bone substitutes. A preliminary thermodynamic analysis has shown which acids were viable to chemical attack in chicken eggshell. Inorganic salts produced from chemical acid attack, using HCl, HNO3 and H3PO4, were converted in calcium phosphates in a second reaction step. Materials produced were heated in electrical furnace over 2 h at 900 ºC. X-ray diffraction analyses have shown the presence of a mixture of different calcium phosphates phases and the formation of β-Ca3(PO42

  11. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Córdova, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32-, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C-C and C-O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  12. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nozière

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32−, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C–C and C–O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  13. Bond lengths differences between the mollusk-made and geological calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used high-resolution neutron powder diffraction technique in order to accurately measure the atomic positions and bond lengths in calcium carbonates of biogenic (mollusk-made) and geological origin. As a result, in biogenic calcium carbonate we identified atomic bonds, first of all the C-O bonds and some O-O bonds, which obey significant modification (about 1%) with respect to those in geological calcium carbonate. Bond length changes are presumably due to the organic/inorganic interactions in natural bio-composites. Generally, the effect is more pronounced for aragonite, which is structurally more flexible (nine unfixed parameters in atomic positions) than calcite (one parameter of this kind only). The observed bond modifications can be a source of the reported changes in the frequencies of normal vibrations of the carbonate groups measured by Raman or Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques.

  14. ToF-SIMS evaluation of calcium-containing silica/γ-PGA hybrid systems for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daming; Nakamura, Jin; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jones, Julian R.; McPhail, David S.

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrids have great potential for the production of bioactive scaffolds which have tailored mechanical properties and degradation rates suitable for tissue engineering. For bone regeneration, calcium incorporation into hybrids at low temperatures is important due to its ability to stimulate new bone formation. As a consequence, understanding the homogeneity of the critical inorganic and organic components will be the key to the development of such hybrids. The aim of this interdisciplinary study was to use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to determine the homogeneity of these critical components. We evaluated various sol-gel silica/γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) hybrid systems produced using different routes to introduce the calcium, thereby tailoring and optimizing hybrid syntheses and processing routes. Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used to improve the inorganic/organic coupling and its influence on the homogeneity of the hybrid structures was also examined. The results revealed that the calcium salt form of γ-PGA was promising for calcium incorporation since homogeneous products could be obtained. The ToF-SIMS data also indicated that the reaction time of hybrid synthesis and the timing of the addition of DMC can affect the homogeneity of hybrids.

  15. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  16. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the complexation of calcium by taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, 1J/sub c-c/ scalar coupling constants, spin-lattice relaxation times, and nuclear Overhauser effects were determined for taurine-[1, 2 13C] and a taurine-[1 13C] and taurine-[2 13C] mixture in the presence and absence of calcium. Comparison of taurine titration shifts to values for related compounds reveals some unusual electronic properties of the taurine molecule. Stability constants of 1:1 calcium complexes with taurine zwitterions and anions, as well as their 13C chemical shifts, were obtained by least squares analysis of titration curves measured in the presence of calcium. The stability constants of calcium-taurine complexes were significantly lower than previous values and led to estimates that only approximately one percent of intracellular calcium of mammalian myocardial cells would exist in a taurine complex

  17. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  19. Calcium dependence of Eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Stephen K.; Martin McAinsh; Hanna Cantopher; Sean Sandison

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. ...

  20. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whet...

  1. Molecular architecture of organic-inorganic polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor

    Dresden : Max Planck Institute for the Physic of Complex Systems, 2005. [MPG-MOEL– Symposium: Science and Art in Europe, Polymers: Materials in Nature and in Advanced Technologies. 23.5.2005-25.5.2005, Dresden] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2252 Keywords : organic-inorganic polymers * morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  2. Maitotoxin: Effects on calcium channels, phosphoinositide breakdown, and arachidonate release in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitotoxin (MTX) increases formation of [3H]inositol phosphates from phosphoinositides and release of [3H]arachidonic acid from phospholipids in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Formation of [3H]inositol phosphates is detected within 1 min of incubation even with concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml (90 pm) MTX, whereas release of [3H]arachidonic acid is not detected until 20 min even with concentrations as high as 1 ng/ml (300 pm) MTX. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release can be detected at 0.03 ng/ml (9 pm) MTX, whereas 0.1 ng/ml (30 pm) MTX is the threshold for detection of phosphoinositide breakdown. Organic and inorganic calcium channel blockers, except Cd2+ and a high concentration of Mn2+, have no effect on MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown, whereas inorganic blockers (e.g., Co2+, Mn2+, Cd2+), but not organic blockers (nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem), inhibit MTX-stimulated arachidonic acid release. All calcium channel blockers, however, inhibited MTX-elicited influx of 45Ca2+ and the MTX-elicited increase in internal Ca2+ measured with fura-2 was markedly reduced by nifedipine. MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown and arachidonic acid release are abolished or reduced, respectively, in the absence of extracellular calcium plus chelating agent. The calcium ionophore A23187 has little or no effect alone but, in combination with MTX, A23187 inhibits MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown and enhances arachidonic acid release, the latter even in the absence of extracellular calcium. The results suggest that different sites and/or mechanisms are involved in stimulation of calcium influx, breakdown of phosphoinositides, and release of arachidonic acid by MTX

  3. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in Martian meteorite EETA79001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Chips of glassy Lithology C of EETA79001 were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the mineralogy and petrogenesis of the glass that was shown by others to contain trapped Mars-like gases. Calcium carbonite was identified as massive to acicular crystals for which Ca, C, and O were the major elements. Calcium sulfate was identified as prismatic-acicular crystals with Ca and S as the major elements.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Hasabi; Hossein Askari; Seyed Mehdi Alavi; Masood Soltani Najafabadi

    2014-01-01

    Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest ba...

  5. Isolation and characterization of biogenic calcium carbonate/phosphate from oral bacteria and their adhesion studies on YSZ-coated titanium substrate for dental implant application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GOBI SARAVANAN KALIARAJ; KAMALAN KIRUBAHARAN; G PRADHABAN; P KUPPUSAMI; VINITA VISHWAKARMA

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic calcium carbonate/phosphate were isolated and characterized from oral bacteria (CPOB). The crystalline nature and morphology of calcium carbonate/phosphate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD)and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), respectively. XRD analysis revealed the cubic phase of YSZ coating as well as biogenic calcium carbonate (rhombohedral) and calcium phosphate oxide (hexagonal) wasobserved from CPOB. FESEM confirmed the extracellular synthesis of calcium compounds. Bacterial adhesion result reveals that YSZ coating drastically reduce bacterial invasion than titanium substrate.

  6. Thermoplastic Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naffakh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using inorganic fullerene-like (IF nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes (INT in organic-inorganic hybrid composite, materials provide the potential for improving thermal, mechanical, and tribological properties of conventional composites. The processing of such high-performance hybrid thermoplastic polymer nanocomposites is achieved via melt-blending without the aid of any modifier or compatibilizing agent. The incorporation of small quantities (0.1–4 wt.% of IF/INTs (tungsten disulfide, IF-WS2 or molybdenum disulfide, MoS2 generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects and excellent lubricating ability in comparison with promising carbon nanotubes or other inorganic nanoscale fillers. It was shown that these IF/INT nanocomposites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness, and processability, which is of significant importance for extending the practical applications of diverse hierarchical thermoplastic-based composites.

  7. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2015-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dy...

  8. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1961. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  9. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  10. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1964. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  11. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1982. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  12. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1981. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  13. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1984. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  14. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1965. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  15. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1983. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  16. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1963. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  17. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  18. Reactivity Network: Secondary Sources for Inorganic Reactivity Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an eclectic annotated bibliography of secondary sources for inorganic reactivity information of interest to reactivity network review authors and to anyone seeking information about simple inorganic reactions in order to develop experiments and demonstrations. Gives 119 sources. (MVL)

  19. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  20. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m......Ab. This antibody was characterized by binding to CL-LK at hypo- and physiological calcium concentrations and dissociated from CK-LK at hyperphysiological concentrations of calcium. We purified CL-LK from plasma to a purity of 41% and a yield of 38%, resulting in a purification factor of more than 88......,000 in a single step. To evaluate the efficiency of this new purification scheme, we purified CL-LK using the same calcium-sensitive mAb in combination with acidic elution buffer and by using calcium-dependent anti-CL-K1 mAbs in combination with EDTA elution buffer. We found that calcium...

  1. Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  2. Transformations and turnover of Phosphorous Compounds in the Lake Balaton ecosystem, 1976-1978

    OpenAIRE

    Leonov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Transformation of the phosphorous compounds in Lake Balaton was described in the mathematical model BALSECT (Balaton Sector Model). This model, which deals with five types of phosphorous compounds--dissolved inorganic P, dissolved organic P, nonliving particulate organic P, bacterial P, and phytoplankton P--reflects the basic interactions between these compounds in accordance with the consecutive conversion of phosphorous compounds in the water environment. The rates of change in the phosphor...

  3. Stability of Sunscreens Containing CePO4: Proposal for a New Inorganic UV Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor C. Seixas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic UV filters have become attractive because of their role in protecting the skin from the damage caused by continuous exposure to the sun. However, their large refractive index and high photocatalytic activity have led to the development of alternative inorganic materials such as CePO4 for application as UV filters. This compound leaves a low amount of white residue on the skin and is highly stable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of a cosmetic formulation containing ordinary organic UV filters combined with 5% CePO4, and, to compare it with other formulations containing the same vehicle with 5% TiO2 or ZnO as inorganic materials. The rheological behavior and chemical stability of the formulations containing these different UV filters were investigated. Results showed that the formulation containing CePO4 is a promising innovative UV filter due to its low interaction with organic filters, which culminates in longer shelf life when compared with traditional formulations containing ZnO or TiO2 filters. Moreover, the recognized ability of CePO4 to leave a low amount of white residue on the skin combined with great stability, suggests that CePO4 can be used as inorganic filter in high concentrations, affording formulations with high SPF values.

  4. Vanadium Compounds as Pro-Inflammatory Agents: Effects on Cyclooxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Korbecki; Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka; Izabela Gutowska; Dariusz Chlubek

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how the activity and expression of cyclooxygenases are influenced by vanadium compounds at anticancer concentrations and recorded in inorganic vanadium poisonings. We refer mainly to the effects of vanadate (orthovanadate), vanadyl and pervanadate ions; the main focus is placed on their impact on intracellular signaling. We describe the exact mechanism of the effect of vanadium compounds on protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), PLCγ...

  5. Boron compounds as potential HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešek, Jaromír; Grüner, Bohumír; Král, V.; Cígler, Petr; Kožíšek, Milan; Prejdová, Jana; Pokorná, Jana; Kräusslich, H. G.; Bodem, J.; Konvalinka, Jan

    Tohoku: Graduate School of Science, 2005, s. 46. [International Conference on Boron Chemistry /12./. Sendai (JP), 11.09.2005-15.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : boron cluster compounds Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  6. Relation of Pulmonary Function Impairment and Coronary Artery Calcification by Multi-detector Computed Tomography in Group Exposed to Inorganic Dusts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won-Jeong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Park, So Young

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of pulmonary function impairment (PFI) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and the effect of pneumoconiosis on CAC or PFI. Methods Seventy-six subjects exposed to inorganic dusts underwent coronary artery calcium scoring by MDCT, spirometry, laboratory tests, and a standardized questionnaire. CAC was quantified using a commercial software (Rapidia ver. 2.8), and all the subj...

  7. Probing the tropical tropopause layer for organic and inorganic bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Atlas, Elliot; Cheung, Ross; Chipperfield, Martyn; Colosimo, Fedele; Deutschmann, Tim; Elkins, Jim; Fahey, David; Feng, Wu; Festa, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Hossaini, Ryan; Navarro, Maria; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Spolaor, Max; Thornberry, Troy; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Bromine chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the photochemistry and budget of bromine in the tropical upper troposphere, tropopause layer and lowermost stratosphere (UT/TTL/LS). These regions are also known to serve as a gateway for delivery of ozone depleting gases to the stratosphere. CH3Br, halons, short-lived organic bromine precursors (VSLS), such as CHBr3, CH2Br2, and possibly inorganic product gases have been identified as the main bromine gases delivered to the stratosphere. However, many important details of the transport and delivery of VSLS and inorganic bromine compounds through the TTL are still uncertain. Moreover, a number of chemical processes, including the transformation of the source gases and cycling of inorganic bromine species at low ambient temperature and on ice particles are also poorly understood. The presentation reports measurements of CH4, O3, NO2, and BrO performed by different instruments and techniques during the 2013 NASA-ATTREX flights in the TTL and LS. The interpretation of our measurements is supported by chemical transport model (SLIMCAT) simulations. SLIMCAT results, in conjunction with extensive radiative transfer calculations using the Monte Carlo model McArtim, also are used to improve retrieval of O3, NO2, and BrO concentrations from limb scattered sunlight measurements made with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique during ATTREX. The chemical transport model also allows us to attribute observed concentration variations to transport and to photochemical processes. When properly accounting for the transport-related concentration variations in methane and ozone, we find that measured BrO mostly agrees with model simulations. An exception are regions where the contribution of the short-lived CH2Br2 or the

  8. Inorganic and hybrid insulation materials for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulation systems are a critical component in superconducting fusion magnet systems, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Past cryogenic magnet systems have often relied on organic composite (e.g., glass/epoxy) materials for insulation. Concerns regarding reliability, radiation resistance, and electrical properties of organic systems have prompted the search for alternate materials, particularly hybrids which incorporate an inorganic barrier. Fabricability, mechanical, and electrical performance of various inorganic and hybrid materials are investigated. Materials include mica based sheets, plasma-sprayed and porcelain-enamel ceramic coatings, polyimide films and coatings, reinforced cement, and polymer conversion ceramic prepregs. Radiation resistance of selected candidate material systems will be evaluated in subsequent investigations

  9. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel L.; Weaver, Jonathan V. M.; Binks, Bernard P.; Mann, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covalent grafting of a pH-responsive copolymer to generate an ultrathin elastic membrane that exhibits selective release and uptake of small molecules. This behaviour, which depends on the charge of the copolymer coronal layer, serves to trigger enzymatic dephosphorylation reactions specifically within the protocell aqueous interior. This system represents a step towards the design and construction of alternative types of artificial chemical cells and protocell models based on spontaneous processes of inorganic self-organization.

  10. The Inorganic Illustrator: A 3-D Graphical Supplement for Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry Courses Distributed on CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Scott L.; Hagen, Karl S.

    1996-10-01

    The visualization of molecular and solid state chemical structures in three dimensions is a particularly difficult problem for students to overcome when the primary means of communication is the two-dimensional world of textbooks, blackboards, and overhead projector screens. Recent editions of popular textbooks in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry have included stereoviews of molecules to aid the student, and stereoviews of crystal structures have been used in inorganic chemistry publications for many years. These are powerful aids for visualizing complex molecules, but with the exception of the biochemistry text mentioned above, they are limited to single, static images generally in black and white. Molecular model kits are routinely used very effectively in organic chemistry but their utility in inorganic chemistry is limited to all but the most simple molecules encountered. Now that personal computers are generally accessible and multimedia tools are starting to make an appearance in chemistry lecture halls (1), we can make our inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry and crystallography lectures come alive with the aid of the computer-based resources, which are the essence of this project. As part of this project we are accumulating a database of representative crystal structures of main group molecules, coordination complexes, organometallic compounds, small metalloproteins, bioinorganic model complexes, clusters, and solid state materials in Chem3D Plus format to be viewed with Chem3D Viewer, which is free software from Cambridge Scientific Computing. We are also generating a library of high-quality graphic images of these same molecules and structures using Cerius2 package from Molecular Simulations. These include polyhedral representations of clusters and solid state structures (see Fig. 1). Figure 1. Representation of the user interface: the title page and an example of polyhedral and ball-and-stick representation of an octanuclear iron-oxo cluster. The

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrids constructed by Anderson-type polyoxoanions and copper coordination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on Anderson-type polyoxoanions, namely, {[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)3]2[Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}{[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)Cl][Cu(2,2'-bpy) (H2O)(NO3)][Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}.18H2O (1), [Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2Cl]{[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2][Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}.4H2O (2), (H3O){[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2]2[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)]2}[Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]3.36H2O (3), and (H3O){[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2]2[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)]2}[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]3.33H2O (4), were isolated by conventional solution method, and crystal structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Among them, compound 1 displays a discrete supramolecular structure, compound 2 shows a chainlike structure with chloro-copper complexes as counteranions, and compounds 3 and 4 are isomorphic and exhibit unique 3D open frameworks with lattice water molecules residing in the channels. The compounds 3 and 4 represent the first example of 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compounds in the TMs/2,2'-bpy/POMs system. Investigation of the reaction conditions reveals that the geometry and size of the anions together with its coordinating abilities to the metal centers have a decisive influence on both the composition and the dimensionality of the final compounds. - Graphical Abstract: Four organic-inorganic hybrids based on Anderson-type polyoxoanions have been synthesized. Compound 1 displays a discrete structure, 2 shows a chainlike structure, 3 and 4 are isomorphic and exhibit unique 3D open frameworks with lattice waters residing in the channels. The different structures suggest that the overall structures of the compounds are influenced by the nature of the acidic anions

  12. ROMP-Derived cyclooctene-based monolithic polymeric materials reinforced with inorganic nanoparticles for applications in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Weichelt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous monolithic inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials have been prepared via ring-opening metathesis copolymerization starting from a highly polar monomer, i.e., cis-5-cyclooctene-trans-1,2-diol and a 7-oxanorborn-2-ene-derived cross-linker in the presence of porogenic solvents and two types of inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., CaCO3 and calcium hydroxyapatite, respectively using the third-generation Grubbs initiator RuCl2(Py2(IMesH2(CHPh. The physico-chemical properties of the monolithic materials, such as pore size distribution and microhardness were studied with regard to the nanoparticle type and content. Moreover, the reinforced monoliths were tested for the possible use as scaffold materials in tissue engineering, by carrying out cell cultivation experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

  13. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  14. Application of inorganic scintillator for neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Niki, N; Nakayama, S; Fushimi, K

    2003-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor institution, the neutron monitoring is indispensable in order to find an unusual neutron event which may be the signal of an accident or damage of a reactor. In this work, the possibility of a neutron monitor by means of an inorganic scintillator was researched. The detection efficiency and the intrinsic background of GSO scintillator and its sensitivity for neutrons have been studied.

  15. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  16. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  17. Inorganic Photovoltaics - Planar and Nanostructured Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanujam, J.; Verma, A.; González-Díaz, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; García-Tabarés, E.; Rey-Stolle Prado, Ignacio; Granek, F.; Korte, L.; Tucci, M.; Rath, J.; Singh, U. P.; Todorov, T.; Gunawan, O.; Rubioara, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1950s, semiconductor solar cell technology has evolved in great leaps and bounds. Solar power is now being considered as a serious leading contender for replacing fossil fuel based power generation. This article reviews the evolution and current state, and potential areas of near future research focus, of leading inorganic materials based solar cells, including bulk crystalline, amorphous thin-films, and nanomaterials based solar cells. Bulk crystalline silicon sola...

  18. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    In-Yup Jeon; Jong-Beom Baek

    2010-01-01

    Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organ...

  19. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel; Weaver, Jonathan; Binks, Bernard; Mann, Stephen.

    2013-01-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covale...

  20. Graphene and inorganic analogous of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ecorchard, Petra; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Henych, Jiří

    Praha : Ústav fyzikální chemie J. Heyrovského AV ČR, v.v.i, 2014. RP12. ISBN 978-80-87351-32-1. [Pokroky anorganické chemie /1./. 22.6.2014-26.6.2014, Třešť] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : graphene * analogues of graphene Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry