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Sample records for calcium induced genes

  1. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing

  2. Targeting Calcium Signaling Induces Epigenetic Reactivation of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Cancer.

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    Raynal, Noël J-M; Lee, Justin T; Wang, Youjun; Beaudry, Annie; Madireddi, Priyanka; Garriga, Judith; Malouf, Gabriel G; Dumont, Sarah; Dettman, Elisha J; Gharibyan, Vazganush; Ahmed, Saira; Chung, Woonbok; Childers, Wayne E; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Henry, Ryan A; Andrews, Andrew J; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Cui, Ying; Baylin, Stephen B; Gill, Donald L; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2016-03-15

    Targeting epigenetic pathways is a promising approach for cancer therapy. Here, we report on the unexpected finding that targeting calcium signaling can reverse epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). In a screen for drugs that reactivate silenced gene expression in colon cancer cells, we found three classical epigenetic targeted drugs (DNA methylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors) and 11 other drugs that induced methylated and silenced CpG island promoters driving a reporter gene (GFP) as well as endogenous TSGs in multiple cancer cell lines. These newly identified drugs, most prominently cardiac glycosides, did not change DNA methylation locally or histone modifications globally. Instead, all 11 drugs altered calcium signaling and triggered calcium-calmodulin kinase (CamK) activity, leading to MeCP2 nuclear exclusion. Blocking CamK activity abolished gene reactivation and cancer cell killing by these drugs, showing that triggering calcium fluxes is an essential component of their epigenetic mechanism of action. Our data identify calcium signaling as a new pathway that can be targeted to reactivate TSGs in cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Integration of Kinase and Calcium Signaling at the Level of Chromatin Underlies Inducible Gene Activation in T Cells.

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    Brignall, Ruth; Cauchy, Pierre; Bevington, Sarah L; Gorman, Bethany; Pisco, Angela O; Bagnall, James; Boddington, Christopher; Rowe, William; England, Hazel; Rich, Kevin; Schmidt, Lorraine; Dyer, Nigel P; Travis, Mark A; Ott, Sascha; Jackson, Dean A; Cockerill, Peter N; Paszek, Pawel

    2017-10-15

    TCR signaling pathways cooperate to activate the inducible transcription factors NF-κB, NFAT, and AP-1. In this study, using the calcium ionophore ionomycin and/or PMA on Jurkat T cells, we show that the gene expression program associated with activation of TCR signaling is closely related to specific chromatin landscapes. We find that calcium and kinase signaling cooperate to induce chromatin remodeling at ∼2100 chromatin regions, which demonstrate enriched binding motifs for inducible factors and correlate with target gene expression. We found that these regions typically function as inducible enhancers. Many of these elements contain composite NFAT/AP-1 sites, which typically support cooperative binding, thus further reinforcing the need for cooperation between calcium and kinase signaling in the activation of genes in T cells. In contrast, treatment with PMA or ionomycin alone induces chromatin remodeling at far fewer regions (∼600 and ∼350, respectively), which mostly represent a subset of those induced by costimulation. This suggests that the integration of TCR signaling largely occurs at the level of chromatin, which we propose plays a crucial role in regulating T cell activation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Letrozole induced low estrogen levels affected the expressions of duodenal and renal calcium-processing gene in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Zhao, Xingkai; Wang, Shujie; Zhou, Zhenlei

    2017-10-14

    Estrogen regulates the calcium homeostasis in hens, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear fully. In this study, we investigated whether letrozole (LZ) induced low estrogen levels affected the calcium absorption and transport in layers. In the duodenum, we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expressions of Calbindin-28k (CaBP-28k) and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA 1b) while CaBP-28k protein expression was declined in birds with LZ treatment, and the mRNA levels of duodenal transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) were not affected. Interestingly, we observed the different changes in the kidney. The renal mRNA expressions of TRPV6 and NCX1 were unregulated while the PMCA1b was down-regulated in low estrogen layers, however, the CaBP-28k gene and protein expressions were no changed in the kidney. Furthermore, it showed that the duodenal estradiol receptor 2 (ESR2) transcripts rather than parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and calcitonin receptor (CALCR) played key roles to down-regulate calcium transport in LZ-treated birds. In conclusion, CaBP-28k, PMCA 1b and ESR2 genes in the duodenum may be primary targets for estrogen regulation in order to control calcium homeostasis in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in mineral trioxide aggregate-induced osteogenic gene expression in murine MC3T3-E1 cells.

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    Yasukawa, Takuya; Hayashi, Makoto; Tanabe, Natsuko; Tsuda, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kawato, Takayuki; Suzuki, Naoto; Maeno, Masao; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2017-07-26

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has excellent biocompatibility as well as bioactivity, including an ability to induce osteoblast differentiation. We examined the effects of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on osteogenic gene expression induced by MTA. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with or without (control) MTA. The expression levels of Runx2, type I collagen, and CaSR genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and their products were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The levels were increased significantly in cells exposed to MTA compared with control. Next, MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with MTA and EGTA (a calcium chelator), because calcium ions were released continuously from MTA into the culture. Expression levels were decreased to control levels by MTA plus EGTA. NPS2143 (a CaSR antagonist) also reduced MTA-induced gene expression. These results suggest that MTA induced osteogenic gene expressions of Runx2 and type I collagen via CaSR in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  6. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

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    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

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    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  8. Aphanomyces euteiches cell wall fractions containing novel glucan-chitosaccharides induce defense genes and nuclear calcium oscillations in the plant host Medicago truncatula.

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    Amaury Nars

    Full Text Available N-acetylglucosamine-based saccharides (chitosaccharides are components of microbial cell walls and act as molecular signals during host-microbe interactions. In the legume plant Medicago truncatula, the perception of lipochitooligosaccharide signals produced by symbiotic rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi involves the Nod Factor Perception (NFP lysin motif receptor-like protein and leads to the activation of the so-called common symbiotic pathway. In rice and Arabidopsis, lysin motif receptors are involved in the perception of chitooligosaccharides released by pathogenic fungi, resulting in the activation of plant immunity. Here we report the structural characterization of atypical chitosaccharides from the oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, and their biological activity on the host Medicago truncatula. Using a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that these chitosaccharides are linked to β-1,6-glucans, and contain a β-(1,3;1,4-glucan backbone whose β-1,3-linked glucose units are substituted on their C-6 carbon by either glucose or N-acetylglucosamine residues. This is the first description of this type of structural motif in eukaryotic cell walls. Glucan-chitosaccharide fractions of A. euteiches induced the expression of defense marker genes in Medicago truncatula seedlings independently from the presence of a functional Nod Factor Perception protein. Furthermore, one of the glucan-chitosaccharide fractions elicited calcium oscillations in the nucleus of root cells. In contrast to the asymmetric oscillatory calcium spiking induced by symbiotic lipochitooligosaccharides, this response depends neither on the Nod Factor Perception protein nor on the common symbiotic pathway. These findings open new perspectives in oomycete cell wall biology and elicitor recognition and signaling in legumes.

  9. Induced calcium carbonate precipitation using Bacillus species.

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    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an emerging process for the production of self-healing concrete. This study was aimed to investigate the effects and optimum conditions on calcium carbonate biosynthesis. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, yeast extract, urea, calcium chloride and aeration were found to be the most significant factors affecting the biomineralization of calcium carbonate. It was noticed that the morphology of microbial calcium carbonate was mainly affected by the genera of bacteria (cell surface properties), the viscosity of the media and the type of electron acceptors (Ca2+). The maximum calcium carbonate concentration of 33.78 g/L was achieved at the optimum conditions This value is the highest concentration reported in the literature.

  10. The calcium binding protein ALG-2 binds and stabilizes Scotin, a p53-inducible gene product localized at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draeby, Ingrid; Woods, Yvonne L; la Cour, Jonas Marstrand

    2007-01-01

    ALG-2 (apoptosis linked gene 2 product) is a calcium binding protein for which no clear cellular function has been established. In this study we identified Scotin as a novel ALG-2 target protein containing 6 PXY and 4 PYP repeats, earlier identified in the ALG-2 binding regions of AIP1/ALIX and TSG...

  11. Electrochemical Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yang; Song, Bingnan; Weijden, van der Renata D.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms and cannot be replaced or substituted. In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient membrane free electrochemical system for P removal and recovery as calcium phosphate (CaP). This method relies on in situ formation of hydroxide

  12. Potassium and calcium channel gene expression in small arteries in porcine and rat models of diet-induced obesity (Poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Salomonsson, Max; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem worldwide leading to cardiovascular morbidity. Only limited information exists on the transcriptional regulation of arterial K+ and Ca2+ channels in obesity. We quantified, by real-time PCR, mRNA expression of K+ channels and L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC) in small m...... changes in K+ and Ca2+ channel gene expression, which, in rats, did not seem to be linked with changes in SBP. These transcriptional changes may lead to disturbances in microvascular flow patterns in obesity....

  13. TNF-α induces expression of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 via dual calcium-dependent pathways in rheumatoid synovial cells.

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    Yoshida, Kohsuke; Nakai, Ayako; Kaneshiro, Kenta; Hashimoto, Naonori; Suzuki, Kohjin; Uchida, Koto; Hashimoto, Teppei; Kawasaki, Yoshiko; Tateishi, Koji; Nakagawa, Natsuko; Shibanuma, Nao; Sakai, Yoshitada; Hashiramoto, Akira

    2018-01-08

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is responsible for expressions of several clock genes and affects joint symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with diurnal fluctuation. We tried to determine the mechanism involved in over-expression of Bmal1, induced by TNF-α, in primary cultured rheumatoid synovial cells. Cells were incubated with intra-cellular Ca 2+ chelator BAPTA-AM, calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and p300/CBP (CREB binding protein) inhibitor C646, respectively, or transfected with p300 and CBP small interfering RNA (siRNA) before stimulation with TNF-α. Oscillation phase and amplitude of Bmal1, transcriptional activator Rorα, transcriptional repressor Rev-erbα, and histone acetyltransferases (p300 and Cbp) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. As results, TNF-α did not influence the oscillation phase of Rev-erbα, while enhanced those of Rorα, resulting in over-expression of Bmal1. When Ca 2+ influx was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, TNF-α-mediated up-regulation of Rorα was cancelled, however, that of Bmal1 was still apparent. When we further explored another pathway between TNF-α and Bmal1, TNF-α suppressed the expression of Rev-erbα in the absence of Ca 2+ influx, as well as those of p300 and Cbp genes. Finally, actions of TNF-α, in increasing Bmal1/Rorα and decreasing Rev-erbα, were cancelled by C646 treatment or silencing of both p300 and Cbp. In conclusion, we determined a novel role of TNF-α in inducing Bmal1 via dual calcium dependent pathways; Rorα was up-regulated in the presence of Ca 2+ influx and Rev-erbα was down-regulated in the absence of that. Results proposed that inhibition of p300/CBP could be new therapeutic targets for RA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Body fat loss induced by calcium in co-supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid is associated with increased expression of bone formation genes in adult mice.

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    Chaplin, Alice; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2015-12-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and calcium in weight management in animal models and human studies has been outlined, as well as their use to prevent bone loss at critical stages. In addition, it has been suggested that bone remodeling and energy metabolism are regulated by shared pathways and involve common hormones such as leptin. We have previously shown that supplementation with CLA and calcium in adult obese mice decreases body weight and body fat. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of these two compounds on bone and energy metabolism markers on bone. Mice (C57BL/6J) were divided into five groups according to diet and treatment (up to 56 days): control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF+CLA (CLA), HF+calcium (Ca) and HF with both compounds (CLA+Ca). At the end of treatment, bone formation markers were determined in plasma and expression of selected bone and energy markers was determined in tibia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results show that CLA was associated with decreased tibia weight and minor impact on bone markers, whereas calcium, either alone or co-supplemented with CLA, maintained bone weight and promoted the expression of bone formation genes such as bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein 2 (Bglap2) and collagen Iα1 (Col1a1). Furthermore, it had a significant effect on key players in energy metabolism, in particular leptin and adiponectin tibia receptors. Overall, in addition to the weight loss promoting properties of calcium, on its own or co-supplemented with CLA, our results support beneficial effects on bone metabolism in mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Extracellular ATP Induces Calcium Signaling in Odontoblasts.

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    Lee, B M; Jo, H; Park, G; Kim, Y H; Park, C K; Jung, S J; Chung, G; Oh, S B

    2017-02-01

    Odontoblasts form dentin at the outermost surface of tooth pulp. An increasing level of evidence in recent years, along with their locational advantage, implicates odontoblasts as a secondary role as sensory or immune cells. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in the neuronal and immune systems, and its potential involvement in interodontoblast communications was recently demonstrated. In an effort to elaborate the ATP-mediated signaling pathway in odontoblasts, the current study performed single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescent detection to investigate the expression of ATP receptors related to calcium signal in odontoblasts from incisal teeth of 8- to 10-wk-old rats, and demonstrated an in vitro response to ATP application via calcium imaging experiments. While whole tissue RT-PCR analysis detected P2Y2, P2Y4, and all 7 subtypes (P2X1 to P2X7) in tooth pulp, single-cell RT-PCR analysis of acutely isolated rat odontoblasts revealed P2Y2, P2Y4, P2X2, P2X4, P2X6, and P2X7 expression in only a subset (23% to 47%) of cells tested, with no evidence for P2X1, P2X3, and P2X5 expression. An increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in response to 100μM ATP, which was repeated after pretreatment of thapsigargin or under the Ca(2+)-free condition, suggested function of both ionotropic and metabotropic ATP receptors in odontoblasts. The enhancement of ATP-induced calcium response by ivermectin and inhibition by 5-(3-bromophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzofuro[3,2-e]-1,4-diazepin-2-one (5-BDBD) confirmed a functional P2X4 subtype in odontoblasts. Positive calcium response to 2',3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and negative response to α,β-methylene ATP suggested P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 as functional subunits in rat odontoblasts. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis of the cells with confirmed calcium response and immunofluorescent detection further corroborated the expression of P2X

  16. Paclitaxel induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through different calcium--regulating mechanisms depending on external calcium conditions.

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    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-02-17

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an "Enhanced Calcium Efflux" mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel's stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  17. A Multiplexed Fluorescent Calcium and NFAT Reporter Gene Assay to Identify GPCR Agonists.

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    Sheth, Heeral; Gorey, Colleen; Roush, Nicole; Smallman, Shelly; Collantes, Elizabeth; Santoro, Maxine; Olson, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Laura; Lee, Paul H; Shen, Xiqiang John

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular calcium response and resulting calcium signaling to an agonist-GPCR interaction are important for the measurement of compound activity in the GPCR drug development. The increase in cytosol calcium concentration can be measured by the fluorescent calcium indicator dye such as Fluo-4 in a quick assay (in 3-5 minutes) using the fluorescence imaging plate reader. The calcium signaling through the transcription factors such as NFAT that induces gene expression can be measured by the reporter gene assay that links to the expression of reporter enzyme such as the beta-lactamase that requires 5-hour incubation. We have evaluated a multiplexed assay that sequentially measures the calcium response to a GPCR agonist in a rapid fluorescent calcium dye assay, followed by a NFAT beta-lactamase assay, and compared them in the single assay format. We found that the agonist activity determined in the multiplexed assay were comparable with these determined in the single assay format and the Z' factors were all >0.5. Five active compounds were identified that were active in both calcium dye assay and beta-lactamase assay. Therefore, our results demonstrated the utility of this multiplexed calcium assay for screening of GPCR compounds that can cross validate the primary hits and help to eliminate the false positive compounds.

  18. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2.

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    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process.

  19. Increased renal calcium and magnesium transporter abundance in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

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    Lee, C-T; Lien, Y-H H; Lai, L-W; Chen, J-B; Lin, C-R; Chen, H-C

    2006-05-01

    Diabetes is associated with renal calcium and magnesium wasting, but the molecular mechanisms of these defects are unknown. We measured renal calcium and magnesium handling and investigated the effects of diabetes on calcium and magnesium transporters in the thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were killed 2 weeks after inducing diabetes, gene expression of calcium and magnesium transporters in the kidney was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the abundance of protein was assessed by immunoblotting. Our results showed that diabetic rats had significant increase in the fractional excretion for calcium and magnesium (both P diabetic rats. Sodium chloride cotransporter was also increased (207 +/- 10%). No change was found in paracellin-1 (cortex: 108 +/- 8%; medulla: 110 +/- 10%). Immunofluorescent studies of renal sections showed significant increase in calbindin-D28k (238 +/- 10%) and TRPV5 (211 +/- 10%), but no changes in paracellin-1 in Western blotting (cortex: 110 +/- 7%; medulla: 99 +/- 7%). Insulin administration completely corrected the hyperglycemia-associated hypercalciuria and hypermagnesiuria, and reversed the increase of calcium and magnesium transporter abundance. In conclusion, our results demonstrated increased renal calcium and magnesium transporter abundance in STZ-induced diabetic rats, which may represent a compensatory adaptation for the increased load of calcium and magnesium to the distal tubule.

  20. Direct Current-Induced Calcium Trafficking in Different Neuronal Preparations

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    Andrzej Wieraszko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of direct current (DC stimulation on radioactive calcium trafficking in sciatic nerve in vivo and in vitro, spinal cord, and synaptosomes was investigated. The exposure to DC enhanced calcium redistribution in all of these preparations. The effect was dependent on the strength of the stimulation and extended beyond the phase of exposure to DC. The DC-induced increase in calcium sequestration by synaptosomes was significantly reduced by cobalt and rupture of synaptosomes by osmotic shock. Although both anodal and cathodal currents were effective, the experiments with two electrodes of different areas revealed that cathodal stimulation exerted stronger effect. The exposure to DC induced not only relocation but also redistribution of calcium within segments of the sciatic nerve. Enzymatic removal of sialic acid by preincubation of synaptosomes with neuroaminidase, or carrying out the experiments in sodium-free environment, amplified DC-induced calcium accumulation.

  1. Calcium-induced calcium release supports recruitment of synaptic vesicles in auditory hair cells.

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    Castellano-Muñoz, Manuel; Schnee, Michael E; Ricci, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Hair cells from auditory and vestibular systems transmit continuous sound and balance information to the central nervous system through the release of synaptic vesicles at ribbon synapses. The high activity experienced by hair cells requires a unique mechanism to sustain recruitment and replenishment of synaptic vesicles for continuous release. Using pre- and postsynaptic electrophysiological recordings, we explored the potential contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in modulating the recruitment of vesicles to auditory hair cell ribbon synapses. Pharmacological manipulation of CICR with agents targeting endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores reduced both spontaneous postsynaptic multiunit activity and the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Pharmacological treatments had no effect on hair cell resting potential or activation curves for calcium and potassium channels. However, these drugs exerted a reduction in vesicle release measured by dual-sine capacitance methods. In addition, calcium substitution by barium reduced release efficacy by delaying release onset and diminishing vesicle recruitment. Together these results demonstrate a role for calcium stores in hair cell ribbon synaptic transmission and suggest a novel contribution of CICR in hair cell vesicle recruitment. We hypothesize that calcium entry via calcium channels is tightly regulated to control timing of vesicle fusion at the synapse, whereas CICR is used to maintain a tonic calcium signal to modulate vesicle trafficking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Insulin induces calcium signals in the nucleus of rat hepatocytes.

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    Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A; Andrade, Viviane A; Leite, M Fatima; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    Insulin is an hepatic mitogen that promotes liver regeneration. Actions of insulin are mediated by the insulin receptor, which is a receptor tyrosine kinase. It is currently thought that signaling via the insulin receptor occurs at the plasma membrane, where it binds to insulin. Here we report that insulin induces calcium oscillations in isolated rat hepatocytes, and that these calcium signals depend upon activation of phospholipase C and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but not upon extracellular calcium. Furthermore, insulin-induced calcium signals occur in the nucleus, and are temporally associated with selective depletion of nuclear phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and translocation of the insulin receptor to the nucleus. These findings suggest that the insulin receptor translocates to the nucleus to initiate nuclear, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium signals in rat hepatocytes. This novel signaling mechanism may be responsible for insulin's effects on liver growth and regeneration.

  3. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells.

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    Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J

    2015-03-10

    In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights

  4. Hypotonic stress-induced calcium signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves TRP-like transporters on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

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    Rigamonti, M; Groppi, S; Belotti, F; Ambrosini, R; Filippi, G; Martegani, E; Tisi, R

    2015-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells respond to hypotonic stress (HTS) by a cytosolic calcium rise, either generated by an influx of calcium from extracellular medium, when calcium is available, or by a release from intracellular stores in scarcity of extracellular calcium. Calcium release from intracellular compartments is peculiarly inhibited by external calcium in a calcineurin-independent and Cch1-, but not Mid1-, driven manner. HTS-induced calcium release is also negatively regulated by the ER protein Cls2 and involves a poorly characterized protein, FLC2/YAL053W gene product, previously proposed to be required for FAD transport in the ER, albeit, due to its molecular features, it was also previously classified as an ion transporter. A computational analysis revealed that this gene and its three homologs in S. cerevisiae, together with previously identified Schizosaccharomyces pombe pkd2 and Neurospora crassa calcium-related spray protein, belong to a fungal branch of TRP-like ion transporters related to human mucolipin and polycystin 2 calcium transporters. Moreover, disruption of FLC2 gene confers severe sensitivity to Calcofluor white and hyper-activation of the cell wall integrity MAPK cascade, suggesting a role in cell wall maintenance as previously suggested for the fission yeast homolog. Perturbation in cytosolic resting calcium concentration and hyper-activation of calcineurin in exponentially growing cells suggest a role for this transporter in calcium homeostasis in yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium homeostasis is altered in skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats: cytofluorimetric and gene expression analysis.

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    Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Cannone, Maria; Pierno, Sabata; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Fraysse, Bodvael; Tricarico, Domenico; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is often associated with skeletal muscle pathological conditions related to function and metabolism. The mechanisms underlying the development of these pathological conditions remain undefined. Because calcium homeostasis is a biomarker of muscle function, we assessed whether it is altered in hypertensive muscles. We measured resting intracellular calcium and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by cytofluorimetric technique and determined the expression of SOCE gene machinery by real-time PCR. Hypertension caused a phenotype-dependent dysregulation of calcium homeostasis; the resting intracellular calcium of extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of SHRs were differently altered with respect to the related muscle of normotensive animals. In addition, soleus muscles of SHR showed reduced activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and decreased sarcolemmal calcium permeability at rest and after SOCE activation. Accordingly, we found an alteration of the expression levels of some SOCE components, such as stromal interaction molecule 1, calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1, and transient receptor potential canonical 1. The hypertension-induced alterations of calcium homeostasis in the soleus muscle of SHRs occurred with changes of some functional outcomes as excitability and resting chloride conductance. We provide suitable targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at counterbalancing muscle performance decline in hypertension, and propose the reported calcium-dependent parameters as indexes to predict how the antihypertensive drugs could influence muscle function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping calcium phosphate activated gene networks as a strategy for targeted osteoinduction of human progenitors.

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    Eyckmans, Jeroen; Roberts, Scott J; Bolander, Johanna; Schrooten, Jan; Chen, Christopher S; Luyten, Frank P

    2013-06-01

    Although calcium phosphate-containing biomaterials are promising scaffolds for bone regenerative strategies, the osteoinductive capacity of such materials is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous mechanisms of in vivo calcium phosphate-driven, ectopic bone formation could be identified and used to induce enhanced differentiation in vitro of the same progenitor population. To accomplish this, human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) were seeded on hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds (calcium phosphate rich matrix or CPRM), or on decalcified scaffolds (calcium phosphate depleted matrix or CPDM), followed by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice to trigger ectopic bone formation. In this system, osteoblast differentiation occurred in CPRM scaffolds, but not in CPDM scaffolds. Gene expression was assessed by human full-genome microarray at 20 h after seeding, and 2, 8 and 18 days after implantation. In both matrices, implantation of the cell constructs triggered a similar gene expression cascade, however, gene expression dynamics progressed faster in CPRM scaffolds than in CPDM scaffolds. The difference in gene expression dynamics was associated with differential activation of hub genes and molecular signaling pathways related to calcium signaling (CREB), inflammation (TNFα, NFkB, and IL6) and bone development (TGFβ, β-catenin, BMP, EGF, and ERK signaling). Starting from this set of pathways, a growth factor cocktail was developed that robustly enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that through the identification and subsequent stimulation of genes, proteins and signaling pathways associated with calcium phosphate mediated osteoinduction, a focused approach to develop targeted differentiation protocols in adult progenitor cells can be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardioprotection mechanism of mangiferin on doxorubicin-induced rats: Focus on intracellular calcium regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, Femmi Dwinda; Arozal, Wawaimuli; Louisa, Melva; Siswanto, Soni; Soetikno, Vivian; Nafrialdi, Nafrialdi; Suyatna, Franciscus

    2016-07-01

    The molecular mechanism of doxorubicin (DOX) cardiotoxicity involves overproduction of free radicals that leads to intracellular calcium dysregulation and apoptosis. Mangiferin (MGR), a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone, has antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. However, its cardioprotection mechanism has yet to be revealed. This study determines whether the cardioprotective effect of MGR is caused by its effect on intracellular calcium regulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by DOX intraperitoneally with a total dose of 15 mg/kg bw. MGR was given orally at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg bw/d for seven consecutive weeks. The parameters examined were mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokine gene (TNF-α), calcium regulatory gene (SERCA2a) and proapoptotic genes (caspase-9 and caspase-12), as well as cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium levels. Treatment with MGR at 60 mg/kg bw/d significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α by 44.55% and caspase-9 by 52.79%, as well as the cytosolic calcium level by 24.15% (p  0.05). Meanwhile, MGR 30 mg/kg bw/d gave insignificant results in all parameters. MGR protected against DOX-induced cardiac inflammation and apoptosis via down-regulation of proapoptotic and proinflammatory gene expressions, upregulation of SERCA2a gene expression, and normalization of cytosolic calcium level. Thus, the cardioprotective effect of MGR is at least in part due to the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  8. Alix is involved in caspase 9 activation during calcium-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappazzon, Flavie; Torch, Sakina; Chatellard-Causse, Christine; Petiot, Anne; Thibert, Chantal; Blot, Béatrice; Verna, Jean-Marc; Sadoul, Rémy

    2010-06-18

    The cytoplasmic protein Alix/AIP1 (ALG-2 interacting protein X) is involved in cell death through mechanisms which remain unclear but require its binding partner ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene-2). The latter was defined as a regulator of calcium-induced apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We show here that Alix is also a critical component of caspase 9 activation and apoptosis triggered by calcium. Indeed, expression of Alix dominant-negative mutants or downregulation of Alix afford significant protection against cytosolic calcium elevation following thapsigargin (Tg) treatment. The function of Alix in this paradigm requires its interaction with ALG-2. In addition, we demonstrate that caspase 9 activation is necessary for apoptosis induced by Tg and that this activation is impaired by knocking down Alix. Altogether, our findings identify, for the first time, Alix as a crucial mediator of Ca(2+) induced caspase 9 activation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemkova, Hana; Tomić, Melanija; Kucka, Marek; Aguilera, Greti; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. Corticotrophs were either quiescent or electrically active, with a 22-mV difference in the resting membrane potential (RMP) between the 2 groups. In quiescent cells, CRH depolarized the membrane, leading to initial single spiking and sustained bursting; in active cells, CRH further facilitated or inhibited electrical activity and calcium spiking, depending on the initial activity pattern and CRH concentration. The stimulatory but not inhibitory action of CRH on electrical activity was mimicked by cAMP independently of the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Removal of bath sodium silenced spiking and hyperpolarized the majority of cells; in contrast, the removal of bath calcium did not affect RMP but reduced CRH-induced depolarization, which abolished bursting electrical activity and decreased the spiking frequency but not the amplitude of single spikes. Corticotrophs with inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels fired calcium-dependent action potentials, whereas cells with inhibited L-type calcium channels fired sodium-dependent spikes; blockade of both channels abolished spiking without affecting the RMP. These results indicate that the background voltage-insensitive sodium conductance influences RMP, the CRH-depolarization current is driven by a cationic conductance, and the interplay between voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels plays a critical role in determining the status and pattern of electrical activity and calcium signaling.

  10. Differential regulation of the fiber type-specific gene expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase isoforms induced by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Marc P; Susser, Shanel E; Stammers, Andrew N; O'Hara, Kimberley A; Gardiner, Phillip F; Sheppard, Patricia; Moffatt, Teri L; Duhamel, Todd A

    2014-09-01

    The regulatory role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α2 on sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 1a and SERCA2a in different skeletal muscle fiber types has yet to be elucidated. Sedentary (Sed) or exercise-trained (Ex) wild-type (WT) and AMPKα2-kinase dead (KD) transgenic mice, which overexpress a mutated and inactivated AMPKα2 subunit, were utilized to characterize how genotype or exercise training influenced the regulation of SERCA isoforms in gastrocnemius. As expected, both Sed and Ex KD mice had >40% lower AMPK phosphorylation and 30% lower SERCA1a protein than WT mice (P SERCA2a protein was not different among KD and WT mice. Exercise increased SERCA1a and SERCA2a protein content among WT and KD mice, compared with their Sed counterparts. Maximal SERCA activity was lower in KD mice, compared with WT. Total phospholamban protein was higher in KD mice than in WT and lower in Ex compared with Sed mice. Exercise training increased phospholamban Ser(16) phosphorylation in WT mice. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative PCR indicated that SERCA1a mRNA expression among type I fibers was not altered by genotype or exercise, but SERCA2a mRNA was increased 30-fold in WT+Ex, compared with WT+Sed. In contrast, the exercise-stimulated increase for SERCA2a mRNA was blunted in KD mice. Exercise upregulated SERCA1a and SERCA2a mRNA among type II fibers, but was not altered by genotype. Collectively, these data suggest that exercise differentially influences SERCA isoform expression in type I and type II fibers. Additionally, AMPKα2 influences the regulation of SERCA2a mRNA in type I skeletal muscle fibers following exercise training. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. A calcium-accumulating region, CAR, in the channel Orai1 enhances Ca(2+) permeation and SOCE-induced gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischauf, Irene; Zayats, Vasilina; Deix, Michael; Hochreiter, Anna; Jardin, Isaac; Muik, Martin; Lackner, Barbara; Svobodová, Barbora; Pammer, Teresa; Litviňuková, Monika; Sridhar, Amrutha Arumbakam; Derler, Isabella; Bogeski, Ivan; Romanin, Christoph; Ettrich, Rüdiger H; Schindl, Rainer

    2015-12-22

    The Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel mediates Ca(2+) influx in a plethora of cell types, thereby controlling diverse cellular functions. The channel complex is composed of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-sensing protein, and Orai1, a plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel. Channels composed of STIM1 and Orai1 mediate Ca(2+) influx even at low extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. We investigated whether the activity of Orai1 adapted to different environmental Ca(2+) concentrations. We used homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to predict the presence of an extracellular Ca(2+)-accumulating region (CAR) at the pore entrance of Orai1. Furthermore, simulations of Orai1 proteins with mutations in CAR, along with live-cell experiments, or simulations and electrophysiological recordings of the channel with transient, electrostatic loop3 interacting with loop1 (the site of CAR) determined that CAR enhanced Ca(2+) permeation most efficiently at low external Ca(2+) concentrations. Consistent with these results, cells expressing Orai1 CAR mutants exhibited impaired gene expression stimulated by the Ca(2+)-activated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). We propose that the Orai1 channel architecture with a close proximity of CAR to the selectivity filter, which enables Ca(2+)-selective ion permeation, enhances the local extracellular Ca(2+) concentration to maintain Ca(2+)-dependent gene regulation even in environments with relatively low Ca(2+)concentrations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Shear stress induction of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is calcium-dependent but not calcium-activated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z; Zhang, Z; Ranjan, V; Diamond, S L

    1997-05-01

    Arterial levels of shear stress (25 dynes/cm2) can elevate constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in cultured endothelial cells (Ranjan et al., 1995). By PhosphorImaging of Northern blots, we report that the eNOS/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) messenger RNA (mRNA) ratio in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) increased by 4.8- and 7.95-fold after 6-hr shear stress exposure of 4 and 25 dynes/cm2, respectively. Incubation of BAEC with dexamethasone (1 microM) had no effect on shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA. Buffering of intracellular calcium in BAEC with bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester (BAPTA/AM) reduced shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA by 70%. Yet, stimulation of BAEC with ionomycin (0.1-1.0 microM) for 6-24 hr to elevate intracellular calcium had no effect on eNOS mRNA. These studies indicated that the shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA was a calcium-dependent, but not calcium-activated, process. Shear stress was a very potent and rapid inducer of the eNOS mRNA, which could not be mimicked with phorbol myristrate acetate or endotoxin. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases with genistein (10 microM) or tyrphostin B46 (10 microM) or inhibition of G-protein signaling with guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP-betaS) (600 microM, 6-hr preincubation) did not block the shear stress elevation of eNOS mRNA.

  13. Functional, genetic and bioinformatic characterization of a calcium/calmodulin kinase gene in Sporothrix schenckii

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    Rodriguez-del Valle Nuri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic, dimorphic fungus, the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous lymphatic mycosis. Dimorphism in S. schenckii responds to second messengers such as cAMP and calcium, suggesting the possible involvement of a calcium/calmodulin kinase in its regulation. In this study we describe a novel calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene in S. schenckii, sscmk1, and the effects of inhibitors of calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin kinases on the yeast to mycelium transition and the yeast cell cycle. Results Using the PCR homology approach a new member of the calcium/calmodulin kinase family, SSCMK1, was identified in this fungus. The cDNA sequence of sscmk1 revealed an open reading frame of 1,221 nucleotides encoding a 407 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 45.6 kDa. The genomic sequence of sscmk1 revealed the same ORF interrupted by five introns. Bioinformatic analyses of SSCMK1 showed that this protein had the distinctive features that characterize a calcium/calmodulin protein kinase: a serine/threonine protein kinase domain and a calmodulin-binding domain. When compared to homologues from seven species of filamentous fungi, SSCMK1 showed substantial similarities, except for a large and highly variable region that encompasses positions 330 – 380 of the multiple sequence alignment. Inhibition studies using calmodulin inhibitor W-7, and calcium/calmodulin kinase inhibitors, KN-62 and lavendustin C, were found to inhibit budding by cells induced to re-enter the yeast cell cycle and to favor the yeast to mycelium transition. Conclusion This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of a calcium/calmodulin kinase-encoding gene in S. schenckii and its possible involvement as an effector of dimorphism in this fungus. These results suggest that a calcium/calmodulin dependent signaling pathway could be involved in the regulation of dimorphism in this fungus

  14. Support for calcium channel gene defects in autism spectrum disorders

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    Lu Ake Tzu-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternation of synaptic homeostasis is a biological process whose disruption might predispose children to autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Calcium channel genes (CCG contribute to modulating neuronal function and evidence implicating CCG in ASD has been accumulating. We conducted a targeted association analysis of CCG using existing genome-wide association study (GWAS data and imputation methods in a combined sample of parent/affected child trios from two ASD family collections to explore this hypothesis. Methods A total of 2,176 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP (703 genotyped and 1,473 imputed covering the genes that encode the α1 subunit proteins of 10 calcium channels were tested for association with ASD in a combined sample of 2,781 parent/affected child trios from 543 multiplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE and 1,651 multiplex and simplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP. SNP imputation using IMPUTE2 and a combined reference panel from the HapMap3 and the 1,000 Genomes Project increased coverage density of the CCG. Family-based association was tested using the FBAT software which controls for population stratification and accounts for the non-independence of siblings within multiplex families. The level of significance for association was set at 2.3E-05, providing a Bonferroni correction for this targeted 10-gene panel. Results Four SNPs in three CCGs were associated with ASD. One, rs10848653, is located in CACNA1C, a gene in which rare de novo mutations are responsible for Timothy syndrome, a Mendelian disorder that features ASD. Two others, rs198538 and rs198545, located in CACN1G, and a fourth, rs5750860, located in CACNA1I, are in CCGs that encode T-type calcium channels, genes with previous ASD associations. Conclusions These associations support a role for common CCG SNPs in ASD.

  15. Calcium carbonates: induced biomineralization with controlled macromorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Aileen; Kastner, Anne; Harries, Dennis; Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Maria; Majzlan, Juraj; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2017-11-01

    Biomineralization of (magnesium) calcite and vaterite by bacterial isolates has been known for quite some time. However, the extracellular precipitation has hardly ever been linked to different morphologies of the minerals that are observed. Here, isolates from limestone-associated groundwater, rock and soil were shown to form calcite, magnesium calcite or vaterite. More than 92 % of isolates were indeed able to form carbonates, while abiotic controls failed to form minerals. The crystal morphologies varied, including rhombohedra, prisms and pyramid-like macromorphologies. Different conditions like varying temperature, pH or media components, but also cocultivation to test for collaborative effects of sympatric bacteria, were used to differentiate between mechanisms of calcium carbonate formation. Single crystallites were cemented with bacterial cells; these may have served as nucleation sites by providing a basic pH at short distance from the cells. A calculation of potential calcite formation of up to 2 g L-1 of solution made it possible to link the microbial activity to geological processes.

  16. Intracellular calcium spikes in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons induced by BAPTA-based calcium dyes.

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    Jin Hee Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms in spontaneous action potential (AP firing frequencies and in cytosolic free calcium concentrations have been reported for mammalian circadian pacemaker neurons located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. Also reported is the existence of "Ca(2+ spikes" (i.e., [Ca(2+](c transients having a bandwidth of 10 approximately 100 seconds in SCN neurons, but it is unclear if these SCN Ca(2+ spikes are related to the slow circadian rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We addressed this issue based on a Ca(2+ indicator dye (fluo-4 and a protein Ca(2+ sensor (yellow cameleon. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found spontaneous Ca(2+ spikes in 18% of rat SCN cells in acute brain slices, but the Ca(2+ spiking frequencies showed no day/night variation. We repeated the same experiments with rat (and mouse SCN slice cultures that expressed yellow cameleon genes for a number of different circadian phases and, surprisingly, spontaneous Ca(2+ spike was barely observed (<3%. When fluo-4 AM or BAPTA-AM was loaded in addition to the cameleon-expressing SCN cultures, however, the number of cells exhibiting Ca(2+ spikes was increased to 13 approximately 14%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite our extensive set of experiments, no evidence of a circadian rhythm was found in the spontaneous Ca(2+ spiking activity of SCN. Furthermore, our study strongly suggests that the spontaneous Ca(2+ spiking activity is caused by the Ca(2+ chelating effect of the BAPTA-based fluo-4 dye. Therefore, this induced activity seems irrelevant to the intrinsic circadian rhythm of [Ca(2+](c in SCN neurons. The problems with BAPTA based dyes are widely known and our study provides a clear case for concern, in particular, for SCN Ca(2+ spikes. On the other hand, our study neither invalidates the use of these dyes as a whole, nor undermines the potential role of SCN Ca(2+ spikes in the function of SCN.

  17. Calcium-induced voltage gating in single conical nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwy, Zuzanna S; Powell, Matthew R; Petrov, Alexander; Kalman, Eric; Trautmann, Christina; Eisenberg, Robert S

    2006-08-01

    We examine time signals of ion current through single conically shaped nanopores in the presence of sub-millimolar concentrations of calcium ions. We show that calcium induces voltage-dependent ion current fluctuations in time in addition to the previously reported negative incremental resistance (Nano Lett. 2006, 6, 473-477). These current fluctuations occur on the millisecond time scale at voltages at which the effect of negative incremental resistance was observed. We explain the fluctuations as results of transient binding of calcium ions to carboxyl groups on the pore walls that cause transient changes in electric potential inside a conical nanopore. We support this explanation by recordings of ion current in the presence of manganese ions that bind to carboxyl groups 3 orders of magnitude more tightly than calcium ions. The system of a single conical nanopore with calcium ions is compared to a semiconductor device of a unijunction transistor in electronic circuits. A unijunction transistor also exhibits negative incremental resistance and current instabilities.

  18. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  19. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells.

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    Hercules R Freitas

    Full Text Available Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1-10 mM showed that 5-10 mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells, while neurons responded to 50 mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells. BBG 100 nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70 μM and MK-801 20 μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG at 5 mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit.

  20. Modification of nanostructured calcium carbonate for efficient gene delivery.

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    Zhao, Dong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a facile method to modify nanostructured calcium carbonate (CaCO3) gene delivery systems by adding calcium phosphate (CaP) component was developed. CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation of Ca(2+) ions with plasmid DNA in the presence of carbonate and phosphate ions. For comparison, CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles and CaP/DNA co-precipitates were also prepared. The effects of carbonate ion/phosphate ion (CO3(2-)/PO4(3-)) ratio on the particle size and gene delivery efficiency were investigated. With an appropriate CO3(2-)/PO4(3-) ratio, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate ions could control the size of co-precipitates effectively, and CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles with a decreased size and improved stability could be obtained. The in vitro gene transfections mediated by different nanoparticles in 293T cells and HeLa cells were carried out, using pGL3-Luc as a reporter plasmid. The gene transfection efficiency of CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles could be significantly improved as compared with CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles and CaP/DNA co-precipitates. The confocal microscopy study indicated that the cellular uptake and nuclear localization of CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles were significantly enhanced as compared with unmodified CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting plant immunity gene expression by identifying the decoding mechanism of calcium signatures.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzoni, G.; Liu, J.; Knight, M.R.

    2018-01-01

    Calcium plays a key role in determining the specificity of a vast array of signalling pathways in plants. Cellular calcium elevations with different characteristics (calcium signatures) carry information on the identity of the primary stimulus, ensuring appropriate downstream responses. However, the mechanism for decoding calcium signatures is unknown. To determine this, decoding of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant immunity signalling network controlling gene expression was examined. ...

  2. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter in Drosophila transfers calcium between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sekyu; Quan, Xianglan; Bang, Sunhoe; Yoo, Heesuk; Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Jiwon; Park, Kyu-Sang; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondrial calcium plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes ranging from energy metabolism to cell death. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium uptake is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. However, the roles of the MCU complex in calcium transport, signaling, and dysregulation by oxidative stress still remain unclear. Here, we confirmed that Drosophila MCU contains evolutionarily conserved structures and requires essential MCU regulator (EMRE) for its calcium channel activities. We generated Drosophila MCU loss-of-function mutants, which lacked mitochondrial calcium uptake in response to caffeine stimulation. Basal metabolic activities were not significantly affected in these MCU mutants, as observed in examinations of body weight, food intake, body sugar level, and starvation-induced autophagy. However, oxidative stress-induced increases in mitochondrial calcium, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and cell death were prevented in these mutants. We also found that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor genetically interacts with Drosophila MCU and effectively modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake upon oxidative stress. Taken together, these results support the idea that Drosophila MCU is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum-to-mitochondrial calcium transfer and for cell death due to mitochondrial dysfunction under oxidative stress. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Sulfur dioxide restores calcium homeostasis disturbance in rat with isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury.

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    Chen, Shanshan; Du, Junbao; Liang, Yinfang; Zhang, Rongyuan; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

    2012-09-01

    sulfur dioxide (SO₂) could relieve isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury, while the mechanism is unclear. This study aims to explore whether the protective effect of SO₂ on ISO-induced myocardial injury was mediated by the restoration of calcium homeostasis disturbance in cardiomyocyte. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: ISO group, ISO+SO₂ group, control group and SO₂ group. Content of Ca²⁺ in H9c2 cells was assayed using confocal microscope, and cardiac function parameters were measured by echocardiography. Plasma biochemical values and myocardial ultra-structure changes were measured. Meanwhile, the activity, protein and gene levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase (SERCA), and protein and phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN) were detected. We found SO₂ derivatives could restore the decreased cardiac function, the abnormal lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, potassium, calcium, blood urea nitrogen and the damaged myocardial ultra-structure in rats, and regulate the increased Ca²⁺ content in H9c2 induced by ISO. In addition, compared with ISO group, the decreased activities, protein and mRNA level of SERCA, as well as the decreased protein phosphorylation level of PLN in myocardial tissues were increased in ISO+SO₂ group. SO₂ derivatives might relieve calcium overload in association with the upregulating expression of SERCA and p-PLN/PLN by myocardial tissues in rats with ISO-induced myocardial injury.

  4. Calcium-ATPases: Gene disorders and dysregulation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Donna; Rao, Rajini

    2016-06-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPases belonging to the superfamily of P-type pumps play an important role in maintaining low, nanomolar cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels at rest and priming organellar stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and secretory vesicles with high levels of Ca(2+) for a wide range of signaling functions. In this review, we introduce the distinct subtypes of Ca(2+)-ATPases and their isoforms and splice variants and provide an overview of their specific cellular roles as they relate to genetic disorders and cancer, with a particular emphasis on recent findings on the secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPases (SPCA). Mutations in human ATP2A2, ATP2C1 genes, encoding housekeeping isoforms of the endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) and secretory pathway (SPCA1) pumps, respectively, confer autosomal dominant disorders of the skin, whereas mutations in other isoforms underlie various muscular, neurological, or developmental disorders. Emerging evidence points to an important function of dysregulated Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in cancers of the colon, lung, and breast where they may serve as markers of differentiation or novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We review the mechanisms underlying the link between calcium homeostasis and cancer and discuss the potential clinical relevance of these observations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thromboxane-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction: involvement of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, I S; Michael, J R; Summer, W R; Adkinson, N F; Gurtner, G H

    1985-01-01

    Infusion of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bu-OOH) or arachidonic acid into rabbit pulmonary arteries stimulated thromboxane B2 (TxB2) production and caused pulmonary vasoconstriction. Both phenomena were blocked by cyclooxygenase inhibitors or a thromboxane synthase inhibitor. The increase in pulmonary arterial pressure caused by either t-bu-OOH or arachidonic acid infusion correlated with the concentration of TxB2 in the effluent perfusate. The concentration of TxB2 in the effluent perfusate, however, was always 10-fold greater after arachidonic acid infusion. In the rabbit pulmonary vascular bed lipoxygenase products did not appear involved in the vasoactive response to t-bu-OOH or exogenous arachidonic acid infusion. Calcium entry blockers or a calcium-free perfusate prevented the thromboxane-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. Calmodulin inhibitors also blocked the pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by t-bu-OOH without affecting the production of TxB2 or prostacyclin. These results suggest that thromboxane causes pulmonary vasoconstriction by increasing cytosol calcium concentration.

  6. Outward potassium current oscillations in macrophage polykaryons: extracellular calcium entry and calcium-induced calcium release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Outward current oscillations associated with transient membrane hyperpolarizations were induced in murine macrophage polykaryons by membrane depolarization in the absence of external Na+. Oscillations corresponded to a cyclic activation of Ca2+-dependent K+ currents (IKCa probably correlated with variations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Addition of external Na+ (8 mM immediately abolished the outward current oscillations, suggesting that the absence of the cation is necessary not only for their induction but also for their maintenance. Oscillations were completely blocked by nisoldipine. Ruthenium red and ryanodine reduced the number of outward current cycles in each episode, whereas quercetin prolonged the hyperpolarization 2- to 15-fold. Neither low molecular weight heparin nor the absence of a Na+ gradient across the membrane had any influence on oscillations. The evidence suggests that Ca2+ entry through a pathway sensitive to Ca2+ channel blockers is elicited by membrane depolarization in Na+-free medium and is essential to initiate oscillations, which are also dependent on the cyclic release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+-sensitive stores; Ca2+ ATPase acts by reducing intracellular Ca2+, thus allowing slow deactivation of IKCa. Evidence is presented that neither a Na+/Ca2+ antiporter nor Ca2+ release from IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores participate directly in the mechanism of oscillation

  7. Actein induces calcium release in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Mighty, Jason; Redenti, Stephen; Wu, Hsan-au

    2013-12-01

    The triterpene glycoside actein from the herb black cohosh preferentially inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells and activates the ER stress response. The ER IP3 receptor and Na,K-ATPase form a signaling microdomain. Since actein is lipophilic, its action may be limited by bioavailability. To develop actein to prevent and treat cancer, we examined the primary targets and combinations with chemotherapy agents, as well as the ability of nanoparticles to enhance the activity. To reveal signaling pathways, we treated human breast and colon cancer, as well as 293T and 293T (NF-κB), cells with actein, and measured effects using the MTT, luciferase promoter, Western blot and histology assays. To assess effects on calcium release, we preloaded cells with the calcium sensitive dye Fura-2. To enhance bioavailability, we conjugated actein to nanoparticle liposomes. Actein strongly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells and induced a dose dependent release of calcium into the cytoplasm. The ER IP3 receptor antagonist heparin blocked this release, indicating that the receptor is required for activity. Heparin partially blocked the growth inhibitory effect, while the MEK inhibitor U0126 enhanced it. Consistent with this, actein synergized with the ER mobilizer thapsigargin. Further, actein preferentially inhibited the growth of 293T (NF-κB) cells. Nanoparticle liposomes increased the growth inhibitory activity of actein. Actein alters the activity of the ER IP3 receptor and Na,K-ATPase, induces calcium release and modulates the NF-κB and MEK pathways and may be worthwhile to explore to prevent and treat breast cancer. © 2013.

  8. Duramycin-induced calcium release in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Laura J; Crow, Chris; Maraveyas, Anthony; Madden, Leigh A

    2016-03-01

    Duramycin, through binding with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), has shown potential to be an effective antitumour agent. However, its mode of action in relation to tumour cells is not fully understood. PE expression on the surface of a panel of cancer cell lines was analysed using duramycin and subsequent antibody labelling, and then analysed by flow cytometry. Cell viability was also assessed by flow cytometry using annexin V and propidium iodide. Calcium ion (Ca) release by tumour cells in response to duramycin was determined by spectrofluorometry following incubation with Fluo-3, AM. Confocal microscopy was performed on the cancer cell line AsPC-1 to assess real-time cell response to duramycin treatment. Duramycin could detect cell surface PE expression on all 15 cancer cell lines screened, which was shown to be duramycin concentration dependent. However, higher concentrations induced necrotic cell death. Duramycin induced calcium ion (Ca) release from the cancer cell lines also in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy showed an influx of propidium iodide into the cells over time and induced morphological changes. Duramycin induces Ca release from cancer cell lines in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner.

  9. CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR GENE: REGULATION OF EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Noel Hendy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5’-untranslated regions (UTRs that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2-7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes – promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation – as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression. Functional cis-elements in the CASR promoters responsive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH2D], proinflammatory cytokines, and the transcription factor glial cells missing-2 (GCM2 have been characterized. Reduced levels of CaSR and reduced responsiveness to active vitamin D in parathyroid neoplasia and colon carcinoma may blunt the tumor suppressor activity of the CaSR. The hypocalcemia of critically ill patients with burn injury or sepsis is associated with CASR gene upregulation by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta via kappaB elements, and by IL-6 via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3 elements in the CASR gene promoters, respectively. The CASR is transactivated by GCM2 – the expression of which is essential for parathyroid gland development. Hyperactive forms of GCM2 may contribute to later parathyroid hyperactivity or tumorigenesis. The expression of the CaSR––the calciostat––is regulated physiologically and pathophysiologically at the gene level.

  10. Mapping calcium phosphate activated gene networks as a strategy for targeted osteoinduction of human progenitors in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyckmans, J.; Roberts, S.J.; Bolander, J.; Schrooten, J.; Chen, C.S.; Luyten, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although calcium phosphate-containing biomaterials are promising scaffolds for bone regenerative strategies, the osteoinductive capacity of such materials is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous mechanisms of in vivo calcium phosphate-driven, ectopic bone formation could be identified and used to induce enhanced differentiation in vitro of the same progenitor population. To accomplish this, human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) were seeded on hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds (calcium phosphate rich matrix or CPRM), or on decalcified scaffolds (calcium phosphate depleted matrix or CPDM), followed by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice to trigger ectopic bone formation. In this system, osteoblast differentiation occurred in CPRM scaffolds, but not in CPDM scaffolds. Gene expression was assessed by human full-genome microarray at 20 hours after seeding, and 2, 8 and 18 days after implantation. In both matrices, implantation of the cell constructs triggered a similar gene expression cascade, however, gene expression dynamics progressed faster in CPRM scaffolds than in CPDM scaffolds. The difference in gene expression dynamics was associated with differential activation of hub genes and molecular signaling pathways related to calcium signaling (CREB), inflammation (TNFα, NFkB, and IL6) and bone development (TGFβ, β-catenin, BMP, EGF, and ERK signaling). Starting from this set of pathways, a growth factor cocktail was developed that robustly enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that through the identification and subsequent stimulation of genes, proteins and signaling pathways associated with calcium phosphate mediated osteoinduction, a focused approach to develop targeted differentiation protocols in adult progenitor cells can be achieved. PMID:23537666

  11. Growth hormone secretagogues prevent dysregulation of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin‐induced cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Elena; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Mele, Antonietta; De Bellis, Michela; Pierno, Sabata; Rana, Francesco; Fonzino, Adriano; Caloiero, Roberta; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Fehrentz, Jean‐Alain; Martinez, Jean; Giustino, Arcangela; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Coluccia, Mauro; Tricarico, Domenico; Lograno, Marcello Diego; De Luca, Annamaria; Torsello, Antonio; Conte, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose‐limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium‐dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), a family of synthetic agonists of ghrelin receptor (GHS‐R1a), are being developed as a therapeutic option for cancer cachexia syndrome; however, the exact mechanism by which GHS interfere with skeletal muscle is not fully understood. Methods By a multidisciplinary approach ranging from cytofluorometry and electrophysiology to gene expression and histology, we characterized the calcium homeostasis in fast‐twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult rats with cisplatin‐induced cachexia and established the potential beneficial effects of two GHS (hexarelin and JMV2894) at this level. Additionally, in vivo measures of grip strength and of ultrasonography recordings allowed us to evaluate the functional impact of GHS therapeutic intervention. Results Cisplatin‐treated EDL muscle fibres were characterized by a ~18% significant reduction of the muscle weight and fibre diameter together with an up‐regulation of atrogin1/Murf‐1 genes and a down‐regulation of Pgc1‐a gene, all indexes of muscle atrophy, and by a two‐fold increase in resting intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, compared with control rats. Moreover, the amplitude of the calcium transient induced by caffeine or depolarizing high potassium solution as well as the store‐operated calcium entry were ~50% significantly reduced in cisplatin‐treated rats. Calcium homeostasis dysregulation parallels with changes of functional ex vivo

  12. [Excessive fluoride inducing calcium overload and apoptosis of ameloblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang; Lin, Ma; Jian, Li; Ming, Zhong; Kaiqiang, Zhang; Hefeng, Gu

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of excessive fluoride on calcium overload and apoptosis in cultured rat ameloblasts in vitro. Logarithmic-phase ameloblasts (HAT-7) were treated with 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol · L(-1) sodium fluoride (NaF) solution. Cell activities were detected by using a Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay after 48 h of treatment. The effect of fluoride on cell apoptosis was analyzed by using flow cytometry. Excessive fluoride-induced calcium concentration and calreticulin expression changes in ameloblasts were detected by using laser scanning confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. NaF inhibited ameloblast activity at 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol · L(-1) (dose-dependent) after 48 h of induction. The Ca2+ fluorescence intensity of HAT-7 cells incubated with 1.6 and 3.2 mmol · L(-1) NaF was higher than that in the control group. The fluoride-induced early-stage apoptosis of ameloblasts after 48 h of induction and the early-stage apoptosis rate was positively correlated with fluoride concentration. Calreticulin mRNA expression in HAT-7 cells was higher than that in the control group after 48 h of incubation with 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 mmol · L(-1) NaF. Excessive fluoride-induced calcium overload in ameloblasts and further caused endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

  13. RCAN1 overexpression exacerbates calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulian Sun

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS patients develop characteristic Alzheimer's Disease (AD neuropathology after their middle age. Prominent neuronal loss has been observed in the cortical regions of AD brains. However, the underlying mechanism leading to this neuronal loss in both DS and AD remains to be elucidated. Calcium overloading and oxidative stress have been implicated in AD pathogenesis. Two major isoforms of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1, RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4, are detected in human brains. In this report we defined the transcriptional regulation of RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4 by two alternative promoters. Calcium overloading upregulated RCAN1.4 expression by activating RCAN1.4 promoter through calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, thus forming a negative feedback loop in isoform 4 regulation. Furthermore, RCAN1.4 overexpression exacerbated calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis, which was mediated by caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. Our results suggest that downregulating RCAN1.4 expression in neurons could be beneficial to AD patients.

  14. RCAN1 overexpression exacerbates calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiulian; Wu, Yili; Herculano, Bruno; Song, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) patients develop characteristic Alzheimer's Disease (AD) neuropathology after their middle age. Prominent neuronal loss has been observed in the cortical regions of AD brains. However, the underlying mechanism leading to this neuronal loss in both DS and AD remains to be elucidated. Calcium overloading and oxidative stress have been implicated in AD pathogenesis. Two major isoforms of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4, are detected in human brains. In this report we defined the transcriptional regulation of RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4 by two alternative promoters. Calcium overloading upregulated RCAN1.4 expression by activating RCAN1.4 promoter through calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, thus forming a negative feedback loop in isoform 4 regulation. Furthermore, RCAN1.4 overexpression exacerbated calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis, which was mediated by caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. Our results suggest that downregulating RCAN1.4 expression in neurons could be beneficial to AD patients.

  15. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Pan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  16. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  18. Calcium Overload Accelerates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification Via Pit-1, but not the Calcium-Sensing Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Asuka; Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Nakashima, Yuri; Okuda, Kouji; Iwashita, Yuko; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder is an important problem in patients with renal failure. Abnormal levels of serum phosphate and calcium affect CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder and contribute to bone disease, VC, and cardiovascular disease. Hypercalcemia is a contributing factor in progression of VC in patients with CKD. However, the mechanisms of how calcium promotes intracellular calcification are still unclear. This study aimed to examine the mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcification in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for 10 days. We added high calcium (HiCa; calcium 3.0 mM) to high phosphate (HPi; phosphate 3.8 mM) medium to accelerate phosphate and calcium-induced VC. We used phosphonoformic acid and the calcimimetic R-568 to determine whether the mechanism of calcification involves Pit-1 or the calcium-sensing receptor. Medial VC was significantly augmented by HPi+HiCa medium compared with HPi alone (300%, p<0.05), and was associated with upregulation of Pit-1 protein. Pit-1 protein concentrations in HPi+HiCa medium were greater than those in HPi medium. Phosphonoformic acid completely negated the augmentation of medial VC induced by HPi+HiCa. R-568 had no additive direct effect on medial VC. These results indicated that exposure to HPi+HiCa accelerates medial VC, and this is mediated through Pit-1, not the calcium-sensing receptor.

  19. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  20. Microdamage induced calcium efflux from bone matrix activates intracellular calcium signaling in osteoblasts via L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyungjin; Best, Makenzie; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms by which bone microdamage triggers repair response are not completely understood. It has been shown that calcium efflux ([Ca(2+)]E) occurs from regions of bone undergoing microdamage. Such efflux has also been shown to trigger intracellular calcium signaling ([Ca(2+)]I) in MC3T3-E1 cells local to damaged regions. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are implicated in the entry of [Ca(2+)]E to the cytoplasm. We investigated the involvement of VGCC in the extracellular calcium induced intracellular calcium response (ECIICR). MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to one dimensional calcium efflux from their basal aspect which results in an increase in [Ca(2+)]I. This increase was concomitant with membrane depolarization and it was significantly reduced in the presence of Bepridil, a non-selective VGCC inhibitor. To identify specific type(s) of VGCC in ECIICR, the cells were treated with selective inhibitors for different types of VGCC. Significant changes in the peak intensity and the number of [Ca(2+)]I oscillations were observed when L-type and T-type specific VGCC inhibitors (Verapamil and NNC55-0396, respectively) were used. So as to confirm the involvement of L- and T-type VGCC in the context of microdamage, cells were seeded on devitalized notched bone specimen, which were loaded to induce microdamage in the presence and absence of Verapamil and NNC55-0396. The results showed significant decrease in [Ca(2+)]I activity of cells in the microdamaged regions of bone when L- and T-type blockers were applied. This study demonstrated that extracellular calcium increase in association with damage depolarizes the cell membrane and the calcium ions enter the cell cytoplasm by L- and T-type VGCCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity-dependent calcium signaling and ERK-MAP kinases in neurons: a link to structural plasticity of the nucleus and gene transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, J Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-05-01

    Activity-dependent gene expression is important for the formation and maturation of neuronal networks, neuronal survival and for plastic modifications within mature networks. At the level of individual neurons, expression of new protein is required for dendritic branching, synapse formation and elimination. Experience-driven synaptic activity induces membrane depolarization, which in turn evokes intracellular calcium transients that are decoded according to their source and strength by intracellular calcium sensing proteins. In order to activate the gene transcription machinery of the cell, calcium signals have to be conveyed from the site of their generation in the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus. This can occur via a variety of mechanisms and with different kinetics depending on the source and amplitude of calcium influx. One mechanism involves the propagation of calcium itself, leading to nuclear calcium transients that subsequently activate transcription. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade represents a second central signaling module that transduces information from the site of calcium signal generation at the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Nuclear signaling of the MAPK cascades catalyzes the phosphorylation of transcription factors but also regulates gene transcription more globally at the level of chromatin remodeling as well as through its recently identified role in the modulation of nuclear shape. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the MAPKs ERK1 and ERK2, activated by synaptically evoked calcium influx, can signal to the nucleus and regulate gene transcription. Moreover, we describe how MAPK-dependent structural plasticity of the nuclear envelope enhances nuclear calcium signaling and suggest possible implications for the regulation of gene transcription in the context of nuclear geometry. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thapsigargin-induced nuclear calcium signals in rat basophilic leukaemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horikoshi, Y; Furuno, T; Teshima, R; Sawada, J; Nakanishi, M

    1994-01-01

    By a confocal fluorescence microscope with an argon-ion laser (488 nm) and a He-Cd laser (325 nm) we have studied thapsigargin-induced calcium signals in individual rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells. In the presence or absence of external calcium ions, thapsigargin-induced calcium signals were transferred to the nucleus as well as to the cytoplasm of RBL-2H3 cells. The calcium signals were generally much stronger in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. However, some of the RBL-2H3 cells ...

  3. Allopregnanolone-induced rise in intracellular calcium in embryonic hippocampal neurons parallels their proliferative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinton Roberta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that regulate intracellular calcium concentration are known to play a critical role in brain function and neural development, including neural plasticity and neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated that the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (APα; 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one promotes neural progenitor proliferation in vitro in cultures of rodent hippocampal and human cortical neural progenitors, and in vivo in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice dentate gyrus. We also found that APα-induced proliferation of neural progenitors is abolished by a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, indicating a calcium dependent mechanism for the proliferation. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effect of APα on the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration in E18 rat hippocampal neurons using ratiometric Fura2-AM imaging. Results Results indicate that APα rapidly increased intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent and developmentally regulated manner, with an EC50 of 110 ± 15 nM and a maximal response occurring at three days in vitro. The stereoisomers 3β-hydroxy-5α-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, and 3β-hydroxy-5β-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, as well as progesterone, were without significant effect. APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration increase was not observed in calcium depleted medium and was blocked in the presence of the broad spectrum calcium channel blocker La3+, or the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Furthermore, the GABAA receptor blockers bicuculline and picrotoxin abolished APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration rise. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate that APα promotes a rapid, dose-dependent, stereo-specific, and developmentally regulated increase of intracellular calcium concentration in rat embryonic hippocampal neurons via a mechanism that requires both the GABAA receptor and L-type calcium channel. These data suggest that APα-induced

  4. Fluoride induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload in ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, KaiQiang; Ma, Lin; Gu, HeFeng; Li, Jian; Lei, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and intracellular calcium overload on the development of dental fluorosis. We cultured and exposed rat ameloblast HAT-7 cells to various concentrations of fluoride and measured apoptosis with flow cytometry and intracellular Ca2+ changes using confocal microscopy, investigated the protein levels of GRP78, calreticulin, XBP1 and CHOP by western blotting, and their transcriptional levels with RT-PCR. We also created an in vivo model of dental fluorosis by exposing animals to various concentrations of fluoride. Subsequently, thin dental tissue slices were analyzed with H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay was also performed on dental tissue slices for assessment of apoptosis. High fluoride concentration was associated with decreased ameloblast proliferation, elevated ameloblast apoptosis, and increased intracellular Ca2+ in vitro. The translation and transcription of the proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress were significantly elevated with high concentrations of fluoride. Based on immunohistochemical staining, these proteins were also highly expressed in animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Histologically, we found significant fluorosis-like changes in tissues from animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy cytology indicated significant apoptotic changes in tissues exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. These results indicate that exposure to high levels of fluoride led to endoplasmic reticulum stress which induced apoptosis in cultured ameloblasts and in vivo rat model, suggesting an important role of calcium overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered by high concentrations of fluoride in the development of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strain-induced mechanotransduction through primary cilia, extracellular ATP, purinergic calcium signaling, and ERK1/2 transactivates CITED2 and downregulates MMP-1 and MMP-13 gene expression in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z; Leong, D J; Zhuo, Z; Majeska, R J; Cardoso, L; Spray, D C; Goldring, M B; Cobelli, N J; Sun, H B

    2016-05-01

    To determine the strain-induced signaling pathways involved in regulating the transactivation of the transcription regulator Cbp/p300 Interacting Transactivator with ED-rich tail 2 (CITED2) and downstream targets in chondrocytes. Primary human chondrocytes or C28/I2 chondrocytic cells were subjected to various strain regimes. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to treadmill running. Loss-of-function was carried out using siRNA or inhibitors specific for targeted molecules. mRNA levels were assayed by RT-qPCR, and proteins by western blotting, immunofluorescence, and/or immunohistochemical staining. CITED2 promoter activity was assayed in chondrocytes using wild-type or mutant constructs. Cyclic strain at 5%, 1 Hz induced CITED2 expression and suppressed expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13 at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in human chondrocytes. Abolishing primary cilia through knockdown of intraflagellar transport protein (IFT88) attenuated CITED2 gene expression and decreased protein levels. Similar effects were observed with inhibitors of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or P2 purinergic receptors, or antagonists of Ca(2+) signaling. Knockdown of IFT88 in articular chondrocytes in vivo diminished treadmill induced-CITED2 expression and upregulated MMPs. Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), or deletion of the shear stress response element (SSRE) in the CITED2 promoter limited cyclic strain-induced transactivation of CITED2. However, the strain induced-transactivation of CITED2 was abolished only on knockdown of HIF1α, Sp1, and SSRE or by loss-of-function of IFT88 or extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. CITED2 transactivation is a critical event in signaling generated by strain and transduced by primary cilia, extracellular ATP, P2 purinergic receptors, and Ca(2+) signaling. Strain-induced CITED2 transactivation requires HIF1α, Sp1, and an intact SSRE and leads to the

  6. Calcium controls smooth muscle TRPC gene transcription via the CaMK/calcineurin-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sara; Diez, Amalia; Puyet, Antonio; Camello, Pedro J; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Bautista, Jose M; Pozo, María J

    2007-01-01

    Transient receptor potential protein family C (TRPC) has been proposed as a candidate for channels involved in capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE) mechanisms, but the modulation of their gene expression remains unexplored. In this study we show that guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle contains mRNA encoding TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, and TRPC4 proteins whose abundance depends on cytosolic Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)](i)). Thus lowering the levels of cellular calcium with the chelators EGTA and BAPTA AM results in a downregulation of TRPC1-TRPC4 gene and protein expression. In contrast, activation of Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores induced an increase in TRPC1-TRPC4 mRNA and protein abundance. Activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK) and phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein accounts for the increase in TRPC mRNA transcription in response to L-type channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx . In addition to this mechanism, activation of TRPC gene expression by intracellular Ca(2+) release also involves calcineurin pathway. According to the proposed role for these channels, activation of CCE induced an increase in TRPC1 and TRPC3 mRNA abundance, which depends on the integrity of the calcineurin and CaMK pathways. These findings show for the first time an essential autoregulatory role of Ca(2+) in Ca(2+) homeostasis at the level of TRPC gene and protein expression.

  7. ZmCPK1, a calcium-independent kinase member of the Zea mays CDPK gene family, functions as a negative regulator in cold stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckwerth, Philipp; Ehlert, Britta; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in plant environmental stress signal transduction. We report on the identification of ZmCPK1 as a member of the maize (Zea mays) CDPK gene family involved in the regulation of the maize cold stress response. Based upon in silico analysis of the Z. mays cv. B73 genome, we identified that the maize CDPK gene family consists of 39 members. Two CDPK members were selected whose gene expression was either increased (Zmcpk1) or decreased (Zmcpk25) in response to cold exposure. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ZmCPK1 displays calcium-independent protein kinase activity. The C-terminal calcium-binding domain of ZmCPK1 was sufficient to mediate calcium independency of a previously calcium-dependent enzyme in chimeric ZmCPK25-CPK1 proteins. Furthermore, co-transfection of maize mesophyll protoplasts with active full-length ZmCPK1 suppressed the expression of a cold-induced marker gene, Zmerf3 (ZmCOI6.21). In accordance, heterologous overexpression of ZmCPK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana yielded plants with altered acclimation-induced frost tolerance. Our results identify ZmCPK1 as a negative regulator of cold stress signalling in maize. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of dietary calcium on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Masaki; Nakamura, Shiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection causes gastritis and is considered a gastric cancer risk factor. We have previously reported that codfish meal markedly enhanced Hp-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we sought the responsible components in codfish meal. Codfish were divided into three parts (meat, viscera and 'other parts', including bone), and administered to Hp-infected gerbils. Subsequently, cod bone, sardine bone and prawn shell were tested, along with major calcium components, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, in bone and shell, respectively. 'Other parts' and cod bone enhanced Hp-induced gastritis, as was observed for whole codfish. Similarly, sardine bone and prawn shell, as well as 0.22-0.88% hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, enhanced gastritis. In contrast, administration of a higher dose of the calcium compounds exerted protective effects. Intake of calcium compounds may contribute to enhancement of Hp-induced gastritis.

  9. Role for voltage gated calcium channels in calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, D V; Ploug, K B; Olesen, J

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and genetic studies have suggested a role for voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the pathogenesis of migraine. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal neurons has also been implicated in migraine. The VGCCs are located presynaptically on neurons and are i......Clinical and genetic studies have suggested a role for voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the pathogenesis of migraine. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal neurons has also been implicated in migraine. The VGCCs are located presynaptically on neurons...... and are involved in the release of these peptides to different stimuli. We have examined the presence and importance of VGCCs in controlling the CGRP release from rat dura mater, freshly isolated trigeminal ganglion (TG) and trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Each of the four VGCCs, P/Q-, N-, and L- and T...... the potassium induced CGRP release. In the absence of calcium ions (Ca2+) and in the presence of a cocktail of blockers, the stimulated CGRP release from dura mater was reduced almost to the same level as basal CGRP release. In the TG ¿-conotoxin GVIA inhibited the potassium induced CGRP release significantly...

  10. Role for voltage gated calcium channels in calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, D V; Ploug, K B; Olesen, J

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and genetic studies have suggested a role for voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the pathogenesis of migraine. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal neurons has also been implicated in migraine. The VGCCs are located presynaptically on neurons and are i......Clinical and genetic studies have suggested a role for voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the pathogenesis of migraine. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal neurons has also been implicated in migraine. The VGCCs are located presynaptically on neurons...... and are involved in the release of these peptides to different stimuli. We have examined the presence and importance of VGCCs in controlling the CGRP release from rat dura mater, freshly isolated trigeminal ganglion (TG) and trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Each of the four VGCCs, P/Q-, N-, and L- and T...... the potassium induced CGRP release. In the absence of calcium ions (Ca2+) and in the presence of a cocktail of blockers, the stimulated CGRP release from dura mater was reduced almost to the same level as basal CGRP release. In the TG ω-conotoxin GVIA inhibited the potassium induced CGRP release significantly...

  11. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Ju-hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (strätlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of T-type calcium channel genes in absence seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucai eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The thalamic relay neurons, reticular thalamic nucleus, and neocortical pyramidal cells form a circuit that sustains oscillatory burst firing, and is regarded as the underlying mechanism of absence seizures. T-type calcium channels play a key role in this circuit. Here we review the role of T-type calcium channel genes in the development of absence seizures, and emphasize gain or loss of function mutations, and other variations that alter both quantity and quality of transcripts, and methylation status of isoforms of T-type calcium channel proteins might be of equal importance in understanding the pathological mechanism of absence seizures.

  13. Effect of strontium ions substitution on gene delivery related properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifi, A; Fathi, M H; Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, H

    2010-09-01

    Gene therapy has been considered a strategy for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to a specific site. Calcium phosphates are one gene delivery vector group of interest. However, low transfection efficiency has limited the use of calcium phosphate in gene delivery applications. Present work aims at studying the fabrication of strontium substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles with improved gene delivery related properties. Strontium substituted calcium phosphate was prepared using a simple sol gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, zeta potential measurement and ion release evaluation were used to characterize the samples. This characterization showed strontium and carbonate co-substituted calcium phosphate which resulted in nano size particles with low crystallinity, high specific surface area, positive surface charge, and a high dissolution rate. These improved properties could increase the DNA concentration on the vector as well as the endosomal escape of the complex that leads to higher transfection efficiency of this novel gene delivery vector.

  14. The effect of calcium on auxin depletion-induced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and calcium are the most important factors that instigate plant organ abscission. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the effects of IAA and calcium on delayed abscission in tomato. The results showed a clear trend towards reduced abscission rates with increased ...

  15. Growth hormone secretagogues prevent dysregulation of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Elena; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Mele, Antonietta; De Bellis, Michela; Pierno, Sabata; Rana, Francesco; Fonzino, Adriano; Caloiero, Roberta; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Giustino, Arcangela; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Coluccia, Mauro; Tricarico, Domenico; Lograno, Marcello Diego; De Luca, Annamaria; Torsello, Antonio; Conte, Diana; Liantonio, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), a family of synthetic agonists of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a), are being developed as a therapeutic option for cancer cachexia syndrome; however, the exact mechanism by which GHS interfere with skeletal muscle is not fully understood. By a multidisciplinary approach ranging from cytofluorometry and electrophysiology to gene expression and histology, we characterized the calcium homeostasis in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult rats with cisplatin-induced cachexia and established the potential beneficial effects of two GHS (hexarelin and JMV2894) at this level. Additionally, in vivo measures of grip strength and of ultrasonography recordings allowed us to evaluate the functional impact of GHS therapeutic intervention. Cisplatin-treated EDL muscle fibres were characterized by a ~18% significant reduction of the muscle weight and fibre diameter together with an up-regulation of atrogin1/Murf-1 genes and a down-regulation of Pgc1-a gene, all indexes of muscle atrophy, and by a two-fold increase in resting intracellular calcium, [Ca2+ ]i , compared with control rats. Moreover, the amplitude of the calcium transient induced by caffeine or depolarizing high potassium solution as well as the store-operated calcium entry were ~50% significantly reduced in cisplatin-treated rats. Calcium homeostasis dysregulation parallels with changes of functional ex vivo (excitability and resting macroscopic conductance) and in vivo

  16. Potassium depolarization and raised calcium induces α-synuclein aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Jordan; Darlow, Bonnie; Wong, Mathew B; Goodwin, Jacob; Pountney, Dean L

    2013-05-01

    α-Synuclein is the key aggregating protein in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein inclusion bodies, termed Lewy bodies, thought to increase longevity of the host neuron by sequestering toxic soluble α-synuclein oligomers. Previous post-mortem studies have shown relative sparing of neurons in PD that are positive for the Ca(2+) buffering protein, calbindin, and recent cell culture and in vitro studies have shown that α-synuclein aggregation can be induced by Ca(2+). We hypothesized that depolarization with potassium resulting in raised Ca(2+) in a PD cell culture model will lead to the formation of α-synuclein protein aggregates and that the intracellular Ca(2+) buffer, BAPTA-AM, may suppress their formation. Live cell fluorescence microscopy was performed to monitor changes in intracellular free calcium in HEK293T, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma or stably transfected HEK293T/α-synuclein cells. Raised intracellular free Ca(2+) was consistently observed in cells treated with KCl, but not controls. Immunohistochemistry analysis on cells 48-72 h after K(+) treatment revealed two subsets of cells with either large (>2 μm), perinuclear α-synuclein aggregates or multiple smaller (5 μM. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of cells bearing α-synuclein cytoplasmic inclusions in both HEK293T/α-synuclein and SHSY-5Y cells when transient intracellular raised Ca(2+) was induced (p = 0.001). BAPTA-AM pre-loading significantly suppressed α-synuclein aggregates (p = 0.001) and the intracellular free Ca(2+) transient. This study indicates that raised intracellular Ca(2+) mediated by K(+) depolarization can lead to α-synuclein aggregation.

  17. Identification and characterization of calcium transporter gene family in finger millet in relation to grain calcium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uma M; Metwal, Mamta; Singh, Manoj; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil

    2015-07-15

    Calcium (Ca) is an essential mineral for proper growth and development of plants as well as animals. In plants including cereals, calcium is deposited in seed during its development which is mediated by specialized Ca transporters. Common cereal seeds contain very low amounts of Ca while the finger millet (Eleusine coracana) contains exceptionally high amounts of Ca in seed. In order to understand the role of Ca transporters in grain Ca accumulation, developing seed transcriptome of two finger millet genotypes (GP-1, low Ca and GP-45 high Ca) differing in seed Ca content was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and members of Ca transporter gene family were identified. Out of 109,218 and 120,130 contigs, 86 and 81 contigs encoding Ca transporters were identified in GP-1 and GP-45, respectively. After removal of redundant sequences, a total of 19 sequences were confirmed as Ca transporter genes, which includes 11 Ca(2+) ATPases, 07 Ca(2+)/cation exchangers and 01 Ca(2+) channel. The differential expressions of all genes were analyzed from transcriptome data and it was observed that 9 and 3 genes were highly expressed in GP-45 and GP-1 genotypes respectively. Validation of transcriptome expression data of selected Ca transporter genes was performed on different stages of developing spikes of both genotypes grown under different concentrations of exogenous Ca. In both genotypes, significant correlation was observed between the expression of these genes, especially EcCaX3, and on the amount of Ca accumulated in seed. The positive correlation of seed mass with the amount of Ca concentration was also observed. The efficient Ca transport property and responsiveness of EcCAX3 towards exogenous Ca could be utilized in future biofortification program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus LMG 22257, a strain with ureolytic activity inducing calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenkai; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Yu

    2017-03-20

    Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation shows the potential for use in bioremediation and construction consolidation, but the efficiency of this process must be improved. Lysinibacillus sphaericus LMG 22257 is a gram-positive ureolytic strain that has recently been applied for consolidating construction by mediating calcium carbonate precipitation. The complete genome sequence of L. sphaericus LMG 22257 is 3,436,578 base pairs with a GC content of 38.99%. The urea degradation pathway and genes related to extracellular polymeric substance biosynthesis were also identified. The strain can tolerate high alkalinity (pH up to 10) and high urea concentration (up to 3M). These findings provide insights into the microbiologically induced carbonate precipitation and extend the application of the metabolic potential of L. sphaericus LMG 22257 for bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Pan; Andrew Avila; Lauren Gollahon

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and...

  1. Glycolytic intermediates induce amorphous calcium carbonate formation in crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ai; Nagasaka, Seiji; Furihata, Kazuo; Nagata, Shinji; Arai, Isao; Saruwatari, Kazuko; Kogure, Toshihiro; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2011-04-01

    It has been thought that phosphorus in biominerals made of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) might be related to ACC formation, but no such phosphorus-containing compounds have ever been identified. Crustaceans use ACC biominerals in exoskeleton and gastroliths so that they will have easy access to calcium carbonate inside the body before and after molting. We have identified phosphoenolpyruvate and 3-phosphoglycerate, intermediates of the glycolytic pathway, in exoskeleton and gastroliths and found them important for stabilizing ACC.

  2. AtCNGC2 is involved in jasmonic acid-induced calcium mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Zhang, Yanyan; Tang, Shikun; Pan, Jinbao; Yu, Yongkun; Han, Jun; Li, Yangyang; Du, Xihua; Nan, Zhangjie; Sun, Qingpeng

    2016-02-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization is a central theme in various plant signal transduction pathways. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (AtCNGC2) is involved in jasmonic acid (JA)-induced apoplastic Ca(2+) influx in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Ca(2+) imaging results showed that JA can induce an elevation in the cytosolic cAMP concentration ([cAMP]cyt), reaching a maximum within 3 min. Dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), a cell membrane-permeable analogue of cAMP, induced an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt), with a peak at 4 min. This [Ca(2+)]cyt increase was triggered by the JA-induced increase in [cAMP]cyt. W-7[N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], an antagonist of calmodulin, positively modulated the JA-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]cyt, while W-5[N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], an inactive antagonist of calmodulin, had no apparent effect. db-cAMP and JA positively induced the expression of primary (i.e. JAZ1 and MYC2) and secondary (i.e. VSP1) response genes in the JA signalling pathway in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas they had no significant effect in the AtCNGC2 mutant 'defense, no death (dnd1) plants. These data provide evidence that JA first induces the elevation of cAMP, and cAMP, as an activating ligand, activates the AtCNGC2 channel, resulting in apoplastic Ca(2+) influx through AtCNGC2. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Calcium dobesilate for prevention of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarey, Mostafa; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Najafi, Houshang

    2014-01-01

    Calcium dobesilate is an antioxidant drug and this study is aimed to investigate the effects of calcium dobesilate on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. This experimental study was conducted on 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: control, sham, gentamicin (100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal), gentamicin and calcium dobesilate (50 mg/kg body weight), gentamicin and calcium dobesilate (50 mg/kg body weight). Treatment was provided once a day in a 7-day period. At the end of the 7th day, plasma and urine samples were taken and the concentrations of creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, and osmolarity were measured in both samples. The level of oxidative stress in the left kidney tissue samples was also assessed by measuring malondialdehyde and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Calcium dobesilate intake with both doses led to a significant decrease in the elevated concentration of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and fractional excretion of sodium by gentamicin, and an increase in creatinine clearance and absolute excretion of potassium as compared to the gentamicin group. Furthermore, calcium dobesilate decreased tissue malondialdehyde and increased tissue ferric reducing antioxidant power at both doses, in comparison to those in the gentamicin group. Calcium dobesilate is capable of protecting rats against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. This protective effect of calcium dobesilate is probably dependent on its antioxidant properties.

  4. Calcium regulation of EGF-induced ERK5 activation: role of Lad1-MEKK2 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Yao

    Full Text Available The ERK5 cascade is a MAPK pathway that transmits both mitogenic and stress signals, yet its mechanism of activation is not fully understood. Using intracellular calcium modifiers, we found that ERK5 activation by EGF is inhibited both by the depletion and elevation of intracellular calcium levels. This calcium effect was found to occur upstream of MEKK2, which is the MAP3K of the ERK5 cascade. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EGF increases MEKK2 binding to the adaptor protein Lad1, and this interaction was reduced by the intracellular calcium modifiers, indicating that a proper calcium concentration is required for the interactions and transmission of EGF signals to ERK5. In vitro binding assays revealed that the proper calcium concentration is required for a direct binding of MEKK2 to Lad1. The binding of these proteins is not affected by c-Src-mediated phosphorylation on Lad1, but slightly affects the Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2, suggesting that the interaction with Lad1 is necessary for full Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2. In addition, we found that changes in calcium levels affect the EGF-induced nuclear translocation of MEKK2 and thereby its effect on the nuclear ERK5 activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium is required for EGF-induced ERK5 activation, and this effect is probably mediated by securing proper interaction of MEKK2 with the upstream adaptor protein Lad1.

  5. Caffeine-Induced Suppression of GABAergic Inhibition and Calcium-Independent Metaplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Isokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role in the regulation of neuron excitability; thus, it is subject to modulations by many factors. Recent evidence suggests the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and calcium-dependent signaling molecules underlie the modulations. Caffeine induces a release of calcium from intracellular stores. We tested whether caffeine modulated GABAergic transmission by increasing [Ca2+]i. A brief local puff-application of caffeine to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells transiently suppressed GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs by 73.2 ± 6.98%. Time course of suppression and the subsequent recovery of IPSCs resembled DSI (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, mediated by endogenous cannabinoids that require a [Ca2+]i rise. However, unlike DSI, caffeine-induced suppression of IPSCs (CSI persisted in the absence of a [Ca2+]i rise. Intracellular applications of BAPTA and ryanodine (which blocks caffeine-induced calcium release from intracellular stores failed to prevent the generation of CSI. Surprisingly, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of multiple calcium permeable/release channels including those of stores, induced metaplasticity by amplifying the magnitude of CSI independently of calcium. This metaplasticity was accompanied with the generation of a large inward current. Although ionic basis of this inward current is undetermined, the present result demonstrates that caffeine has a robust Ca2+-independent inhibitory action on GABAergic inhibition and causes metaplasticity by opening plasma membrane channels.

  6. Herpesviral G protein-coupled receptors activate NFAT to induce tumor formation via inhibiting the SERCA calcium ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; He, Shanping; Wang, Yi; Brulois, Kevin; Lan, Ke; Jung, Jae U; Feng, Pinghui

    2015-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of proteins that transmit signal to regulate an array of fundamental biological processes. Viruses deploy diverse tactics to hijack and harness intracellular signaling events induced by GPCR. Herpesviruses encode multiple GPCR homologues that are implicated in viral pathogenesis. Cellular GPCRs are primarily regulated by their cognate ligands, while herpesviral GPCRs constitutively activate downstream signaling cascades, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. However, the roles of NFAT activation and mechanism thereof in viral GPCR tumorigenesis remain unknown. Here we report that GPCRs of human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kGPCR) and cytomegalovirus (US28) shortcut NFAT activation by inhibiting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which is necessary for viral GPCR tumorigenesis. Biochemical approaches, entailing pharmacological inhibitors and protein purification, demonstrate that viral GPCRs target SERCA2 to increase cytosolic calcium concentration. As such, NFAT activation induced by vGPCRs was exceedingly sensitive to cyclosporine A that targets calcineurin, but resistant to inhibition upstream of ER calcium release. Gene expression profiling identified a signature of NFAT activation in endothelial cells expressing viral GPCRs. The expression of NFAT-dependent genes was up-regulated in tumors derived from tva-kGPCR mouse and human KS. Employing recombinant kGPCR-deficient KSHV, we showed that kGPCR was critical for NFAT-dependent gene expression in KSHV lytic replication. Finally, cyclosporine A treatment diminished NFAT-dependent gene expression and tumor formation induced by viral GPCRs. These findings reveal essential roles of NFAT activation in viral GPCR tumorigenesis and a mechanism of "constitutive" NFAT activation by viral GPCRs.

  7. Herpesviral G protein-coupled receptors activate NFAT to induce tumor formation via inhibiting the SERCA calcium ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute the largest family of proteins that transmit signal to regulate an array of fundamental biological processes. Viruses deploy diverse tactics to hijack and harness intracellular signaling events induced by GPCR. Herpesviruses encode multiple GPCR homologues that are implicated in viral pathogenesis. Cellular GPCRs are primarily regulated by their cognate ligands, while herpesviral GPCRs constitutively activate downstream signaling cascades, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT pathway. However, the roles of NFAT activation and mechanism thereof in viral GPCR tumorigenesis remain unknown. Here we report that GPCRs of human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kGPCR and cytomegalovirus (US28 shortcut NFAT activation by inhibiting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA, which is necessary for viral GPCR tumorigenesis. Biochemical approaches, entailing pharmacological inhibitors and protein purification, demonstrate that viral GPCRs target SERCA2 to increase cytosolic calcium concentration. As such, NFAT activation induced by vGPCRs was exceedingly sensitive to cyclosporine A that targets calcineurin, but resistant to inhibition upstream of ER calcium release. Gene expression profiling identified a signature of NFAT activation in endothelial cells expressing viral GPCRs. The expression of NFAT-dependent genes was up-regulated in tumors derived from tva-kGPCR mouse and human KS. Employing recombinant kGPCR-deficient KSHV, we showed that kGPCR was critical for NFAT-dependent gene expression in KSHV lytic replication. Finally, cyclosporine A treatment diminished NFAT-dependent gene expression and tumor formation induced by viral GPCRs. These findings reveal essential roles of NFAT activation in viral GPCR tumorigenesis and a mechanism of "constitutive" NFAT activation by viral GPCRs.

  8. Ascorbic Acid Induces Necrosis in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via ROS, PKC, and Calcium Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Woo; Cho, Heui-Seung; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    Ascorbic acid induces apoptosis, autophagy, and necrotic cell death in cancer cells. We investigated the mechanisms by which ascorbic acid induces death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep2 cells. Ascorbic acid markedly reduced cell viability and induced death without caspase activation and an increase in cytochrome c. Hep2 cells exposed to ascorbic acid exhibited membrane rupture and swelling, the morphological characteristics of necrotic cell death. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in Hep2 cells treated with ascorbic acid, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine blocked ascorbic acid-induced cell death. Ascorbic acid also stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, especially PKC α/β activation, and subsequently increased cytosolic calcium levels. However, ascorbic acid-induced necrotic cell death was inhibited by Ro-31-8425 (PKC inhibitor) and BAPTA-AM (cytosolic calcium-selective chelator). ROS scavenger NAC inhibited PKC activation induced by ascorbic acid and Ro-31-8425 suppressed the level of cytosolic calcium increased by ascorbic acid, indicating that ROS is represented as an upstream signal of PKC pathway and PKC activation leads to the release of calcium into the cytosol, which ultimately regulates the induction of necrosis in ascorbic acid-treated Hep2 cells. These data demonstrate that ascorbic acid induces necrotic cell death through ROS generation, PKC activation, and cytosolic calcium signaling in Hep2 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 417-425, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Parabrachial lesions in rats disrupt sodium appetite induced by furosemide but not by calcium deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigson, P.S.; Colechio, E.M.; Power, M.L.; Schulkin, J.; Norgren, R.

    2015-01-01

    An appetite for CaCl2 and NaCl occurs in young rats after they are fed a diet lacking Ca or Na, respectively. Bilateral lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) disrupt normal taste aversion learning and essentially eliminate the expression of sodium appetite. Here we tested whether similar lesions of the PBN would disrupt the calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2 or NaCl. Controls and rats with PBN lesions failed to exhibit a calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2. Nevertheless, both groups did exhibit a significant calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for 0.5 M NaCl. Thus, while damage to the second central gustatory relay in the PBN disrupts the appetite for 0.5 M NaCl induced by furosemide, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and polyethylene glycol, the sodium appetite induced by dietary CaCl2 depletion remains intact. PMID:25540931

  10. Nuclear Calcium Signaling Induces Expression of the Synaptic Organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N.; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2–4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. PMID:25527504

  11. Nuclear calcium signaling induces expression of the synaptic organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-02-27

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2-4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline increases gene delivery with adenovirus type 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko T Ahonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. METHODS/RESULTS: We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. CONCLUSION: In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline.

  13. Multiple Mechanisms Drive Calcium Signal Dynamics around Laser-Induced Epithelial Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Erica K; Stevens, Aaron; Edrington, Westin; Zhao, Yunhua; Jayasinghe, Aroshan K; Page-McCaw, Andrea; Hutson, M Shane

    2017-10-03

    Epithelial wound healing is an evolutionarily conserved process that requires coordination across a field of cells. Studies in many organisms have shown that cytosolic calcium levels rise within a field of cells around the wound and spread to neighboring cells, within seconds of wounding. Although calcium is a known potent second messenger and master regulator of wound-healing programs, it is unknown what initiates the rise of cytosolic calcium across the wound field. Here we use laser ablation, a commonly used technique for the precision removal of cells or subcellular components, as a tool to investigate mechanisms of calcium entry upon wounding. Despite its precise ablation capabilities, we find that this technique damages cells outside the primary wound via a laser-induced cavitation bubble, which forms and collapses within microseconds of ablation. This cavitation bubble damages the plasma membranes of cells it contacts, tens of microns away from the wound, allowing direct calcium entry from extracellular fluid into damaged cells. Approximately 45 s after this rapid influx of calcium, we observe a second influx of calcium that spreads to neighboring cells beyond the footprint of cavitation. The occurrence of this second, delayed calcium expansion event is predicted by wound size, indicating that a separate mechanism of calcium entry exists, corresponding to cell loss at the primary wound. Our research demonstrates that the damage profile of laser ablation is more similar to a crush injury than the precision removal of individual cells. The generation of membrane microtears upon ablation is consistent with studies in the field of optoporation, which investigate ablation-induced cellular permeability. We conclude that multiple types of damage, including microtears and cell loss, result in multiple mechanisms of calcium influx around epithelial wounds. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein solutions: The role of calcium-ion activity and micellar integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus that calcium chelators enhance heat stability in milk. However, they increase the heat stability to considerably different extents. For this reason, the effect of various calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein

  15. Catechin prevents the calcium oxalate monohydrate induced renal calcium crystallization in NRK-52E cells and the ethylene glycol induced renal stone formation in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species play important roles in renal calcium crystallization. In this study, we examined the effects of catechin, which have been shown to have antioxidant properties on the renal calcium crystallization. Methods In the vitro experiment, the changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase 3 were measured to show the effects of catechin treatment on the NRK-52E cells induced by calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In the vivo study, Sprague–Dawley rats were administered 1% ethylene glycol (EG) to generate a rat kidney stone model and then treated with catechin (2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. The urine and serum variables were dected on 7 and 14 days after EG administration. The expression of cytochrome c, cleaved caspase 3, SOD, osteopontin (OPN), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in kidney were measured. Furthermore, the mitochondrial microstructure in the kidney was also examined by transmission electron microscopy. Results Catechin treatment could prevent the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of SOD, 4-HNE, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase 3 in NRK-52E cells induced by the COM. For the in vivo experiments, the EG administration induced renal calcium crystallization was also prevented by the catechin. The expression of SOD, OPN, MDA, OPN and 8-OHdG, were increased after EG administration and this increase was diminished by catechin. Moreover, catechin also prevented EG induced mitochondrial collapse in rat. Conclusions Catechin has preventive effects on renal calcium crystallization both in vivo and in vitro, and provide a potential therapeutic treatment for this disease. PMID:24044655

  16. Calcium-induced stabilization of -amylase against guanidine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) denaturation of native and Ca- depleted Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) was investigated both in the absence and presence of 2 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and biological activity. In both states (Cadepleted and native form), ...

  17. The effect of calcium on auxin depletion-induced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... L-1 CaCl2) were applied to each set of dishes to estimate the function of calcium and the IAA transport inhibitor on abscission. One dish without any treatment served as the control. Fifty explants were inserted from the distal end into a Petri dish and ten of such dishes of explants were used as replicates.

  18. Postweaning low-calcium diet promotes later-life obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Li, Song-Tao; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Guan; He, Ying; Liao, Xi-Lu; Sun, Chang-Hao; Li, Ying

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a postweaning low-calcium diet on later obesity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Ninety-six male rats were weaned at 3 weeks of age, fed standard (STD: 0.50% calcium, n=48) and low-calcium (LC: 0.15% calcium, n=48) diets for 3 weeks, and then fed the standard diet for a 3-week washout period successively. Finally, the STD rats were divided into STD control and high-fat diet (HFD) groups, and the LC ones into LC control and LC+HFD (LCHF) groups. The STD and LC rats were fed the standard diet, while the HFD control and LCFD ones were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. During the three feeding periods, adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its responsive proteins phospho-acetyl-coA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and uncoupling protein 3 were persistently down-regulated in the LC group (decreased by 18%, 24%, 18% and 20%, respectively) versus the STD group, and these effects were significantly more pronounced in the LCHFD group (decreased by 21%, 30%, 23% and 25%, respectively) than the HFD group by a later high-fat stimuli, causing more fat and body weight in adulthood. However, lipolysis enzymes, serum leptin, insulin and lipids were not significantly affected until the body weight and fat content changed at 15 weeks of age. The results suggest that the low-calcium diet after weaning promotes rat adult-onset obesity induced by high-fat diet, which might be achieved by programming expressions of genes involved in AMPK pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reductions in Calcium Uptake Induced in Rat Brain Synaptosomes by Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    located in the brain and heart using nimodipine and Reductions in Calcium Uptake Induced in Rat Brain Synapto- nifedipine (I1-13). Nimodipine binding...was also reduced by radiation exposure. Nimodipine binding to dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type calcium uptake after irradiation in wh31e-brain, cortical...resistant to the direct effects of MATERIALS AND METHODS ionizing radiation, exposure to ionizing radiation can have Materials. Bay K 8644 and nimodipine

  20. Dysregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease: bad genes and bad habits.

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    Mattson, M P; Chan, S L

    2001-10-01

    Calcium is one of the most important intracellular messengers in the brain, being essential for neuronal development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and the regulation of various metabolic pathways. The findings reviewed in the present article suggest that calcium also plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between the pathological hallmarks ofAD (neurofibrillary tangles [NFT] and amyloid plaques) and perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis have been established in studies of patients, and in animal and cell culture models of AD. Studies of the effects of mutations in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins on neuronal plasticity and survival have provided insight into the molecular cascades that result in synaptic dysfunction and neuronal degeneration in AD. Central to the neurodegenerative process is the inability of neurons to properly regulate intracellular calcium levels. Increased levels of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) induce oxidative stress, which impairs cellular ion homeostasis and energy metabolism and renders neurons vulnerable to apoptosis and excitotoxicity. Subtoxic levels of Abeta may induce synaptic dysfunction by impairing multiple signal transduction pathways. Presenilin mutations perturb calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum in a way that sensitizes neurons to apoptosis and excitotoxicity; links between aberrant calcium regulation and altered APP processing are emerging. Environmental risk factors for AD are being identified and may include high calorie diets, folic acid insufficiency, and a low level of intellectual activity (bad habits); in each case, the environmental factor impacts on neuronal calcium homeostasis. Low calorie diets and intellectual activity may guard against AD by stimulating production of neurotrophic factors and chaperone proteins. The emerging picture of the cell and molecular biology of AD is revealing novel preventative and therapeutic

  1. Calcium-containing scaffolds induce bone regeneration by regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Aquino-Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca2+-containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO4 on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. Results CaSO4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO4-containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration. Conclusions Specific CaSO4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host’s undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO4 regulates BMP-2-induced

  2. Calcium-containing scaffolds induce bone regeneration by regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Martínez, Rubén; Angelo, Alcira P; Pujol, Francesc Ventura

    2017-11-16

    Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca 2+ -containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO 4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter) was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO 4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO 4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. CaSO 4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO 4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO 4 -containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO 4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration. Specific CaSO 4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host's undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO 4 regulates BMP-2-induced MSC migration by differentially activating the PI3

  3. Genetic Variation in Calcium Channel Gene in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Women's And Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, and other centers in Australia and Canada screened 240 individuals from 167 families with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS + and 95 controls for variants in the CACNA1H gene.

  4. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbatein vitroandin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the C max value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their T max values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. Cloning and characterization of a calcium dependent protein kinase gene associated with cotton fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Quan-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Yun; Gao, Peng; Wang, Guo-Ying; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2008-12-01

    The gene GhCPK1 encoding a calcium dependent protein kinase was identified from cotton. Transcripts of GhCPK1 accumulated primarily in the elongating fiber, and Arabidopsis plants transformed with GhCPK1 promoter-GUS construct exhibited GUS activity mainly in the developing trichomes, roots, young leaves and sepals. In the bombarded onion epidermal cells, GhCPK1-GFP fusion proteins showed a subcellular distribution in the plasma membrane. In vitro assays indicated that GhCPK1 was a functional calcium-dependent kinase able to undergo autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the known substrate histone III-S. Together, these results suggest that GhCPK1 may play a role in the calcium signaling events associated with fiber elongation.

  6. Alpha hemolysin induces an increase of erythrocytes calcium: a FLIM 2-photon phasor analysis approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sanchez

    Full Text Available α-Hemolysin (HlyA from Escherichia coli is considered as the prototype of a family of toxins called RTX (repeat in toxin, a group of proteins that share genetic and structural features. HlyA is an important virulence factor in E. coli extraintestinal infections, such as meningitis, septicemia and urinary infections. High concentrations of the toxin cause the lysis of several cells such as erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, endothelial and renal epithelial cells of different species. At low concentrations it induces the production of cytokines and apoptosis. Since many of the subcytolytic effects in other cells have been reported to be triggered by the increase of intracellular calcium, we followed the calcium concentration inside the erythrocytes while incubating with sublytic concentrations of HlyA. Calcium concentration was monitored using the calcium indicator Green 1, 2-photon excitation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. Data were analyzed using the phasor representation. In this report, we present evidence that, at sublytic concentrations, HlyA induces an increase of calcium concentration in rabbit erythrocytes in the first 10 s. Results are discussed in relation to the difficulties of measuring calcium concentrations in erythrocytes where hemoglobin is present, the contribution of the background and the heterogeneity of the response observed in individual cells.

  7. Mathematical modeling of calcium waves induced by mechanical stimulation in keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the behavior of calcium in the epidermis is closely related to the conditions of the skin, especially the differentiation of the epidermal keratinocytes and the permeability barrier function, and therefore a correct understanding of the calcium dynamics is important in explaining epidermal homeostasis. Here we report on experimental observations of in vitro calcium waves in keratinocytes induced by mechanical stimulation, and present a mathematical model that can describe the experimentally observed wave behavior that includes finite-range wave propagation and a ring-shaped pattern. A mechanism of the ring formation hypothesized by our model may be related to similar calcium propagation patterns observed during the wound healing process in the epidermis. We discuss a possible extension of our model that may serve as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of various skin diseases.

  8. Individual aggregates of amyloid beta induce temporary calcium influx through the cell membrane of neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Flint, Jennie; Shivji, Nadia; Jönsson, Peter; Wirthensohn, David; De Genst, Erwin; Vincke, Cécile; Muyldermans, Serge; Dobson, Chris; Klenerman, David

    2016-08-24

    Local delivery of amyloid beta oligomers from the tip of a nanopipette, controlled over the cell surface, has been used to deliver physiological picomolar oligomer concentrations to primary astrocytes or neurons. Calcium influx was observed when as few as 2000 oligomers were delivered to the cell surface. When the dosing of oligomers was stopped the intracellular calcium returned to basal levels or below. Calcium influx was prevented by the presence in the pipette of the extracellular chaperone clusterin, which is known to selectively bind oligomers, and by the presence a specific nanobody to amyloid beta. These data are consistent with individual oligomers larger than trimers inducing calcium entry as they cross the cell membrane, a result supported by imaging experiments in bilayers, and suggest that the initial molecular event that leads to neuronal damage does not involve any cellular receptors, in contrast to work performed at much higher oligomer concentrations.

  9. A promoter in the coding region of the calcium channel gene CACNA1C generates the transcription factor CCAT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gomez-Ospina

    Full Text Available The C-terminus of the voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 encodes a transcription factor, the calcium channel associated transcriptional regulator (CCAT, that regulates neurite extension and inhibits Cav1.2 expression. The mechanisms by which CCAT is generated in neurons and myocytes are poorly understood. Here we show that CCAT is produced by activation of a cryptic promoter in exon 46 of CACNA1C, the gene that encodes CaV1.2. Expression of CCAT is independent of Cav1.2 expression in neuroblastoma cells, in mice, and in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, providing strong evidence that CCAT is not generated by cleavage of CaV1.2. Analysis of the transcriptional start sites in CACNA1C and immune-blotting for channel proteins indicate that multiple proteins are generated from the 3' end of the CACNA1C gene. This study provides new insights into the regulation of CACNA1C, and provides an example of how exonic promoters contribute to the complexity of mammalian genomes.

  10. Intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C activation stimulate sonic hedgehog gene expression during gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Zavros, Yana; Tessier, Art; Waghray, Meghna; Lentz, Steve; Gumucio, Deborah; Todisco, Andrea; Merchant, Juanita L

    2010-12-01

    Hypochlorhydria during Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits gastric Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression. We investigated whether acid-secretory mechanisms regulate Shh gene expression through intracellular calcium (Ca2(+)(i))-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activation. We blocked Hedgehog signaling by transgenically overexpressing a secreted form of the Hedgehog interacting protein-1, a natural inhibitor of hedgehog ligands, which induced hypochlorhydria. Gadolinium, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), PKC-overexpressing adenoviruses, and PKC inhibitors were used to modulate Ca(2+)(i)-release, PKC activity, and Shh gene expression in primary gastric cell, organ, and AGS cell line cultures. PKA hyperactivity was induced in the H(+)/K(+)-β-cholera-toxin-overexpressing mice. Mice that expressed secreted hedgehog-interacting protein-1 had lower levels of gastric acid (hypochlorhydria), reduced production of somatostatin, and increased gastrin gene expression. Hypochlorhydria in these mice repressed Shh gene expression, similar to the levels obtained with omeprazole treatment of wild-type mice. However, Shh expression also was repressed in the hyperchlorhydric H(+)/K(+)-β-cholera-toxin model with increased cAMP, suggesting that the regulation of Shh was not solely acid-dependent, but pertained to specific acid-stimulatory signaling pathways. Based on previous reports that Ca(2+)(i) release also stimulates acid secretion in parietal cells, we showed that gadolinium-, thapsigargin-, and carbachol-mediated release of Ca(2+)(i) induced Shh expression. Ca(2+)-chelation with BAPTA + EGTA reduced Shh expression. Overexpression of PKC-α, -β, and -δ (but not PKC-ϵ) induced an Shh gene expression. In addition, phorbol esters induced a Shh-regulated reporter gene. Secretagogues that stimulate

  11. Effects of extracellular calcium and sodium on depolarization-induced automaticity in guinea pig papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzung, B G

    1975-07-01

    Regenerative discharge of action potentials is induced in mammalian papillary muscles by passage of small depolarizing currents. In this paper, the effects of various extracellular calcium and sodium concentrations and of tetrodotoxin on this phenomenon were studied in guinea pig papillary muscles in a sucrose gap chamber. Phase 4 diastolic depolarization was found to be associated with an increase in membrane resistance. The slope of phase 4 depolarization was decreased by reductions in extracellular calcium or sodium concentration. The range of maximum diastolic potentials and the thresholds from which regenerative potentials arose were reduced, especially at the positive limit of potentials, by a reduction in either ion. It was concluded that both calcium and sodium influence diastolic depolarization and participate in the regenerative action potentials of depolarization-induced ventricular automaticity.

  12. Encapsulation of plasmid DNA in calcium phosphate nanoparticles: stem cell uptake and gene transfer efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Deng, Wenwen; Wei, Yuan; Su, Weiyan; Yang, Yan; Wei, Yawei; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop calcium phosphate nanocomposite particles encapsulating plasmid DNA (CP-pDNA) nanoparticles as a nonviral vector for gene delivery. CP-pDNA nanoparticles employing plasmid transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) were prepared and characterized. The transfection efficiency and cell viability of the CP-pDNA nanoparticles were evaluated in mesenchymal stem cells, which were identified by immunofluorescence staining. Cytotoxicity of plasmid TGF-β1 and calcium phosphate to mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by MTT assay. The integrity of TGF-β1 encapsulated in the CP-pDNA nanoparticles was maintained. The well dispersed CP-pDNA nanoparticles exhibited an ultralow particle size (20-50 nm) and significantly lower cytotoxicity than Lipofectamine™ 2000. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the cultured cells in this study were probably mesenchymal stem cells. The cellular uptake and transfection efficiency of the CP-pDNA nanoparticles into the mesenchymal stem cells were higher than that of needle-like calcium phosphate nanoparticles and a standard calcium phosphate transfection kit. Furthermore, live cell imaging and confocal laser microscopy vividly showed the transportation process of the CP-pDNA nanoparticles in mesenchymal stem cells. The results of a cytotoxicity assay found that both plasmid TGF-β1 and calcium phosphate were not toxic to mesenchymal stem cells. CP-pDNA nanoparticles can be developed into an effective alternative as a nonviral gene delivery system that is highly efficient and has low cytotoxicity.

  13. Electrically Induced Calcium Handling in Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century, the heart was viewed as a terminally differentiated organ until the discovery of a resident population of cardiac stem cells known as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs. It has been shown that the regenerative capacity of CPCs can be enhanced by ex vivo modification. Preconditioning CPCs could provide drastic improvements in cardiac structure and function; however, a systematic approach to determining a mechanistic basis for these modifications founded on the physiology of CPCs is lacking. We have identified a novel property of CPCs to respond to electrical stimulation by initiating intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We used confocal microscopy and intracellular calcium imaging to determine the spatiotemporal properties of the Ca2+ signal and the key proteins involved in this process using pharmacological inhibition and confocal Ca2+ imaging. Our results provide valuable insights into mechanisms to enhance the therapeutic potential in stem cells and further our understanding of human CPC physiology.

  14. A novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene from Populus euphratica, confers both drought and cold stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhuan; Xue, Bin; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-11-22

    Populus species are the most important timber trees over the Northern hemisphere. Most of them are cold- and drought-sensitive except the Populus euphratica Oliv. Here, a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) gene cloned from P. euphratica, designated as PeCPK10, was rapidly induced by salt, cold, and drought stresses. The protein encoded by PeCPK10 was localized within the nucleus and cytosol, which may be important for its specific regulation in cellular functions. To elucidate the physiological functions of PeCPK10, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PeCPK10. The results showed that PeCPK10-transgenic lines experienced better growth than vector control plants when treated with drought. Stronger abscisic acid-induced promotion of stomatal closing has been showed in transgenic lines. Particularly, overexpression of PeCPK10 showed enhanced freezing tolerance. Constitutive expression of PeCPK10 enhanced the expression of several abscisic acid-responsive genes and multiple abiotic stress-responsive genes such as RD29B and COR15A. Accordingly, a positive regulator responsive to cold and drought stresses in P. euphratica is proposed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of the N-type calcium channel gene expression by the alpha subunit of Go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Jun; Ghil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Min-Ji; Yun Park, So; Kim, Dong-Sun; Hwan Kim, Sung; Chin, Hemin; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Jiang, Meisheng; Hong, Sung Youl; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Young-Don

    2003-04-10

    Go, a heterotrimeric G-protein, is enriched in brain and neuronal growth cones. Although several reports suggest that Go may be involved in modulation of neuronal differentiation, the precise role of Go is not clear. To investigate the function of Go in neuronal differentiation, we determined the effect of Goalpha, the alpha subunit of Go, on the expression of Ca(v)2.2, the pore-forming unit of N-type calcium channels, at the transcription level. Treatment with cyclic AMP (cAMP), which triggers neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma F11 cells, increased the mRNA level and the promoter activity of the Ca(v)2.2 gene. Overexpression of Goalpha inhibited neurite extension in F11 cells and simultaneously repressed the stimulatory effect of cAMP on the Ca(v)2.2 gene expression to the basal level. Targeted mutation of the Goalpha gene also increased the level of Ca(v)2.2 in the brain. These results suggest that Go may regulate neuronal differentiation through modulation of gene expression of target genes such as N-type calcium channels.

  16. Scrophularia orientalis extract induces calcium signaling and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LANGE, INGO; MOSCHNY, JULIA; TAMANYAN, KAMILLA; KHUTSISHVILI, MANANA; ATHA, DANIEL; BORRIS, ROBERT P.; KOOMOA, DANA-LYNN

    2016-01-01

    Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB. PMID:26848085

  17. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 modulates local ATP-induced calcium signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Ho

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes are the major building blocks of the human epidermis. In many physiological and pathophysiological conditions, keratinocytes release adenosine triphosphate (ATP as an autocrine/paracrine mediator that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. ATP receptors have been identified in various epidermal cell types; therefore, extracellular ATP homeostasis likely determines its long-term, trophic effects on skin health. We investigated the possibility that human keratinocytes express surface-located enzymes that modulate ATP concentration, as well as the corresponding receptor activation, in the pericellular microenvironment. We observed that the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT released ATP and hydrolyzed extracellular ATP. Interestingly, ATP hydrolysis resulted in adenosine diphosphate (ADP accumulation in the extracellular space. Pharmacological inhibition by ARL 67156 or gene silencing of the endogenous ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase isoform 2 resulted in a 25% reduction in both ATP hydrolysis and ADP formation. Using intracellular calcium as a reporter, we found that although NTPDase2 hydrolyzed ATP and generated sustainable ADP levels, only ATP contributed to increased intracellular calcium via P2Y2 receptor activation. Furthermore, knocking down NTPDase2 potentiated the nanomolar ATP-induced intracellular calcium increase, suggesting that NTPDase2 globally attenuates nucleotide concentration in the pericellular microenvironment as well as locally shields receptors in the vicinity from being activated by extracellular ATP. Our findings reveal an important role of human keratinocyte NTPDase2 in modulating nucleotide signaling in the extracellular milieu of human epidermis.

  18. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bin, E-mail: yanbin@mercyhealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Mercy Cancer Center, Mercy Medical Center-North Iowa, Mason City, IA 50401 (United States); Ouyang, Ruoyun [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China); Huang, Chenghui [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Liu, Franklin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Neill, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Li, Chuanyuan [Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and

  19. Astaxanthin protects against oxidative stress and calcium-induced porcine lens protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Hua; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Fu-Yung; Maher, Timothy J; Hu, Chao-Chien

    2006-03-22

    Astaxanthin (ASTX), a carotenoid with potent antioxidant properties, exists naturally in various plants, algae, and seafoods. In this study, we investigated the in vitro ability of ASTX to protect porcine lens crystallins from oxidative damage by iron-mediated hydroxyl radicals or by calcium ion-activated protease (calpain), in addition to the possible underlying biochemical mechanisms. ASTX (1 mM) was capable of protecting lens crystallins from being oxidized, as measured by changes in tryptophan fluorescence, in the presence of a Fenton reaction solution containing 0.2 mM Fe2+ and 2 mM H2O2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that beta(high)-crystallin was the most vulnerable protein under these conditions of free radical exposure. The proteolysis of lens crystallins induced by calcium ion-activated calpain was also inhibited by ASTX (0.03-1 mM) as determined by daily measurement of the light-scattering intensity at 405 nm for five consecutive days. ASTX at 1 mM was as potent as a concentration of 0.1 mM calpain inhibitor E64 in protecting the oxidative damage/hydrolysis of porcine crystallins. At a concentration of 1 mM, ASTX provided better protection than the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in terms of suppressing calcium-induced turbidity of lens proteins. Thin-layer chromatography analysis indicated that ASTX interacted with calcium ions to form complexes, which we believe interfere with the hydrolysis of lens crystallins by calcium-activated calpain. This in vitro study shows that ASTX is capable of protecting porcine lens proteins from oxidative insults and degradation by calcium-induced calpain.

  20. Calcium signals and caspase-12 participated in paraoxon-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Cao, Zhiheng; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Ziren

    2010-04-01

    In order to investigate whether calcium signals participate in paraoxon (POX)-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells, real-time laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to detect Ca(2+) changes during the POX application. Apoptotic rates of EL4 cells and caspase-12 expression were also evaluated. POX (1-10nM) increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in EL4 cells in a dose-dependent manner at early stage (0-2h) of POX application, and apoptotic rates of EL4 cells after treatment with POX for 16h were also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with EGTA, heparin or procaine attenuated POX-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation and apoptosis. Additionally, POX up-regulated caspase-12 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and pre-treatment with EGTA, heparin or procaine significantly inhibited POX-induced increase of caspase-12 expression. Our results suggested that POX induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation in EL4 cells at the early stage of POX-induced apoptosis, which might involve Ca(2+) efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Ca(2+) influx from extracellular medium. Calcium signals and caspase-12 were important upstream messengers in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells. The ER-associated pathway possibly operated in this apoptosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Angioprotective action of calcium dobesilate against reactive oxygen species-induced capillary permeability in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J; Farine, J C; Garay, R P; Hannaert, P

    1998-10-09

    Calcium dobesilate possesses antioxidant properties in vitro, but the in vivo significance and putative angioprotective role of these properties are undefined. Here, calcium dobesilate was tested in a newly developed in vivo model of microvascular permeabilization induced by reactive oxygen species in the rat peritoneal cavity. In this model, microvascular permeabilization is equated to the rate of Evans blue extravasation toward the peritoneal cavity. Basal Evans blue extravasation (rate constant values ke = 0.0176 +/- 0.0015 h-1) was markedly and significantly increased by reactive oxygen species generated in situ, with: (i) phenazine methosulfate/NADH (delta ke(phenazine methosulfate) = 0.0419 +/- 0.0043 h-1) and (ii) xanthine/xanthine oxidase (delta ke(xo) = 0.0383 +/- 0.0010x h-1). These actions of reactive oxygen species were abolished by locally injected superoxide dismutase (i.p., 300 units/kg). Intraperitoneally given calcium dobesilate (100 mg/kg) inhibited 75-100% of reactive oxygen species-induced Evans blue extravasation. By the intravenous route, calcium dobesilate i.v. (1-50 mg/kg) dose dependently inhibited phenazine methosulfate-induced Evans blue extravasation with an ID50 of 2-5 mg/kg (full inhibition was reached at 20-50 mg/kg). After single oral administration, calcium dobesilate (5-500 mg/kg) dose dependently inhibited phenazine methosulfate-dependent Evans blue extravasation with an ID50 of 50-100 mg/kg (81% inhibition at 500 mg/kg, P dobesilate (50 mg/kg once/day) phenazine methosulfate-induced Evans blue peritoneal extravasation was significantly reduced by half. These effects of calcium dobesilate were similar to those observed with a comparative antioxidant molecule, rutin. In conclusion, rat peritoneal microvascular permeability was strongly increased by reactive oxygen species, an effect that was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal, intravenous and oral calcium dobesilate. These results support the hypothesis that the antioxidant

  2. Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-25

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenotype of a calbindin-D9k gene knockout is compensated for by the induction of other calcium transporter genes in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; Lee, Kun-Yeong; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Ryu, Young-Han; Paik, Sang Gi; Oh, Goo Taeg; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2007-12-01

    CaBP-9k may be involved in the active calcium absorption and embryo implantation. Although we generated CaBP-9k KO mice to explore its function, no distinct phenotypes were observed in these KO mice. It can be hypothesized that TRPV5 and 6 and plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b may play a role in the regulation of calcium transport to compensate CaBP-9k deficiency in its KO model. Active calcium transport in the duodenum and kidney is carried in three steps: calcium entry through epithelial Ca2+ channels (TRPV5 and TRPV6), buffering and/or transport by calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and -D28k (CaBP-28k), and extrusion through the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b (PMCA1b) and sodium/calcium exchanger 1. Although the molecular mechanism of calcium absorption has been studied using knockouts (KOs) of the vitamin D receptor and CaBP-28k in animals, the process is not fully understood. We generated CaBP-9k KO mice and assessed the phenotypic characterization and the molecular regulation of active calcium transporting genes when the mice were fed different calcium diets during growth. General phenotypes showed no distinct abnormalities. Thus, the active calcium transport of CaBP-9k-null mice proceeded normally in this study. Therefore, the compensatory molecular regulation of this mechanism was elucidated. Duodenal TRPV6 and CaBP-9k mRNA of wildtype (WT) mice increased gradually during preweaning. CaBP-9k is supposed to be an important factor in active calcium transport, but its role is probably compensated for by other calcium transporter genes (i.e., intestinal TRPV6 and PMCA1b) during preweaning and renal calcium transporters in adult mice. Depletion of the CaBP-9k gene in a KO mouse model had little phenotypic effect, suggesting that its depletion may be compensated for by calcium transporter genes in the intestine of young mice and in the kidney of adult mice.

  4. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M.-Q.; Ong, W.-Y.; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank E-mail: phywattf@nus.edu.sg

    1999-09-02

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A{sub 2} can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production.

  5. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  6. Coagulation of β-conglycinin, glycinin and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride in soymilk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Jung; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2015-08-01

    The coagulation of β-conglycinin (7S), glycinin (11S) and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride was investigated. Approximately 92.6% of the soymilk proteins were coagulated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis indicated that most of the 7S (α’, α and β), 11S acidic (A1a, A1b, A2, A3 and A4) and 11S basic (B1a) proteins in the SSF were coagulated into the SPF after treatment with 5 mM calcium chloride. Isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, were also coagulated into the SPF after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. The amounts of daidzein and genistein in the SSF decreased to 39.4 ± 1.6 and 11.8 ± 7.0%, respectively. HPLC analysis suggested that daidzein and genistein were bound with 7S and 11S proteins and then were coprecipitated into the SPF by 5 mM calcium chloride.

  7. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Min-Qin; Ong, Wei-Yi; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank

    1999-10-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A 2 can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production.

  8. Fungal genes related to calcium homeostasis and signalling are upregulated in symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Arnould, Christine; Wipf, Daniel; Zhao, Bin; van Tuinen, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels generate signalling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca(2+) in plant responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary messenger in the fungal symbiont. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of putatively Ca(2+)-related genes of Glomus intraradices BEG141 encoding five proteins involved in membrane transport and one nuclear protein kinase, was investigated during the AM symbiosis. Expression profiles related to successful colonization of host roots were observed in interactions of G. intraradices with roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula (line J5) compared to the mycorrhiza-defective mutant dmi3/Mtsym13. Symbiotic fungal activity was monitored using stearoyl-CoA desaturase and phosphate transporter genes. Laser microdissection based-mapping of fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal root tissues indicated that the Ca(2+)-related genes were differentially upregulated in arbuscules and/or in intercellular hyphae. The spatio-temporal variations in gene expression suggest that the encoded proteins may have different functions in fungal development or function during symbiosis development. Full-length cDNA obtained for two genes with interesting expression profiles confirmed a close similarity with an endoplasmic reticulum P-type ATPase and a Vcx1-like vacuolar Ca(2+) ion transporter functionally characterized in other fungi and involved in the regulation of cell calcium pools. Possible mechanisms are discussed in which Ca(2+)-related proteins G. intraradices BEG141 may play a role in mobilization and perception of the intracellular messenger by the AM fungus during symbiotic interactions with host roots. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium citrate improves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by acidosis in proximal tubular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodriguez Cabalgante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a key event in renal fibrosis. The aims of the study were to evaluate acidosis induced EMT, transforming-growth-factor (TGF β1 role and citrate effect on it. METHODS: HK2 cells (ATCC 2290 were cultured in DMEM/HAM F12 medium, pH 7.4. At 80% confluence, after 24 hr under serum free conditions, cells were distributed in three groups (24 hours: A Control: pH 7.4, B Acidosis: pH 7.0 and C Calcium citrate (0.2 mmol/L + pH 7.0. Change (Δ of intracellular calcium concentration, basal and after Angiotensin II (10-6M exposition, were measured to evaluate cellular performance. EMT was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and E-cadherin by immunocytochemistry and/or Western blot. TGF-β1 secretion was determined by ELISA in cell supernatant. RESULTS: At pH 7.0 HK2 cells significantly reduced E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expression (EMT. Supernatant TGF-β1 levels were higher than in control group. Calcium citrate decreased acidosis induced EMT and improved cells performance, without reduction of TGF-β production. CONCLUSIONS: Acidosis induces EMT and secretion of TGF-β1 in tubular proximal cells in culture and citrate improves cellular performance and ameliorates acidosis induced EMT.

  10. Identification and functional characterisation of the promoter of the calcium sensor gene CBL1 from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Weilun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CBL1 is a calcium sensor that regulates drought, cold and salt signals in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of CBL1 gene in Arabidopsis and in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus showed different tolerant activities. We are interested in understanding the molecular mechanism of the upstream region of the CBL1 gene of A. mongolicus (AmCBL1. We investigated and characterized the promoter of the AmCBL1 gene, for promoters play a very important role in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Results A 1683-bp 5' flanking region was isolated from A. mongolicus. The sequence was identified as AmCBL1 promoter. Analysis of the promoter sequence indicated a 690-bp intron and some basic cis-acting elements were related to various environmental stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region of the AmCBL1 promoter, five plant expression vectors fused with the GUS (β-glucuronidase gene, driven by series deleted fragments of AmCBL1 promoter at different lengths from -1659, -1414, -1048, -296 to -167 bp relative to the transcriptional start site were constructed and transformed into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. 89. Functional properties of each promoter segment were examined by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses using at least three single-copy PCR-positive plants of transgenic tobacco, treated with various environmental stresses and plant hormones for different times. We demonstrated that the AmCBL1 promoter was a vascular-specific and multiple-stress-inducible promoter. Our results further imply that the promoter fragment B1S3 possessed sufficient essential cis-acting elements, accounting for vascular-specific and stress-induced expression patterns. It may also indicate that for response to some stresses certain cis-elements are required in tissues outside the region of the B1S3 construct. Conclusions To help resolve uncertainties about the upstream regulatory mechanism of the CBL1 gene in desert plants, we suggest that

  11. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480 in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients

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    Anas Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is characterized by calcification of stones in the kidneys from an unknown cause. Animal models demonstrated the functional roles of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5 gene in calcium renal reabsorption and hypercalciuria. Therefore, TRPV5 was suggested to be involved in calcium homeostasis. However, whether genetic polymorphisms of TRPV5 are associated with kidney stone multiplicity or recurrence is unclear. In this study, 365 Taiwanese kidney-stone patients were recruited. Both biochemical data and DNA samples were collected. Genotyping was performed by a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that a TRPV5 polymorphism (rs4236480 was observed to be associated with stone multiplicity of calcium nephrolithiasis, as the risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the TT+CT genotype than in patients with the CC genotype (p=0.0271. In summary, despite the complexity of nephrolithiasis and the potential association of numerous calcium homeostatic absorption/reabsorption factors, TRPV5 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.

  12. Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lotem, Joseph; Gal, Hilah; Kama, Rachel; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Domany, Eytan; Sachs, Leo; Givol, David

    2003-01-01

    Using DNA microarray and clustering of expressed genes we have analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of wild-type p53-induced apoptosis by the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the calcium mobilizer thapsigargin (TG). Clustering analysis of 1,786 genes, the expression level of which changed after activation of wild-type p53 in the absence or presence of IL-6 or TG, showed that these compounds did not cause a general inhibition of the ability of p53 to up-regulate or down-regulate gene ex...

  13. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  14. Calcium hydroxide induced apical barrier in fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors

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    Vellore K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of trauma to an immature permanent incisor is a challenge, especially when the pulp is necrotic. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of fractured maxillary right and left central incisors with immature root apex. Radiographic evaluation revealed that the tooth 11 had convergent apical walls, whereas tooth 21 had parallel apical walls; both the incisors were treated with pure calcium hydroxide paste to induce apical development. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations confirmed apical barrier at 3 months. Radiograph of tooth 11 with convergent roots showed continued apical development, whereas tooth 21 showed apical bridging, following which root canal was completed in both the teeth. Therefore, in view of the simplicity of this method, we believe that calcium hydroxide can be reemphasized as one of the treatment alternatives for fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors to induce apical barrier.

  15. Calcium handling in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.

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    Ilanit Itzhaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to establish human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs by reprogramming of adult fibroblasts and to coax their differentiation into cardiomyocytes opens unique opportunities for cardiovascular regenerative and personalized medicine. In the current study, we investigated the Ca(2+-handling properties of hiPSCs derived-cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry experiments identified the expression of key Ca(2+-handling proteins. Detailed laser confocal Ca(2+ imaging demonstrated spontaneous whole-cell [Ca(2+](i transients. These transients required Ca(2+ influx via L-type Ca(2+ channels, as demonstrated by their elimination in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+ or by administration of the L-type Ca(2+ channel blocker nifedipine. The presence of a functional ryanodine receptor (RyR-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+ store, contributing to [Ca(2+](i transients, was established by application of caffeine (triggering a rapid increase in cytosolic Ca(2+ and ryanodine (decreasing [Ca(2+](i. Similarly, the importance of Ca(2+ reuptake into the SR via the SR Ca(2+ ATPase (SERCA pump was demonstrated by the inhibiting effect of its blocker (thapsigargin, which led to [Ca(2+](i transients elimination. Finally, the presence of an IP3-releasable Ca(2+ pool in hiPSC-CMs and its contribution to whole-cell [Ca(2+](i transients was demonstrated by the inhibitory effects induced by the IP3-receptor blocker 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study establishes the presence of a functional, SERCA-sequestering, RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+ store in hiPSC-CMs. Furthermore, it demonstrates the dependency of whole-cell [Ca(2+](i transients in hiPSC-CMs on both sarcolemmal Ca(2+ entry via L-type Ca(2+ channels and intracellular store Ca(2+ release.

  16. Engineering Vibrio fischeri for Inducible Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrey, Jakob M; Visick, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri serves as a model organism for a variety of natural phenomena, including symbiotic host colonization. The ease with which the V. fischeri genome can be manipulated contributes greatly to our ability to identify the factors involved in these phenomena. Here, we have adapted genetic tools for use in V. fischeri to promote our ability to conditionally control the expression of genes of interest. Specifically, we modified the commonly used mini-Tn5 transposon to contain an outward-facing, LacI-repressible/IPTG-inducible promoter, and inserted the lacI gene into the V. fischeri chromosome. Used together, these tools permit the identification and induction of genes that control specific phenotypes. To validate this approach, we identified IPTG-controllable motility mutants. We anticipate that the ability to randomly insert an inducible promoter into the genome of V. fischeri will advance our understanding of various aspects of the physiology of this microbe.

  17. Novel Resorbable and Osteoconductive Calcium Silicophosphate Scaffold Induced Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ros-Tárraga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this research was to develop a novel ceramic scaffold to evaluate the response of bone after ceramic implantation in New Zealand (NZ rabbits. Ceramics were prepared by the polymer replication method and inserted into NZ rabbits. Macroporous scaffolds with interconnected round-shaped pores (0.5–1.5 mm = were prepared. The scaffold acted as a physical support where cells with osteoblastic capability were found to migrate, develop processes, and newly immature and mature bone tissue colonized on the surface (initially and in the material’s interior. The new ceramic induced about 62.18% ± 2.28% of new bone and almost complete degradation after six healing months. An elemental analysis showed that the gradual diffusion of Ca and Si ions from scaffolds into newly formed bone formed part of the biomaterial’s resorption process. Histological and radiological studies demonstrated that this porous ceramic scaffold showed biocompatibility and excellent osteointegration and osteoinductive capacity, with no interposition of fibrous tissue between the implanted material and the hematopoietic bone marrow interphase, nor any immune response after six months of implantation. No histological changes were observed in the various organs studied (para-aortic lymph nodes, liver, kidney and lung as a result of degradation products being released.

  18. A facile approach to construct hybrid multi-shell calcium phosphate gene particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-xue; Zhang, Ran; Wang, You-xiang; Hu, Qiao-ling

    2010-04-01

    The calcium phosphate (CaP) particles have attracted much attention in gene therapy. How to construct stable gene particles was the determining factor. In this study, hybrid multi-shell CaP gene particles were successfully constructed. First, CaP nanoparticles served as a core and were coated with DNA for colloidal stabilization. The xi-potential of DNA-coated CaP nanoparticles was -15 mV. Then polyethylenimine (PEI) was added and adsorbed outside of the DNA layer due to the electrostatic attraction. The xi-potential of hybrid multi-shell CaP particles was slightly positive. With addition of PEI, the hybrid multi-shell particles could condense DNA effectively, which was determined by ethidium bromide (EtBr) exclusion assay. The hybrid particles were spherical and uniform with diameters of about 150 nm at proper conditions. By simple modification of PEI, the hybrid multi-shell CaP gene particles were successfully constructed. They may have great potential in gene therapy.

  19. Calcium-induced gel domains in bilayer -- more elusive than thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discher, Dennis; Christian, David; Ellenbroek, Wouter; Liu, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    As a highly bioactive divalent cation, calcium can in principle crossbridge anionic groups and induce domain formation and rigidification, but past reports with lipid systems appear conflicted. We mix, as a robust model system, anionic and neutral polymer amphiphiles within vesicle and cylinder micelle morphologies and add calcium. Based on micro- measurements, calcium forms definitive crossbridges between the anionic amphiphiles, rigidifying the charged membranes across a fluid-gel transition and also leading to lateral phase separation without disrupting the assemblies. A systematic phase diagram shows that long-lived domains occur in a narrow region near the polyanion's pK's. The phase behavior appears well described by a relatively simple model in which -- among electrostatic and entropic contributions -- counterion entropy outcompetes attractive crossbridging to drive remixing of the highly charged polyacid at high pH. Initial observations extend from polymers to a polyanionic lipid involved in cell signaling [phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate], highlighting both the generality and limits of calcium effects.

  20. Study on radiation-inducible genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho; Joe, Min Ho; Park, Hae Jun; Song, Hyu Npa

    2012-01-15

    Radiation-inducible genes of E. coli, which is a model strain for bacterial study, and Salmonella, which is a typical strain for pathogenic bacteria were compared through omic analysis. Heat shock response genes and prophage genes were induced by radiation in Salmonella, not in E. coli. Among prophage genes tested, STM2628 showed the highest activation by radiation, and approximately 1 kb promoter region was turned out to be necessary for radiation response. To screen an artificial promoter showing activation by 2 Gy, the high-throughput screening method using fluorescent MUG substrate was established. The use of bacteria as anticancer agents has attracted interest. In this study, we tried to develop tumor targeting bacteria in which the radiation-inducible promoter activate a transgene encoding a cytotoxic protein. To do this, a tumor-targeting hfq Salmonella mutant strain was constructed, and we found that its virulence decreased. For outward secretion of anticancer protein produced inside bacteria, the signal peptide of SspH1 was determined and the signal peptide was proven to be able to secrete an anticancer protein. Tumor xenograft mouse model was secured, which can be used for efficiency evaluation of bacterial tumor therapy.

  1. Nuclear calcium controls the apoptotic-like cell death induced by d-erythro-sphinganine in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Christophe; Da Silva, Daniel; Cotelle, Valérie; Thuleau, Patrice; Xiong, Tou Cheu; Jauneau, Alain; Brière, Christian; Graziana, Annick; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Ranjeva, Raoul; Mazars, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Studies performed in animals have highlighted the major role of sphingolipids in regulating the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Sphingolipids have also been shown to induce cell death in plants via calcium-based signalling pathways but the contribution of free cytosolic and/or nuclear calcium in the overall process has never been evaluated. Here, we show that increase in tobacco BY-2 cells of the endogenous content of Long Chain Bases (LCBs) caused by external application of d-erythro-sphinganine (DHS) is followed by immediate dose-dependent elevations of cellular free calcium concentration within the first minute in the cytosol and 10min later in the nucleus. Cells challenged with DHS enter a death process through apoptotic-like mechanisms. Lanthanum chloride, a general blocker of calcium entry, suppresses the cellular calcium variations and the PCD induced by DHS. Interestingly, dl-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5) and [(+)-dizocilpine] (MK801), two inhibitors of animal and plant ionotropic glutamate receptors, suppress DHS-induced cell death symptoms by selectively inhibiting the variations of nuclear calcium concentration. The selective action of these compounds demonstrates the crucial role of nuclear calcium signature in controlling DHS-induced cell death in tobacco cells. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  3. Two mutations in mitochondrial ATP6 gene of ATP synthase, related to human cancer, affect ROS, calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial permeability transition in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecka, Katarzyna; Tisi, Renata; Penna, Sara; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Plochocka, Danuta; Kucharczyk, Roza

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in cancer process is still unknown. Since the mutagenesis of mitochondrial genome in mammals is not possible yet, we have exploited budding yeast S. cerevisiae as a model to study the effects of tumor-associated mutations in the mitochondrial MTATP6 gene, encoding subunit 6 of ATP synthase, on the energy metabolism. We previously reported that four mutations in this gene have a limited impact on the production of cellular energy. Here we show that two mutations, Atp6-P163S and Atp6-K90E (human MTATP6-P136S and MTATP6-K64E, found in prostate and thyroid cancer samples, respectively), increase sensitivity of yeast cells both to compounds inducing oxidative stress and to high concentrations of calcium ions in the medium, when Om45p, the component of porin complex in outer mitochondrial membrane (OM), was fused to GFP. In OM45-GFP background, these mutations affect the activation of yeast permeability transition pore (yPTP, also called YMUC, yeast mitochondrial unspecific channel) upon calcium induction. Moreover, we show that calcium addition to isolated mitochondria heavily induced the formation of ATP synthase dimers and oligomers, recently proposed to form the core of PTP, which was slower in the mutants. We show the genetic evidence for involvement of mitochondrial ATP synthase in calcium homeostasis and permeability transition in yeast. This paper is a first to show, although in yeast model organism, that mitochondrial ATP synthase mutations, which accumulate during carcinogenesis process, may be significant for cancer cell escape from apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. P12 - PTHC1: A Continuing Cell Line Expressing PTH and Genes Involved in Calcium Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, S.; Mazzotta, C.; Ciuffi, S; Mavilia, C.; Galli, G.; Zonefrati, R.; Strigoli, D.; Cavalli, L.; Cavalli, T; Brandi, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The main organs regulating serum levels of ionised calcium (Ca2+) are the parathyroids, which are composed of two different cell types: chief cells and oxyphil cells. Chief cells, through the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), are affected by changes in calcium concentration, modifying PTH secretion in proportion to calcium levels. Current understanding of calcium regulation mechanisms connected to PTH and of the signalling pathways involved derive from in vitro studies carried out on primary c...

  5. High-calcium exposure to frog heart: a simple model representing hypercalcemia-induced ECG abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Itsuro

    2017-01-20

    By simply adding a high concentration of calcium solution to the surface of the bullfrog heart, we reproduced electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities representing those observed in hypercalcemia, such as Osborn waves and shortening of the QT interval. The rise in extracellular calcium concentration may have activated the outward potassium currents during phase 3 of the action potential, and thus decreased its duration. In addition to the known decrease in the duration of phase 2, such changes in phase 3 were also likely to contribute to the shortening of the QT interval. The dual recordings of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and the ECG waves enabled us to demonstrate the mechanisms of ECG abnormalities induced by hypercalcemia.

  6. Inducible gene manipulations in serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An impairment of the serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the considerable genetic evidence, the exact molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain largely unknown. To address the lack of instruments for the molecular dissection of gene function in serotonergic neurons we have developed a new mouse transgenic tool that allows inducible Cre-mediated recombination of genes selectively in 5-HT neurons of all raphe nuclei. In this transgenic mouse line, the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase is expressed under the regulatory control of the mouse tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2 gene locus (177kb. Tamoxifen treatment efficiently induced recombination selectively in serotonergic neurons with minimal background activity in vehicle-treated mice. These genetic manipulations can be initiated at any desired time during embryonic development, neonatal stage or adulthood. To illustrate the versatility of this new tool, we show that Brainbow-1.0LTPH2-CreERT2 mice display highly efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons with individual 5-HT neurons labelling with multiple distinct fluorescent colors. This labelling is well suited for visualization and tracing of serotonergic neurons and their network architecture. Finally, the applicability of TPH2-CreERT2 for loxP-flanked candidate gene manipulation is evidenced by our successful knockout induction of the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid-receptor (GR exclusively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. The TPH2-CreERT2 line will allow detailed analysis of gene function in both developing and adult serotonergic neurons

  7. Inducible Gene Manipulations in Serotonergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tillmann; Böhm, Gerald; Hermann, Elke; Schütz, Günther; Schönig, Kai; Bartsch, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    An impairment of the serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the considerable genetic evidence, the exact molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain largely unknown. To address the lack of instruments for the molecular dissection of gene function in serotonergic neurons we have developed a new mouse transgenic tool that allows inducible Cre-mediated recombination of genes selectively in 5-HT neurons of all raphe nuclei. In this transgenic mouse line, the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase is expressed under the regulatory control of the mouse tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene locus (177 kb). Tamoxifen treatment efficiently induced recombination selectively in serotonergic neurons with minimal background activity in vehicle-treated mice. These genetic manipulations can be initiated at any desired time during embryonic development, neonatal stage or adulthood. To illustrate the versatility of this new tool, we show that Brainbow-1.0LTPH2-CreERT2 mice display highly efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons with individual 5-HT neurons labeling with multiple distinct fluorescent colors. This labeling is well suited for visualization and tracing of serotonergic neurons and their network architecture. Finally, the applicability of TPH2-CreERT2 for loxP-flanked candidate gene manipulation is evidenced by our successful knockout induction of the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid-receptor exclusively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. The TPH2-CreERT2 line will allow detailed analysis of gene function in both developing and adult serotonergic neurons. PMID:19936315

  8. Different Stress-Induced Calcium Signatures Are Reported by Aequorin-Mediated Calcium Measurements in Living Cells of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Muñoz

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is an inhaled fungal pathogen of human lungs, the developmental growth of which is reliant upon Ca2+-mediated signalling. Ca2+ signalling has regulatory significance in all eukaryotic cells but how A. fumigatus uses intracellular Ca2+ signals to respond to stresses imposed by the mammalian lung is poorly understood. In this work, A. fumigatus strains derived from the clinical isolate CEA10, and a non-homologous recombination mutant ΔakuBKU80, were engineered to express the bioluminescent Ca2+-reporter aequorin. An aequorin-mediated method for routine Ca2+ measurements during the early stages of colony initiation was successfully developed and dynamic changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]c in response to extracellular stimuli were measured. The response to extracellular challenges (hypo- and hyper-osmotic shock, mechanical perturbation, high extracellular Ca2+, oxidative stress or exposure to human serum that the fungus might be exposed to during infection, were analysed in living conidial germlings. The 'signatures' of the transient [Ca2+]c responses to extracellular stimuli were found to be dose- and age-dependent. Moreover, Ca2+-signatures associated with each physico-chemical treatment were found to be unique, suggesting the involvement of heterogeneous combinations of Ca2+-signalling components in each stress response. Concordant with the involvement of Ca2+-calmodulin complexes in these Ca2+-mediated responses, the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP induced changes in the Ca2+-signatures to all the challenges. The Ca2+-chelator BAPTA potently inhibited the initial responses to most stressors in accordance with a critical role for extracellular Ca2+ in initiating the stress responses.

  9. Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation and strontium coprecipitation in a porous media flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchnor, Ellen G; Schultz, Logan N; Bugni, Steven; Mitchell, Andrew C; Cunningham, Alfred B; Gerlach, Robin

    2013-02-05

    Strontium-90 is a principal radionuclide contaminant in the subsurface at several Department of Energy sites in the Western U.S., causing a threat to groundwater quality in areas such as Hanford, WA. In this work, we used laboratory-scale porous media flow cells to examine a potential remediation strategy employing coprecipitation of strontium in carbonate minerals. CaCO(3) precipitation and strontium coprecipitation were induced via ureolysis by Sporosarcina pasteurii in two-dimensional porous media reactors. An injection strategy using pulsed injection of calcium mineralization medium was tested against a continuous injection strategy. The pulsed injection strategy involved periods of lowered calcite saturation index combined with short high fluid velocity flow periods of calcium mineralization medium followed by stagnation (no-flow) periods to promote homogeneous CaCO(3) precipitation. By alternating the addition of mineralization and growth media the pulsed strategy promoted CaCO(3) precipitation while sustaining the ureolytic culture over time. Both injection strategies achieved ureolysis with subsequent CaCO(3) precipitation and strontium coprecipitation. The pulsed injection strategy precipitated 71-85% of calcium and 59% of strontium, while the continuous injection was less efficient and precipitated 61% of calcium and 56% of strontium. Over the 60 day operation of the pulsed reactors, ureolysis was continually observed, suggesting that the balance between growth and precipitation phases allowed for continued cell viability. Our results support the pulsed injection strategy as a viable option for ureolysis-induced strontium coprecipitation because it may reduce the likelihood of injection well accumulation caused by localized mineral plugging while Sr coprecipitation efficiency is maintained in field-scale applications.

  10. Tetracycline inducible gene manipulation in serotonergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT neuronal system has important and diverse physiological functions throughout development and adulthood. Its dysregulation during development or later in adulthood has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic animal models designed to study the contribution of serotonergic susceptibility genes to a pathological phenotype should ideally allow to study candidate gene overexpression or gene knockout selectively in serotonergic neurons at any desired time during life. For this purpose, conditional expression systems such as the tet-system are preferable. Here, we generated a transactivator (tTA mouse line (TPH2-tTA that allows temporal and spatial control of tetracycline (Ptet controlled transgene expression as well as gene deletion in 5-HT neurons. The tTA cDNA was inserted into a 196 kb PAC containing a genomic mouse Tph2 fragment (177 kb by homologous recombination in E. coli. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled transgene expression, TPH2-tTA mice were crossed to a Ptet-regulated lacZ reporter line (Ptet-nLacZ. In adult double-transgenic TPH2-tTA/Ptet-nLacZ mice, TPH2-tTA founder line L62-20 showed strong serotonergic β-galactosidase expression which could be completely suppressed with doxycycline (Dox. Furthermore, Ptet-regulated gene expression could be reversibly activated or inactivated when Dox was either withdrawn or added to the system. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled, Cre-mediated gene deletion, TPH2-tTA mice (L62-20 were crossed to double transgenic Ptet-Cre/R26R reporter mice to generate TPH2-tTA/Ptet-Cre/R26R mice. Without Dox, 5-HT specific recombination started at E12.5. With permanent Dox administration, Ptet-controlled Cre-mediated recombination was absent. Dox withdrawal either postnatally or during adulthood induced efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons of all raphe nuclei, respectively. In the enteric nervous system, recombination could not be detected. We

  11. Dissecting the calcium-induced differentiation of human primary keratinocytes stem cells by integrative and structural network analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Toufighi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular details underlying the time-dependent assembly of protein complexes in cellular networks, such as those that occur during differentiation, are largely unexplored. Focusing on the calcium-induced differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as a model system for a major cellular reorganization process, we look at the expression of genes whose products are involved in manually-annotated protein complexes. Clustering analyses revealed only moderate co-expression of functionally related proteins during differentiation. However, when we looked at protein complexes, we found that the majority (55% are composed of non-dynamic and dynamic gene products ('di-chromatic', 19% are non-dynamic, and 26% only dynamic. Considering three-dimensional protein structures to predict steric interactions, we found that proteins encoded by dynamic genes frequently interact with a common non-dynamic protein in a mutually exclusive fashion. This suggests that during differentiation, complex assemblies may also change through variation in the abundance of proteins that compete for binding to common proteins as found in some cases for paralogous proteins. Considering the example of the TNF-α/NFκB signaling complex, we suggest that the same core complex can guide signals into diverse context-specific outputs by addition of time specific expressed subunits, while keeping other cellular functions constant. Thus, our analysis provides evidence that complex assembly with stable core components and competition could contribute to cell differentiation.

  12. Dissecting the Calcium-Induced Differentiation of Human Primary Keratinocytes Stem Cells by Integrative and Structural Network Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufighi, Kiana; Yang, Jae-Seong; Luis, Nuno Miguel; Aznar Benitah, Salvador; Lehner, Ben; Serrano, Luis; Kiel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The molecular details underlying the time-dependent assembly of protein complexes in cellular networks, such as those that occur during differentiation, are largely unexplored. Focusing on the calcium-induced differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as a model system for a major cellular reorganization process, we look at the expression of genes whose products are involved in manually-annotated protein complexes. Clustering analyses revealed only moderate co-expression of functionally related proteins during differentiation. However, when we looked at protein complexes, we found that the majority (55%) are composed of non-dynamic and dynamic gene products (‘di-chromatic’), 19% are non-dynamic, and 26% only dynamic. Considering three-dimensional protein structures to predict steric interactions, we found that proteins encoded by dynamic genes frequently interact with a common non-dynamic protein in a mutually exclusive fashion. This suggests that during differentiation, complex assemblies may also change through variation in the abundance of proteins that compete for binding to common proteins as found in some cases for paralogous proteins. Considering the example of the TNF-α/NFκB signaling complex, we suggest that the same core complex can guide signals into diverse context-specific outputs by addition of time specific expressed subunits, while keeping other cellular functions constant. Thus, our analysis provides evidence that complex assembly with stable core components and competition could contribute to cell differentiation. PMID:25946651

  13. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kile, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10/sup 5//well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca/sup + +/ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca/sup + +/-free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/. Both GnRH-stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect /sup 45/Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE/sub 2/ and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca/sup + +/ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca/sup + +/ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca/sup + +/ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release.

  14. Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.

    Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high

  15. MED resulting from recessively inherited mutations in the gene encoding calcium-activated nucleotidase CANT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthika; Li, Bing; Krakow, Deborah; Nevarez, Lisette; Ho, Patric J; Ainsworth, Julia A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Immken, LaDonna; Lachman, Ralph S; Cohn, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED) is a relatively mild skeletal dysplasia characterized by mild short stature, joint pain, and early-onset osteoarthropathy. Dominantly inherited mutations in COMP, MATN3, COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3, and recessively inherited mutations in SLC26A2, account for the molecular basis of disease in about 80-85% of the cases. In two families with recurrent MED of an unknown molecular basis, we used exome sequencing and candidate gene analysis to identify homozygosity for recessively inherited missense mutations in CANT1, which encodes calcium-activated nucleotidase 1. The MED phenotype is thus allelic to the more severe Desbuquois dysplasia phenotype and the results identify CANT1 as a second locus for recessively inherited MED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  17. Photolysis of caged calcium in cilia induces ciliary reversal in Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2003-04-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration controls both the pattern and frequency of ciliary and flagellar beating in eukaryotes. In Paramecium, it is widely accepted that the reversal of the direction of ciliary beating (ciliary reversal) is induced by an increase in intra-ciliary Ca(2+) levels. Despite this, the Ca(2+)-sensitive region of the cilium that initiates ciliary reversal has not been clearly identified. We injected caged calcium into living P. caudatum cells and applied ultraviolet (UV) light to portions of the injected cells to raise artificially the intracellular Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)](i)). UV application to the upper ciliary region above the basal body induced ciliary reversal in injected cells. Furthermore, UV application to the tips of cilia induced weak ciliary reversal. Larger areas of photolysis in the cilium gave rise to greater angles of ciliary reversal. These results strongly suggest that the Ca(2+)-sensitive region for ciliary reversal is distributed all over the cilium, above the basal body.

  18. Calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are encoded by duplicate slo1 genes in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, Kevin N; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2009-07-01

    Calcium-activated, large conductance potassium (BK) channels in tetrapods are encoded by a single slo1 gene, which undergoes extensive alternative splicing. Alternative splicing generates a high level of functional diversity in BK channels that contributes to the wide range of frequencies electrically tuned by the inner ear hair cells of many tetrapods. To date, the role of BK channels in hearing among teleost fishes has not been investigated at the molecular level, although teleosts account for approximately half of all extant vertebrate species. We identified slo1 genes in teleost and nonteleost fishes using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence databases. In contrast to tetrapods, all teleosts examined were found to express duplicate slo1 genes in the central nervous system, whereas nonteleosts that diverged prior to the teleost whole-genome duplication event express a single slo1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses further revealed that whereas other slo1 duplicates were the result of a single duplication event, an independent duplication occurred in a basal teleost (Anguilla rostrata) following the slo1 duplication in teleosts. A third, independent slo1 duplication (autotetraploidization) occurred in salmonids. Comparison of teleost slo1 genomic sequences to their tetrapod orthologue revealed a reduced number of alternative splice sites in both slo1 co-orthologues. For the teleost Porichthys notatus, a focal study species that vocalizes with maximal spectral energy in the range electrically tuned by BK channels in the inner ear, peripheral tissues show the expression of either one (e.g., vocal muscle) or both (e.g., inner ear) slo1 paralogues with important implications for both auditory and vocal physiology. Additional loss of expression of one slo1 paralogue in nonneural tissues in P. notatus suggests that slo1 duplicates were retained via subfunctionalization. Together, the results predict that teleost fish achieve a diversity of BK channel subfunction via

  19. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully...

  20. Cadmium Induces Apoptosis in Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense through Activating Calcium Signal Transduction Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiang Wang

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is one of the key intracellular signals, which is implicated in the regulation of cell functions such as impregnation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Cadmium (Cd is a toxic environmental pollutant that can disturb cell functions and even lead to cell death. Recently, we have found that Cd induced apoptosis in gill cells of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense via caspase activation. In the present study, we further investigated the role of calcium signaling in the Cd-induced apoptosis in the animals. Our data showed that Cd triggered gill cell apoptosis which is evidenced by apoptotic DNA fragmentation, activations of caspases-3, -8 and -9 and the presence of apoptotic morphological features. Moreover, Cd elevated the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, the protein concentration of calmodulin (CaM and the activity of Ca2+-ATPase in the gill cells of the crabs. Pretreatment of the animals with ethylene glycol-bis-(b-aminoethyl ether-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca2+ chelator, inhibited Cd-induced activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 as well as blocked the Cd-triggered apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic morphological features were no longer observed in gill cells pretreated with the Ca2+ signaling inhibitors before Cd treatment. Our results indicate that Cd evokes gill cell apoptosis through activating Ca2+-CaM signaling transduction pathway.

  1. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inducible gene expression systems and plant biotechnology.

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    Corrado, Giandomenico; Karali, Marianthi

    2009-01-01

    Plant biotechnology relies heavily on the genetic manipulation of crops. Almost invariantly, the gene of interest is expressed in a constitutive fashion, although this may not be strictly necessary for several applications. Currently, there are several regulatable expression systems for the temporal, spatial and quantitative control of transgene activity. These molecular switches are based on components derived from different organisms, which range from viruses to higher eukaryotes. Many inducible systems have been designed for fundamental and applied research and since their initial development, they have become increasingly popular in plant molecular biology. This review covers a broad number of inducible expression systems examining their properties and relevance for plant biotechnology in its various guises, from molecular breeding to pharmaceutical and industrial applications. For each system, we examine some advantages and limitations, also in relation to the strategy on which they rely. Besides being necessary to control useful genes that may negatively affect crop yield and quality, we discuss that inducible systems can be also used to increase public acceptance of GMOs, reducing some of the most common concerns. Finally, we suggest some directions and future developments for their further diffusion in agriculture and biotechnology.

  3. Kainic acid-induced seizures and brain damage in the rat: role of calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Michael; Bruhn, Torben; Frandsen, Aa.

    1995-01-01

    Kainic acid, neorutoxicity, limbic seizures, calcium, protection, Dantrolene, Nimodipine, neuropathology......Kainic acid, neorutoxicity, limbic seizures, calcium, protection, Dantrolene, Nimodipine, neuropathology...

  4. Histamine release induced from rat mast cells by the ionophore A23187 in the absence of extracellular calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1980-01-01

    Isolated rat mast cells were used to study whether ionophore A23187 could induce histamine release by mobilizing cellular calcium. The histamine release was a slow process which was completed after about 20 min incubation with A23187. The A23187-induced histamine release was inhibited after...

  5. Mechanism of histamine release from rat mast cells induced by the ionophore A23187: effects of calcium and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1978-01-01

    1 The mechanism of histamine release from a pure population of rat mast cells induced by the lipid soluble antibiotic, A23187, has been studied and compared with data for anaphylactic histamine release reported in the literature. 2 Histamine release induced by A23187 in the presence of calcium 10...

  6. Virus-induced gene silencing of Mlo genes induces powdery mildew resistance in Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várallyay, Eva; Giczey, Gábor; Burgyán, József

    2012-07-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most important cereal diseases worldwide. Genetic analysis has revealed that mutant alleles of the Mlo gene cause broad-spectrum resistance against this pathogen in barley. In this study, the possibility of inducing broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance against this pathogen by RNAi of the barley Mlo ortholog in wheat was examined using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A clear correlation was found between resistance and accumulation of Mlo-specific siRNAs, raising the possibility of designing powdery mildew resistance in wheat by RNA silencing using both transgenic and non-transgenic approaches.

  7. Influence of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressings on the prognosis of teeth with endodontically induced periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiger, R; Rosendahl, R; Löst, C

    2000-05-01

    This prospective clinical study explored the influence of calcium hydroxide as an interappointment dressing on the healing of periapical lesions associated with pulpless teeth that had not been endodontically treated previously. This was achieved by comparing the prognosis after a two-visit root canal treatment with that following a one-visit treatment. Seventy-three patients were recruited having one tooth with an endodontically induced lesion. Of these patients, 67 could be re-examined. Calcium hydroxide was placed in the instrumented root canals of 31 teeth for at least one week and the treatment finished at the second visit. Thirty-six teeth were root canal treated at one visit. The criteria for success were the absence of signs and symptoms indicating an acute phase of periapical periodontitis and radiographically a periodontal ligament space of normal width. Methods for event time analysis were used to evaluate and compare the prognosis of both treatment approaches. The probability that complete periapical healing will take place increased continuously with the length of the observation period. In both treatment groups the likelihood that the root canal treatment yields a success within an observation time of five years exceeded 90%. A statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups could not be detected. From a microbiological perspective, one-visit root canal treatment created favourable environmental conditions for periapical repair similar to the two-visit therapy when calcium hydroxide was used as antimicrobial dressing. One-visit root canal treatment is an acceptable alternative to two-visit treatment for pulpless teeth associated with an endodontically induced lesion.

  8. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behavioral...... actions of ghrelin could be mediated by direct cellular actions within this nucleus. Consistent with this interpretation, postsynaptically mediated depolarizing membrane actions of ghrelin on LDT neurons have been reported. Direct actions were ascribed solely to closure of a potassium conductance however...... this peptide has been shown in other cell types to lead to rises in calcium via release of calcium from intracellular stores. To determine whether ghrelin induced intracellular calcium rises in mouse LDT neurons, we conducted calcium imaging studies in LDT brain slices loaded with the calcium binding dye, Fura...

  9. Control of IsAHP in mouse hippocampus CA1 pyramidal neurons by RyR3-mediated calcium-induced calcium release.

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    van de Vrede, Y; Fossier, P; Baux, G; Joels, M; Chameau, P

    2007-11-01

    In several neuronal preparations, the ryanodine-sensitive calcium store was reported to participate in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization currents (IsAHP) involved in spike frequency adaptation. We show that calcium release from the ryanodine-sensitive calcium store is a major determinant of the triggering of IsAHP in mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings in hippocampus slices show that the intracellular calcium stores depletion using an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (5 microM cyclopiazonic acid), as well as the specific blockade of ryanodine receptors (100 microM ryanodine) both reduced the IsAHP by about 70%. Immunohistology, using an anti-RyR3 specific antibody, indicates that RyR3 expression is particularly enriched in the CA1 apical dendrites (considered as the most important site for sAHP generation). We show that our anti-RyR3 antibody acts as a functional RyR3 antagonist and induced a reduction in IsAHP by about 70%. The additional ryanodine application (100 micro M) did not further affect IsAHP, thus excluding RyR2 in IsAHP activation. Our results argue in favor of a specialized function of RyR3 in CA1 pyramidal cells in triggering IsAHP due to their localization in the apical dendrite.

  10. Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Maruyama

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca(2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami.

  11. Sources of calcium in agonist-induced contraction of rat distal colon smooth muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Kong, De-Hu; Pan, Qun-Wan; Wang, Hai-Hua

    2008-02-21

    To study the origin of calcium necessary for agonist-induced contraction of the distal colon in rats. The change in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) evoked by elevating external Ca2+ was detected by fura 2/AM fluorescence. Contractile activity was measured with a force displacement transducer. Tension was continuously monitored and recorded using a Powerlab 4/25T data acquisition system with an ML110 bridge bioelectric physiographic amplifier. Store depletion induced Ca2+ influx had an effect on [Ca2+]i. In nominally Ca2+-free medium, the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 mumol/L) increased [Ca2+]i from 68 to 241 nmol/L, and to 458 (P source of activator Ca2+ for the contractile response to agonist is extracellular Ca2+, and intracellular Ca2+ has little role to play in mediating excitation-contraction coupling by agonists in rat distal colon smooth muscle in vitro. The influx of extracellular Ca2+ is mainly mediated through voltage-, receptor- and store-operated Ca2+ channels, which can be used as an alternative to develop new drugs targeted on the dysfunction of digestive tract motility.

  12. Castration prevents calcium channel blocker-induced gingival hyperplasia in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, D; Kozlovsky, A; Tal, H; Kariv, N; Shemesh, M; Nyska, A

    1998-07-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate testosterone's role on the calcium channel antagonist oxodipine-inducing gingival hyperplasia in a dog model. 2. Two experiments were conducted using castrated and intact male dogs. Oxodipine was administered orally for 90 days, at a dose of 24 mg/kg/day. In the first experiment, the occurrence of gingival hyperplasia was evaluated. In the second, the gingival index (GI) and gingival hyperplasia index (GHI) were recorded and correlated with serum levels of testosterone. 3. A significant positive correlation between GI, GHI and plasma testosterone was noted. Castrated dogs were injected with testosterone, 4 months after the start of oxodipine treatment, while in the non-castrated dogs, administration of oxodipine was stopped. Castration correlated with lack of GH, while testosterone injection to the same dogs was associated with an increase of GI and GHI. 4. Since it is known that testosterone receptors are present in the gingiva, it is proposed that oxodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia could be mediated by the calcium channel blocker on plasma testosterone levels.

  13. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the Cmax value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their Tmax values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:29302210

  14. Inhibitors of arachidonate-regulated calcium channel signaling suppress triggered activity induced by the late sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Paul; Umeda, Patrick K; Sharifov, Oleg F; White, C Roger; Huang, Jian; Mahtani, Harry; Urthaler, Ferdinand

    2014-02-05

    Disturbances in myocyte calcium homeostasis are hypothesized to be one cause for cardiac arrhythmia. The full development of this hypothesis requires (i) the identification of all sources of arrhythmogenic calcium and (ii) an understanding of the mechanism(s) through which calcium initiates arrhythmia. To these ends we superfused rat left atria with the late sodium current activator type II Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATXII). This toxin prolonged atrial action potentials, induced early afterdepolarization, and provoked triggered activity. The calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 (N-[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulphon-amide) suppressed ATXII triggered activity but its inactive congener KN-92 (2-[N-(4-methoxy benzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine) did not. Neither drug affected normal atrial contractility. Calcium entry via L-type channels or calcium leakage from sarcoplasmic reticulum stores are not critical for this type of ectopy as neither verapamil ((RS)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-(methyl)amino}-2-prop-2-ylpentanenitrile) nor ryanodine affected ATXII triggered activity. By contrast, inhibitors of the voltage independent arachidonate-regulated calcium (ARC) channel and the store-operated calcium channel specifically suppressed ATXII triggered activity without normalizing action potentials or affecting atrial contractility. Inhibitors of cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 also suppressed triggered activity suggesting that this lipase, which generates free arachidonate, plays a key role in ATXII ectopy. Thus, increased left atrial late sodium current appears to activate atrial Orai-linked ARC and store operated calcium channels, and these voltage-independent channels may be unexpected sources for the arrhythmogenic calcium that underlies triggered activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenge; Pacella, Michael S.; Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Nelea, Valentin; Vali, Hojatollah; Hazen, Robert M.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; McKee, Marc D.

    2017-04-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a `right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas `left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality. Nanoparticle tilting after binding of chiral amino acids is proposed as a chiral growth mechanism, where a `mother' subunit nanoparticle spawns a slightly tilted, consequential `daughter' nanoparticle, which by amplification over various length scales creates oriented mineral platelets and chiral vaterite suprastructures. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for how biomineralization-related enantiomers might exert hierarchical control to form extended chiral suprastructures.

  16. Urea-induced denaturation of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: a combined spectroscopic and MD simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Huma; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Haque, Md Anzarul; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2017-02-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is a multifunctional enzyme which belongs to the Ser/Thr kinase family. CaMKIV plays important role in varieties of biological processes such as gene expression regulation, memory consolidation, bone growth, T-cell maturation, sperm motility, regulation of microtubule dynamics, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis. To measure stability parameters, urea-induced denaturation of CaMKIV was carried out at pH 7.4 and 25°C, using three different probes, namely far-UV CD, near-UV absorption, and tryptophan fluorescence. A coincidence of normalized denaturation curves of these optical properties suggests that urea-induced denaturation is a two-state process. Analysis of these denaturation curves gave values of 4.20 ± 0.12 kcal mol-1, 2.95 ± 0.15 M, and 1.42 ± 0.06 kcal mol-1 M-1 for [Formula: see text] (Gibbs free energy change (ΔGD) in the absence of urea), Cm (molar urea concentration ([urea]) at the midpoint of the denaturation curve), and m (=∂ΔGD/∂[urea]), respectively. All these experimental observations have been fully supported by 30 ns molecular dynamics simulation studies.

  17. Study on radiation-inducible genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho; Joe, Min Ho; Song, Hyu Npa

    2012-01-15

    Transcription of previously identified radiation-inducible genes, uscA and cyoA, was examined responding to radiation. The putative promoter regions of both genes were cloned into pRS415 vector containing lacZ, and the core promoter region necessary for radiation response were determined through promoter deletion method. To investigate the role of uscA, which is assumed to be small RNA related with radiation response, a deletion mutant strain of uscA was constructed. However, uscA deletion did not affect bacterial survival against radiation exposure. The use of bacteria as anticancer agents has attracted interest. In this study, we tried to develop tumor targeting bacteria in which the radiation-inducible promoter activate a transgene encoding a cytotoxic protein. For outward secretion of anticancer protein produced inside bacteria, the N-terminal 140 amino acid of SspH1 was found to function as a secretion signal peptide. To create an attenuated tumor-targeting bacteria, Salmonella ptsI mutant strain was constructed, and we found that its virulence decreased. Finally, the tumor-targeting ability of ptsI mutant was verified by the use of in-vivo imaging analysis.

  18. Basic FGF enhances calcium permeable channel openings in adult rat cardiac myocytes: implication in the bFGF-induced increase of free Ca2+ content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, P L; Usson, Y; Robert-Nicoud, M; Verdetti, J

    1997-10-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been implicated in the changes in gene expression that, under pathological conditions such as ischemia or volume overload, lead to adult cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In many tissues, one of the first events following cell activation by growth factors is an enhancement of the intracellular free calcium concentration, generated by fluxes from internal storage compartments and through channels of the plasma membrane. The present study was undertaken to determine whether cardiac myocytes isolated from adult rat ventricles express Ca2+-permeable channels activated by bFGF. Using the cell-attached mode of the patch-clamp technique, we observed that bFGF (from 0.1-10 nM) induced an increase of fast burst openings, mediated by Ca2+-permeable channels with low conductance (15 pS) and voltage-independence. Inside-out patch-clamp experiments revealed that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (5 microM) enhanced the opening of Ca2+-permeable channels with similar properties as the bFGF-induced channels, indicating that IP3 may be a second messenger of this process. Confocal fluorescence imaging of intracellular free calcium provided direct evidence that bFGF induced an increase of cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations which were generated, in part, by Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane. In conclusion, this study supports the presence, in the plasma membrane of adult cardiac myocytes, of messenger-activated calcium channels which could play key roles in the calcium-dependent pathways that are activated in response to growth factors. Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  19. Genome-wide survey indicates diverse physiological roles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) calcium-dependent protein kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Wang, Qiuli; Chen, Qian; Yin, Xin; Qian, Min; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2017-07-13

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are crucial calcium sensors that play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and developmental processes, as well as protective responses to environmental stress. Here, we identified 28 CDPK genes from barley and cloned 5 new, full-length CDPK genes, MLOC_58648a, MLOC_19618a, MLOC_71733a, AK249361a and MLOC_4965a, using their expressed sequence tags. Phylogenetic and gene structural analyses revealed that the CDPK could be divided into four subgroups. Significant site-specific altered constraints and a high evolutionary rate may have contributed to the functional divergences among CDPK gene subfamilies. Expression profiles of different tissues and developmental stages suggested that several CDPK genes are involved in the functional development of plants. Different expression levels under a variety of abiotic stresses also indicated that the CDPK family underwent functional divergence during long-term evolution. Furthermore, several CDPK genes responded to single treatments and individual CDPK genes responded to multiple treatments, suggesting that barley CDPKs may be involved in mediating cross-talk among different signalling pathways. Our data provide an important foundation for the functional and evolutionary analyses of this important gene family in barley.

  20. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  1. Cholinergic intrapancreatic neurons induce Ca²+ signaling and early-response gene expression in pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D J; cowles, R A; Segura, B J; Romanchuk, G; Barnhart, D C; Mulholland, M W

    2000-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine function has been demonstrated to be under neuronal regulation. The pathways responsible for this effect, and the long-term consequences of such interactions, are incompletely described. The effects of neuronal depolarization on pancreatic acinar cells were studied to determine whether calcium signaling and c-fos expression were activated. In pancreatic lobules, which contain both neurons and acinar cells, agonists that selectively stimulated neurons increased intracellular calcium in acinar cells. Depolarization also led to the expression of c-fos protein in 24% +/- 4% of the acinar cells. In AR42J pancreatic acinar cells, cholinergic stimulation demonstrated an average increase of 398 +/- 19 nmol/L in intracellular calcium levels, and induced c-fos expression that was time and dose dependent. The data indicate that intrapancreatic neurons induce Ca²+ signaling and early-response gene expression in pancreatic acinar cells.

  2. Arginine induces GH gene expression by activating NOS/NO signaling in rat isolated hemi-pituitaries

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    Olinto, S.C.F. [Faculdade de Ciências Integradas do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil); Adrião, M.G. [Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Castro-Barbosa, T.; Goulart-Silva, F.; Nunes, M.T. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The amino acid arginine (Arg) is a recognized secretagogue of growth hormone (GH), and has been shown to induce GH gene expression. Arg is the natural precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is known to mediate many of the effects of Arg, such as GH secretion. Arg was also shown to increase calcium influx in pituitary cells, which might contribute to its effects on GH secretion. Although the mechanisms involved in the effects of Arg on GH secretion are well established, little is known about them regarding the control of GH gene expression. We investigated whether the NO pathway and/or calcium are involved in the effects of Arg on GH gene expression in rat isolated pituitaries. To this end, pituitaries from approximately 170 male Wistar rats (∼250 g) were removed, divided into two halves, pooled (three hemi-pituitaries) and incubated or not with Arg, as well as with different pharmacological agents. Arg (71 mM), the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 and 0.1 mM) and a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) analogue (8-Br-cGMP, 1 mM) increased GH mRNA expression 60 min later. The NO acceptor hemoglobin (0.3 µM) blunted the effect of SNP, and the combined treatment with Arg and L-NAME (an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 55 mM) abolished the stimulatory effect of Arg on GH gene expression. The calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine (3 µM) also abolished Arg-induced GH gene expression. The present study shows that Arg directly induces GH gene expression in hemi-pituitaries isolated from rats, excluding interference from somatostatinergic neurons, which are supposed to be inhibited by Arg. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the NOS/NO signaling pathway and calcium mediate the Arg effects on GH gene expression.

  3. Sulfhydryl modification induces calcium entry through IP₃-sensitive store-operated pathway in activation-dependent human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiting Pan

    Full Text Available As the first line of host defense, neutrophils are stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines from resting state, facilitating the execution of immunomodulatory functions in activation state. Sulfhydryl modification has a regulatory role in a wide variety of physiological functions through mediation of signaling transductions in various cell types. Recent research suggested that two kinds of sulfhydryl modification, S-nitrosylation by exogenous nitric oxide (NO and alkylation by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, could induce calcium entry through a non-store-operated pathway in resting rat neutrophils and DDT₁MF-2 cells, while in active human neutrophils a different process has been observed by us. In the present work, data showed that NEM induced a sharp rising of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca²⁺](c without external calcium, followed by a second [Ca²⁺](c increase with readdition of external calcium in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-activated human neutrophils. Meanwhile, addition of external calcium did not cause [Ca²⁺](c change of Ca²⁺-free PMA-activated neutrophils before application of NEM. These data indicated that NEM could induce believable store-operated calcium entry (SOCE in PMA-activated neutrophils. Besides, we found that sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a donor of exogenous NO, resulted in believable SOCE in PMA-activated human neutrophils via S-nitrosylation modification. In contrast, NEM and SNP have no effect on [Ca²⁺](c of resting neutrophils which were performed in suspension. Furthermore, 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a reliable blocker of SOCE and an inhibitor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP₃ receptor, evidently abolished SNP and NEM-induced calcium entry at 75 µM, while preventing calcium release in a concentration-dependent manner. Considered together, these results demonstrated that NEM and SNP induced calcium entry through an IP₃-sensitive store-operated pathway of human neutrophils via sulfhydryl

  4. Identification and characterization of calcium sparks in cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Qin Zhang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ca2+ spark constitutes the elementary units of cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C coupling in mature cardiomyocytes. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes are known to have electrophysiological properties similar to mature adult cardiomyocytes. However, it is unclear if they share similar calcium handling property. We hypothesized that Ca2+ sparks in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs may display unique structural and functional properties than mature adult cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ca2+ sparks in hiPSC-CMs were recorded with Ca2+ imaging assay with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Those sparks were stochastic with a tendency of repetitive occurrence at the same site. Nevertheless, the spatial-temporal properties of Ca2+ spark were analogous to that of adult CMs. Inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels by nifedipine caused a 61% reduction in calcium spark frequency without affecting amplitude of those sparks and magnitude of caffeine releasable sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca2+ content. In contrast, high extracellular Ca2+ and ryanodine increased the frequency, full width at half maximum (FWHM and full duration at half maximum (FDHM of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, spontaneous Ca2+ sparks were detected in hiPSC-CMs. The Ca2+ sparks are predominately triggered by L-type Ca2+ channels mediated Ca2+ influx, which is comparable to sparks detected in adult ventricular myocytes in which cardiac E-C coupling was governed by a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR mechanism. However, focal repetitive sparks originated from the same intracellular organelle could reflect an immature status of the hiPSC-CMs.

  5. The effect of hydroxybenzoate calcium compounds in inducing cell death in epithelial breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M Merghani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxybenzoate (HB compounds have shown their significance in inducing apoptosis in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and cancer cell lines, including HT-1080. The current study focuses on assessing the effects of 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoate calcium (HBCa compounds on MCF-10A, MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 epithelial breast cell lines. The HBCa-treated cells were examined using annexin V, to measure apoptosis in the three epithelial breast cell lines, after 48 h of treatment. The results indicated that 0.5 and 2.5 mmol/L of HBCa induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The induction of cell death in normal MCF-10A cells was found to be significantly less (p = 0.0003–0.0068, in comparison to the malignant cell lines (MDA-MB231 and MCF-7. HBCa compounds were also found to cause cell cycle arrest in the epithelial breast cells at G1/G0. Furthermore, HBCa compounds induced the upregulation of apoptotic proteins (p53, p21, Bax and caspase-3, as well as the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which may suggest that apoptosis is induced via the intrinsic pathway.

  6. Comparative study the expression of calcium cycling genes in Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus and beltfish (Trichiurus lepturus with different swimming activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contraction and relaxation events of the muscle is mediated by the coordination of many important calcium cycling proteins of ryanodine receptor (RYR, troponin C (TNNC, parvalbumin (PVALB, sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (SERCA and calsequestrin (CASQ. In higher vertebrates, the expression level of calcium cycling proteins are positively correlated to the muscle contraction/relaxation ability of the cell. In this study, we used RNAseq to explore the expression profile of calcium cycling genes between two marine fish of Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus and beltfish (Trichiurus lepturus with poor and robust swimming activities, respectively. We have studied the hypothesis whether the expression level of calcium cycling proteins are also positive correlated to swimming ability in fish. We used Illumina sequencing technology (NextSeq500 to sequence, assemble and annotate the muscle transcriptome of Bombay duck for the first time. A total of 47,752,240 cleaned reads (deposited in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1706379 were obtained from RNA sequencing and 26,288 unigenes (with N50 of 486 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. BLASTX against NR, GO, KEGG and eggNOG databases show 100%, 65%, 26%, 94% and 88% annotation rate, respectively. Comparison of the dominantly expressed unigenes in fish muscle shows calcium cycling gene expression in beltfish (SRX1674471 is 1.4- to 51.6-fold higher than Bombay duck. Among five calcium cycling genes, the fold change results are very significant in CASQ (51.6 fold and PVALB (9.1 fold and both of them are responsive for calcium binding to reduce free calcium concentration in the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. In conclusion, we confirmed that the high abundant expression rate of calcium cycling genes in robust swimming fish species. The current muscle transcriptome and identified calcium cycling gene data can provide more insights into the

  7. Comparative study the expression of calcium cycling genes in Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus) and beltfish (Trichiurus lepturus) with different swimming activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Audira, Gilbert; Li, Yuan; Xian, Weiwei; Varikkodan, Muhammed Muhsin; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2017-06-01

    The contraction and relaxation events of the muscle is mediated by the coordination of many important calcium cycling proteins of ryanodine receptor (RYR), troponin C (TNNC), parvalbumin (PVALB), sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (SERCA) and calsequestrin (CASQ). In higher vertebrates, the expression level of calcium cycling proteins are positively correlated to the muscle contraction/relaxation ability of the cell. In this study, we used RNAseq to explore the expression profile of calcium cycling genes between two marine fish of Bombay duck ( Harpadon nehereus ) and beltfish ( Trichiurus lepturus ) with poor and robust swimming activities, respectively. We have studied the hypothesis whether the expression level of calcium cycling proteins are also positive correlated to swimming ability in fish. We used Illumina sequencing technology (NextSeq500) to sequence, assemble and annotate the muscle transcriptome of Bombay duck for the first time. A total of 47,752,240 cleaned reads (deposited in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1706379) were obtained from RNA sequencing and 26,288 unigenes (with N50 of 486 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. BLASTX against NR, GO, KEGG and eggNOG databases show 100%, 65%, 26%, 94% and 88% annotation rate, respectively. Comparison of the dominantly expressed unigenes in fish muscle shows calcium cycling gene expression in beltfish (SRX1674471) is 1.4- to 51.6-fold higher than Bombay duck. Among five calcium cycling genes, the fold change results are very significant in CASQ (51.6 fold) and PVALB (9.1 fold) and both of them are responsive for calcium binding to reduce free calcium concentration in the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. In conclusion, we confirmed that the high abundant expression rate of calcium cycling genes in robust swimming fish species. The current muscle transcriptome and identified calcium cycling gene data can provide more insights into the

  8. Effect of calcium hypochlorite and chloramine on blood biochemistry and sodium pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Sidra; Rasheed, Muhammad Adil; Ashraf, Muhammad; Altaf, Imran; Rehmat, Saima; Fatima, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals. To evaluate the enzyme inducing ability of calcium hypochlorite and chloramine, sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital was noted in mice. Normal saline was taken as negative control. Rifampicin, chloramphenicol and grapefruit juice were taken as positive control group. On completion of dosing after 4 weeks, alteration in sleep induction and recovery times was noted and compared. Histological evaluation of liver was observed. A significant decrease in sleeping time was observed in calcium hypochlorite and chloramine treated groups. Both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine caused a significant change in liver enzymes and in the values of complete blood count. In histological evaluation both caused fat deposition in the hepatocytes. It was concluded from the study that both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine were hepatic microsomal enzyme inducer.

  9. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D. (Byk Gulden Pharmaceuticals, Konstanz (Germany F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-({sup 3}H)isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity.

  10. Atlastin regulates store-operated calcium entry for nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yan, Bing; Si, Hongjiang; Peng, Xu; Zhang, Shenyuan L; Hu, Junjie

    2017-02-27

    Homotypic membrane fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by a class of dynamin-like GTPases known as atlastin (ATL). Depletion of or mutations in ATL cause an unbranched ER morphology and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by axon shortening in corticospinal motor neurons and progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. How ER shaping is linked to neuronal defects is poorly understood. Here, we show that dominant-negative mutants of ATL1 in PC-12 cells inhibit nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of wild-type or mutant ATL1 or depletion of ATLs alters ER morphology and affects store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) by decreasing STIM1 puncta formation near the plasma membrane upon calcium depletion of the ER. In addition, blockage of the STIM1-Orai pathway effectively abolishes neurite outgrowth of PC-12 cells stimulated by NGF. These results suggest that SOCE plays an important role in neuronal regeneration, and mutations in ATL1 may cause HSP, partly by undermining SOCE.

  11. A novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene in an Irish pedigree showing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elamin, Wael F

    2010-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymptomatic and non-progressive hypercalcemia due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene. Disorders of calcium metabolism are very common in the elderly, and they can coexist with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in affected families.

  12. Rapid insight into heating-induced phase transformations in the solid state of the calcium salt of atorvastatin using multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Kwok, Kaho

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin.......To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin....

  13. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion: Insights from Genetic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine; Dimke, Henrik; Eladari, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intravital imaging reveals p53-dependent cancer cell death induced by phototherapy via calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiroli, Sonia; Poletti, Federica; Ramirez, Fabian Galindo; Morciano, Giampaolo; Morganti, Claudia; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Mammano, Fabio; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in biology is signal transduction monitoring in a physiological context. Intravital imaging techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of tumor and host cell behaviors in the tumor environment. However, these deep tissue imaging techniques have not yet been adopted to investigate the second messenger calcium (Ca2+). In the present study, we established conditions that allow the in vivo detection of Ca2+ signaling in three-dimensional tumor masses in mouse models. By combining intravital imaging and a skinfold chamber technique, we determined the ability of photodynamic cancer therapy to induce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and, consequently, an increase in cell death in a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:25544762

  16. Polymorphisms in the calcium-sensing receptor gene are associated with clinical outcome of neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Masvidal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastic tumors include the neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas, and ganglioneuromas. Clinical behavior of these developmental malignancies varies from regression to aggressive growth with metastatic dissemination. Several clinical, histological, genetic, and biological features are associated with this diversity of clinical presentations. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a G-protein coupled receptor with a key role in calcium homeostasis. We have previously reported that it is expressed in benign, differentiated neuroblastic tumors, but silenced by genetic and epigenetic events in unfavorable neuroblastomas. We have now analyzed three functionally relevant polymorphisms clustered at the signal transduction region of the CaSR (rs1801725, rs1042636 and rs1801726 to assess if genetic variants producing a less active receptor are associated with more aggressive disease course. METHODS: Polymorphisms were analyzed in DNA samples from 65 patients using specific Taqman Genotyping Assays. RESULTS: Mildly inactivating variant rs1801725 was associated with clinical stage 4 (P = 0.002 and the histological subgroup of undifferentiated neuroblastomas (P = 0.046. Patients harboring this polymorphism had significantly lower overall (P = 0.022 and event-free survival (P = 0.01 rates than those who were homozygous for the most common allele among Caucasians. However, this single locus genotype was not independently associated with outcome in multivariate analyses. Conversely, the tri-locus haplotype TAC was independently associated with an increased risk of death in the entire cohort (Hazard Ratio = 2.45; 95% Confidence Interval [1.14-5.29]; P = 0.022 and also in patients diagnosed with neuroblastomas (Hazard Ratio = 2.74; 95% Confidence Interval [1.20-6.25]; P = 0.016. CONCLUSIONS: The TAC haplotype includes the moderately inactivating variant rs1801725 and absence of the gain-of-function rs1042636

  17. The effects of calcium on the expression of genes involved in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... etiolated tomato seedlings (Zhang et al., 2002), delays fruit ripening (Ferguson, 1984), flower senescence and flower abscission (Glenn et al., 1988). Calcium, in the form of calcium pectate, binds adjacent cells and acts as a type of cementing agent within cell walls. Cementing is presumed to occur when ...

  18. Prognostic relevance of a T-type calcium channels gene signature in solid tumours: A correlation ready for clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Lorenzo; Vivaldi, Caterina; Lin, Dong; Xue, Hui; Falcone, Alfredo; Wang, Yuzhuo; Crea, Francesco; Bootman, Martin D

    2017-01-01

    T-type calcium channels (TTCCs) mediate calcium influx across the cell membrane. TTCCs regulate numerous physiological processes including cardiac pacemaking and neuronal activity. In addition, they have been implicated in the proliferation, migration and differentiation of tumour tissues. Although the signalling events downstream of TTCC-mediated calcium influx are not fully elucidated, it is clear that variations in the expression of TTCCs promote tumour formation and hinder response to treatment. We examined the expression of TTCC genes (all three subtypes; CACNA-1G, CACNA-1H and CACNA-1I) and their prognostic value in three major solid tumours (i.e. gastric, lung and ovarian cancers) via a publicly accessible database. In gastric cancer, expression of all the CACNA genes was associated with overall survival (OS) among stage I-IV patients (all p<0.05). By combining the three potential biomarkers, a TTCC signature was developed, which retained a significant association with OS both in stage IV and stage I-III patients. In lung and ovarian cancer, association with OS was also significant when all tumour stages were considered, but was partly lost or inconclusive after splitting cases into localized and metastatic subsets. Alterations in CACNA gene expression are linked to tumour prognosis. Gastric cancer represents the most promising setting for further evaluation.

  19. Plasma Albumin Induces Cytosolic Calcium Oscilations and DNA Synthesis in Human Cultured Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Vega-Zelaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So far, a little is known about transition from normal to focal epileptic brain, although disruption in blood-brain barrier and albumin had recently involved. The main objective of this work is to characterize the response of cultured human astrocytes to plasma albumin, including induction of DNA synthesis. Cortical tissue was obtained from 9 patients operated from temporal lobe epilepsy. Astrocytes were cultured for 3-4 weeks and cytosolic calcium concentration (Ca2+c was measured. Bovine and human plasma albumin were used. We observed that low albumin concentration decreases Ca2+c, while higher concentration, induces increase in Ca2+c. It was shown that increase in Ca2+c was mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and released from internal stores. Increase in Ca2+c was reduced to 19% by blocking the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-βR receptor. Albumin induces DNA synthesis in a dose-response manner. Finally, induction of DNA synthesis can be partially blocked by heparin and block of TGF-β; however, the combination of both incompletely inhibits DNA synthesis. Therefore, results suggest that mechanisms other than Ca2+ signals and TGF-β receptor activation might induce DNA synthesis in a lesser degree. These results may be important to further understand the mechanisms involved in the transition from normal to focal epileptic brain.

  20. Allicin Induces Calcium and Mitochondrial Dysregulation Causing Necrotic Death in Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, María J; Benito-Peña, Elena; Jiménez-Antón, M Dolores; Cuevas, Laureano; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Alunda, José M

    2016-03-01

    Allicin has shown antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo. However the mechanism of action underlying its antiproliferative effect against Leishmania has been virtually unexplored. In this paper, we present the results obtained in L.infantum and a mechanistic basis is proposed. Exposure of the parasites to allicin led to high Ca2+ levels and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced production of ATP and elevation of cytosolic ROS. The incubation of the promastigotes with SYTOX Green revealed that decrease of ATP was not associated with plasma membrane permeabilization. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining indicated that allicin did not induce phospholipids exposure on the plasma membrane. Moreover, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and TUNEL analysis demonstrated that allicin did not provoke DNA fragmentation. Analysis of the cell cycle with PI staining showed that allicin induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. We conclude that allicin induces dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress, uncontrolled by the antioxidant defense of the cell, which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic catastrophe leading to cell necrosis and cell cycle arrest in the premitotic phase.

  1. Allicin Induces Calcium and Mitochondrial Dysregulation Causing Necrotic Death in Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Corral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allicin has shown antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo. However the mechanism of action underlying its antiproliferative effect against Leishmania has been virtually unexplored. In this paper, we present the results obtained in L.infantum and a mechanistic basis is proposed.Exposure of the parasites to allicin led to high Ca2+ levels and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS, collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced production of ATP and elevation of cytosolic ROS. The incubation of the promastigotes with SYTOX Green revealed that decrease of ATP was not associated with plasma membrane permeabilization. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI staining indicated that allicin did not induce phospholipids exposure on the plasma membrane. Moreover, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and TUNEL analysis demonstrated that allicin did not provoke DNA fragmentation. Analysis of the cell cycle with PI staining showed that allicin induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase.We conclude that allicin induces dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress, uncontrolled by the antioxidant defense of the cell, which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic catastrophe leading to cell necrosis and cell cycle arrest in the premitotic phase.

  2. DHA induces ER stress and growth arrest in human colon cancer cells: associations with cholesterol and calcium homeostasis *s⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Caroline Hild; Størvold, Gro Leite; Bremseth, Hilde; Follestad, Turid; Sand, Kristin; Mack, Merete; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Lundemo, Anne Gøril; Iversen, Jens Gustav; Krokan, Hans Einar; Schønberg, Svanhild Arentz

    2008-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are normal constituents of the diet, but have properties different from other fatty acids (e.g., through generation of signaling molecules). N-3 PUFAs reduce cancer cell growth, but no unified mechanism has been identified. We show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) causes extensive changes in gene expression patterns at mRNA level in the colon cancer cell line SW620. Early changes include unfolded protein response (UPR) and increased levels of phosphorylated eIF2α as verified at protein level. The latter is considered a hallmark of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and is abundantly present already after 3 h. It may coordinate many of the downstream changes observed, including signaling pathways for cell cycle arrest/apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, cholesterol metabolism, ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation. Also, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not oleic acid (OA), induced key mediators of ER stress and UPR at protein level. Accumulation of esterified cholesterol was not compensated for by increased total levels of cholesterol, and mRNAs for cholesterol biosynthesis as well as de novo synthesis of cholesterol were reduced. These results suggest that cytotoxic effects of DHA are associated with signaling pathways involving lipid metabolism and ER stress. PMID:18566476

  3. Abnormal Calcium Handling Properties Underlie Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Pathology in Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feng; Lee, Andrew S.; Liang, Ping; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Nguyen, Patricia K.; Wang, Li; Han, Leng; Yen, Michelle; Wang, Yongming; Sun, Ning; Abilez, Oscar J.; Hu, Shijun; Ebert, Antje D.; Navarrete, Enrique G.; Simmons, Chelsey S.; Wheeler, Matthew; Pruitt, Beth; Lewis, Richard; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Ashley, Euan A.; Bers, Donald M.; Robbins, Robert C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a prevalent hereditary cardiac disorder linked to arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. While the causes of HCM have been identified as genetic mutations in the cardiac sarcomere, the pathways by which sarcomeric mutations engender myocyte hypertrophy and electrophysiological abnormalities are not understood. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying HCM development, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from a ten-member family cohort carrying a hereditary HCM missense mutation (Arg663His) in the MYH7 gene. Diseased iPSC-CMs recapitulated numerous aspects of the HCM phenotype including cellular enlargement and contractile arrhythmia at the single-cell level. Calcium (Ca2+) imaging indicated dysregulation of Ca2+ cycling and elevation in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) are central mechanisms for disease pathogenesis. Pharmacological restoration of Ca2+ homeostasis prevented development of hypertrophy and electrophysiological irregularities. We anticipate that these findings will help elucidate the mechanisms underlying HCM development and identify novel therapies for the disease. PMID:23290139

  4. Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTA gene family during tomato fruit development and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tianbao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit ripening is a complicated development process affected by a variety of external and internal cues. It is well established that calcium treatment delays fruit ripening and senescence. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Results Previous studies have shown that calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTAs are important for modulation of disease resistance, cold sensitivity and wounding response in vegetative tissues. To study the possible roles of this gene family in fruit development and ripening, we cloned seven SR/CAMTAs, designated as SlSRs, from tomato, a model fruit-bearing crop. All seven genes encode polypeptides with a conserved DNA-binding domain and a calmodulin-binding site. Calmodulin specifically binds to the putative targeting site in a calcium-dependent manner. All SlSRs were highly yet differentially expressed during fruit development and ripening. Most notably, the expression of SlSR2 was scarcely detected at the mature green and breaker stages, two critical stages of fruit development and ripening; and SlSR3L and SlSR4 were expressed exclusively in fruit tissues. During the developmental span from 10 to 50 days post anthesis, the expression profiles of all seven SlSRs were dramatically altered in ripening mutant rin compared with wildtype fruit. By contrast, only minor alterations were noted for ripening mutant nor and Nr fruit. In addition, ethylene treatment of mature green wildtype fruit transiently stimulated expression of all SlSRs within one to two hours. Conclusions This study indicates that SlSR expression is influenced by both the Rin-mediated developmental network and ethylene signaling. The results suggest that calcium signaling is involved in the regulation of fruit development and ripening through calcium/calmodulin/SlSR interactions.

  5. GhCaM7-like, a calcium sensor gene, influences cotton fiber elongation and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Lu, Lili; Yang, Zhaoen; Wu, Zhixia; Qin, Wenqiang; Yu, Daoqian; Ren, Zhongying; Li, Yi; Wang, Lingling; Li, Fuguang; Yang, Zuoren

    2016-12-01

    Calcium signaling regulates many developmental processes in plants. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most conserved calcium sensors and has a flexible conformation in eukaryotes. The molecular functions of CaM are unknown in cotton, which is a major source of natural fiber. In this study, a Gossypium hirsutum L.CaM7-like gene was isolated from upland cotton. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the GhCaM7-like gene was highly conserved as compared with Arabidopsis AtCaM7. The GhCaM7-like gene showed a high expression level in elongating fibers. Expression of β-glucuronidase was observed in trichomes on the stem, leaf and root in transgenic Arabidopsis plants of a PROGhCaM7-like:GUS fusion. Silencing of the GhCaM7-like gene resulted in decreased fiber length, but also caused reduction in stem height, leaf dimensions, seed length and 100-seed weight, in comparison with those of the control. Reduced expression of the GhCaM7-like gene caused decreased Ca2+ influx in cells of the leaf hypodermis and stem apex, and down-regulation of GhIQD1 (IQ67-domain containing protein), GhAnn2 (Annexins) and GhEXP2 (Expansin). These results indicate that the GhCaM7-like gene plays a vital role in calcium signaling pathways, and may regulate cotton fiber elongation and biomass production by affecting Ca2+ signatures and downstream signaling pathways of CaM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  7. Modulation of calcium-induced cell death in human neural stem cells by the novel peptidylarginine deiminase-AIF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Kin Pong; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Nicholas, Antony P; Thompson, Paul R; Ferretti, Patrizia

    2014-06-01

    PADs (peptidylarginine deiminases) are calcium-dependent enzymes that change protein-bound arginine to citrulline (citrullination/deimination) affecting protein conformation and function. PAD up-regulation following chick spinal cord injury has been linked to extensive tissue damage and loss of regenerative capability. Having found that human neural stem cells (hNSCs) expressed PAD2 and PAD3, we studied PAD function in these cells and investigated PAD3 as a potential target for neuroprotection by mimicking calcium-induced secondary injury responses. We show that PAD3, rather than PAD2 is a modulator of cell growth/death and that PAD activity is not associated with caspase-3-dependent cell death, but is required for AIF (apoptosis inducing factor)-mediated apoptosis. PAD inhibition prevents association of PAD3 with AIF and AIF cleavage required for its translocation to the nucleus. Finally, PAD inhibition also hinders calcium-induced cytoskeleton disassembly and association of PAD3 with vimentin, that we show to be associated also with AIF; together this suggests that PAD-dependent cytoskeleton disassembly may play a role in AIF translocation to the nucleus. This is the first study highlighting a role of PAD activity in balancing hNSC survival/death, identifying PAD3 as an important upstream regulator of calcium-induced apoptosis, which could be targeted to reduce neural loss, and shedding light on the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Red meat and colon cancer : dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    2001-01-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with increased colon cancer risk. We have shown earlier that this may be due to the high haem content of red meat, because dietary haem increased cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation. Dietary calcium inhibits diet-induced

  9. Prevention of calcium-induced membrane structural alterations in erythrocyte membranes by flunarizine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Peter G.; Zimmermann, A.G.; Verkleij, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The calcium antagonist flunarizine is shown to be able to prevent particle aggregation, membrane aggregation and blebbing resulting from elevated calcium concentrations. The anti-ischemic effects of flunarizine may therefore result in part from its ability to directly interfere with calcium-membrane

  10. The effect of TGF-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition on the expression of intracellular calcium-handling proteins in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Shah H A; Cheng, Huanyi; Li, Jinfeng; Feng, Renqing

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of Ca(2+) in TGF-β-induced EMT is poorly understood. We aimed to confirm the effect of TGF-β on the gene expression of intracellular calcium-handling proteins and to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms in TGF-β-induced EMT. T47D and MCF-7 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with TGF-β. The mRNA expression of EMT marker genes and intracellular calcium-handling proteins were quantified by qRT-PCR. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis results verified the changes of EMT marker gene expression. Furthermore, we found that TGF-β induced cell morphological changes significantly with an increase of cell surface area and cell length. These results indicated that TGF-β induced EMT. The mRNA expression levels of SPCA1, SPCA2 and MCU were not influenced by TGF-β treatment, while NCX1 expression was decreased in T47D cells. In addition, the mRNA levels of SERCAs and IP3Rs were significantly changed due to TGF-β-induced EMT. The TGF-β-treated T47D cells exhibited markedly greater response to ATP than the control cells, and the descent velocity of cytosolic calcium concentration was faster in TGF-β-treated cells than in control cells. This is the first report to demonstrate that TGF-β-induced EMT in human breast cancer cells is associated with alterations in endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blockade of L-type calcium channel in myocardium and calcium-induced contractions of vascular smooth muscle by CPU 86017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-zai; Hu, Hui-juan; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Xue-mei; Yang, Dong-mei; Zhou, Pei-ai; Wu, Cai-hong

    2004-04-01

    To assess the blockade by CPU 86017 on the L-type calcium channels in the myocardium and on the Ca(2+)-related contractions of vascular smooth muscle. The whole-cell patch-clamp was applied to investigate the blocking effect of CPU 86017 on the L-type calcium current in isolated guinea pig myocytes and contractions by KCl or phenylephrine (Phe) of the isolated rat tail arteries were measured. Suppression of the L-type current of the isolated myocytes by CPU 86017 was moderate, in time- and concentration-dependent manner and with no influence on the activation and inactivation curves. The IC(50) was 11.5 micromol/L. Suppressive effect of CPU 86017 on vaso-contractions induced by KCl 100 mmol/L, phenylephrine 1 micromol/L in KH solution (phase 1), Ca(2+) free KH solution ( phase 2), and by addition of CaCl(2) into Ca(2+)-free KH solution (phase 3) were observed. The IC(50) to suppress vaso-contractions by calcium entry via the receptor operated channel (ROC) and voltage-dependent channel (VDC) was 0.324 micromol/L and 16.3 micromol/L, respectively. The relative potency of CPU 86017 to suppress vascular tone by Ca(2+) entry through ROC and VDC is 1/187 of prazosin and 1/37 of verapamil, respectively. The blocking effects of CPU 86017 on the L-type calcium channel of myocardium and vessel are moderate and non-selective. CPU 86017 is approximately 50 times more potent in inhibiting ROC than VDC.

  12. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  13. Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia physalis) venom induces calcium influx into cells by permeabilizing plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L; Hessinger, D A

    2000-08-01

    Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia physalis) nematocyst venom dose-dependently stimulates calcium (45Ca(2+)) influx into L-929, GH(4)C(1), FRL, and embryonic chick heart cells. Venom-induced calcium influx is not blocked by ouabain, vanadate, nor organic calcium channel blockers, but is blocked by transition metal cations, such as lanthanum and zinc. Venom-induced calcium influx is accompanied in a dose-dependent manner by the release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase, indicating a loss in plasma membrane integrity and cytolysis. Concentrations of zinc that block 45Ca(2+) influx also block lactate dehydrogenase release. Lanthanum, which also blocks 45Ca(2+) uptake, does not neutralize the cytolytic activity of the venom, but rather inhibits the venom's cytolytic action at the level of the target cell plasma membrane. Our findings indicate that Man-of-war venom causes an influx of calcium into several different cells types, not just those of the cardiovascular system, and this influx likely occurs by permeabilizing the plasma membranes of cells.

  14. Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage-dependent calcium channels and developing contractions through a second type of calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozuka, M.; Ito, T.; Hirose, S.; Takahashi, K.; Hagiwara, H.

    1989-02-28

    Effects of endothelin on nonvascular smooth muscle have been examined using rat uterine horns and two modes of endothelin action have been revealed. Endothelin (0.3 nM) caused rhythmic contractions of isolated uterus in the presence of extracellular calcium. The rhythmic contractions were completely inhibited by calcium channel antagonists. These characteristics of endothelin-induced contractions were very similar to those induced by oxytocin. Binding assays using /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that endothelin and the calcium channel blockers did not compete for the binding sites. However, endothelin was unique in that it caused, in addition to rhythmic contractions, a slowly developing monophasic contraction that was insensitive to calcium channel blockers. This developing contraction became dominant at higher concentrations of endothelin and was also calcium dependent.

  15. A genetic variant in the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene is related to age-dependent differences in the therapeutic effect of calcium-channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayue; Boström, Adrian E; Saeed, Mohamed; Dubey, Raghvendra K; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and one of the major health concerns worldwide. Genetic factors impact both the risk for hypertension and the therapeutic effect of antihypertensive drugs. Sex- and age-specific variances in the prevalence of hypertension are partly induced by estrogen. We investigated 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism in relation to sex- and age-specific differences in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) outcome under the treatment of diuretics, calcium-channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs).We included 5064 subjects (age: 40-82) from the population-based CoLaus cohort. Participants were genotyped for the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) variants rs4680, rs737865, and rs165599; the uridine-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A gene family (UGT1A) variants rs2070959 and rs887829; and the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) variant rs10046. Binomial and linear regression analyses were performed correcting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, and antihypertensive therapy to test whether the variants in focus are significantly associated with BP.All investigated COMT variants were strongly associated with the effect of diuretics, CCBs, and ARBs on SBP or DBP (P individuals (age ≥ 70) alone (Δ = -14.08 mm Hg, P = .0005).These results underline the important role of estrogens and catecholamines in hypertension and the importance of genotype dependent, age-related adjustments of calcium-channel blocker treatment.

  16. Calcium fluoride nanoparticles induced suppression of Streptococcus mutans biofilm: an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shatavari; Khan, Shakir; Hasan, Sadaf; Khan, M Ehtisham; Misba, Lama; Khan, Asad U

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation on the tooth surface is the root cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Streptococcus mutans is known to produce biofilm which is one of the primary causes of dental caries. Acid production and acid tolerance along with exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation are major virulence factors of S. mutans biofilm. In the current study, calcium fluoride nanoparticles (CaF2-NPs) were evaluated for their effect on the biofilm forming ability of S. mutans in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro studies revealed 89 % and 90 % reduction in biofilm formation and EPS production, respectively. Moreover, acid production and acid tolerance abilities of S. mutans were also reduced considerably in the presence of CaF2-NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were in accordance with the other results indicating inhibition of biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. The qRT-PCR gene expression analysis showed significant downregulation of various virulence genes (vicR, gtfC, ftf, spaP, comDE) associated with biofilm formation. Furthermore, CaF2-NPs were found to substantially decrease the caries in treated rat groups as compared to the untreated groups in in vivo studies. Scanning electron micrographs of rat's teeth further validated our results. These findings suggest that the CaF2-NPs may be used as a potential antibiofilm applicant against S. mutans and may be applied as a topical agent to reduce dental caries.

  17. Atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotypic modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs via down-regulation the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Baoqin; Kong, Dehui; Li, Si; Li, Chao; Wang, Huaqin; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the onset and progression of proliferative vascular diseases. In adult tissue, VSMCs exist in a physiological contractile-quiescent phenotype, which is defined by lack of the ability of proliferation and migration, while high expression of contractile marker proteins. After injury to the vessel, VSMC shifts from a contractile phenotype to a pathological synthetic phenotype, associated with increased proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. It has been demonstrated that PDGF-BB is a critical mediator of VSMCs phenotypic switch. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl l coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, exhibits various protective effects against VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin calcium on phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and the related intracellular signal transduction pathways. Treatment of VSMCs with atorvastatin calcium showed dose-dependent inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation. Atorvastatin calcium co-treatment inhibited the phenotype modulation and cytoskeleton rearrangements and improved the expression of contractile phenotype marker proteins such as α-SM actin, SM22α and calponin in comparison with PDGF-BB alone stimulated VSMCs. Although Akt phosphorylation was strongly elicited by PDGF-BB, Akt activation was attenuated when PDGF-BB was co-administrated with atorvastatin calcium. In conclusion, atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and activation of the Akt signaling pathway, indicating that Akt might play a vital role in the modulation of phenotype.

  18. Induced gene expression in wheat seedlings treated with a crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is also applied to a retrotransposon protein encoding gene whose expression was strongly induced following extract treatment. The induced expression of all these defence-related genes suggests that the crude A. africanus extract has the ability to prime the resistance response of wheat prior to leaf rust infection.

  19. Comparison of adenosine-induced myocardial ischemia and atherosclerosis measured by coronary calcium tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I. H.; Chun, K. A.; Won, K. C.; Lee, H. W.; Hong, K. L.; Park, J. S.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, Y. C.; Sim, B. S. [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Coronary artery calcium shows a anatomic information and coronary atherosclerotic burde, but myocardial perfusion SPECT shows a physiologic significance of coronary stenosis and stress induced ischemia. Both are valuable in the noninvasive assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. There has been little evaluation regarding the relationship between CAC and adenosine-induced ischemia and how to integrate CAC with myocardial perfusion SPECT. We assessed the relationship between adenosine-induced myocardial ischemia on myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) and magnitude of coronary calcification (CAC) by MDCT in patients undergoing both tests. A total of 111 patients underwent adenosine-induced MPS and CAC within 2days. Coronary angiography was done in 55 patients. The frequency of ischemia by MPS was compared to the magnitude of CAC. Among 56 patients with ischemic MPS, the CAC scores were >0 in 87.5%, >100 in 76.8%, and > 400 in 50.0%. Of 25 normal MPS, the CAC scores were >0 in 70.9%. >100 in 34.5%, and > 400 in 14.5%, respectively. Of 38 patient with coronary artery stenosis proved by coronary angiography, the CAC scores were >0 in 92.1%, >100 in 78.9%, and > 400 in 50.0 %, respectively. Of 12 patient without coronary artery stenosis, the CAC scores were >100 in 66.7%, and > 400 in 41.7%. Ischemic MPS is associated with a high likelihood of subclinical atherosclerosis by CAC, but it can be also seen for CAC scores <100. The patient without significant coronary artery stenosis, however, may have extensive atherosclerosis by CAC criteria. Although, low CAC scores appear to obviate the need for subsequent testing, but MPS is still needed to diagnosis the myocardial ischemia.

  20. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Akihiro, E-mail: ayoneda@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan); Division of Molecular Therapeutics, Center for Food & Medical Innovation, Hokkaido University (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomasa [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  1. The thickness of odontoblast-like cell layer after induced by propolis extract and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Dwiandhono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propolis is a substance made from resin collected by bees (Apis mellifera from variety of plants, mixed with its saliva and various enzymes to build a nest. Propolis has potential antimicrobial and antiinflammatory agents with some advantages over calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2. Ca(OH2 has been considered as the “gold standard” of direct pulp-capping materials, but there are still some weakness of its application. First, it can induce pulp inflammation which last up to 3 months. Second, the tissue response to Ca(OH2 is not always predictable. Third, the tunnel defect can probably formed in dentinal bridge with possible bacterial invasion in that gap. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine and compare the thickness of odontoblast-like cells layer after induced by propolis extract and Ca(OH2 in rat’s pulp tissue. Method: Class 1 preparation was done in maxillary first molar tooth of wistar mice until the pulp opened. The Ca(OH2 and propolis extract was applied to induce the formation of odontoblast-like cells, the cavity was filled with RMGIC. The teeth were extracted (after 14 and 28 days of induction. The samples were then processed for histological evaluation. Result: There were significant differences between the thickness of odontoblast-like cells after induced by propolis extract and Ca(OH2. Conclusion: The propolis extract as the direct pulp capping agent produces thicker odontoblast-like cell layer compared to Ca(OH2.

  2. Antagonism of T-type calcium channels inhibits high-fat diet-induced weight gain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebele, Victor N; Gotter, Anthony L; Nuss, Cindy E; Kraus, Richard L; Doran, Scott M; Garson, Susan L; Reiss, Duane R; Li, Yuxing; Barrow, James C; Reger, Thomas S; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Ballard, Jeanine E; Tang, Cuyue; Metzger, Joseph M; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Koblan, Kenneth S; Renger, John J

    2009-06-01

    The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously, it was shown that mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type calcium channels have altered sleep/wake activity. We found that these mice were also resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain, without changes in food intake or sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced disruptions of diurnal rhythm. Administration of a potent and selective antagonist of T-type calcium channels, TTA-A2, to normal-weight animals prior to the inactive phase acutely increased sleep, decreased body core temperature, and prevented high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Administration of TTA-A2 to obese rodents reduced body weight and fat mass while concurrently increasing lean muscle mass. These effects likely result from better alignment of diurnal feeding patterns with daily changes in circadian physiology and potentially an increased metabolic rate during the active phase. Together, these studies reveal what we believe to be a previously unknown role for T-type calcium channels in the regulation of sleep and weight maintenance and suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic approach to treating obesity.

  3. Chronic calcium pyrophosphate crystal inflammatory arthritis induced by extreme hypomagnesemia in short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Markus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short bowel syndrome (SBS may induce a plethora of clinical symptoms ranging from underweight to nutrient-, vitamin- and electrolyte deficiencies. The objective of this case report is to illustrate how demanding the management of a 60 year old patient with SBS and recurrent joint attacks was for different medical disciplines. Case presentation The patient with SBS presented with a body mass index of 16.5 kg/m2 after partial jejunoileal resection of the small intestine with a six year long history of recurrent pain attacks in multiple peripheral joints, chronic diarrhoea and food intolerances. Pain attacks occurred 4–5 times a week with a median consumption of 15 mg prednisone per day. The interdisciplinary workup after several gastroenterologic, rheumatologic, radiologic, psychiatric and orthopedic consultations is shown including successful treatment steps. Clinical diagnosis revealed no systemic inflammatory disease, but confirmed extreme hypomagnesemia (0.2 mmol/l after reproducible pathological magnesium resorption tests as causative for chronic calcium pyrophosphate crystal inflammatory arthritis (pseudogout, chondrocalcinosis. Multidisciplinary treatment included application of colchicines, parenteral nutrition and magnesium substitution, antiperistaltic agents and avoidance of intolerant foods. Normalization of magnesium levels and a marked remission of joint attacks were achieved after six months with significant reduction of prednisone to 1.5 mg/day. Conclusion Despite the rarity of this condition, it is important to know that hypomagnesaemia may be associated with calcium pyrophosphate crystal inflammatory arthritis (chondrocalcinosis and that SBS patients may be prone to develop extreme hypomagnesaemia causing recurrent joint attacks without systemic inflammation.

  4. Calcium hydroxide-induced resorption of deciduous teeth: A possible explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium hydroxide (CaH is customarily used for permanent teeth but not for deciduous dentition because it is known to cause internal resorption in the latter. Though this has been attributed to chronic inflammation and odontoclasts, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. The Hypothesis: The authors propose an explanation that CaH-induced odontoclastogenesis could be multifactorial. Odontoclasts may result from fusion of cells of monocyte/macrophage series either due to inflammatory mediators or through stimulation by stromal odontoblasts /fibroblasts. Pre-existing progenitor cells of primary tooth pulp because of their inherent propensity may transform into odontoclasts. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The hypothesis discusses the role of various inflammatory cytokines that may be responsible for CaH-induced transformation of pre-odontoclasts to odontoclasts. Alternatively, pre-existing progenitor cells with proclivity to change into odontoclasts may cause internal resorption. The loss of protective layer of predentin over mineralized dentin may also make the primary tooth more susceptible to resorption.

  5. A deleterious gene-by-environment interaction imposed by calcium channel blockers in Marfan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, J.J.; Doyle, A.J.; Wilson, N.K.; Habashi, J.P.; Bedja, D.; Whitworth, R.E.; Lindsay, M.E.; Schoenhoff, F.; Myers, L.; Huso, N.; Bachir, S.; Squires, O.; Rusholme, B.; Ehsan, H.; Huso, D.; Thomas, C.J.; Caulfield, M.J.; Eyk, J.E. Van; Judge, D.P.; Dietz, H.C.; Loeys, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are prescribed to patients with Marfan syndrome for prophylaxis against aortic aneurysm progression, despite limited evidence for their efficacy and safety in the disorder. Unexpectedly, Marfan mice treated with CCBs show accelerated aneurysm expansion, rupture, and

  6. Insulin induces upregulation of vascular AT1 receptor gene expression by posttranscriptional mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickenig, G; Röling, J; Strehlow, K; Schnabel, P; Böhm, M

    1998-12-01

    An interaction of insulin with angiotensin II effects could be pathophysiologically important for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. We examined the effect of insulin on AT1 receptor gene expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). A 24-hour incubation with insulin (100 nmol/L) produced a 2-fold increase in AT1 receptor density on VSMCs, as assessed by radioligand binding assays. This enhanced AT1 receptor expression was caused by a time- and concentration-dependent upregulation of the AT1 receptor mRNA levels, as assessed by Northern analysis. The maximal effect was detected after a 24-hour incubation of cells with 100 nmol/L insulin (270+/-20%). AT1 receptor upregulation was caused by a stabilization of the AT1 receptor mRNA, because the AT1 receptor mRNA half-life was prolonged from 5 hours under basal conditions to 10 hours after insulin stimulation. In contrast, insulin had no influence on AT1 receptor gene transcription, as assessed by nuclear run-on assays. The insulin-induced AT1 receptor upregulation was followed by an increased functional response, because angiotensin II evoked a significantly elevated intracellular release of calcium in cells that were preincubated with 100 nmol/L insulin for 24 hours. The insulin-induced AT1 receptor upregulation was dependent on tyrosine kinases, as assessed by experiments with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Furthermore, experiments using the intracellular calcium chelator bis(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy)ethane-N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester suggest that intracellular calcium release may be involved in AT1 receptor regulation. Insulin-induced upregulation of the AT1 receptor by posttranscriptional mechanisms may explain the association of hyperinsulinemia with hypertension and arteriosclerosis, because activation of the AT1 receptor plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis.

  7. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  8. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) prevents sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy by improving calcium handling and mitochondrial function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leroy C.; Valenti, Mesele-Christina; Kim, Grace J.; Barca, Emanuele; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Subramanyam, Prakash; Colecraft, Henry M.; Hirano, Michio; Madesh, Muniswamy; Morrow, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy frequently complicates sepsis and is associated with increased mortality. Increased cardiac oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been observed during sepsis, but the mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities have not been determined. We hypothesized that NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation could be responsible for sepsis-induced oxidative stress and cardiomyopathy. Treatment of isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes with low concentrations of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased total cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide. Elevated mitochondrial superoxide was accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential, an indication of mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitochondrial calcium overload. NOX2 inhibition decreased LPS-induced superoxide and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction. Further, cardiomyocytes from mice with genetic ablation of NOX2 did not have LPS-induced superoxide or mitochondrial dysfunction. LPS decreased contractility and calcium transient amplitude in isolated cardiomyocytes, and these abnormalities were prevented by inhibition of NOX2. LPS decreased systolic function in mice, measured by echocardiography. NOX2 inhibition was cardioprotective in 2 mouse models of sepsis, preserving systolic function after LPS injection or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). These data show that inhibition of NOX2 decreases oxidative stress, preserves intracellular calcium handling and mitochondrial function, and alleviates sepsis-induced systolic dysfunction in vivo. Thus, NOX2 is a potential target for pharmacotherapy of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:28878116

  9. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  10. Reductions in calcium uptake induced in rat brain synaptosomes by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Howerton, T.C.; Hunt, W.A. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Gamma irradiation (60Co) reduced KCl-stimulated voltage-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake in whole-brain, cortical, and striatal synaptosomes. The time course (3, 10, 30, and 60 s) of calcium uptake by irradiated (3 Gy) and nonirradiated synaptosomes, as well as the effect of KCl (15-65 mM), was measured in whole-brain synaptosomes. The fastest and highest rate of depolarization-dependent calcium uptake occurred at 3 s with 65 mM KCl. Irradiation reduced calcium uptake at all incubation times and KCl concentrations. Bay K 8644 enhancement of KCl-stimulated calcium influx was also reduced by radiation exposure. Nimodipine binding to dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type calcium channel receptors was not altered following radiation exposure. These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on the voltage-sensitive calcium channels in rat brain synaptosomes that are not mediated by DHP receptors.

  11. Transglutaminase-induced crosslinking of gelatin-calcium carbonate composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuemeng; Liu, Anjun; Ye, Ran; Wang, Wenhang; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of transglutaminase (TGase) on the rheological profiles and interactions of gelatin-calcium carbonate solutions were studied. In addition, mechanical properties, water vapour permeability and microstructures of gelatin-calcium carbonate films were also investigated and compared. Fluorescence data suggested that the interaction of TGase and gelation-calcium carbonate belonged to a static quenching mechanism, and merely one binding site between TGase and gelatin-calcium carbonate was identified. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mechanical properties and the water vapour permeability studies revealed that TGase favoured the strong intramolecular polymerisation of the peptides in gelatin. The microstructures of the surfaces and cross sections in gelatin-calcium carbonate films were shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. The results of the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that TGase caused conformational changes in the proteins films. Therefore, TGase successfully facilitated the formation of gelatin-calcium carbonate composite films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluoride-induced thyroid dysfunction in rats: roles of dietary protein and calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Yang, Z; Zhou, B; Gao, H; Yan, X; Wang, J

    2009-02-01

    To assess the roles of dietary protein (Pr) and calcium (Ca) level associated with excessive fluoride (F) intake and the impact of dietary Pr, Ca, and F on thyroid function, 144 30-day-old Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to six groups of 24 (female:male = 1:1). The six groups were fed (1) a normal control (NC) diet (17.92% Pr, 0.85% Ca = NC group); (2) the NC diet and high F (338 mg NaF [=150 mg F ion]/L in their drinking water = NC+F group); (3) low Pr and low Ca diet (10.01% Pr, 0.24% Ca = LPrLCa group); (4) low Pr and low Ca diet plus high F = LPrLCa+F group; (5) high Pr and low Ca diet plus high F (25.52% Pr, 0.25% Ca = HPrLCa+F group); and (6) low Pr and high Ca diet plus high F (10.60% Pr, 1.93% Ca = LPrHCa+F group). The areas of thyroid follicles were determined by Image-Proplus 5.1, and triiodothyronine (T3), free T3 (FT3), thyroxine (T4), and free T4 (FT4) levels in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay. The histopathological study revealed obviously flatted follicular epithelia cells and hyperplastic nodules, consisting of thyroid parafollicular cells that appeared by excessive F ingestion, on the 120th day. Pr or Ca supplementation reverses the F-induced damage in malnutrition. The serum T3, FT3, T4, and FT4 levels in the NC+F group were significantly decreased and significantly increased in the LPrLCa+F group. Thus, excessive F administration induces thyroid dysfunction in rats; dietary Pr and Ca level play key roles in F-induced thyroid dysfunction.

  13. E-cadherin mediates ultraviolet radiation- and calcium-induced melanin transfer in human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman K; Baker, Richard; Sikkink, Stephen K; Nizard, Carine; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Kurfurst, Robin; Tobin, Desmond J

    2017-11-01

    Skin pigmentation is directed by epidermal melanin units, characterized by long-lived and dendritic epidermal melanocytes (MC) that interact with viable keratinocytes (KC) to contribute melanin to the epidermis. Previously, we reported that MC:KC contact is required for melanosome transfer that can be enhanced by filopodi, and by UVR/UVA irradiation, which can upregulate melanosome transfer via Myosin X-mediated control of MC filopodia. Both MC and KC express Ca 2+ -dependent E-cadherins. These homophilic adhesion contacts induce transient increases in intra-KC Ca 2+ , while ultraviolet radiation (UVR) raises intra-MC Ca 2+ via calcium-selective ORAI1 ion channels; both are associated with regulating melanogenesis. However, how Ca 2+ triggers melanin transfer remains unclear. Here we evaluated the role of E-cadherin in UVR-mediated melanin transfer in human skin cells. MC and KC in human epidermis variably express filopodia-associated E-cadherin, Cdc42, VASP and β-catenin, all of which were upregulated by UVR in human MC in vitro. Knockdown of E-cadherin revealed that this cadherin is essential for UVR-induced MC filopodia formation and melanin transfer. Moreover, Ca 2+ induced a dose-dependent increase in filopodia formation and melanin transfer, as well as increased β-catenin, Cdc42, Myosin X and E-cadherin expression in these skin cells. Together, these data suggest that filopodial proteins and E-cadherin, which are upregulated by intracellular (UVR-stimulated) and extracellular Ca 2+ availability, are required for filopodia formation and melanin transfer. This may open new avenues to explore how Ca 2+ signalling influences human pigmentation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  15. From synapse to nucleus: calcium-dependent gene transcription in the control of synapse development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Paul L; Greenberg, Michael E

    2008-09-25

    One of the unique characteristics of higher organisms is their ability to learn and adapt to changes in their environment. This plasticity is largely a result of the brain's ability to convert transient stimuli into long-lasting alterations in neuronal structure and function. This process is complex and involves changes in receptor trafficking, local mRNA translation, protein turnover, and new gene synthesis. Here, we review how neuronal activity triggers calcium-dependent gene expression to regulate synapse development, maturation, and refinement. Interestingly, many components of the activity-dependent gene expression program are mutated in human cognitive disorders, which suggest that this program is essential for proper brain development and function.

  16. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein reduces promotion of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation induced by urate in human urine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P K; Marshall, V R; Ryall, R L

    1994-08-01

    1. Increasing the concentration of dissolved urate promotes calcium oxalate crystallization in urine from which Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein, an inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, has almost completely been removed. This study aimed to determine whether the effect of urate could be reduced or abolished by a physiological concentration of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein. This was approached in two ways. 2. The effect of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein on calcium oxalate crystallization induced by urate was tested in ultrafiltered (10 kDa) urine samples from 10 healthy men. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein (35 mg/l) was added to half of each specimen, the urate concentration was increased by the addition of sodium urate solution and crystallization was induced by a standard load of oxalate. The remainder of each urine specimen was used as a control; these specimens were treated with an identical amount of urate solution, but contained no Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein had no effect on the urinary metastable limit or on the deposition of calcium oxalate, but significantly reduced the size of the particles precipitated. 3. The effect of increasing the urate concentration in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein was tested. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein (35 mg/l) was added to 10 ultrafiltered urine samples as before, the samples were divided, and the concentration of urate was increased in half of each specimen. Compared with the control to which no urate was added, urate significantly reduced the amount of oxalate required to induce spontaneous calcium oxalate nucleation and increased the median volume and the particle size of the material deposited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Chronic inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channels and calcium-ATPase lengthens the period of hepatic clock gene Per1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Muñoz Mauricio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role played by calcium as a regulator of circadian rhythms is not well understood. The effect of the pharmacological inhibition of the ryanodine receptor (RyR, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, and endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA, as well as the intracellular Ca2+-chelator BAPTA-AM was explored on the 24-h rhythmicity of the liver-clock protein PER1 in an experimental model of circadian synchronization by light and restricted-feeding schedules. Methods Liver explants from Period1-luciferase (Per1-luc transgenic rats with either free food access or with a restricted meal schedule were treated for several days with drugs to inhibit the activity of IP3Rs (2-APB, RyRs (ryanodine, or SERCA (thapsigargin as well as to suppress intracellular calcium fluctuations (BAPTA-AM. The period of Per1-luc expression was measured during and after drug administration. Results Liver explants from rats fed ad libitum showed a lengthened period in response to all the drugs tested. The pharmacological treatments of the explants from meal-entrained rats induced the same pattern, with the exception of the ryanodine treatment which, unexpectedly, did not modify the Per1-luc period. All effects associated with drug application were reversed after washout, indicating that none of the pharmacological treatments was toxic to the liver cultures. Conclusions Our data suggest that Ca2+ mobilized from internal deposits modulates the molecular circadian clock in the liver of rats entrained by light and by restricted meal access.

  18. Genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression profiles of calcium-dependent protein kinase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowicz-Strońska, Olga; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Krajewski, Paweł; Sadowski, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In plant cells, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are important sensors of Ca2+ flux resulting from various environmental stresses like cold, drought or salt stress. Previous genome sequence analysis and comparative studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) defined a multi-gene family of CDPKs. Here, we identified and characterised the CDPK gene complement of the model plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Comparative analysis encompassed phylogeny reconstruction based on newly available barley genome sequence, as well as established model genomes (e.g. O. sativa, A. thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon). Functional gene copies possessed characteristic CDPK domain architecture, including a serine/threonine kinase domain and four regulatory EF-hand motifs. In silico verification was followed by measurements of transcript abundance via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The relative expression of CDPK genes was determined in the vegetative growth stage under intensifying drought stress conditions. The majority of barley CDPK genes showed distinct changes in patterns of expression during exposure to stress. Our study constitutes evidence for involvement of the barley CDPK gene complement in signal transduction pathways relating to adaptation to drought. Our bioinformatics and transcriptomic analyses will provide an important foundation for further functional dissection of the barley CDPK gene family.

  19. Calcium phosphate deposition in human dental plaque microcosm biofilms induced by a ureolytic pH-rise procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L; Sissons, C H; Pearce, E I F; Cutress, T W

    2002-11-01

    The objectives were to develop and characterize a procedure based on a ureolytic pH rise to deposit calcium phosphate into microcosm dental plaque biofilms and to test the importance of the plaque pH range. Plaque biofilms were cultured in a multiplaque culture system ('artificial mouth') with a continuous supply of a simulated oral fluid (basal medium mucin; BMM) with 146 mmol/l (5% w/v) sucrose periodically applied over 6 min every 8h. After initial plaque growth, the biofilms were periodically exposed for up to 16 days to 6-min applications of calcium phosphate monofluorophosphate urea (CPMU) solution containing 20 mmol/l CaCl(2), 12 mmol/l NaH(2)PO(4), 5 mmol/l monofluorophosphate and 500 mmol/l urea (pH 5.0). Three application regimes were examined, one included a sucrose-induced acidic pH fluctuation. Plaque hydrolysis of the urea in CPMU caused the pH to rise to between 8.2 and 8.8, depositing fluoridated and carbonated calcium phosphates, and possibly some calcium carbonate, into the plaque. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride deposition was rapid for about 4 days and then slowed. After 10 days' treatment under standard conditions (BMM containing 1 mmol/l urea and 1 mmol/l arginine), plaque calcium and phosphate concentrations had increased up to 50-fold and 10-fold to approximately 2-4 and 1-2 mmol/g plaque protein, respectively. The calcium, phosphate and fluoride content increased steadily. Calcium phosphate deposition was proportional to the plaque resting pH, increasing over four-fold when the BMM urea concentration was increased from 0 to 20 mmol/l, which raised the resting pH from 6.4 to 7.2 and yielded a mean plaque calcium concentration of 14.3 mmol/g protein, one subsample reaching 20.8 mmol/g protein. Supplementation of BMM with 20% human serum inhibited deposition. These results support the hypothesis that an alkaline pH in plaque is critical in promoting plaque mineralization and that mineral deposition is modulated by serum. These factors are

  20. Quantification of alginate by aggregation induced by calcium ions and fluorescent polycations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hewen; Korendovych, Ivan V; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2016-01-01

    For quantification of polysaccharides, including heparins and alginates, the commonly used carbazole assay involves hydrolysis of the polysaccharide to form a mixture of UV-active dye conjugate products. Here, we describe two efficient detection and quantification methods that make use of the negative charges of the alginate polymer and do not involve degradation of the targeted polysaccharide. The first method utilizes calcium ions to induce formation of hydrogel-like aggregates with alginate polymer; the aggregates can be quantified readily by staining with a crystal violet dye. This method does not require purification of alginate from the culture medium and can measure the large amount of alginate that is produced by a mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture. The second method employs polycations tethering a fluorescent dye to form suspension aggregates with the alginate polyanion. Encasing the fluorescent dye in the aggregates provides an increased scattering intensity with a sensitivity comparable to that of the conventional carbazole assay. Both approaches provide efficient methods for monitoring alginate production by mucoid P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium glucarate inhibits DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in the hamster: histomorphometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, Carlo; Sgambato, Alessandro; Maiorano, Eugenio; Lucchese, Alberta; Capodiferro, Saverio; Favia, Gianfranco; Giuliani, Michele

    2010-03-01

    Calcium glucarate (CGT) is a promising chemopreventive agent. This study evaluated the in vivo efficacy of CGT in preventing 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha) anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in the hamster. Matherials and Methods: Seventy-six Syrian hamsters were used, divided into four groups: group 1, untreated animals; 2, CGT controls; 3, DMBA-treated; 4, DMBA- and CGT-treated. Hamsters were painted three times weekly with 0.5% solution of DMBA and were fed a diet supplemented with CGT (64 mmol/kg, 2%). Animals were sacrificed at week 9 and 12 and pathology and histomorphometric analyses were performed. At week 9, four dysplastic lesions and six carcinomas were identified in group 3 while only three dysplasias and five carcinomas were detected in group 4. At week 12, five animals of group 3 displayed a dysplasia, which was only detected in one animal of group 4. Squamous carcinomas were identified in all animals of both group 3 and 4. However, in group 3 four of the animals displayed multifocal lesions and carcinomas displayed histological features indicative of increased aggressiveness. The results obtained suggest that CGT can exert an inhibitory effect on oral carcinogenesis in tha hamster and that further studies are warranted to evaluate its potential use as a chemopreventive agent in humans.

  2. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Claudia [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Cornelsen, Matthias [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Quade, Antje [Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [INNOVENT e.V., Biomaterials Department, Pruessingstrasse 27B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Rebl, Henrike [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Weißmann, Volker [Institute for Polymer Technologies (IPT) e.V., Alter Holzhafen 19, D-23966 Wismar (Germany); Seitz, Hermann [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Nebe, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.nebe@med.uni-rostock.de [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds.

  3. RGDC Peptide-Induced Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lin; Wang, Lina; Fan, Lingying; Xiao, Wenjun; Lin, Bingpeng; Xu, Yimeng; Liang, Jun; Cao, Baocheng

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium alloys as biodegradable metal implants have received a lot of interest in biomedical applications. However, magnesium alloys have extremely high corrosion rates a in physiological environment, which have limited their application in the orthopedic field. In this study, calcium phosphate compounds (Ca–P) coating was prepared by arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–cysteine (RGDC) peptide-induced mineralization in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloys. The adhesion of Ca–P coating to the AZ31 substrates was evaluated by a scratch test. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of the Ca–P coating were investigated. The results showed that the RGDC could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of the Ca–P coating and the Ca–P coating had poor adhesion to the AZ31 substrates. The corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the biomimetic Ca–P coating Mg alloys were greatly improved compared with that of the uncoated sample. PMID:28772717

  4. Quantification of calcium using localized normalization on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Nursalwanie Mohd; Haider, Zuhaib; Tufail, Kashif; Aziz, Safwan; Ali, Jalil; Wahab, Zaidan Abdul; Abbas, Zulkifly

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on localized normalization for improved calibration curves in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The calibration curves have been obtained using five samples consisting of different concentrations of calcium (Ca) in potassium bromide (KBr) matrix. The work has utilized Q-switched Nd:YAG laser installed in LIBS2500plus system with fundamental wavelength and laser energy of 650 mJ. Optimization of gate delay can be obtained from signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of Ca II 315.9 and 317.9 nm. The optimum conditions are determined in which having high spectral intensity and SBR. The highest spectral lines of ionic and emission lines of Ca at gate delay of 0.83 µs. From SBR, the optimized gate delay is at 5.42 µs for both Ca II spectral lines. Calibration curves consist of three parts; original intensity from LIBS experimentation, normalization and localized normalization of the spectral line intensity. The R2 values of the calibration curves plotted using locally normalized intensities of Ca I 610.3, 612.2 and 616.2 nm spectral lines are 0.96329, 0.97042, and 0.96131, respectively. The enhancement from calibration curves using the regression coefficient allows more accurate analysis in LIBS. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 24 May 2017.

  5. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA - improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds - is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extracellular NAD+ regulates intracellular calcium levels and induces activation of human granulocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    β-NAD+e (extracellular β-NAD+), present at nanomolar levels in human plasma, has been implicated in the regulation of [Ca2+]i (the intracellular calcium concentration) in various cell types, including blood cells, by means of different mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that micromolar NAD+e (both the α and the β extracellular NAD+ forms) induces a sustained [Ca2+]i increase in human granulocytes by triggering the following cascade of causally related events: (i) activation of adenylate cyclase and overproduction of cAMP; (ii) activation of protein kinase A; (iii) stimulation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity and consequent overproduction of cADP-ribose, a universal Ca2+ mobilizer; and (iv) influx of extracellular Ca2+. The NAD+e-triggered [Ca2+]i elevation translates into granulocyte activation, i.e. superoxide and nitric oxide generation, and enhanced chemotaxis in response to 0.1–10 μM NAD+e. Thus extracellular β-NAD+e behaves as a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine, stimulating human granulocytes and potentially recruiting them at sites of inflammation. PMID:16225456

  7. Direct therapeutic applications of calcium electroporation to effectively induce tumor necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    in vivo. Calcium electroporation elicited dramatic antitumor responses in which 89% of treated tumors were eliminated. Histologic analyses indicated complete tumor necrosis. Mechanistically, calcium electroporation caused acute ATP depletion likely due to a combination of increased cellular use of ATP...... access to this technology for many cancer patients in developed and developing countries....

  8. Rumen-protected rice bran to induce the adaptation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín-Tereso López, J.

    2010-01-01

    Dairy cows suffer from hypocalcaemia in the days around calving, which may result in a condition generally known as milk fever. Calcium metabolism sharply shifts at the start of lactation, because Ca needs suddenly become much greater than at the end of gestation. Calcium metabolism is able to adapt

  9. Inhibition of "spontaneous," notochord-induced, and collagen-induced in vitro somite chondrogenesis by the calcium lonophore, A23187.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, R A

    1978-02-01

    The present study represents a first step in investigating the possible involvement of calcium (Ca2+) in the stimulation of somite chondrogenesis elicited by extracellular matrix components produced by the embryonic notochord. The ionophore, A23187, a drug that facilitates Ca2+ uptake leading to elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, at concentrations of 0.25-1.0 microgram/ml severely impairs "spontaneous" somite chondrogenesis, i.e., inhibits the formation of the small amount of cartilaginous matrix normally formed by embryonic somites in vitro in the absence of inducing tissues. This inhibition is reflected in a considerable reduction in sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation by A23187-treated somite explants. Furthermore, A23187 inhibits the striking stimulation of cartilaginous matrix formation and sulfated GAG accumulation normally elicited by the embryonic notochord and collagen substrates. In fact, 1.0 microgram/ml of A23187 reduces sulfated GAG accumulation by somites cultured in association with notochord or on collagen to a level even below that accumulated by somites cultured in the absence of these inductive agents. Although these results must be interpreted with caution, they provide incentive for considering a possible regulatory role for Ca2+ in the chondrogenic response of somites to extracellular matrix components produced by the embryonic notochord.

  10. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and calcium increase induced by visible light in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Mei-Jie; Jou, Shuo-Bin; Guo, Mei-Jin; Wu, Hong-Yueh; Peng, Tsung-I

    2004-04-01

    Mitochondria contain photosensitive chromophores that can be activated or inhibited by light in the visible range. Rather than utilizing light energy, however, mitochondrial electron transport oxidation-reduction reaction and energy coupling could be stimulated or damaged by visible light. Our previous work demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in cultured astrocytes after visible laser irradiation. With confocal fluorescence microscopy, we found that ROS were generated mostly from mitochondria. This mitochondrial ROS (mROS) formation plays a critical role in photoirradiation-induced phototoxicity and apoptosis. In this study, we measured changes of mitochondrial calcium level ([Ca(2+)](m)) in cultured astrocytes (RBA-1 cell line) irradiated with blue light and examined the association between mROS formation and [Ca(2+)](m) level changes. Changes of intracellular ROS and [Ca(2+)](m) were visualized using fluorescent probes 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF), and rhod-2. After exposure to visible light irradiation, RBA-1 astrocytes showed a rapid increase in ROS accumulation particularly in the mitochondrial area. Increase in [Ca(2+)](m) was also induced by photoirradiation. The levels of increase in DCF fluorescence intensity varied among different astrocytes. Some of the cells generated much higher levels of ROS than others. For those cells that had high ROS levels, mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were also high. In cells that had mild ROS levels, mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were only slightly increased. The rate of increase in DCF fluorescence seemed to be close to the rate of rhod-2 fluorescence increase. There is a positive and close correlation between mitochondrial ROS levels and mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels in astrocytes irradiated by visible light.

  11. Calcium dobesilate may alleviate diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijun; Yuan, Jiangzi; Qi, Chaojun; Shao, Xinghua; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. However, the pathogenesis of DKD remains unclear, and no effective treatments for the disease are available. Thus, there is an urgent need to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of DKD and to develop more effective therapies for this disease. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured using different D-glucose concentrations to determine the effect of high glucose (HG) on the cells. Alternatively, HUVECs were incubated with 100 µmol/l calcium dobesilate (CaD) to detect its effects. The authors subsequently measured HUVEC proliferation via cell counting kit-8 assays. In addition, HUVEC angiogenesis was investigated via migration assays and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeability assays. The content or distribution of markers of endothelial dysfunction [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (R) and endocan) or inflammation [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and pentraxin-related protein (PTX3)] was evaluated via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. HG treatment induced increased in VEGF, VEGFR, endocan, ICAM-1, MCP-1 and PTX3 mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs. HG treatment for 24 to 48 h increased cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner, but the cell proliferation rate was decreased at 72 h of HG treatment. Conversely, CaD inhibited abnormal cell proliferation. HG treatment also significantly enhanced HVUEC migration compared to the control treatment. In contrast, CaD treatment partially inhibited HUVEC migration compared to HG exposure. HG-treated HUVECs exhibited increased FITC-BSA permeability compared to control cells cultured in medium alone; however, CaD application prevented the HG-induced increase in FITC-BSA permeability and suppressed HG-induced overexpression of endothelial markers (VEGF, VEGFR-2

  12. Calcium dobesilate may alleviate diabetes‑induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijun; Yuan, Jiangzi; Qi, Chaojun; Shao, Xinghua; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a leading cause of end‑stage renal disease. However, the pathogenesis of DKD remains unclear, and no effective treatments for the disease are available. Thus, there is an urgent need to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of DKD and to develop more effective therapies for this disease. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured using different D‑glucose concentrations to determine the effect of high glucose (HG) on the cells. Alternatively, HUVECs were incubated with 100 µmol/l calcium dobesilate (CaD) to detect its effects. The authors subsequently measured HUVEC proliferation via cell counting kit‑8 assays. In addition, HUVEC angiogenesis was investigated via migration assays and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)‑labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeability assays. The content or distribution of markers of endothelial dysfunction [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (R) and endocan) or inflammation [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)‑1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)‑1 and pentraxin‑related protein (PTX3)] was evaluated via reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. HG treatment induced increased in VEGF, VEGFR, endocan, ICAM‑1, MCP‑1 and PTX3 mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs. HG treatment for 24 to 48 h increased cell proliferation in a time‑dependent manner, but the cell proliferation rate was decreased at 72 h of HG treatment. Conversely, CaD inhibited abnormal cell proliferation. HG treatment also significantly enhanced HVUEC migration compared to the control treatment. In contrast, CaD treatment partially inhibited HUVEC migration compared to HG exposure. HG‑treated HUVECs exhibited increased FITC‑BSA permeability compared to control cells cultured in medium alone; however, CaD application prevented the HG‑induced increase in FITC‑BSA permeability and suppressed HG‑induced overexpression of

  13. Involvement of Potassium Channels and Calcium-Independent Mechanisms in Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Relaxation of Rat Mesenteric Small Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Gouliaev, Anja; Winther, Anna K; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Aalling, Mathilde; Renaltan, Nirthika S; Wood, Mark E; Whiteman, Matthew; Skovgaard, Nini; Simonsen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the regulation of vascular tone. We hypothesized that the lowering of calcium and opening of potassium (K) channels as well as calcium-independent mechanisms are involved in H2S-induced relaxation in rat mesenteric small arteries. Amperometric recordings revealed that free [H2S] after addition to closed tubes of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), Na2S, and GYY4137 [P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-P-4-morpholinyl-phosphinodithioic acid] were, respectively, 14%, 17%, and 1% of added amount. The compounds caused equipotent relaxations in isometric myographs, but based on the measured free [H2S], GYY4137 caused more relaxation in relation to released free H2S than NaHS and Na2S in rat mesenteric small arteries. Simultaneous measurements of [H2S] and tension showed that 15 µM of free H2S caused 61% relaxation in superior mesenteric arteries. Simultaneous measurements of smooth muscle calcium and tension revealed that NaHS lowered calcium and caused relaxation of NE-contracted arteries, while high extracellular potassium reduced NaHS relaxation without corresponding calcium changes. In NE-contracted arteries, NaHS (1 mM) lowered the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, while phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 remained unchanged. Protein kinase A and G, inhibitors of guanylate cyclase, failed to reduce NaHS relaxation, whereas blockers of voltage-gated KV7 channels inhibited NaHS relaxation, and blockers of mitochondrial complex I and III abolished NaHS relaxation. Our findings suggest that low micromolar concentrations of free H2S open K channels followed by lowering of smooth muscle calcium, and by another mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I and III leads to uncoupling of force, and hence vasodilation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Injectable calcium phosphate with hydrogel fibers encapsulating induced pluripotent, dental pulp and bone marrow stem cells for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chi; Li, Chunyan; Weir, Michael D; Wang, Ping; Reynolds, Mark A; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-12-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs), dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) are exciting cell sources in regenerative medicine. However, there has been no report comparing hDPSCs, hBMSCs and hiPSC-MSCs for bone engineering in an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel injectable CPC containing hydrogel fibers encapsulating stem cells for bone engineering, and (2) compare cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, hiPSC-MSCs from bone marrow (BM-hiPSC-MSCs) and from foreskin (FS-hiPSC-MSCs), and hBMSCs in CPC for the first time. The results showed that the injection did not harm cell viability. The porosity of injectable CPC was 62%. All four types of cells proliferated and differentiated down the osteogenic lineage inside hydrogel fibers in CPC. hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs exhibited high alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor, collagen I, and osteocalcin gene expressions. Cell-synthesized minerals increased with time (p0.1). Mineralization by hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs inside CPC at 14d was 14-fold that at 1d. FS-hiPSC-MSCs were inferior in osteogenic differentiation compared to the other cells. In conclusion, hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs and hBMSCs are similarly and highly promising for bone tissue engineering; however, FS-hiPSC-MSCs were relatively inferior in osteogenesis. The novel injectable CPC with cell-encapsulating hydrogel fibers may enhance bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: lostrow1@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  16. The involvement of calcium and MAP kinase signaling pathways in the production of radiation-induced bystander effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyng, F M

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence now exists regarding radiation-induced bystander effects, but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to growth factor-mediated regulation of cellular events such as proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Activation of multiple MAPK pathways such as the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways have been shown to occur after exposure of cells to radiation and a variety of other toxic stresses. Previous studies have shown oxidative stress and calcium signaling to be important in radiation-induced bystander effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate MAPK signaling pathways in bystander cells exposed to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and the role of oxidative metabolism and calcium signaling in the induction of bystander responses. Human keratinocytes (HPV-G cell line) were irradiated (0.005-5 Gy) using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The medium was harvested 1 h postirradiation and transferred to recipient HPV-G cells. Phosphorylated forms of p38, JNK and ERK were studied by immunofluorescence 30 min-24 h after exposure to ICCM. Inhibitors of the ERK pathway (PD98059 and U0126), the JNK pathway (SP600125), and the p38 pathway (SB203580) were used to investigate whether bystander-induced cell death could be blocked. Cells were also incubated with ICCM in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and thapsigargin to investigate whether bystander effects could be inhibited because of the known effects on calcium homeostasis. Activated forms of JNK and ERK proteins were observed after exposure to ICCM. Inhibition of the ERK pathway appeared to increase bystander-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of the JNK pathway appeared to decrease apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and calcium signaling were found to be important modulators of

  17. Identification, expression and interaction analyses of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Zhang, Yupeng; Deng, Min; Niu, Fangfang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Boya; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-03-19

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a well-known ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases found only in plants and some protozoans. CPKs are Ca2+ sensors that have both Ca2+ sensing function and kinase activity within a single protein and play crucial roles in plant development and responses to various environmental stresses. In this study, we mined the available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of B. napus and identified a total of 25 CPK genes, among which cDNA sequences of 23 genes were successfully cloned from a double haploid cultivar of canola. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that they could be clustered into four subgroups. The subcellular localization of five selected BnaCPKs was determined using green fluorescence protein (GFP) as the reporter. Furthermore, the expression levels of 21 BnaCPK genes in response to salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), low potassium (LK) and oxidative stress were studied by quantitative RT-PCR and were found to respond to multiple stimuli, suggesting that canola CPKs may be convergence points of different signaling pathways. We also identified and cloned five and eight Clade A basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) genes from canola and, using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), determined the interaction between individual BnaCPKs and BnabZIPs or BnaPP2Cs (Clade A). We identified novel, interesting interaction partners for some of the BnaCPK proteins. We present the sequences and characterization of CPK gene family members in canola for the first time. This work provides a foundation for further crop improvement and improved understanding of signal transduction in plants.

  18. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  19. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events. PMID:17663775

  20. The effects of calcium on the expression of genes involved in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    carboxylic acid (ACC) is converted to ethylene was supported, but the study also revealed the regulation of expression in the ethylene receptors. The potential roles of LeACO1, LeETR 3, 4, 5 and calcium in AZs during tomato.

  1. Control of IsAHP in mouse hippocampus CA1 pyramidal neurons by RyR3-mediated calcium-induced calcium release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Vrede, van de; Fossier, P.; Baux, G.; Joëls, M.; Chameau, P.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    In several neuronal preparations, the ryanodine-sensitive calcium store was reported to participate in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization currents (IsAHP) involved in spike frequency adaptation. We show that calcium release from the ryanodine-sensitive calcium store is a major determinant

  2. [Effect of different culture conditions on carbonic anhydrase from Bacillus mucilaginosus inducing calcium carbonate crystal formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xueying; Du, Ye; Lian, Bin

    2010-07-01

    Effect of various culture conditions on the morphology, amount and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of Bacillus mucilaginosus were examined, as well as the effect on calcium carbonate crystal forming, shape and amount. The strain was inoculated in N-free or N-containing medium, and the bacterial morphology, number and CA activity were compared under different culture conditions. By collecting different cultures and adding them to the system of calcium carbonate crystallization we studied the relationship between the bacteria and the formation of calcium carbonate crystals. A small number of cell, capsular hypertrophy, lower CA activity in bacterial culture were obtained under N-free culture condition. In contrast, more biomass quantity, thin capsule, and high CA activity were got in the nitrogen-containing culture. In the calcium carbonate crystal system, adding N-free culture of bacteria produced a smooth surface of calcium carbonate crystals, larger volume but small density, the addition N-containing culture of bacteria formed rough surface, bigger density but smaller volume of calcium carbonate crystals. Different culture conditions can cause significant differences in bacterial amounts, capsular thickness and CA activity, and then influence the crystal growth and form of calcium carbonate.

  3. A riboswitch-based inducible gene expression system for mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Seeliger

    Full Text Available Research on the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb would benefit from novel tools for regulated gene expression. Here we describe the characterization and application of a synthetic riboswitch-based system, which comprises a mycobacterial promoter for transcriptional control and a riboswitch for translational control. The system was used to induce and repress heterologous protein overexpression reversibly, to create a conditional gene knockdown, and to control gene expression in a macrophage infection model. Unlike existing systems for controlling gene expression in Mtb, the riboswitch does not require the co-expression of any accessory proteins: all of the regulatory machinery is encoded by a short DNA segment directly upstream of the target gene. The inducible riboswitch platform has the potential to be a powerful general strategy for creating customized gene regulation systems in Mtb.

  4. Dexamethasone-induced cardiac deterioration is associated with both calcium handling abnormalities and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Bozi, Luis Henrique Marchesi; Souza, Pâmela R; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a potent and widely used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. However, recent evidences suggest that dexamethasone cause pathologic cardiac remodeling, which later impairs cardiac function. The mechanism behind the cardiotoxic effect of dexamethasone is elusive. The present study aimed to verify if dexamethasone-induced cardiotoxicity would be associated with changes in the cardiac net balance of calcium handling protein and calcineurin signaling pathway activation. Wistar rats (~400 g) were treated with dexamethasone (35 µg/g) in drinking water for 15 days. After dexamethasone treatment, we analyzed cardiac function, cardiomyocyte diameter, cardiac fibrosis, and the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway. Dexamethasone-treated rats showed several cardiovascular abnormalities, including elevated blood pressure, diastolic dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Regarding the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling, dexamethasone increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at threonine 17, reduced protein levels of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and had no effect on protein expression of Serca2a. Protein levels of NFAT and GATA-4 were increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear faction. In addition, dexamethasone increased nuclear protein levels of calcineurin. Altogether our findings suggest that dexamethasone causes pathologic cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, which is associated with impaired calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Prideaux

    Full Text Available Parathyroid Hormone (PTH can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R, which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1 promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac, protein kinase C (PKC or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these

  6. Simvastatin Potently Induces Calcium-dependent Apoptosis of Human Leiomyoma Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borahay, Mostafa A.; Kilic, Gokhan S.; Yallampalli, Chandrasekha; Snyder, Russell R.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Boehning, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Statins are drugs commonly used for the treatment of high plasma cholesterol levels. Beyond these well known lipid-lowering properties, they possess broad-reaching effects in vivo, including antitumor effects. Statins inhibit the growth of multiple tumors. However, the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that simvastatin inhibits the proliferation of human leiomyoma cells. This was associated with decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and multiple changes in cell cycle progression. Simvastatin potently stimulated leiomyoma cell apoptosis in a manner mechanistically dependent upon apoptotic calcium release from voltage-gated calcium channels. Therefore, simvastatin possesses antitumor effects that are dependent upon the apoptotic calcium release machinery. PMID:25359773

  7. A novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene in an Irish pedigree showing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elamin Wael F

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymptomatic and non-progressive hypercalcemia due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene. Disorders of calcium metabolism are very common in the elderly, and they can coexist with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in affected families. Case presentation We describe an Irish family with hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria. The proband, an 80-year-old Irish woman, presented with hypercalcemia, relative hypocalciuria, and an elevated parathormone level. She also had chronic kidney disease stage 3 and vitamin D deficiency. Two of her sons were also found to be hypercalcemic and hypocalciuric. DNA sequencing identified a novel missense inactivating mutation in the calcium sensing-receptor gene of the proband and her two hypercalcemic sons. Conclusion Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia due to a novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene was diagnosed in the proband and her two sons. Disorders of calcium metabolism can be multifarious in the elderly. We suggest that testing first degree relatives for calcium levels and DNA sequencing may have a role in the assessment of elderly patients with parathormone-related hypercalcemia.

  8. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify genes induced during the salt stress response in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L) seedlings, a cDNA library by salt stress was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Total RNA from 15-day-old seedlings was used as a 'driver', and total RNA from seedlings induced by salt was ...

  9. Comparison of Tooth Discoloration Induced by Calcium-Enriched Mixture and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Armita; Akbari, Majid; Farhadi-Faz, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tooth discoloration induced by calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Forty five endodontically treated human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into three groups (n=15) after removing the coronal 3 mm of the obturating materials. In the MTA group, white MTA plug was placed in pulp chamber and coronal zone of the root canal. In CEM cement group, CEM plug was placed in the tooth in the same manner. In both groups, a wet cotton pellet was placed in the access cavity and the teeth were temporarily sealed. After 24 h the teeth were restored with resin composite. In the negative control group the teeth were also restored with resin composite. The color change in the cervical third of teeth was measured with a colorimeter and was repeated 3 times for each specimen. The teeth were kept in artificial saliva for 6 months. After this period, the color change was measured again. Data were collected by Commission International de I'Eclairage's L*a*b color values, and corresponding Δ E values were calculated. The results were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test with the significance level defined as 0.05. There was no significant differences between CEM group and control group in mean discoloration. The mean tooth discoloration in MTA group was significantly greater than CEM and control groups (Pdiscoloration after six months. Therefore it can be used in vital pulp therapy of esthetically sensitive teeth.

  10. Protective Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraft-Bahloul, Nassima; Husson, Cécile; Ourtioualous, Meriam; Sinaeve, Sébastien; Atmani, Djebbar; Stévigny, Caroline; Nortier, Joëlle L; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-14

    The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Human Kidney [HK]-2 cells were incubated with and without COM in the presence or absence of PLEF. Cell viability was measured by the resazurin assay. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by PCR. The extracellular production of H2O2 was measured by Amplex® Red H2O2 Assay. The numbers of detached or non-adherent COM crystals in the presence of PLEF were microscopically captured and counted using ImageJ software. The interaction of PLEF with COM and the effect of PLEF on crystal size were analyzed by flow cytometry. The spectrophotometric measurement of turbidity was performed for assessing the COM concentration. PLEF incubated with COM was able to increase the cell viability. The decrease of E-cadherin expression after incubation with COM was counteracted by PLEF. Overproduction of H2O2 induced by COM was also inhibited by PLEF. Observations using flow cytometry showed that interactions between PLEF and the COM crystals occurred. PLEF was also effective in reducing the particles size and in lowering COM concentration. Our data show that COM tubulotoxicity can be significantly reversed by PLEF -at least in part- via an inhibition of COM crystals adhesion onto the apical membrane. This early beneficial effect of PLEF needs to be further investigated as a useful strategy in nephrolithiasis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  11. Cadmium Induces Apoptosis in Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense through Activating Calcium Signal Transduction Pathway: e0144392

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinxiang Wang; Pingping Zhang; Na Liu; Qian Wang; Jixian Luo; Lan Wang

    2015-01-01

      Calcium ion (Ca2+) is one of the key intracellular signals, which is implicated in the regulation of cell functions such as impregnation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Cadmium (Cd...

  12. PhTx3-4, a Spider Toxin Calcium Channel Blocker, Reduces NMDA-Induced Injury of the Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Scardua Binda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo neuroprotective effect of PhTx3-4, a spider toxin N-P/Q calcium channel blocker, was studied in a rat model of NMDA-induced injury of the retina. NMDA (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate-induced retinal injury in rats reduced the b-wave amplitude by 62% ± 3.6%, indicating the severity of the insult. PhTx3-4 treatment increased the amplitude of the b-wave, which was almost equivalent to the control retinas that were not submitted to injury. The PhTx3-4 functional protection of the retinas recorded on the ERG also was observed in the neuroprotection of retinal cells. NMDA-induced injury reduced live cells in the retina layers and the highest reduction, 84%, was in the ganglion cell layer. Notably, PhTx3-4 treatment caused a remarkable reduction of dead cells in the retina layers, and the highest neuroprotective effect was in the ganglion cells layer. NMDA-induced cytotoxicity of the retina increased the release of glutamate, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and oxidative stress. PhTx3-4 treatment reduced glutamate release, ROS production and oxidative stress measured by malondialdehyde. Thus, we presented for the first time evidence of in vivo neuroprotection from NMDA-induced retinal injury by PhTx3-4 (-ctenitoxin-Pn3a, a spider toxin that blocks N-P/Q calcium channels.

  13. Intracellular calcium-release and protein kinase C-activation stimulate sonic hedgehog gene expression during gastric acid secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Zavros, Yana; Tessier, Art; Waghray, Meghna; Lentz, Steve; Gumucio, Deborah; Todisco, Andrea; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hypochlorhydria during Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits gastric Shh expression. We investigated whether acid-secretory mechanisms regulate Shh gene expression through Ca2+i-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) or cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-activation. Method We blocked Hedgehog signaling by transgenically overexpressing a secreted form of the Hedgehog interacting protein-1 (sHip-1), a natural inhibitor of hedgehog ligands, which induced hypochlorhydria. Gadolinium, EGTA+BAPTA, PKC-overexpressing adenoviruses, and PKC-inhibitors were used to modulate Ca2+i-release, PKC-activity and Shh gene expression in primary gastric cell, organ, and AGS cell line cultures. PKA hyperactivity was induced in the H+/K+-β-cholera-toxin overexpressing mice (Ctox). Results Mice that expressed sHip-1 had lower levels of gastric acid (hypochlorhydria), reduced production of somatostatin, and increased gastrin gene expression. Hypochlorhydria in these mice repressed Shh gene expression, similar to the levels obtained with omeprazole treatment of wild-type mice. However, Shh expression was also repressed in the hyperchlorhydric Ctox model with elevated cAMP, suggesting that the regulation of Shh was not solely acid-dependent, but pertained to specific acid-stimulatory signaling pathways. Based on previous reports that Ca2+i-release also stimulates acid secretion in parietal cells, we showed that gadolinium-, thapsigargin- and carbachol-mediated release of Ca2+i induced Shh expression. Ca2+-chelation with BAPTA+EGTA reduced Shh expression. Overexpression of PKC-α, -β and -δ (but not PKC-ε) induced Shh gene expression. In addition, phorbol esters induced a Shh-regulated reporter gene. Conclusion Secretagogues that stimulate gastric acid secretion induce Shh gene expression through increased Ca2+i-release and PKC activation. Shh might be the ligand transducing changes in gastric acidity to the regulation of G-cell secretion of gastrin. PMID:20816837

  14. Contractions induced by a calcium-triggered release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of single skinned cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiato, A; Fabiato, F

    1975-08-01

    1. Fragments of single cardiac cells were obtained by homogenization of ventricular tissue from adult rats. Remaining pieces of sacrolemma were removed by micro-dissection. Tension was recorded from the ends of the skinned (sarcolemma-free) cells with a photodiode force transducer. 2. In the presence of a strong buffering of the free [Ca2+] with 4-0 mM total EGTA, a tonic tension was obtained that increased according to t sigmoid curve when the free ([Ca2+] was increased from 10(-6-75)M to 10(-5-0)M. This curve was not modified by the destruction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by the detergent Brij 58. Therefore, the tonic tension corresponded to the direct effect of the free [Ca2+] present in the buffer on the myofilaments. 3. In the presence of a slight buffering of the free [Ca2+] with 0-050 mM total EGTA, cyclic contractions were observed that were attributed to cyclic releases and re-sequestrations of Ca2+ by the SR. The absence of effect of azide and ruthenium red on the cyclic contractions obtained at a free [Ca2+] lower than 10(-6-50)M demonstrated that the mitochondria played no role in the triggering of these contractions. 4. Cyclic contractions were induced by a slight variation of free [Ca2+] in the buffer from 10(-7-65)M to 10(-7-40)M. Their amplitude at 10(-7-40)M free Ca2+ was equal to the tonic tension developed by a free [Ca2+] 20 times higher applied to the myofilaments when the SR was destroyed by detergent or functionally inhibited by high total [EGTA]. It was concluded that these cyclic contractions corresponded to a Ca2+-triggered release of Ca2+ from the SR. 5. The cyclic contractions were induced by the filling of the SR with Ca2+ to a critical level at which it released a fraction of the Ca2+ it contained. Each contraction was followed by a re-sequestration of Ca2+, the kinetics of which conditioned the duration of the cycles. 6. The amplitude of the cyclic contractions increased when the free [Ca2+] that triggered them was increased

  15. Screening of hypoxia-inducible genes in sporadic ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Genetic variations in two hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes, VEGF and ANG, have been linked with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). Common variations in these genes may reduce the levels or functioning of their products. VEGF and ANG belong to a larger group of angiogenic genes that are up-regulated under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that common genetic variation across other members of this group may also predispose to sporadic ALS. To screen other hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes for association with SALS, we selected 112 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tgSNPs) that captured the common genetic variation across 16 VEGF-like and eight ANG-like hypoxia-inducible genes. Screening for association was performed in 270 Irish individuals with typical SALS and 272 ethnically matched unrelated controls. SNPs showing association in the Irish phase were genotyped in a replication sample of 281 Swedish sporadic ALS patients and 286 Swedish controls. Seven markers showed association in the Irish. The one modest replication signal observed in the Swedish replication sample, at rs3801158 in the gene inhibin beta A, was for the opposite allele vs. the Irish cohort. We failed to detect association of common variation across 24 candidate hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes with SALS.

  16. Mechanisms of radiation-induced gene responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.

    1996-10-01

    In the process of identifying genes differentially expressed in cells exposed ultraviolet radiation, we have identified a transcript having a 26-bp region that is highly conserved in a variety of species including Bacillus circulans, yeast, pumpkin, Drosophila, mouse, and man. When the 5` region (flanking region or UTR) of a gene, the sequence is predominantly in +/+ orientation with respect to the coding DNA strand; while in the coding region and the 3` region (UTR), the sequence is most frequently in the +/-orientation with respect to the coding DNA strand. In two genes, the element is split into two parts; however, in most cases, it is found only once but with a minimum of 11 consecutive nucleotides precisely depicting the original sequence. The element is found in a large number of different genes with diverse functions (from human ras p21 to B. circulans chitonase). Gel shift assays demonstrated the presence of a protein in HeLa cell extracts that binds to the sense and antisense single-stranded consensus oligomers, as well as to the double- stranded oligonucleotide. When double-stranded oligomer was used, the size shift demonstrated as additional protein-oligomer complex larger than the one bound to either sense or antisense single-stranded consensus oligomers alone. It is speculated either that this element binds to protein(s) important in maintaining DNA is a single-stranded orientation for transcription or, alternatively that this element is important in the transcription-coupled DNA repair process.

  17. Non-viral bone morphogenetic protein 2 transfection of rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Dolder, J. van den; Yang, F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have shown potential as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The aim of this study was to induce bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 transfection in rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as a gene vector and then to evaluate the efficiency and

  18. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. (Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following [gamma]-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of [beta]-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following [gamma]-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not [gamma]-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to [gamma] rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

  19. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following {gamma}-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of {beta}-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following {gamma}-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not {gamma}-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to {gamma} rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

  20. [Differentially expressed genes in diabetes-induced embryopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang-Dong; Ma, Xing; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Bi-Liang; Wang, De-Tang

    2009-03-01

    To determine molecular mechanism in hyperglycemia induced congenital neural tube defects, yolk sac cells were harvested at gestational day 12 from streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats with congenital neural tube defects in offspring, STZ-induced diabetic rats without neural tube defects and normal control group. We analyzed gene expression profiles in yolk sac cells using a DNA microarray technique. Changes in apoptotic and MAP Kinase signaling pathways were detected by Western blotting analyses. Comparison of genes in yolk sac cells with a total of 1 200 genes in the control cells, 79 genes differently expressed between the two groups were detected. Forty-two of them were up-regulated and 37 were down-regulated. There was strong characteristic apoptotic DNA ladder in yolk sac cells in embryopathic offspring from experimentally-induced diabetic rats. The activity of ERK1/2 was dramatically decreased and the activity of JNK1/2 was significantly increased. Differentially expressed genes, MAP Kinase, and apoptotic signal pathways play very important roles in hyperglycemia induced neural tube defects. We hope that these could provide useful hallmark to rapid identification of early diabetic embryopathy.

  1. Calcium signaling induced by angiotensin II in the pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, D C; Sarosi, G A; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and mechanisms of angiotensin II-evoked calcium signaling in AR42J cells. Cytosolic calcium concentrations were determined using fura-2-based microfluorimetry. Angiotensin II causes elevations in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the rat pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J. The mechanisms of angiotensin II-evoked calcium signaling were examined using fura-2-based fluorescent digital microscopy. Angiotensin II caused dose-dependent increments in [Ca2+]i over a concentration range of 0.1-1,000 nM, with an average increment of 243 +/- 16 nM at an angiotensin II concentration of 1,000 nM. Dup753, an AT1-specific antagonist, inhibited angiotensin II-evoked signaling, whereas the AT2 antagonist PD123,319 had no effect. Preincubation with the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 reduced the response in [Ca2+]i to 25% of that of the control. Thapsigargin abolished angiotensin II-evoked calcium signaling. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist heparin introduced by radiofrequency electroporation inhibited responses to 46 +/- 6% of controls. Angiotensin II-evoked signals were reduced in magnitude and duration by elimination of Ca2+ from the extracellular buffer. Preincubation with pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml) had no effect. Angiotensin II did not stimulate cyclic AMP or suppress vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulated cyclic AMP production over the concentration range that caused Ca2+ signaling.

  2. Gene Expression Profiling of Chemically Induced Rat Bladder Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisheng Yao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of genetic alterations and gene expression changes are involved in the pathogenesis of bladder tumors. To explore expression changes in 4-hydroxybutyl(butylnitrosamine-induced rat bladder tumors, microarray analysis was performed. Analysis yielded 1,138 known genes and 867 expressed sequence tags that were changed when comparing tumors to normal rat epithelia. Altered genes included cell cycle-related genes, EGFR-Ras signaling genes, apoptosis genes, growth factors, and oncogenes. Using the pathway visualization tool GenMAPP, we found that these genes can be grouped along several pathways that control apoptosis, cell cycle, and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. When comparing current data with previous mouse bladder tumor data, we found that>280 of the same known genes were differentially expressed in both mouse and rat bladder tumors, including cell cycle-related genes, small G proteins, apoptosis genes, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and growth factors. These results suggest that multiple pathways are involved in rat bladder tumorigenesis, and a common molecular mechanism was found in both rat and mouse bladder tumors.

  3. Calcium-mediated responses and glutamine synthetase expression in greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) under diethyl phthalate-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lee-Ju; Hung, Meng-Ju; Cheng, Yen-I; Cheng, Tai-Sheng

    2013-11-15

    This study was carried out to assess the influence of diethyl phthalate (DEP) alone or associated with calcium chloride (CaCl2) on greater duckweed plants, emphasizing the implications of calcium in amelioration of DEP-induced stress on plant growth. Greater duckweed were treated with DEP in variable concentrations, as 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM for 7 days, or treated with the same concentration either 2mM DEP or 2mM DEP plus 10mM CaCl2·2H2O in different duration 0-7 days. Treatment with 2mM DEP resulted in increasing proline content, protease activity, and ammonia accumulation in duckweed tissues. NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) and Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR; EC 1.5.1.2), two key enzymes in the glutamate pathway of proline synthesis, showed increase in activity with DEP treatment and positively correlated with proline accumulation. No further increase in proline accumulation was observed with addition of calcium chloride to the DEP-treated cultures. However, supplementation of Ca(2+) can mitigate the adverse effect of DEP, at least in part to decrease the DEP-induced superoxide accumulation and increase in GDH activity for ammonia assimilation in duckweed fronds. In addition, effects of calcium on mitigation of DEP injury were also observed in glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) expression. Both GS1 and GS2 polypeptide accumulation and the level of total GS activity were nearly equivalent to the control. Exogenous proline protects GS2 from DEP-modulated redox damage in the chloroplast lysates but there is no remarkable protection effects on D1 (the 32kDa protein in photosystem II reaction center) degradation. In conclusion, the glutamate pathway of proline synthesis might be involved in mitigation of DEP-induced injury, and calcium plays an important role in increasing GDH, P5CR, and GS expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  5. Lithium ions induce prestalk-associated gene expression and inhibit prespore gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorien J.M.; Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Spek, Wouter; Schaap, Pauline

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Li+ on two types of cyclic AMP-regulated gene expression and on basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) levels. Li+ effectively inhibits cyclic AMP-induced prespore gene expression, half-maximal inhibition occurring at about 2mM-LiCl.

  6. Inducible gene expression and environmentally regulated genes in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Relatively recently, a number of genes and operons have been identified in lactic acid bacteria that are inducible and respond to environmental factors. Some of these genes/operons had been isolated and analysed because of their importance in the fermentation industry and, consequently, their

  7. Nicotine-substitute gum-induced milk alkali syndrome: a look at unexpected sources of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christine M; Mackey, Patricia A; Westphal, Sydney A; Argueta, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a 64-year-old woman with recurrent hypercalcemia. Her laboratory evaluation was consistent with milk-alkali syndrome. It was eventually discovered that the source of the excessive calcium consumption was nicotine-replacement chewing gum and carbonated water. An extensive literature search was performed to see if milk-alkali syndrome due to nicotine-replacement gum and carbonated water has been previously reported. No prior report describing the association of milk alkali syndrome with nicotine-replacement gum and carbonated water was found. We present a unique case of milk-alkali syndrome due to nicotine-replacement gum and carbonated water. It serves as a lesson to evaluate other sources besides calcium supplements as the cause of excessive calcium intake.

  8. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in an Experimental Model of Calcium Channel Blocker Induced Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H.; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S.; Bania, Theodore C.; Hoffman, Robert S.; Chu, Jason

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. While supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. Methylene blue acts as both a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cGMP. Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and heart rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg/hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline (NS) with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg over 5 mins or an equivalent amount of NS in three intervals from the start of the protocol: Minute 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. RESULTS Overall, 1/15 (7%) rats in the saline-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5/15 (33%) rats in the methylene blue-treated group (difference −26%, 95% CI –54%, 0.3%). The median survival time for the NS group was 42 min (95% CI, 28.1,55.9) and the methylene blue group was 109 min (95% CI, 93.9,124.1). Heart rate and MAP differences between groups were analyzed until 60 minutes

  9. Calcium induces long-term legacy effects in a subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaffner

    Full Text Available Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world's land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m(-2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems.

  10. Bone regeneration with micro/nano hybrid-structured biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics at segmental bone defect and the induced immunoregulation of MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Rui; Ye, Xingjiang; Chen, Xuening; Xiao, Zhanwen; Yang, Xiao; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhang, Kai; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-12-01

    Adequate bone regeneration has been difficult to achieve at segmental bone defects caused by disease. The surface structure and phase composition of calcium phosphate bioceramic are crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductivity. In the present study, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics composed of micro-whiskers and nanoparticles hybrid-structured surface (hBCP) were fabricated via a hydrothermal reaction. The in vivo long bone defect model of beagle dogs implanted with hBCP bioceramics achieved a higher quality regenerated bone as compared to the traditional smooth-surface BCP control group. After a 12-week implantation period, more new bone formation within the implanted material and a higher fracture load were observed in the hBCP group (p < 0.05 vs. control). In addition, the local bone integration efficacy, as determined by nanoindentation, showed a significantly closer elastic modulus of the implanted hBCP bioceramics to that of the natural bone adjacent. Finally, in vitro gene microarray analysis of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with two bioceramics showed that the hBCP group induced a drastic downregulation of the genes associated with inflammatory response, which was never documented in previous studies regarding biomaterials with a micro/nano hybrid structure. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signalling pathway was the most involved and preferentially inhibited by the hBCP material. Collectively, the findings suggested that the micro/nano hybrid-structured bioceramics augmented local bone regeneration at segmental bone defects and presented a potential alternative to autologous bone grafts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ESCRT components regulate the expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 through the Rim101/Nrg1 pathway in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunying; Du, Jingcai; Xiong, Bing; Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Linghuo

    2013-10-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes function to form multivesicular bodies for sorting of proteins destined for the yeast vacuole or the mammalian lysosome. ESCRT components are well conserved in eukaryotes, and their mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases and other cellular pathologies in humans. PMR1 is the orthologous gene of two human genes for calcium pumps secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1, ATP2C1) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, ATP2A2), which are mutated in Hailey-Hailey and Darier genetic diseases, respectively. Here we show that deletion mutation of ESCRT components Snf7, Snf8, Stp22, Vps20, Vps25, Vps28, or Vps36 activates the calcium/calcineurin signaling in yeast cells, but surprisingly leads to a nearly 50% reduction in expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 independent of calcium stress. These ESCRT mutants are known to have a defect in Rim101 activation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of Rim101 or further deletion of NRG1 in these mutants partially suppresses their calcium hypersensitivity. Deletion of NRG1 also completely rescues the expression of PMR1 in these mutants to the level of the wild type. Promoter mutagenesis, gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrate that Nrg1 binds to two motifs in the PMR1 promoter. In addition, expression of PMR1 under the control of its promoters with mutated Nrg1-binding motifs suppresses the calcium hypersensitivity of these ESCRT mutants. Collectively, these data have uncovered a function of ESCRT components in regulating PMR1 expression through the Nrg1/Rim101 pathway. Our findings provide important clues for understanding human diseases related to calcium homeostasis.

  12. Molecular genetic analysis of the calcium sensing receptor gene in patients clinically suspected to have familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: phenotypic variation and mutation spectrum in a Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Peter H; Christensen, Signe E; Heickendorff, Lene; Brixen, Kim; Mosekilde, Leif

    2007-11-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited condition familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is characterized by elevated plasma calcium levels, relative or absolute hypocalciuria, and normal to moderately elevated plasma PTH. The condition is difficult to distinguish clinically from primary hyperparathyroidism and is caused by inactivating mutations in the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene. We sought to define the mutation spectrum of the CASR gene in a Danish FHH population and to establish genotype-phenotype relationships regarding the different mutations. A total of 213 subjects clinically suspected to have FHH, and 121 subjects enrolled as part of a family-screening program were studied. Genotype-phenotype relationships were established in 66 mutation-positive index patients and family members. We determined CASR gene mutations, and correlating levels of plasma calcium (albumin corrected), ionized calcium (pH 7.4), and PTH were measured. We identified 22 different mutations in 39 FHH families. We evaluated data on circulating calcium and PTH for 11 different mutations, representing a spectrum of clinical phenotypes, ranging from calcium concentrations moderately above the upper reference limit, to calcium levels more than 20% above the upper reference limit. Furthermore, the mean plasma PTH concentration was within the normal range in eight of 11 studied mutations, but mild to moderately elevated in families with the mutations p.C582Y, p.C582F, and p.G553R. The present data add 19 novel mutations to the catalog of inactivating CASR mutations and illustrate a variety of biochemical phenotypes in patients with the molecular genetic diagnosis FHH.

  13. Calcium Hydroxide-induced Proliferation, Migration, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Mineralization via the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoping; Zheng, Lisha; Jiang, Jingyi; Gui, Jinpeng; Zhang, Lingyu; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ji, Jing; Fan, Yubo

    2016-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been extensively used as the gold standard for direct pulp capping in clinical dentistry. It induces proliferation, migration, and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Human DPSCs between passages 3 and 6 were used. DPSCs were preincubated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and cultured with calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated MAP kinases were detected by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was analyzed via the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Cell migration was estimated using the wound healing assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was analyzed using the ALP staining assay. Mineralization was studied by alizarin red staining analysis. Calcium hydroxide significantly promoted the phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The inhibition of JNK and p38 signaling abolished calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation of DPSCs. The inhibition of JNK, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling suppressed the migration, ALP expression, and mineralization of DPSCs. Our study showed that the MAP kinase pathway was involved in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypochlorhydria-induced calcium malabsorption does not affect fracture healing but increases post-traumatic bone loss in the intact skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Heilmann, Aline; Heidler, Verena; Liedert, Astrid; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Yorgan, Timur Alexander; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Ignatius, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Efficient calcium absorption is essential for skeletal health. Patients with impaired gastric acidification display low bone mass and increased fracture risk because calcium absorption is dependent on gastric pH. We investigated fracture healing and post-traumatic bone turnover in mice deficient in Cckbr, encoding a gastrin receptor that affects acid secretion by parietal cells. Cckbr-/- mice display hypochlorhydria, calcium malabsorption, and osteopenia. Cckbr-/- and wildtype (WT) mice received a femur osteotomy and were fed either a standard or calcium-enriched diet. Healed and intact bones were assessed by biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, and quantitative backscattering. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fracture healing was unaffected in Cckbr-/- mice. However, Cckbr-/- mice displayed increased calcium mobilization from the intact skeleton during bone healing, confirmed by significantly elevated PTH levels and osteoclast numbers compared to WT mice. Calcium supplementation significantly reduced secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone resorption in the intact skeleton in both genotypes, but more efficiently in WT mice. Furthermore, calcium administration improved bone healing in WT mice, indicated by significantly increased mechanical properties and bone mineral density of the fracture callus, whereas it had no significant effect in Cckbr-/- mice. Therefore, under conditions of hypochlorhydria-induced calcium malabsorption, calcium, which is essential for callus mineralization, appears to be increasingly mobilized from the intact skeleton in favor of fracture healing. Calcium supplementation during fracture healing prevented systemic calcium mobilization, thereby maintaining bone mass and improving fracture healing in healthy individuals whereas the effect was limited by gastric hypochlorhydria. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J

  15. Amino acid substitutions in the FXYD motif enhance phospholemman-induced modulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Xianming; Gao, Guofeng; Huang, Congxin; Elmslie, Keith S; Peterson, Blaise Z

    2010-11-01

    We have found that phospholemman (PLM) associates with and modulates the gating of cardiac L-type calcium channels (Wang et al., Biophys J 98: 1149-1159, 2010). The short 17 amino acid extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain of PLM contains a highly conserved PFTYD sequence that defines it as a member of the FXYD family of ion transport regulators. Although we have learned a great deal about PLM-dependent changes in calcium channel gating, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed changes. Therefore, we investigated the role of the PFTYD segment in the modulation of cardiac calcium channels by individually replacing Pro-8, Phe-9, Thr-10, Tyr-11, and Asp-12 with alanine (P8A, F9A, T10A, Y11A, D12A). In addition, Asp-12 was changed to lysine (D12K) and cysteine (D12C). As expected, wild-type PLM significantly slows channel activation and deactivation and enhances voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). We were surprised to find that amino acid substitutions at Thr-10 and Asp-12 significantly enhanced the ability of PLM to modulate Ca(V)1.2 gating. T10A exhibited a twofold enhancement of PLM-induced slowing of activation, whereas D12K and D12C dramatically enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. The PLM-induced slowing of channel closing was abrogated by D12A and D12C, whereas D12K and T10A failed to impact this effect. These studies demonstrate that the PFXYD motif is not necessary for the association of PLM with Ca(V)1.2. Instead, since altering the chemical and/or physical properties of the PFXYD segment alters the relative magnitudes of opposing PLM-induced effects on Ca(V)1.2 channel gating, PLM appears to play an important role in fine tuning the gating kinetics of cardiac calcium channels and likely plays an important role in shaping the cardiac action potential and regulating Ca(2+) dynamics in the heart.

  16. [Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Therapeutic value of treatment with calcium antagonists, hypervolemic hemodilution and induced arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Hannemann, L; Specht, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1995-04-01

    Only 53%-58% of patients with a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAB) following the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm survive without neurological damage. Morbidity and mortality are closely related to the delayed ischaemic neurological deficit due to cerebral vasospasm. The following review gives an account of pathophysiological mechanisms; the importance of treatment with calcium antagonists, hypervolaemic haemodilution, and induced arterial hypertension is discussed in light of the current literature. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY. In addition to other vasoactive substances in the blood, haemoglobin, which is released from lysed erythrocytes on the 2nd to 4th day after the haemorrhage, plays an important role in inducing vasospasm. An inflammatory angiopathy ensues, with complete resolution after 6-12 weeks. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced depending on the extent of vasospasm. Irreversible infarction may follow the decrease of CBF below a critical value. Severe vasospasm causes autoregulatory disturbances and reduced responsiveness of cerebral vessels to CO2. CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS. The calcium blocker nimodipine causes dilatation of small pial vessels with increased CBF. However, systemic vasodilation with the subsequent fall in blood pressure may limit the increase in CBF. Furthermore, it is known that nimodipine decreases intracellular calcium concentrations resulting in some protection against ischaemic cellular injury. Seven placebo-controlled clinical studies have shown that nimodipine improves the outcome of patients with severe neurological damage due to cerebral vasospasm. HYPERVOLAEMIC HAEMODILUTION. Volume expansion and haemodilution to a hematocrit of 30%-33% is suggested to improve cerebral perfusion during vasospasm. The central venous and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures should be 10-12 mm Hg and 15-18 mm Hg, respectively. But there is no evidence of improved outcome with this measure, and pulmonary edema is a frequent side effect. However, impairment of

  17. The differential effect of calcium antagonists on the positive inotropic effects induced by calcium and monensin in cardiac preparations of rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugtenburg, J. G.; Mathy, M. J.; Beckeringh, J. J.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the present study to gain more insight into the role of extracellular calcium and of calcium from intracellular sources in the development of contractile force in the mammalian heart. In rat Langendorff hearts the effect of nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem, bepridil and lidoflazine

  18. Preserved frontal lobe oxygenation following calcium chloride for treatment of anesthesia-induced hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitchen, Carl-Christian; Nissen, Peter; Secher, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressor agents may affect cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) as determined by near-infrared spectroscopy on the forehead. This case series evaluated the effect of calcium chloride vs. α and β-adrenergic receptor agonists on rScO2 in patients (n = 47) undergoing surgery during i.v. anesthesia. Mean ...

  19. The sources of calcium for noradrenaline-induced contraction in the human thoracic internal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzun, Leszek; Modzelewska, Beata; Kostrzewska, Anna; Kleszczewska, Ewa; Kleszczewski, Tomasz

    2017-04-22

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of intracellular and extracellular calcium sources in contraction caused by noradrenaline (NA) of the human internal thoracic artery (ITA) in vitro. Distal segments of ITA were obtained from 20 patients (aged 38-73, at the time of routine coronary artery surgical revascularization (CABG)). Contractile responses to 10-6 mol/L NA in the physiological salt solution and in Ca2+-free solution without and after incubation with 10-6 mol/L thapsigargin (TSG) were recorded under isometric conditions. Responses of ITA rings to 1 μM NA without incubation with TSG accounted (% of reaction to 80 mM KCl) 224.70 ± 14.06% in PSS solution, 141.30 ± 8.66% in Ca2+-free solution, and 80.03 ± 1.71% after PSS restoration and were statistically significantly different (p calcium derived not only from the SR and the extracellular matrix. The delivery of calcium to the space surrounding tissue does not immediately deliver calcium to the myofilaments.

  20. Microbial phytase-induced calcium-phosphate precipitation : A potential soil stabilization method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Two hypotheses were tested: (1) microbial dephosphorylation of phytate in the presence of Ca2+ ions will result in the precipitation of hydroxyapatite-like crystals and (2) precipitation of calcium-phosphate crystals on and between sand-like particles can cause cementation. A growing culture of the

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection of Host Epithelial Cells via Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor Transiently Induces Calcium Release from Intracellular Stores*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Tauseef M.; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Räth, Susann; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is a major adhesin of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) that interacts in a human-specific manner with the ectodomain of the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) produced by respiratory epithelial cells. This interaction promotes bacterial colonization and bacterial internalization by initiating host signal transduction cascades. Here, we examined alterations of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels in epithelial cells during host cell infections with pneumococci via the PspC-hpIgR mechanism. The release of [Ca2+]i from intracellular stores in host cells was significantly increased by wild-type pneumococci but not by PspC-deficient pneumococci. The increase in [Ca2+]i was dependent on phospholipase C as pretreatment of cells with a phospholipase C-specific inhibitor U73122 abolished the increase in [Ca2+]i. In addition, we demonstrated the effect of [Ca2+]i on pneumococcal internalization by epithelial cells. Uptake of pneumococci was significantly increased after pretreatment of epithelial cells with the cell-permeable calcium chelator 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid-tetraacetoxymethyl ester or use of EGTA as an extracellular Ca2+-chelating agent. In contrast, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ATPase, which increases [Ca2+]i in a sustained fashion, significantly reduced pIgR-mediated pneumococcal invasion. Importantly, pneumococcal adherence to pIgR-expressing cells was not altered in the presence of inhibitors as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that pneumococcal infections induce mobilization of [Ca2+]i from intracellular stores. This may constitute a defense response of host cells as the experimental reduction of intracellular calcium levels facilitates pneumococcal internalization by pIgR-expressing cells, whereas elevated calcium levels diminished bacterial internalization by host epithelial

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection of host epithelial cells via polymeric immunoglobulin receptor transiently induces calcium release from intracellular stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Tauseef M; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Räth, Susann; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2011-05-20

    The pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is a major adhesin of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) that interacts in a human-specific manner with the ectodomain of the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) produced by respiratory epithelial cells. This interaction promotes bacterial colonization and bacterial internalization by initiating host signal transduction cascades. Here, we examined alterations of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) levels in epithelial cells during host cell infections with pneumococci via the PspC-hpIgR mechanism. The release of [Ca(2+)](i) from intracellular stores in host cells was significantly increased by wild-type pneumococci but not by PspC-deficient pneumococci. The increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was dependent on phospholipase C as pretreatment of cells with a phospholipase C-specific inhibitor U73122 abolished the increase in [Ca(2+)](i). In addition, we demonstrated the effect of [Ca(2+)](i) on pneumococcal internalization by epithelial cells. Uptake of pneumococci was significantly increased after pretreatment of epithelial cells with the cell-permeable calcium chelator 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-tetraacetoxymethyl ester or use of EGTA as an extracellular Ca(2+)-chelating agent. In contrast, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase, which increases [Ca(2+)](i) in a sustained fashion, significantly reduced pIgR-mediated pneumococcal invasion. Importantly, pneumococcal adherence to pIgR-expressing cells was not altered in the presence of inhibitors as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that pneumococcal infections induce mobilization of [Ca(2+)](i) from intracellular stores. This may constitute a defense response of host cells as the experimental reduction of intracellular calcium levels facilitates pneumococcal internalization by pIgR-expressing cells, whereas elevated calcium levels diminished bacterial

  3. INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, David George James [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Mcpherson, Jackson [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hoyt, Peter R [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and introduced alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs) in a gene delivery process termed impalefection. The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. 24 hours after nanofiber-mediated delivery, 53.1% 10.4% of the cells that expressed the yfp marker gene were also fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

  4. The effects of calcium channel blockade on agouti-induced obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Han; Moustaid, N.; Zemel, M.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    We have previously observed that obese viable yellow (A{sup vy}/a) mice exhibit increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]i) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression; further, recombinant agouti protein increases in cultured adipocytes and these effects are inhibited by Ca{sup 2+} channel blockade. Accordingly, we determined the effect of Ca{sup 2+} channel blockade (nifedipine for 4 wk) on FAS and obesity in transgenic mice expressing the agouti gene in a ubiquitous manner. The transgenic mice initially were significantly heavier (30.5 {+-} 0.6 vs. 27.3 {+-} 0.3 g; P<0.001) and exhibited a 0.81{degrees}C lower initial core temperature (P<0.0005), an approximately twofold increase in fat pad weights (P=0.002), a sevenfold increase in adipose FAS activity (P=0.009), and a twofold increase in plasma insulin level (P<0.05) compared to control mice. Nifedipine treatment resulted in an 18% decrease in fat pad weights (P<0.007) and a 74% decrease in adipose FAS activity (P=0.03), normalized circulating insulin levels and insulin sensitivity (P,0.05), and transiently elevated core temperature in the transgenic mice, but was without effect in the control mice. These data suggest that agouti regulates FAS, fat storage, and possibly thermogenesis, at least partially, via a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent mechanism, and that Ca{sup 2+} channel blockade may partially attenuate agouti-induced obesity. 42 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A cell wall extract from the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and induces intracellular calcium elevation in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ranf, Stefanie; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Mithöfer, Axel; Mazars, Christian; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2009-07-01

    Calcium (Ca2+), as a second messenger, is crucial for signal transduction processes during many biotic interactions. We demonstrate that cellular [Ca2+] elevations are early events in the interaction between the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana. A cell wall extract (CWE) from the fungus promotes the growth of wild-type seedlings but not of seedlings from P. indica-insensitive mutants. The extract and the fungus also induce a similar set of genes in Arabidopsis roots, among them genes with Ca2+ signalling-related functions. The CWE induces a transient cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+](cyt)) elevation in the roots of Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, as well as in BY-2 suspension cultures expressing the Ca2+ bioluminescent indicator aequorin. Nuclear Ca2+ transients were also observed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The Ca2+ response was more pronounced in roots than in shoots and involved Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular space as revealed by inhibitor studies. Inhibition of the Ca2+ response by staurosporine and the refractory nature of the Ca2+ elevation suggest that a receptor may be involved. The CWE does not stimulate H2O2 production and the activation of defence gene expression, although it led to phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The involvement of MAPK6 in the mutualistic interaction was shown for an mpk6 line, which did not respond to P. indica. Thus, Ca2+ is likely to be an early signalling component in the mutualistic interaction between P. indica and Arabidopsis or tobacco.

  6. Plasticity-Related Gene Expression During Eszopiclone-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and two miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice. Gene expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by the TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and correlated with sleep parameters. Eszopiclone reduced the latency to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and increased NREM sleep amounts. Eszopiclone had no effect on slow wave activity (SWA) during baseline conditions but reduced the SWA increase during recovery sleep (RS) after sleep deprivation. Gene expression analyses revealed three distinct patterns: (1) four genes had higher expression either in the cortex or hippocampus in the group of mice with increased amounts of wakefulness; (2) a large proportion of plasticity-related genes (7 out of 18 genes) had higher expression during RS in the cortex but not in the hippocampus; and (3) six genes and the two miRNAs showed no significant changes across conditions. Even at a relatively high dose (20 mg/kg), eszopiclone did not reduce the expression of plasticity-related genes during RS period in the cortex. These results indicate that gene expression associated with synaptic plasticity occurs in the cortex in the presence of a hypnotic medication.

  7. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  8. Calcium and cAMP signaling induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor(s) stimulation in NCB-20 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coune, P; Taleb, O; Mensah-Nyagan, A G; Maitre, M; Kemmel, V

    2010-04-28

    The NCB-20 neurohybridoma cells differentiated with dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP represent an interesting model to study several components of the gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) system in brain. In particular, an active Na(+)-dependent uptake and a depolarization-evoked release of GHB is expressed by these cells, together with high affinity specific binding sites for this substance. However, only little is known about cellular mechanisms following GHB receptor(s) stimulation in these neurons. Electrophysiological data indicate that GHB can differently affect Ca(2+) currents. L-type calcium channels were typically inhibited by GHB when NCB-20 cells were depolarized. In contrast, when NCB-20 cells were at resting potential, GHB induced a specific Ca(2+) entry through T-type calcium channels. In this study, we investigated the effect induced on cytosolic free Ca(2+) level and cAMP production by GHB receptor(s) stimulated with micromolar concentrations of GHB or structural analogues of GHB. Ca(2+) movements studied by cellular imaging were dose-dependently increased but disappeared for GHB concentrations >25 microM. In addition, nanomolar doses of GHB inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. This effect was also rapidly desensitized at higher GHB concentrations. Acting as an antagonist, NCS-382 decreased GHB receptor(s) mediated cAMP and calcium signals. The agonist NCS-356 mimicked GHB effects which were not affected by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP-55-845. Our results reveal the occurrence of Ca(2+)-dependent adenylate cyclase inhibition in NCB-20 neurons after GHB receptor(s) stimulation by GHB concentrations NCB-20 neurons of GHB receptors belonging to GPCR family that may recruit various G protein subtypes. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by frataxin deficiency is associated with cellular senescence and abnormal calcium metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinches-Amorós, Arantxa; Mollá, Belén; Pla-Martín, David; Palau, Francesc; González-Cabo, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is considered a neurodegenerative disorder involving both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the major target tissue structures. This neuropathy is caused by mutations in the FXN gene that encodes frataxin. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial and cell consequences of frataxin depletion in a cellular model based on frataxin silencing in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell line that has been used widely as in vitro models for studies on neurological diseases. We showed that the reduction of frataxin induced mitochondrial dysfunction due to a bioenergetic deficit and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in the mitochondria that were associated with oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. The depletion of frataxin did not cause cell death but increased autophagy, which may have a cytoprotective effect against cellular insults such as oxidative stress. Frataxin silencing provoked slow cell growth associated with cellular senescence, as demonstrated by increased SA-βgal activity and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. We postulate that cellular senescence might be related to a hypoplastic defect in the DRG during neurodevelopment, as suggested by necropsy studies. PMID:24860428

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by frataxin deficiency is associated with cellular senescence and abnormal calcium metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa eBolinches-Amorós

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia is considered a neurodegenerative disorder involving both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are the major target tissue structures. This neuropathy is caused by mutations in the FXN gene that encodes frataxin. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial and cell consequences of frataxin depletion in a cellular model based on frataxin silencing in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell line that has been used widely as in vitro models for studies on neurological diseases. We showed that the reduction of frataxin induced mitochondrial dysfunction due to a bioenergetic deficit and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in the mitochondria that were associated with oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. The depletion of frataxin did not cause cell death but increased autophagy, which may have a cytoprotective effect against cellular insults such as oxidative stress. Frataxin silencing provoked slow cell growth associated with cellular senescence, as demonstrated by increased SA-βgal activity and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. We postulate that cellular senescence might be related to a hypoplastic defect in the DRG during neurodevelopment, as suggested by necropsy studies.

  11. Induced resistance and gene expression in wheat against leaf rust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Key words: Wheat leaf rust, induced resistance, priming, gene expression, immunoblotting, crude Agapanthus africanus extract. ... agents, including several synthetic and natural plant activators (Garcia-Brugger et al., ... priming and direct defence activation (van Hulten et al.,. 2006). The identification of new ...

  12. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation off...

  13. Biopolymer-induced calcium phosphate scaling in membrane-based water treatment systems: Langmuir model films studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdal, Yara N; Oren, Yoram; Schwahn, Dietmar; Pipich, Vitaliy; Herzberg, Moshe; Ying, Wang; Kasher, Roni; Rapaport, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Biofouling and scaling on reverse osmosis (RO) or nanofiltration (NF) membranes during desalination of secondary and tertiary effluents pose an obstacle that limits the reuse of wastewater. In this study we explored the mineral scaling induced by biopolymers originated from bacterial biofilms: bovine serum albumin (BSA), fibrinogen, lysozyme and alginic acid, as well as an extracts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from bio-fouled RO membranes from wastewater treatment facility. Mineralization studies were performed on Langmuir films of the biopolymers deposited at the interface of a solution simulating RO desalination of secondary-treated wastewater effluents. All studied biopolymers and EPS induced heterogeneous mineralization of mainly calcium phosphate. Using IR spectroscopy coupled with systematic quantitative analysis of the surface pressure versus molecular-area isotherms, we determined the mineralization tendencies of the biopolymers to be in the order of: fibrinogen>lysozyme>BSA>alginic acid. The biopolymers and EPS studied here were found to be accelerators of calcium-phosphate mineralization. This study demonstrates the utilization of Langmuir surface-pressure area isotherms and a model solution in quantitatively assessing the mineralization tendencies of various molecular components of EPS in context of membrane-based water treatment systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of methylene blue in an experimental model of calcium channel blocker-induced shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S; Bania, Theodore C; Hoffman, Robert S; Chu, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. Although supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high-dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases, even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. It acts as a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and pulse rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg per hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline solution, with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg during 5 minutes or an equivalent amount of normal saline solution in 3 intervals from the start of the protocol: minutes 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. Overall, 1 of 15 rats (7%) in the saline solution-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5 of 15 (33%) in the methylene blue-treated group (difference -26%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -54% to 0.3%). The median survival time for the normal saline solution group was 42 minutes (95% CI 28.1 to 55.9 minutes); for the methylene blue group, 109 minutes (95% CI 93.9 to

  15. Hypochlorhydria‐induced calcium malabsorption does not affect fracture healing but increases post‐traumatic bone loss in the intact skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner‐Luntzer, Melanie; Heilmann, Aline; Heidler, Verena; Liedert, Astrid; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Yorgan, Timur Alexander; vom Scheidt, Annika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Efficient calcium absorption is essential for skeletal health. Patients with impaired gastric acidification display low bone mass and increased fracture risk because calcium absorption is dependent on gastric pH. We investigated fracture healing and post‐traumatic bone turnover in mice deficient in Cckbr, encoding a gastrin receptor that affects acid secretion by parietal cells. Cckbr−/− mice display hypochlorhydria, calcium malabsorption, and osteopenia. Cckbr−/− and wildtype (WT) mice received a femur osteotomy and were fed either a standard or calcium‐enriched diet. Healed and intact bones were assessed by biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, micro‐computed tomography, and quantitative backscattering. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum levels were determined by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Fracture healing was unaffected in Cckbr−/− mice. However, Cckbr−/− mice displayed increased calcium mobilization from the intact skeleton during bone healing, confirmed by significantly elevated PTH levels and osteoclast numbers compared to WT mice. Calcium supplementation significantly reduced secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone resorption in the intact skeleton in both genotypes, but more efficiently in WT mice. Furthermore, calcium administration improved bone healing in WT mice, indicated by significantly increased mechanical properties and bone mineral density of the fracture callus, whereas it had no significant effect in Cckbr−/− mice. Therefore, under conditions of hypochlorhydria‐induced calcium malabsorption, calcium, which is essential for callus mineralization, appears to be increasingly mobilized from the intact skeleton in favor of fracture healing. Calcium supplementation during fracture healing prevented systemic calcium mobilization, thereby maintaining bone mass and improving fracture healing in healthy individuals whereas the effect was limited by gastric hypochlorhydria. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society

  16. Calcium-Induced Conformational Transition of Trout Ependymins Monitored by Tryptophan Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ganss, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Ependymins are secretory, calcium-binding sialoproteins which are the predominant constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid of many teleost fish. A bound form of these regeneration-responsive glycoproteins is associated with collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix. Here, the tryptophan fluorescence of ependymins was monitored at various Ca2+ concentrations. Two distinct states were identified with a relatively sharp transition at about 1 mM Ca2+. In agreement with previous circular dichroi...

  17. Crambescidin 816 induces calcium influx though glutamate receptors in primary cultures of cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Martín Vázquez

    2014-06-01

    In summary, our data suggest that the cytotoxic effect of 10 μM Cramb816 in cortical neurons may be related to an increase in the cytosolic calcium concentration elicited by the toxin, which is shown to be mediated by glutamate receptor activation. Further studies analyzing the effect of glutamate receptor blockers on the cytotoxic effect of Cramb816 are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  19. Phenobarbital-induced expression of cytochrome P450 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, P

    2000-01-01

    In contrast to the well-known Ah receptor-mediated regulation of the CYP1A1 gene by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the molecular mechanism by which phenobarbital (PB) and PB-like inducers affect transcription of CYP genes remains unknown; no receptor for these chemicals has been found to date. However, in the last 5 years PB-responsive sequences have been identified in the 5' flanking regions of several P450 genes. The phenobarbital-responsive enhancer unit (PBRU) of CYP2B gene family members contain two potential nuclear receptor binding sites (NR1 and NR2) that flank a nuclear factor 1 (NF-1) binding motif. The nuclear factors that regulate PBRU activity have not yet been characterized. It seems that PB may activate multiple nuclear orphan receptors to induce various CYP genes. CYP2B and CYP3A genes appear to be targets for the orphan receptors CAR and PXR, respectively. It is also possible that the pleiotropic effects of PB can, in part, be explained by the ability of the CAR-RXR heterodimer to bind to a variety of nuclear receptor binding motifs. The induction of cytochromes P450 may result in interactions between xenobiotics and in the interference of xenobiotic metabolism and endogenous signalling pathways.

  20. ATP Releasing Connexin 30 Hemichannels Mediate Flow-Induced Calcium Signaling in the Collecting Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eSvenningsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ATP in the renal tubular fluid is an important regulator of salt and water reabsorption via purinergic calcium signaling that involves the P2Y2 receptor, ENaC and AQP2. Recently, we have shown that connexin (Cx 30 hemichannels are localized to the non-junctional apical membrane of cells in the distal nephron-collecting duct (CD and release ATP into the tubular fluid upon mechanical stimuli, leading to reduced salt and water reabsorption. Cx30-/- mice show salt-dependent elevations in BP and impaired pressure-natriuresis. Thus, we hypothesized that increased tubular flow rate leads to Cx30-dependent purinergic intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i signaling in the CD. Cortical CDs (CCDs from wild type and Cx30-/- mice were freshly dissected and microperfused in vitro. Using confocal fluorescence imaging and the calcium-sensitive fluorophore pair Fluo-4 and Fura Red, we found that increasing tubular flow rate from 2 to 20 nl/min caused a significant 2.1-fold elevation in [Ca2+]i in wild type CCDs. This response was blunted in Cx30-/- CCDs ([Ca2+]i increased only 1.2-fold, p

  1. Nonlinear time series analysis of nodulation factor induced calcium oscillations: evidence for deterministic chaos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Hazledine

    Full Text Available Legume plants form beneficial symbiotic interactions with nitrogen fixing bacteria (called rhizobia, with the rhizobia being accommodated in unique structures on the roots of the host plant. The legume/rhizobial symbiosis is responsible for a significant proportion of the global biologically available nitrogen. The initiation of this symbiosis is governed by a characteristic calcium oscillation within the plant root hair cells and this signal is activated by the rhizobia. Recent analyses on calcium time series data have suggested that stochastic effects have a large role to play in defining the nature of the oscillations. The use of multiple nonlinear time series techniques, however, suggests an alternative interpretation, namely deterministic chaos. We provide an extensive, nonlinear time series analysis on the nature of this calcium oscillation response. We build up evidence through a series of techniques that test for determinism, quantify linear and nonlinear components, and measure the local divergence of the system. Chaos is common in nature and it seems plausible that properties of chaotic dynamics might be exploited by biological systems to control processes within the cell. Systems possessing chaotic control mechanisms are more robust in the sense that the enhanced flexibility allows more rapid response to environmental changes with less energetic costs. The desired behaviour could be most efficiently targeted in this manner, supporting some intriguing speculations about nonlinear mechanisms in biological signaling.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pek Siew; Li, Jasmine; Holloway, Adele F; Rao, Sudha

    2013-07-01

    T cells are exquisitely poised to respond rapidly to pathogens and have proved an instructive model for exploring the regulation of inducible genes. Individual genes respond to antigenic stimulation in different ways, and it has become clear that the interplay between transcription factors and the chromatin platform of individual genes governs these responses. Our understanding of the complexity of the chromatin platform and the epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to transcriptional control has expanded dramatically in recent years. These mechanisms include the presence/absence of histone modification marks, which form an epigenetic signature to mark active or inactive genes. These signatures are dynamically added or removed by epigenetic enzymes, comprising an array of histone-modifying enzymes, including the more recently recognized chromatin-associated signalling kinases. In addition, chromatin-remodelling complexes physically alter the chromatin structure to regulate chromatin accessibility to transcriptional regulatory factors. The advent of genome-wide technologies has enabled characterization of the chromatin landscape of T cells in terms of histone occupancy, histone modification patterns and transcription factor association with specific genomic regulatory regions, generating a picture of the T-cell epigenome. Here, we discuss the multi-layered regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system, focusing on the interplay between transcription factors, and the T-cell epigenome, including the role played by chromatin remodellers and epigenetic enzymes. We will also use IL2, a key inducible cytokine gene in T cells, as an example of how the different layers of epigenetic mechanisms regulate immune responsive genes during T-cell activation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluating the function of calcium antagonist on the Cd-induced stress in sperm of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhihua, E-mail: zhihuali06@yahoo.com [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Li Ping [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Rodina, Marek; Randak, Tomas [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    In the current study, the sperm of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) was used to evaluate the roles of Verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker, against cadmium (Cd)-induced stress. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2 h at 50 {mu}g/L VRP, 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd, the mixture of 50 {mu}g/L VRP + 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd, 50 {mu}g/L Cd and the mixture of 50 {mu}g/L VRP + 50 {mu}g/L Cd. After exposure, the sperm motility parameters (motility and velocity), oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxidation [LPO] and carbonyl protein [CP]) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were measured in sturgeon sperm. Compared to the control, Cd-induced stress was apparent as reflected by depressed motility parameters, induced oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant enzyme activities at both Cd concentrations. In the presence of VRP, Cd-induced stress was reduced in sturgeon sperm, especially all the measured parameters in the sperm exposed at 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd returned to control levels, expect for the sperm motility. The present results indicate that VRP can reduce the Cd-induced stress in sturgeon sperm and suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficient means for evaluating the effects of residual metals in the aquatic environment of sturgeon.

  4. Evaluating the function of calcium antagonist on the Cd-induced stress in sperm of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Rodina, Marek; Randak, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    In the current study, the sperm of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) was used to evaluate the roles of Verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker, against cadmium (Cd)-induced stress. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2h at 50μg/L VRP, 5.0μg/L Cd, the mixture of 50μg/L VRP+5.0μg/L Cd, 50μg/L Cd and the mixture of 50μg/L VRP+50μg/L Cd. After exposure, the sperm motility parameters (motility and velocity), oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxidation [LPO] and carbonyl protein [CP]) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were measured in sturgeon sperm. Compared to the control, Cd-induced stress was apparent as reflected by depressed motility parameters, induced oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant enzyme activities at both Cd concentrations. In the presence of VRP, Cd-induced stress was reduced in sturgeon sperm, especially all the measured parameters in the sperm exposed at 5.0μg/L Cd returned to control levels, expect for the sperm motility. The present results indicate that VRP can reduce the Cd-induced stress in sturgeon sperm and suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficient means for evaluating the effects of residual metals in the aquatic environment of sturgeon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory effect of donepezil on bradykinin-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makitani, Kouki; Nakagawa, Shota; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the responses of astrocytes to bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, and the effect of donepezil on these responses using cultured cortical astrocytes. Bradykinin induced a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured astrocytes. Bradykinin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was inhibited by the exposure to thapsigargin, which depletes Ca(2+) stores on endoplasmic reticulum, but not by the exclusion of extracellular Ca(2+). Twenty four hours pretreatment of donepezil reduced the bradykinin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. This reduction was inhibited not only by mecamylamine, a nAChR antagonist, but also by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. In addition, donepezil inhibited bradykinin-induced increase of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level in astrocytes. These results suggest that donepezil inhibits the inflammatory response induced by bradykinin via nAChR and PI3K-Akt pathway in astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effect of donepezil on bradykinin-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in cultured cortical astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Makitani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the responses of astrocytes to bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, and the effect of donepezil on these responses using cultured cortical astrocytes. Bradykinin induced a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in cultured astrocytes. Bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited by the exposure to thapsigargin, which depletes Ca2+ stores on endoplasmic reticulum, but not by the exclusion of extracellular Ca2+. Twenty four hours pretreatment of donepezil reduced the bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i increase. This reduction was inhibited not only by mecamylamine, a nAChR antagonist, but also by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. In addition, donepezil inhibited bradykinin-induced increase of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level in astrocytes. These results suggest that donepezil inhibits the inflammatory response induced by bradykinin via nAChR and PI3K-Akt pathway in astrocytes.

  7. [Effect of tanshinone IIA on the change of calcium current induced by beta-amyloid protein 25-35 in neurons of nucleus basalis of Meynert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shujuan; Qian, Yihua; Shi, Lili; Yang, Weina; Feng, Xinzheng; Li, Cuiqin; Liu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To explore the effect of tanshinone IIA (TanIIA) on calcium current induced by beta-amyloid protein 25-35 (Abeta25-35) in neurons of nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM). Cell acute dissociated technique and the whole-cell recording model of patch-clamp technique of single-cell were used. The voltage-dependent calcium current in neurons of nbM was recorded in SD rats first. Then the effect of TanIIA on the voltage-dependent calcium current in the neurons was assayed. The change of calcium current induced by Abeta25-35 as well as the effect of TanIIA on the change of calcium current induced by Abeta25-35 in neurons of nbM were analyzed. Extracellular fluid containing different concentrations of TanIIA was irrigated, respectively. The peak current did not change obviously. There was no difference in current density between the TanIIA group and the control group at 0 mV (P>0.05). Extracellular fluid containing 200 nmol/L Abeta25-35 was irrigated after the normal calcium current recorded under whole patch clamp, and the peak current changed obviously. There was distinct difference in the current density between the Abeta group and the control group at 0 mV (Pcalcium current was recorded under whole patch clamp, respectively, and the peak current did not change. There was no difference in current density between the TanIIA +Abeta group and the control group at 0 mV (P>0.05). In vitro, TanIIA could inhibit the calcium current amplification induced by Abeta25-35 in neurons of nbM. TanIIA may protect neurons against the toxicity of Abeta and decrease the inward flow of Ca(2+).

  8. Gene expression profiling reveals multiple toxicity endpoints induced by hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qihong; Jin Xidong; Gaillard, Elias T.; Knight, Brian L.; Pack, Franklin D.; Stoltz, James H.; Jayadev, Supriya; Blanchard, Kerry T

    2004-05-18

    Microarray technology continues to gain increased acceptance in the drug development process, particularly at the stage of toxicology and safety assessment. In the current study, microarrays were used to investigate gene expression changes associated with hepatotoxicity, the most commonly reported clinical liability with pharmaceutical agents. Acetaminophen, methotrexate, methapyrilene, furan and phenytoin were used as benchmark compounds capable of inducing specific but different types of hepatotoxicity. The goal of the work was to define gene expression profiles capable of distinguishing the different subtypes of hepatotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with acetaminophen (single dose, 4500 mg/kg for 6, 24 and 72 h), methotrexate (1 mg/kg per day for 1, 7 and 14 days), methapyrilene (100 mg/kg per day for 3 and 7 days), furan (40 mg/kg per day for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) or phenytoin (300 mg/kg per day for 14 days). Hepatic gene expression was assessed using toxicology-specific gene arrays containing 684 target genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Principal component analysis (PCA) of gene expression data was able to provide a clear distinction of each compound, suggesting that gene expression data can be used to discern different hepatotoxic agents and toxicity endpoints. Gene expression data were applied to the multiplicity-adjusted permutation test and significantly changed genes were categorized and correlated to hepatotoxic endpoints. Repression of enzymes involved in lipid oxidation (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, enoyl CoA hydratase, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase) were associated with microvesicular lipidosis. Likewise, subsets of genes associated with hepatotocellular necrosis, inflammation, hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis have been identified. The current study illustrates that expression profiling can be used to: (1) distinguish different hepatotoxic endpoints; (2) predict the development of toxic endpoints; and

  9. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) Attenuates Calcium-induced Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Resultant Cytochrome c Release*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Ho; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Kiebish, Michael A.; Sims, Harold F.; Mancuso, David J.; Gross, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is a critical mechanistic participant in the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Liver mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice were markedly resistant to calcium-induced swelling in the presence or absence of phosphate in comparison with wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the iPLA2γ enantioselective inhibitor (R)-(E)-6-(bromomethylene)-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-tetrahydropyran-2-one ((R)-BEL) was markedly more potent than (S)-BEL in inhibiting mPTP opening in mitochondria from wild-type liver in comparison with hepatic mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice. Intriguingly, low micromolar concentrations of long chain fatty acyl-CoAs and the non-hydrolyzable thioether analog of palmitoyl-CoA markedly accelerated Ca2+-induced mPTP opening in liver mitochondria from wild-type mice. The addition of l-carnitine enabled the metabolic channeling of acyl-CoA through carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPT-1/2) and attenuated the palmitoyl-CoA-mediated amplification of calcium-induced mPTP opening. In contrast, mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice were insensitive to fatty acyl-CoA-mediated augmentation of calcium-induced mPTP opening. Moreover, mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mouse liver were resistant to Ca2+/t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced mPTP opening in comparison with wild-type littermates. In support of these findings, cytochrome c release from iPLA2γ−/− mitochondria was dramatically decreased in response to calcium in the presence or absence of either t-butyl hydroperoxide or phenylarsine oxide in comparison with wild-type littermates. Collectively, these results identify iPLA2γ as an important mechanistic component of the mPTP, define its downstream products as potent regulators of mPTP opening, and demonstrate the integrated roles of mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipidomic flux in modulating mPTP opening promoting the activation of necrotic and

  10. A blocker of N- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels attenuates ethanol-induced intoxication, place preference, self-administration, and reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M; Zeng, Lily; Wang, Victoria; Connolly, Jacklyn; Wallace, Melisa J; Kim, Chanki; Shin, Hee-Sup; Belardetti, Francesco; Snutch, Terrance P; Messing, Robert O

    2008-11-05

    There is a clear need for new therapeutics to treat alcoholism. Here, we test our hypothesis that selective inhibitors of neuronal calcium channels will reduce ethanol consumption and intoxication, based on our previous studies using knock-out mice and cell culture systems. We demonstrate that pretreatment with the novel mixed N-type and T-type calcium channel antagonist 1-(6,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)hexyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine (NP078585) reduced ethanol intoxication. NP078585 also attenuated the reinforcing and rewarding properties of ethanol, measured by operant self-administration and the expression of an ethanol conditioned place preference, and abolished stress-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking. NP078585 did not affect alcohol responses in mice lacking N-type calcium channels. These results suggest that selective calcium channel inhibitors may be useful in reducing acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol consumption by human alcoholics.

  11. Sound Waves Induce Neural Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Ryanodine Receptor-Induced Calcium Release and Pyk2 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yura; Park, Jeong-Eun; Jeong, Jong Seob; Park, Jung-Keug; Kim, Jongpil; Jeon, Songhee

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown considerable promise as an adaptable cell source for use in tissue engineering and other therapeutic applications. The aims of this study were to develop methods to test the hypothesis that human MSCs could be differentiated using sound wave stimulation alone and to find the underlying mechanism. Human bone marrow (hBM)-MSCs were stimulated with sound waves (1 kHz, 81 dB) for 7 days and the expression of neural markers were analyzed. Sound waves induced neural differentiation of hBM-MSC at 1 kHz and 81 dB but not at 1 kHz and 100 dB. To determine the signaling pathways involved in the neural differentiation of hBM-MSCs by sound wave stimulation, we examined the Pyk2 and CREB phosphorylation. Sound wave induced an increase in the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and CREB at 45 min and 90 min, respectively, in hBM-MSCs. To find out the upstream activator of Pyk2, we examined the intracellular calcium source that was released by sound wave stimulation. When we used ryanodine as a ryanodine receptor antagonist, sound wave-induced calcium release was suppressed. Moreover, pre-treatment with a Pyk2 inhibitor, PF431396, prevented the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and suppressed sound wave-induced neural differentiation in hBM-MSCs. These results suggest that specific sound wave stimulation could be used as a neural differentiation inducer of hBM-MSCs.

  12. Identification of in vivo induced genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, T E; Shea, R J; Thacker, B J; Mulks, M H

    1999-11-01

    We have developed an in vivo expression technology (IVET) system to identify Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae gene promoters that are specifically induced in vivo during infection. This system is based upon an avirulent riboflavin-requiring A. pleuropneumoniae mutant and a promoter-trap vector (pTF86) that contains, in sequence, the T4 terminator, a unique Bam HI site, a promoterless copy of the V. harveyi luxAB genes, and a promoterless copy of the B. subtilis ribBAH genes in the E. coli - A. pleuropneumoniae shuttle vector pGZRS19. Sau 3A fragments of A. pleuropneumoniae genomic DNA were cloned into the Bam HI site in pTF86 and transformed into the A. pleuropneumoniae Rib- mutant. Pigs were infected with pools of 300-600 transformants by endobronchial inoculation and surviving bacteria were isolated from the pigs' lungs at 12-16 h post-infection. Infection strongly selected for transformants containing cloned promoters which drove expression of the vector ribBAH genes and allowed survival of the Rib- mutant in vivo. Strains that survived in vivo, but which minimally expressed luciferase activity in vitro, should contain cloned promoters that are specifically induced in vivo. Ten clones, designated iviA-J, were isolated which contain promoters that are induced in vivo during infection. These ivi clones were shown to be induced in the animal by luminescence of infected tissue and by direct assay of bacteria recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. Four of these clones were putatively identified by amino acid sequence similarity as ilvI, the ilvDA operon, the secE-nusG operon, and the mrp gene. This is the first report of an IVET system for use in the family Pasteurellaceae, as well as the first report of an IVET system utilizing an infection model of pneumonia in the natural host. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Increased mitochondrial calcium sensitivity and abnormal expression of innate immunity genes precede dopaminergic defects in Pink1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Akundi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1 is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD. Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca²+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice.Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice showed impaired Ca²+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca²+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activity is increased. Pink1⁻/⁻ mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1⁻/⁻ mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and Pink1⁻/⁻ embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1⁻/⁻ mice differentially express genes that (i are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii promote axonal regeneration and sprouting.Increased mitochondrial Ca²+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1⁻/⁻ mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant expression of genes that regulate

  14. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus: basis for morphology modulation of nuclear calcium signaling and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Gillian; Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons.

  15. The obesity-related peptide leptin sensitizes cardiac mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martinez-Abundis

    Full Text Available The obesity-related 16 kDa peptide leptin is synthesized primarily in white adipocytes although its production has been reported in other tissues including the heart. There is emerging evidence that leptin may contribute to cardiac pathology especially that related to myocardial remodelling and heart failure. In view of the importance of mitochondria to these processes, the goal of the present study is to determine the effect of leptin on mitochondria permeability transition pore opening and the potential consequence in terms of development of apoptosis. Experiments were performed using neonatal rat ventricular myocytes exposed to 3.1 nM (50 ng/ml leptin for 24 hours. Mitochondrial transition pore opening was analyzed as the capacity of mitochondria to retain the dye calcein-AM in presence of 200 µM CaCl2. Leptin significantly increased pore opening although the effect was markedly more pronounced in digitonin-permeabilized myocytes in the presence of calcium with both effects prevented by the transition pore inhibitor sanglifehrin A. These effects were associated with increased apoptosis as evidenced by increased TUNEL staining and caspase 3 activity, both of which were prevented by the transition pore inhibitor sanglifehrin A. Leptin enhanced Stat3 activation whereas a Stat 3 inhibitor peptide prevented leptin-induced mitochondrial transition pore opening as well as the hypertrophic and pro-apoptotic effects of the peptide. Inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway prevented the hypertrophic response to leptin but had no effect on increased pore opening following leptin administration. We conclude that leptin can enhance calcium-mediated, Stat3-dependent pro-apoptotic effects as a result of increased mitochondrial transition pore opening and independently of its hypertrophic actions. Leptin may therefore contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of apoptosis in the diseased myocardium particularly under conditions of excessive

  16. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1991-01-01

    loss of magnesium. Serum level and the urinary excretion of magnesium returned to pretreatment level at delivery. Maternal magnesium supplement increased the concentrations of magnesium in umbilical cord and neonatal blood 1 day after delivery. Serum ionized calcium did not change during the study......The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double...

  17. Differential Gene Expression in Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisheng Yao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of similarities in histopathology and tumor progression stages between mouse and human lung adenocarcinomas, the mouse lung tumor model with lung adenomas as the endpoint has been used extensively to evaluate the efficacy of putative lung cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, a competitive cDNA library screening (CCLS was employed to determine changes in the expression of mRNA in chemically induced lung adenomas compared with paired normal lung tissues. A total of 2555 clones having altered expression in tumors were observed following competitive hybridization between normal lung and lung adenomas after primary screening of over 160,000 clones from a mouse lung cDNA library. Among the 755 clones confirmed by dot blot hybridization, 240 clones were underexpressed, whereas 515 clones were overexpressed in tumors. Sixty-five clones with the most frequently altered expression in six individual tumors were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. When examining the 58 known genes, 39 clones had increased expression and 19 had decreased expression, whereas the 7 novel genes showed overexpression. A high percentage (>60% of overexpressed or underexpressed genes was observed in at least two or three of the lesions. Reproducibly overexpressed genes included ERK-1, JAK-1, surfactant proteins A, B, and C, NFAT1, α-1 protease inhibitor, helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase (CHUK, α-adaptin, α-1 PI2, thioether S-methyltransferase, and CYP2C40. Reproducibly underexpressed genes included paroxanase, ALDH II, CC10, von Ebner salivary gland protein, and α- and β-globin. In addition, CCLS identified several novel genes or genes not previously associated with lung carcinogenesis, including a hypothetical protein (FLJ11240 and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor homologue. This study shows the efficacy of this methodology for identifying genes with altered expression. These genes may prove to be helpful in our understanding of the genetic basis of

  18. Polyamines as Possible Modulators of Gravity-induced Calcium Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Slocum, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Data from various laboratories indicate a probable relationship between calcium movement and some aspects of graviperception and tropistic bending responses. The movement of calcium in response to gravistimulation appears to be rapid, polar and opposite in direction to polar auxin transport. What might be the cause of such rapid Ca(2+) movement? Data from studies on polyamine (PA) metabolism may furnish a clue. A transient increase in the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and titers of various PAs occurs within 60 seconds after hormonal stimulation of animal cells, followed by Ca(2+) transport out of the cells. Through the use of specific inhibitors, it was shown that the enhanced PA synthesis from ODC was essential not only for Ca(2+) transport, but also for Ca(2+) transport-dependent endocytosis and the movement of hexoses and amino acids across the plasmalemma. In plants, rapid changes in arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity occur in response to various plant stresses. Physical stresses associated with gravisensor displacement and reorientation of a plant in the gravitational field could similarly activate ADC and that resultant increases in PA levels might initiate transient perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  19. Endothelin receptor antagonist prevents parathyroid cell proliferation of low calcium diet-induced hyperparathyroidism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesaka, Y; Tokunaga, H; Iwashita, K; Fujimura, S; Naomi, S; Tomita, K

    2001-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism, one of the most frequently encountered disorders of the calcium homeostasis, is characterized by an increase in parathyroid epithelial (PT) cell number, which is crucial from a functional viewpoint. However, it is still unknown what factors are involved in PT cell proliferation. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictive peptide, has been shown to act as a mitogen in a variety of cell types. Rat PT cells are reported to synthesize ET-1 and possess its receptors. To test the hypothesis that ET-1 plays a role in PT cell proliferation, we used rat test subjects fed a low calcium diet for 8 weeks (low Ca rats). The number of the proliferating PT cells, measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining, was significantly increased, with striking immunoreactivity of ET-1 in the low Ca rats. An endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan (100 mg/kg.day), prevented any increase in the proliferation of PT cells in the low Ca rats (14.3 +/- 2.7/1000 PT cells with no bosentan; 2.1 +/- 1.3 with bosentan; P hyperparathyroidism.

  20. Peptide induced crystallization of calcium carbonate on wrinkle patterned substrate: implications for chitin formation in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Anindita Sengupta; Koch, Marcus; Guth, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2013-06-04

    We here present the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate under the influence of synthetic peptides on topographically patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates, which have a controlled density of defects between the wrinkles. Experiments with two lysine-rich peptides derived from the extracellular conserved domain E22 of the mollusc chitin synthase Ar-CS1, AKKKKKAS (AS8) and EEKKKKKES (ES9) on these substrates showed their influence on the calcium carbonate morphology. A transition from polycrystalline composites to single crystalline phases was achieved with the peptide AS8 by changing the pH of the buffer solution. We analyzed three different pH values as previous experiments showed that E22 interacts with aragonite biominerals more strongly at pH 7.75 than at pH 9.0. At any given pH, crystals appeared in characteristic morphologies only on wrinkled substrates, and did not occur on the flat, wrinkle-free PDMS substrate. These results suggest that these wrinkled substrates could be useful for controlling the morphologies of other mineral/peptide and mineral/protein composites. In nature, these templates are formed enzymatically by glycosyltransferases containing pH-sensitive epitopes, similar to the peptides investigated here. Our in vitro test systems may be useful to gain understanding of the formation of distinct 3D morphologies in mollusc shells in response to local pH shifts during the mineralization of organic templates.

  1. Mutations of the Calcium Channel Gene cacophony Suppress Seizures in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunesh Saras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bang sensitive (BS Drosophila mutants display characteristic seizure-like phenotypes resembling, in some aspects, those of human seizure disorders such as epilepsy. The BS mutant parabss1, caused by a gain-of-function mutation of the voltage-gated Na+ channel gene, is extremely seizure-sensitive with phenotypes that have proven difficult to ameliorate by anti-epileptic drug feeding or by seizure-suppressor mutation. It has been presented as a model for intractable human epilepsy. Here we show that cacophony (cacTS2, a mutation of the Drosophila presynaptic Ca++ channel α1 subunit gene, is a particularly potent seizure-suppressor mutation, reverting seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 and other BS mutants. Seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 may be suppressed by as much as 90% in double mutant combinations with cacTS2. Unexpectedly, we find that parabss1 also reciprocally suppresses cacTS2 seizure-like phenotypes. The cacTS2 mutant displays these seizure-like behaviors and spontaneous high-frequency action potential firing transiently after exposure to high temperature. We find that this seizure-like behavior in cacTS2 is ameliorated by 85% in double mutant combinations with parabss1.

  2. INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, David George James [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Mcpherson, Jackson [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hoyt, Peter R [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and delivered alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using impalefection on spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs). The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. Following impalefection and tetracycline induction, 53.1% 10.4% of impalefected cells were fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

  3. The dilp2/5 genes control diapause inducibility

    OpenAIRE

    Schiesari, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Many holometabolous insects hibernate by triggering diapause, an “actively-induced” dormancy that blocks developmental functions. Yet, the nature of signals enhancing the plasticity of developmental system and underlying diapause inducibility is still elusive. We show that the “Insulin/IGF” dilp2/5 genes, encoding for developmental hormones, antagonize diapause switch in D. melanogaster and their modulation is pivotal in sensitizing the developmental system to environmental perturbations. Fun...

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibits osteoblastic gene expression and induces osteoprotegerin in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Toshihiro; Iso, Tatsuya; Arai, Masashi; Tomono, Shouichi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, both clinical and basic research have demonstrated conflicting evidence regarding the pathophysiological role of FGF23 in vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to determine the role of FGF23 in the osteoblastic gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We transduce human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) expressing klotho and FGF receptors with the adenovirus expressing human FGF23 (Ad-FGF23). We observed significant decreases in the expression of osteoblast-marker genes including BMP2, BMP4, MSX2, RUNX2 and ALP, as well as reduced calcification. Notably, Ad-FGF23 increased mRNA and protein levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG), and human OPG promoter was activated by FGF23. Moreover, in HASMCs overexpressing klotho, FGF23 upregulated OPG expression, whereas depletion of klotho by siRNA attenuated FGF23-induced OPG expression. Furthermore, in 73 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing cardiac computed tomography to determine coronary calcium scores (CCSs), serum FGF23 levels were positively correlated with OPG independent of phosphate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, r = 0.65, p < 0.01). Serum FGF23 levels were significantly elevated in patients with high CCSs (≧100) compared to those with low CCSs (<100). Our in vitro results indicate that FGF23 suppresses osteoblastic gene expression and induces OPG expression in HASMCs. Together with our cross-sectional clinical assessment, the present study lends support to our hypothesis that FGF23 counteracts osteogenic conversion of vascular SMCs as a part of a compensatory mechanism to mitigate vascular calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aparna Singh; Nathaniel Hodgson; Ming Yan; Jungsoo Joo; Lei Gu; Hong Sang; Emmalena Gregory-Bryson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host.METHODS:In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes.We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector,pIVET8,which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors,pIVET11 and pIVET12.Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H.pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase.Additionally,each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene.We used a mouse macrophage cell line,RAW 264.7 and mice,as selective media to identify specific genes that H.pylori expresses in vivo.Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H.pylori.This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes.RESULTS:In this study,we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens.These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families,including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs.Virulence factors,vacA and cagA,were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H.pylori infection,colonization and pathogenesis.Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems.Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H.pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H.pylori RNA isolated from H.pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages.We compared the expression profile of H.pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H.pylori only

  6. Study of the function of sarcoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle during activation due to depolarization-induced calcium influx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in vascular smooth muscle was evaluated with respect to regulation of myoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} during the Ca{sup 2+} entry induced by depolarization. Calcium agonist, Bay K8644, stimulated Ca{sup 2+} influx as well as tension in physiological salt solution, (PSS) in contrast to the priming effects due to the depolarization originally reported. Disparity, however, was found between the Ca{sup 2+} entered and tension developed. Correlation between the tension and {sup 45}Ca influx showed a typical threshold phenomenon; the basal Ca{sup 2+} influx can be raised to a certain level (25%) without tension induction, after which a minor increase in Ca{sup 2+} influx produced significant tension. This subthreshold Ca{sup 2+} influx was found accumulated in the caffeine-sensitive Ca stores, the SR. This confirmed the dependency of tension on the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry demonstrated by a previous report.

  7. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  8. Effects of calcium sources and soluble silicate on bone metabolism and the related gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehira, Fusako; Miyagi, Ikuko; Eguchi, Yukinori

    2009-05-01

    The effects of five calcium (Ca) sources were compared for bone biochemical and mechanical properties and the related gene expression using mice, from the viewpoint of their soluble silicon (Si) content. Weanling male mice were fed diets containing 1% Ca supplemented with CaCO(3) as the control (CT), coral sand (CS), fossil stony coral (FSC), fish bone (FC) and eggshell (EC) powders, and 50 ppm of Si in the CT diet for 6 mo. The mRNA expressions related to bone remodeling were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Soluble Si content was 9.83, 7.17, 2.48, 0.29, and 0.20 ppm for the CS, FC, FSC, EC, and Ca-deficient basal diets, respectively. Si, CS, and FSC, in order, significantly increased dry and ash weights, Ca and hydroxyproline contents, and alkaline phosphatase and decreased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline compared with the CT group. Si significantly increased and FC decreased femoral strength and stiffness. In the mRNA expression related to osteoblastogenesis, Si and CS significantly increased runt-related transcription factor 2. Si, CS, and FSC, in order, significantly decreased and FC and EC increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. In the mRNA expression related to osteoclastogenesis, Si and CS significantly increased and FC and EC decreased the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand ratio, whereas Si and CS decreased transforming growth factor-beta. The results indicated that soluble silicate and CS, with the highest Si content among Ca sources, improved bone biochemical and mechanical properties through stimulation of gene expression related to osteoblastogenesis and suppression of that related to osteoclastogenesis.

  9. Inducible Promoter Systems for Gene Perturbation Experiments in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Bennett; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Assessing molecular changes that occur through altering a gene's activity is often hampered by difficulties that arise due to the typically static nature of the introduced perturbation. This is especially problematic when investigating molecular events at specific stages and/or in certain tissues or organs during Arabidopsis development. To circumvent these issues, we have employed chemically inducible artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) for the specific knockdown of developmental regulators. For our own research, we have combined this gene perturbation approach with a floral induction system, which allows the simultaneous induction of a large number of flowers on the inflorescence of a single plant, and the ability to knock down a gene's activity at any given stage of development. To enable the plant community to avail of the full benefits of these systems, we describe, in this chapter, strategies for amiRNA-mediated gene perturbations and address some common problems that can be encountered when generating inducible amiRNA constructs, growing these plants, and collecting floral buds for analysis.

  10. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  11. Microvillar injury in renal tubular epithelial cells induced by calcium oxalate crystal and the protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Vinaiphat, Arada; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of kidney stone disease remained unclear. This study investigated its initial cellular/molecular mechanisms when calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhered to renal tubular cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed decreased length and density of microvilli, whereas Western blot analysis showed that whole-cell ezrin (a microvillus-stabilizing protein), not β-actin, was decreased in COM-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining, followed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionations, revealed decreases in both ezrin and F-/β-actin at apical membrane. Cytoskeletal extraction by Triton X-100 showed reduced cytoskeleton-associated ezrin, consistent with colocalization data of ezrin/F-actin. Thr(567)-phosphorylated ezrin and RhoA increased in COM-treated cells. A protein oxidation blot assay showed an increase in oxidized proteins in COM-treated cells that could be prevented by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which also preserved the whole-cell ezrin level, stabilized apical membrane ezrin/F-actin colocalization, and maintained microvillar structure in COM-treated and H2O2-treated cells. Our data clearly demonstrated the reduction of ezrin and actin expression at the apical membrane of COM-treated cells, most likely because of oxidative stress, which could be prevented by EGCG. These findings provide a novel approach to better understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney stone disease in its initial phase and offer potential preventive strategy against microvillar injury induced by COM crystals in patients with kidney stones.-Fong-ngern, K., Vinaiphat, A., Thongboonkerd, V. Microvillar injury in renal tubular epithelial cells induced by calcium oxalate crystal and the protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate. © FASEB.

  12. Calmodulin regulates a TRP channel (ADF1) and phospholipase C (PLC) to mediate elevation of cytosolic calcium during acidic stress that induces deflagellation in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Gao, Kang; Zheng, Shuzhi; Zhu, Xin; Liang, Yinwen; Pan, Junmin

    2018-01-29

    Calcium has been implicated in the motility, assembly, disassembly, and deflagellation of the eukaryotic flagellum or cilium (exchangeable terms). Calmodulin (CaM) is known to be critical for flagellar motility; however, it is unknown whether and how CaM is involved in other flagella-related activities. We have studied CaM in Chlamydomonas, a widely used organism for ciliary studies. CaM is present in the cell body and the flagellum, with enrichment in the basal body region. Loss of CaM causes shortening of the nucleus basal body connector and impairs flagellar motility and assembly but not flagellar disassembly. Moreover, the cam mutant is defective in pH shock-induced deflagellation. The mutant deflagellates, however, upon mechanical shearing and treatment with mastoparan or detergent undergo permeabilization in the presence of calcium, indicating the cam mutant is defective in elevations of cytosolic calcium induced by pH shock, rather than by the deflagellation machinery. Indeed, the cam mutant fails to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Biochemical and genetic analysis showed that CaM does not directly activate PLC. Furthermore, CaM interacts with ADF1, a transient receptor channel that functions in acid-induced calcium entry. Thus, CaM is a critical regulator of flagellar activities especially those involved in modulating calcium homeostasis during acidic stress.-Wu, Q., Gao, K., Zheng, S., Zhu, X., Liang, Y., Pan, J. Calmodulin regulates a TRP channel (ADF1) and phospholipase C (PLC) to mediate elevation of cytosolic calcium during acidic stress that induces deflagellation in Chlamydomonas.

  13. Understanding of dopant-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in calcium phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Fielding, Gary; Tarafder, Solaiman; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-10-01

    General trends in synthetic bone grafting materials are shifting towards approaches that can illicit osteoinductive properties. Pharmacologics and biologics have been used in combination with calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics, however, they have recently become the target of scrutiny over safety. The importance of trace elements in natural bone health is well documented. Ions, for example, lithium, zinc, magnesium, manganese, silicon, strontium, etc., have been shown to increase osteogenesis and neovascularization. Incorporation of dopants (trace metal ions) into CaPs can provide a platform for safe and efficient delivery in clinical applications where increased bone healing is favorable. This review highlights the use of trace elements in CaP biomaterials, and offers an insight into the mechanisms of how metal ions can enhance both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urantide mimics urotensin-II induced calcium release in cells expressing recombinant UT receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Valeria; Song, Wei; Marzola, Erika; Spagnol, Martina; Guerrini, Remo; Salvadori, Severo; Regoli, Domenico; Thompson, Jonathan P; Rowbotham, David J; Behm, David J; Douglas, Stephen A; Calo', Girolamo; Lambert, David G

    2004-09-13

    Urotensin-II is the natural ligand of the UT receptor. This novel system is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. Recently, a urotensin-II analog ([Pen5,DTrp7,Orn8]urotensin-II(4-11)) named urantide, has been proposed as a selective and potent UT receptor antagonist. In order to pharmacologically characterize this new compound, urantide was tested on the native UT receptors of the rat aorta and on the human recombinant receptors expressed in CHO cells (CHO(hUT)). Indeed, urantide behaves as a competitive, potent (pA2 8.24), and pure antagonist in the rat aorta bioassay, while as an agonist (pEC50 8.11) in a calcium mobilization assay performed in CHO(hUT) cells. Urantide should be considered a low efficacy partial agonist.

  15. Indomethacin induces rat uterine contractions in vitro and alters reactivity to calcium and acetylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, J.L.; Nesbitt, D.; Gaspar, M.J.; Ellis, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The initial contractions of uteri in vitro from castrated, estrogen-treated rats were markedly diminished following replacement with fresh bathing medium. Indomethacin and aspirin (10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -4/M) strongly stimulated such quiescent preparations and reduced their subsequent responsiveness to Ca/sup + +/. Reintroducing the initial bathing medium (which contained prostaglandin-like material), or adding prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub alpha/ to the fresh medium, initiated uterine contractions and restored responsiveness to calcium ion. Injections of indomethacin into castrated, estrogen-treated rats reduced initial in vitro uterine motility, abolished production of prostaglandin-like compounds, and prevented either indomethacin, aspirin, or Ca/sup + +/ from stimulating uterine contractions. Uterine responsiveness to acetylcholine in vitro was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with indomethacin.

  16. Calcium plays a key role in paraoxon-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-associated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Du, Yi; Ju, Furong; Ma, Shunxiang; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is one of the most toxic organophosphorus pesticides, but its toxic mechanisms associated with apoptosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate calcium-associated mechanisms in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells. EL4 cells were exposed to POX for 0-16 h. EGTA was used to chelate Ca(2+ ) in extracellular medium, and heparin and procaine were used to inhibit Ca(2+ )efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Z-ATAD-FMK was used to inhibit caspase-12 activity. The apoptotic rate assay, western blotting and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to reveal the mechanisms of POX-induced apoptosis. POX significantly increased the expression and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, enhanced expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2, and induced the release of cyt c, but did not change the expression of Grp 78. Inhibiting caspase-12 activity alleviated POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1 and caspase-3, promoted POX-induced upregulation of calpain 2, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release, suggesting that there was a cross-talk between the ER-associated pathway and mitochondria-associated apoptotic signals. Attenuating intracellular calcium concentration with EGTA, heparin or procaine decreased POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1, calpain 2, caspase-12 and caspase-3, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release. After pretreatment with EGTA or procaine, POX significantly promoted expression of Grp 78. Calcium played a key role in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways. The cross-talk of ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways was accomplished through calcium signal.

  17. Calcium dobesilate prevents the oxidative stress and inflammation induced by diabetes in the retina of db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Patricia; Solà-Adell, Cristina; Hernández, Cristina; García-Ramírez, Marta; Sampedro, Joel; Simó-Servat, Olga; Valeri, Marta; Pasquali, Christian; Simó, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    Calcium dobesilate (CaD) is beneficial in early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but its mechanisms of action remains to be elucidated. The aim was to investigate the effect of CaD on proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. db/db mice were randomly assigned to daily oral treatment with CaD (200mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 15days. Biomarkers of oxidative stress (dihydroethidium, malondialdehyde), NF-κB, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1) were examined in the retina by immunohistochemical analysis. Cultures of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were used for complementary experiments. CaD significantly reduced the biomarkers of oxidative stress in the retina of db/db mice. In addition, CaD prevented the increase of NF-κB, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MCP-1 induced by diabetes. CaD inhibited the activation of NF-kβ induced by IL-1β by preventing IKKB-α phosphorylation in HRECs and reduced the upregulation of IL-6 and IL-18 induced by TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects are crucial in accounting for the effectiveness of CaD for treating DR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic calcium phosphate crystals induce monocyte/macrophage IL-1β secretion through the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazár, Borbála; Ea, Hang-Korng; Narayan, Sharmal; Kolly, Laeticia; Bagnoud, Nathalie; Chobaz, Véronique; Roger, Thierry; Lioté, Frédéric; So, Alexander; Busso, Nathalie

    2011-02-15

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are associated with severe osteoarthritis and acute periarticular inflammation. Three main forms of BCP crystals have been identified from pathological tissues: octacalcium phosphate, carbonate-substituted apatite, and hydroxyapatite. We investigated the proinflammatory effects of these BCP crystals in vitro with special regard to the involvement of the NLRP3-inflammasome in THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes and macrophages, and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). THP-1 cells stimulated with BCP crystals produced IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, primary human cells and BMDM from wild-type mice also produced high concentrations of IL-1β after crystal stimulation. THP-1 cells transfected with short hairpin RNA against the components of the NLRP3 inflammasome and mouse BMDM from mice deficient for NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, or caspase-1 did not produce IL-1β after BCP crystal stimulation. BCP crystals induced macrophage apoptosis/necrosis as demonstrated by MTT and flow cytometric analysis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BCP crystals induce IL-1β secretion through activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, we speculate that IL-1 blockade could be a novel strategy to inhibit BCP-induced inflammation in human disease.

  19. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi

    2014-07-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  20. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) screening for exon copy number variation in the calcium sensing receptor gene: no large rearrangements identified in patients with calcium metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Peter H; Christensen, Signe E; Wallace, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background. Mutation screening of the CASR by DNA sequencing is commonly used in the diagnosis of disorders of calcium metabolism, such as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH). Exon copy number variation is not detected by currently used molecular genetic screening methods, and might....... Patients and methods. The study included 257 patient samples referred to our laboratory for molecular genetic analysis of the CASR gene. A total of 245 were patients suspected to have FHH, while the remaining 12 samples represent patients with a phenotype of idiopathic hypocalcaemia/hypoparathyroidism. All...

  1. Calcium electroporation induces tumor eradication, long-lasting immunity and cytokine responses in the CT26 colon cancer mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Hanne; Forde, Patrick F; Bay, Marie Lund

    2017-01-01

    Electroporation is used in cancer treatment because of its ability to increase local cytotoxicity of e.g. bleomycin (electrochemotherapy) and calcium (calcium electroporation). Calcium electroporation is a novel anticancer treatment that selectively kills cancer cells by necrosis, a cell death pa...

  2. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  3. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  4. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a “super weed” that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  5. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Huan Meng

    Full Text Available Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum.

  6. Gene expression and protein localisation of calcyclin, a calcium-binding protein of the S-100 family in fresh neuroblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, G P; Fabretti, G; Kuznicki, J; Massimo, L; Scaruffi, P; Brisigotti, M; Mazzocco, K

    1995-01-01

    Calcyclin gene, a Ca(2+)-binding protein with homology to S-100, has been found to be expressed at different levels in leukaemic cells and in other tumour cells. We recently reported the expression of the gene in human neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines, and suggested a possible role of calcyclin in cell differentiation. To extend our findings, we investigated the expression of the gene in NB cells induced to differentiate by retinoic acid (RA), using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Time-course experiments employing LA-N-5 cells showed that calcyclin mRNA appeared 2 h after RA treatment, long before the cells were blocked in the G1 cell-cycle phase and before the neurite-like structures outgrew from the cell bodies. This suggests the involvement of the gene in the early phase of cell differentiation. Furthermore, we investigated mRNA expression in a series of fresh neuroblastomas. NB tumours showed a heterogeneous pattern of calcyclin expression, although calcyclin seemed to be expressed more frequently in cases with a favourable Shimada histology. We also studied the expression of the protein in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues, by using a specific anticalcyclin antibody. The protein was detected in stromal cells which characterise a more mature histological type, and in nerve sheaths, whereas neuroblasts were negative. The tissue that expressed calcyclin protein showed a Schwann-like differentiation and, unlike S-100 protein, calcyclin was expressed in the perineurium.

  7. Chronic maternal calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in Wistar rats programs abnormal hepatic gene expression leading to hepatic steatosis in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sona S; Jangale, Nivedita M; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Gokhale, Medha K; Joshi, Bimba N

    2017-05-01

    Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed on control diet post-weaning and studied till 30 weeks. Lipid profile, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), calcium and vitamin D levels were analyzed. Liver fat deposition, omega-3 fatty acids level and mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), interleukin 6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were determined. Low serum vitamin D levels with an increase in SGPT and TG levels in CaD and VDD female offspring were observed. Severe liver steatosis with down-regulation of PPAR-α and UCP2 and up-regulation of SREBP-1c, IL-6 and SOD-1 was observed in the female offspring born to deficient dams. CaD and VDD male offspring showed mild steatosis and down-regulation of UCP2 and SOD-1. We conclude that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency programs abnormal lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression in the F1 generation female offspring leading to hepatic steatosis, despite feeding them on control diet post-weaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  9. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  10. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia.

  11. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu

    2010-01-01

    that the initial increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mediated by 10,12 CLA was attenuated by TMB-8, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and by D609, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. Moreover, BAPTA, TMB-8, and D609 attenuated......-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) beta were attenuated by TMB-8. KN-62, a CaMKII inhibitor, also suppressed 10,12 CLA-mediated ROS production and ERK1/2 and JNK activation. Additionally, KN-62 attenuated 10,12 CLA induction of inflammatory and integrated stress response genes, increase in prostaglandin F2alpha...

  12. Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Alsner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last...... years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals......-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF...

  13. Calcium dobesilate inhibits the alterations in tight junction proteins and leukocyte adhesion to retinal endothelial cells induced by diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ermelindo C; Martins, João; Voabil, Paula; Liberal, Joana; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Bauer, Jacques; Cunha-Vaz, José; Ambrósio, António F

    2010-10-01

    Calcium dobesilate (CaD) has been used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in the last decades, but its mechanisms of action are not elucidated. CaD is able to correct the excessive vascular permeability in the retina of diabetic patients and in experimental diabetes. We investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CaD against the increase in blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability induced by diabetes. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with CaD. The BRB breakdown was evaluated using Evans blue. The content or distribution of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-5, and zonula occluden-1 [ZO-1]), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Leukocyte adhesion was evaluated in retinal vessels and in vitro. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the detection of oxidized carbonyls and tyrosine nitration. NF-κB activation was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diabetes increased the BRB permeability and retinal thickness. Diabetes also decreased occludin and claudin-5 levels and altered the distribution of ZO-1 and occludin in retinal vessels. These changes were inhibited by CaD treatment. CaD also inhibited the increase in leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels or endothelial cells and in ICAM-1 levels, induced by diabetes or elevated glucose. Moreover, CaD decreased oxidative stress and p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation caused by diabetes. CaD prevents the BRB breakdown induced by diabetes, by restoring tight junction protein levels and organization and decreasing leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels. The protective effects of CaD are likely to involve the inhibition of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation, possibly through the inhibition of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

  14. Calcium dobesilate attenuates vascular injury and the progression of diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Eugenia; Ganado, Patricia; Sanz, Mercedes; Zeini, Miriam; Ruiz, Emilio; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, Ana I; Salazar, Juan J; Ramírez, Jose M; Rojas, Blanca; Hoz, Rosa de; Tejerina, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a highly specific vascular complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Calcium dobesilate (DOBE) has been tested in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy showing a slowdown of the progression of the disease after long-term oral treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of DOBE on vascular and diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into three groups (n = 30). Group 0 (GO): nondiabetic rats. Group 1 (G1): 14 months of insulin treatment after diabetes development. Group 2 (G2): 14 months of insulin treatment after diabetes development plus DOBE (500 mg/kg/day). At the end of the treatment, vascular reactivity was tested. The study of the vascularization of the retina was performed on wholemounts of trypsin retinal digest preparations and retinal sections. Relaxation induced by acetylcholine decreased in the aorta arteries from diabetic rats but it was restored to control values in the DOBE-treated group (71.8 +/- 4.5%, 53.3 +/- 0.5%, 67.4 +/- 4.6% in group 0, 1 and 2 respectively). DOBE treatment also restored noradrenaline (1.08 +/- 0.05 g, 1.70 +/- 0.08 g, 1.13 +/- 0.05 g in group 0, 1 and 2 respectively) and caffeine-induced contractions. Diabetic state did not cause any alteration in mesenteric arteries. The analysis of the retinal digests showed vascular tortuosity, acellular capillaries, focal accumulations of capillaries and reduction of the number of pericytes in G1. The vascular changes observed in G2 seem to be intermediate between the control and the diabetic rats. We showed that long-term treatment with DOBE attenuated the progression of diabetic retinopathy and the alterations in vascular reactivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Acid polysaccharide-induced amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) films: colloidal nanoparticle self-organization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Chu, C Chang

    2009-03-03

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) plays important roles in biomineralization, and its synthesis in vitro has been of keen interest in the field of biomimetic materials. In this report, we describe the synthesis of ACC films using a novel acid polysaccharide, maleic chitosan, as an additive. We prepared the films by directly depositing them onto TEM grids and examined them using polarized optical microscopy (POM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). This enabled us to examine their formation and mesostructure without introducing artifacts. We observed that, in the presence of maleic chitosan, the ACC films are formed through a particle buildup process, with aggregation and coalescence occurring simultaneously. Nanoparticles with a size of less than 10 nm appear to be the basic units responsible for such self-organization. We suggest that the acid polysaccharide plays an important role in forming and stabilizing these nanoparticles, and we propose a colloidal nanoparticle self-organization model to explain the formation of the ACC films.

  16. Nanosqueezed light for probing mitochondria and calcium-induced membrane swelling for study of neuroprotectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Chen, P.; Copeland, R. G.; Hendricks, Judy K.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Keep, M. E.; Karlsson, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report a new bioMEMs nanolaser technique for measuring characteristics of small organelles. We have initially applied the method to study mitochondria, a very small (500nm to 1um) organelle containing the respiration apparatus for animal cells. Because the mitochondria are so tiny, it has been difficult to study them using standard light microscope or flow cytometry techniques. We employ a recently discovered a nano-optical transduction method for high-speed analysis of submicron organelles. This ultrasensitive detection of submicron particles uses nano-squeezing of light into photon modes imposed by the ultrasmall organelle dimensions in a submicron laser cavity. In this paper, we report measurements of mitochondria spectra under normal conditions and under high calcium ion gradient conditions that upset membrane homeostasis and lead to organelle swelling and lysis, similar to that observed in the diseased state. The measured spectra are compared with our calculations of the electromagnetic modes in normal and distended mitochondria using multiphysics finite element methods.

  17. Does calcium dobesilate protect against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury induced in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, A; Bardakci, O; Eryilmaz, S; Kocarslan, S; Incebiyik, A; Yucel, Y; Taskin, A; Soyalp, M; Gokalp, O; Uzunkoy, A

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the administration of calcium dobesilate (CD) affects oxidative stress markers and histopathological outcomes in a rat model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study was conducted with 30 male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups as follows: a sham group (n = 10), an IR group (n = 10), and an IR + CD group (n = 10). In the sham group, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection alone was performed during laparotomy. In the IR group, the procedure included SMA occlusion for 60 min, followed by reperfusion for 60 min. In the IR + CD group, CD (100 mg/kg/day) was additionally given for two days before laparotomy by intragastric lavage. In all the rats, 2 ml of blood were drawn, and an ileal segment (approximately 2 cm in size) was removed to evaluate oxidative stress markers. The ileal segment removed was divided into two pieces, and one piece was reserved for histopathological evaluation. Compared to the other groups, both serum and tissue oxidative stress indices were lower in the IR + CD group. The decrease was due to CD increasing the total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the histological analysis showed that CD reduced tissue injury. CD may exert a protective effect against intestinal IR injury by increasing antioxidant capacity.

  18. Laser- and gamma-ray induced crystallization of IR-transmitting calcium gallate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, T.; Kubuki, S.; Takashima, Y.; Mikami, M.; Yagi, T.

    1994-12-01

    Ar+-laser ( λ=488 nm) irradiation of calcium gallate (CG) glass with the composition of 60CaO·39Ga2O3·Fe2O3 resulted in a distinct decrease in the IR transmittance ( T) due to the formation of crystalline CaGa2O4 and CaGa4O9 phases. The Mössbauer spectrum of non-irradiated glass comprised a broad doublet due to distorted Fe3+(Td) with δ, Δ, and Γ of 0.20, 1.33, and 1.00 mm s-1, respectively. An additional doublet due to Fe3+(Td) was observed in the Ar+-irradiated glass and δ, Δ, and Γ were 0.17, 1.32, and 0.75 mm s-1, respectively. A decrease in T was also observed after the60Co γ-ray irradiation with doses ≥105Gy, and the precipitation of CaO, Ga2O3, and CaGa4O7 phases was confirmed by X-ray diffraction.

  19. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ Induces Glomerular Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimam, Hanan; Papillon, Joan; Kaufman, Daniel R; Guillemette, Julie; Aoudjit, Lamine; Gross, Richard W; Takano, Tomoko; Cybulsky, Andrey V

    2016-07-08

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) play a critical role in the maintenance of glomerular permselectivity. Podocyte injury, manifesting as proteinuria, is the cause of many glomerular diseases. We reported previously that calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is cytoprotective against complement-mediated glomerular epithelial cell injury. Studies in iPLA2γ KO mice have demonstrated an important role for iPLA2γ in mitochondrial lipid turnover, membrane structure, and metabolism. The aim of the present study was to employ iPLA2γ KO mice to better understand the role of iPLA2γ in normal glomerular and podocyte function as well as in glomerular injury. We show that deletion of iPLA2γ did not cause detectable albuminuria; however, it resulted in mitochondrial structural abnormalities and enhanced autophagy in podocytes as well as loss of podocytes in aging KO mice. Moreover, after induction of anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis in young mice, iPLA2γ KO mice exhibited significantly increased levels of albuminuria, podocyte injury, and loss of podocytes compared with wild type. Thus, iPLA2γ has a protective functional role in the normal glomerulus and in glomerulonephritis. Understanding the role of iPLA2γ in glomerular pathophysiology provides opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to glomerular injury and proteinuria. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Haploinsufficiency of the 22q11.2 microdeletion gene Mrpl40 disrupts short-term synaptic plasticity and working memory through dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, P; Yu, J; Eddins, D; Mellado-Lagarde, M M; Earls, L R; Westmoreland, J J; Quarato, G; Green, D R; Zakharenko, S S

    2017-09-01

    Hemizygous deletion of a 1.5- to 3-megabase region on chromosome 22 causes 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), which constitutes one of the strongest genetic risks for schizophrenia. Mouse models of 22q11DS have abnormal short-term synaptic plasticity that contributes to working-memory deficiencies similar to those in schizophrenia. We screened mutant mice carrying hemizygous deletions of 22q11DS genes and identified haploinsufficiency of Mrpl40 (mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein 40) as a contributor to abnormal short-term potentiation (STP), a major form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Two-photon imaging of the genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6, expressed in presynaptic cytosol or mitochondria, showed that Mrpl40 haploinsufficiency deregulates STP via impaired calcium extrusion from the mitochondrial matrix through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This led to abnormally high cytosolic calcium transients in presynaptic terminals and deficient working memory but did not affect long-term spatial memory. Thus, we propose that mitochondrial calcium deregulation is a novel pathogenic mechanism of cognitive deficiencies in schizophrenia.

  1. Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z

    2012-10-15

    Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P agglutinating diluent failed to inhibit sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Although the mechanism of agglutination was not determined, the cAMP- protein kinase A signaling pathway was not involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alendronate and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Against Bed Rest-Induced Bone Loss: Biochemical Markers of Bone and Calcium Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; LeBlanc, Adrian; Shackelford, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Weightlessness-induced bone loss must be counteracted to ensure crew health during extendedduration space missions. Studies were conducted to assess two bone loss countermeasures in a ground-based model: horizontal bed rest. Following a 3-wk ambulatory adaptation period, male and female subjects (aged 21-56 y) completed a 17-wk bed rest protocol. Subjects were assigned to one of three treatments: alendronate (ALEN; 10 mg/d, n=6), resistive exercise (RE; 1.5 h/d, 6 d/wk, n=8), or control (CN; no countermeasure, n=8). Dietary intake was adjusted to maintain body weight. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured in blood and urine using standard laboratory methods. All data reported are expressed as percent change from individual pre-bedrest data. Serum calcium changed little during bed rest, and tended to decrease (4-8%) in ALEN subjects. In RE subjects, bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased >65 and >30%, respectively, during bed rest, while these were unchanged or decreased in ALEN and CN subjects. Urinary calcium was increased 50% in CN subjects, but was unchanged or decreased in both ALEN and RE groups. Urinary n-telopeptide excretion was increased 40-50% in CN and RE subjects, but decreased 20% in ALEN subjects. Pyridinium crosslink and deoxypyridinoline excretion were increased 20-50% during bed rest. These data suggest that RE countermeasures are effective at increasing markers of bone formation in an analog of weightlessness, while ALEN reduces markers of bone resorption. Counteracting the bone loss of space flight may require both pharmacologic and exercise countermeasures.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org, a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment.

  4. Difference between dogs and rats with regard to osteoclast-like cells in calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite-induced osteoinduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Norihiro; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Hirano, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    Material-induced osteoinduction is reported in comparatively large animals such as dogs and pigs; however, it does not often occur in small animals such as rodents. In this study, we implanted porous calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) in the dorsal muscles of dogs and rats and compared the two species, with emphasis on multinucleated cells, by using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In CDHA extracted from dogs, numerous TRAP-positive multinucleated cells were detected after 2 weeks and new bone formation was observed after 4 weeks. In contrast, in rats, only a small number of TRAP-positive cells were detected and no bone formation was observed within 6 weeks. CDHA was more degraded in dogs than in rats. TEM observation of the multinucleated cells in CDHA extracted from dogs after 3 weeks revealed osteoclast-like features such as ruffled borders. However, CDHA extracted from rats did not exhibit osteoclast-like features. RT-PCR evaluation showed that the expression of cathepsin K was higher in dogs than in rats. These results indicate that TRAP-positive cells might be one of the main factors responsible for the cross-species difference in material-induced osteoinduction. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Calcium ionophore (A-23187 induced peritoneal eicosanoid biosynthesis: a rapid method to evaluate inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Rao

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation characterizes calcium ionophore (A-23187 induced peritoneal eicosanoid biosynthesis in the rat. Intraperitoneal injection of A-23187 (20 μg/rat stimulated marked biosynthesis of 6-keto-PGF1α (6-KPA, TxB2, LTC4 and LTB4, with no detectable changes on levels of PGE2. Levels of all eicosanoids decreased rapidly after a peak which was seen as early as 5 min. Enzyme markers of cellular contents of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, MPO and NAG respectively, decreased rapidly after ionophore injection; this was followed by increases after 60 min. Indomethacin, a selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and zileuton and ICI D-2138, two selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors attenuated prostaglandin and leukotriene pathways respectively. Oral administration of zileuton (20 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited LTB4 biosynthesis for up to 6 h suggesting a long duration of pharmacological activity in the rats consistent with its longer half-life. The rapid onset and the magnitude of increases in levels of eicosanoids render the ionophore induced peritoneal eicosanoid biosynthesis a useful model to evaluate pharmacological profiles of inhibitors of eicosanoid pathways in vivo.

  6. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.

  7. Expression of the calcium-binding proteins MRP8 and MRP14 in monocytes is regulated by a calcium-induced suppressor mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    ROTH, J.; Goebeler, M; Wrocklage, V; van den Bos, C; Sorg, C.

    1994-01-01

    MRP8 and MRP14 are two calcium-binding proteins of the S-100 family the expression of which is restricted to distinct stages of monocytic differentiation. Heteromeric MRP8/MRP14 complexes have been shown to represent their biologically active forms. However, it is not as yet clear whether biochemical modification of complexes, or regulation on the transcriptional level, are responsible for the control of MRP8/MRP14 expression. Employing Western-blot analysis and metabolic labelling we have de...

  8. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  9. Lipocalin 2, a new GADD153 target gene, as an apoptosis inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress in lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, I-Lun; Hsiao, Yueh-Chieh [Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fang [Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Jan, Ming-Shiou [Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Tang, Sheau-Chung; Lin, Yu-Wen [Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chung-Ping, E-mail: cliff@vghtc.com.tw [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Veterans General Hospital—Taichung, Taichung 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine and Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Jiunn-Liang, E-mail: jlko@csmu.edu.tw [Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated under severe cellular conditions. GADD153, a member of the C/EBP family, is an unfolded protein response (UPR) responsive transcription factor. Increased levels of lipocalin 2, an acute phase protein, have been found in several epithelial cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of lipocalin 2 in lung cancer cells under ER stress. Treatment with thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, led to increases in cytotoxicity, ER stress, apoptosis, and lipocalin 2 expression in A549 cells. GADD153 silencing decreased lipocalin 2 expression in A549 cells. On chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, ER stress increased GADD153 DNA binding to lipocalin 2 promoter. Furthermore, silencing of lipocalin 2 mitigated ER stress-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that lipocalin 2 is a new GADD153 target gene that mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. Highlights: ► We demonstrate that Lipocalin 2 is a new GADD153 target gene. ► Lipocalin 2 mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. ► ER stress-induced lipocalin 2 expression is calcium-independent in A549 cells. ► Lipocalin 2 dose not play a major role in ER stress-induced autophagy.

  10. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ruibing [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Lihui [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: ymylh@163.com [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  11. Chemoprevention with Acetylsalicylic Acid, Vitamin D and Calcium Reduces Risk of Carcinogen-induced Lung Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, J

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor.......Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor....

  12. The structures of the human calcium channel {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACNL1A2) and {beta} subunit (CACNLB3) genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Li, Qing [Kyoto Univ. Faculty of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1995-05-20

    Calcium influx in pancreatic {beta}-cells is regulated mainly by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and triggers insulin secretion. The {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACN4) and the {beta} subunit ({beta}{sub 3}) of VDCCs, both of which are expressed in pancreatic islets, are major components for the VDCC activity, and so they may play a critical role in the regulation of insulin secretion. The authors have determined the structures of the human CACN4 (CACNL1A2) and the human {beta}{sub 3} (CACNLB3) genes. The CACNL1A2 gene spans more than 155 kb and has 49 exons. Most of the positions interrupted by introns are well conserved between the CACNL1A2 gene and the previously reported L-type VDCC {alpha}{sub 1} subunit, CACNL1A1, gene. On the other hand, the CACNLB3 gene distributes in {approximately} 8 kb and comprises 13 exons, most of which are located together within {approximately} 5 kb. Comparisons of the genomic sequences of CACNL1A2 with the previously reported cDNA sequences indicate that there are a number of polymorphisms in the human CACNL1A2 gene. In addition, the PCR-SSCP procedure of exon 1 of CACNL1A2 revealed a change from 7 to 8 ATG trinucleotide repeats in a patient with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), resulting in an addition of methionine at the amino-terminus of CACN4. The determination of the structures of the human CACNL1A2 and CACNLB3 genes should facilitate study of the role of these genes in the development of NIDDM and also other genetic diseases such as long QT syndrome. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and Its Closely Related Kinase Genes in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanyang ecai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play important roles in regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling, which are ubiquitously involved in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of genes encoding pepper CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs was performed, and 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CaCPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the Capsicum annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and eight CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

  14. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    low calcium medium; LNM, low nitrate medium; LPM, low phosphate medium; LSM, low sulphate medium; MMG, minimal medium with glucose; NR, nitrate ... processes like pollen tube growth (Picton and Steer 1983) and cytokinin induced bud ... melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The CDPK genes are highly ...

  15. A Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Is Systemically Induced upon Wounding in Tomato Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, José Manuel; Raíces, Marcela; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone (LeCDPK1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was isolated by screening a cDNA library from tomato cell cultures exposed to Cladosporium fulvum elicitor preparations. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA reveals a high degree of similarity with other members of the CDPK family. LeCDPK1 has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence and presents a possible palmitoylation site. The in vitro translated protein conserves the biochemical properties of a member of the CDPK family. In addition, CDPK activity was detected in soluble and particulate extracts of tomato leaves. Basal levels of LeCDPK1 mRNA were detected by northern-blot analysis in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of tomato plants. The expression of LeCDPK1 was rapidly and transiently enhanced in detached tomato leaves treated with pathogen elicitors and H2O2. Moreover, when tomato greenhouse plants were subjected to mechanical wounding, a transient increase of LeCDPK1 steady-state mRNA levels was detected locally at the site of the injury and systemically in distant non-wounded leaves. The increase observed in LeCDPK1 mRNA upon wounding correlates with an increase in the amount and in the activity of a soluble CDPK detected in extracts of tomato leaves, suggesting that this kinase is part of physiological plant defense mechanisms against biotic or abiotic attacks. PMID:11788771

  16. A doxycycline inducible, adenoviral bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene delivery system to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jennifer J; Dresing, Iska; Zeiter, Stephan; Anton, Martina; Daculsi, Guy; Eglin, David; Nehrbass, Dirk; Stadelmann, Vincent A; Betts, Duncan C; Müller, Ralph; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J

    2016-12-13

    We report the novel use of a tuneable, non-integrating viral gene delivery system to bone that can be combined with clinically approved biomaterials in an 'off-the-shelf' manner. Specifically, a doxycycline inducible Tet-on adenoviral vector (AdTetBMP-2) in combination with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), fibrin and a biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (MBCP®) was used to repair large bone defects in nude rats. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transgene expression could be effectively tuned by modification of the doxycycline concentration. The effect of adenoviral BMP-2 gene delivery upon bone healing was investigated in vivo in 4 mm critically sized, internally fixated, femoral defects. MSCs were transduced either by direct application of AdTetBMP-2 or by pre-coating MBCP granules with the virus. Radiological assessment scores post-mortem were significantly improved upon delivery of AdTetBMP-2. In AdTetBMP-2 groups, histological analysis revealed significantly more newly formed bone at the defect site compared with controls. Newly formed bone was vascularized and fully integrated with nascent tissue and implanted biomaterial. Improvement in healing outcome was achieved using both methods of vector delivery (direct application vs. pre-coating MCBP). Adenoviral delivery of BMP-2 enhanced bone regeneration achieved by the transplantation of MSCs, fibrin and MBCP in vivo. Importantly, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that this can be achieved with relatively low (ng/ml) levels of the growth factor. Our model and novel gene delivery system may provide a powerful standardized tool for the optimization of growth factor delivery and release for the healing of large bone defects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Causes of excitation-induced muscle cell damage in isometric contractions: mechanical stress or calcium overload?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Anne; Gissel, Hanne; Madsen, Klavs

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged or unaccustomed exercise leads to muscle cell membrane damage, detectable as release of the intracellular enzyme lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH). This is correlated to excitation-induced influx of Ca2+, but it cannot be excluded that mechanical stress contributes to the damage. We here ...

  18. Laser-frequency locking using light-pressure-induced spectroscopy in a calcium beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, A. K.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Hoekstra, R.

    We demonstrate a spectroscopy method that can be applied in an atomic beam, light-pressure-induced spectroscopy (LiPS). A simple pump and probe experiment yields a dispersivelike spectroscopy signal that can be utilized for laser frequency stabilization. The underlying principles are discussed and

  19. Abnormalities in intracellular calcium regulation and contractile function in myocardium from dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, C. L.; Shannon, R. P.; Komamura, K.; Vatner, S. F.; Morgan, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    24 d of rapid ventricular pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy with both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. We studied mechanical properties and intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) transients of trabeculae carneae isolated from 15 control dogs (n = 32) and 11 dogs with pacing-induced cardiac failure (n = 26). Muscles were stretched to maximum length at 30 degrees C and stimulated at 0.33 Hz; a subset (n = 17 control, n = 17 myopathic) was loaded with the [Ca2+]i indicator aequorin. Peak tension was depressed in the myopathic muscles, even in the presence of maximally effective (i.e., 16 mM) [Ca2+] in the perfusate. However, peak [Ca2+]i was similar (0.80 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.05 microM; [Ca2+]o = 2.5 mM), suggesting that a decrease in Cai2+ availability was not responsible for the decreased contractility. The time for decline from the peak of the Cai2+ transient was prolonged in the myopathic group, which correlated with prolongation of isometric contraction and relaxation. However, similar end-diastolic [Ca2+]i was achieved in both groups (0.29 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 microM), indicating that Cai2+ homeostasis can be maintained in myopathic hearts. The inotropic response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was depressed compared with the controls. However, when cAMP production was stimulated by pretreatment with forskolin, the response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was improved. Our findings provide direct evidence that abnormal [Ca2+]i handling is an important cause of contractile dysfunction in dogs with pacing-induced heart failure and suggest that deficient production of cAMP may be an important cause of these changes in excitation-contraction coupling.

  20. Isolation and prevention of calcium oxalate-induced apoptotic death and oxidative stress in MDCK cells by diosgenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sarmistha; Goswami, Gagan; Pandrangi, Anupama

    2014-12-05

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) has been shown to be the most frequent constituent of kidney stones. The interactions of cells with COM crystals produce a variety of physiological and pathological changes including the development of oxidative stress, cellular injury and apoptosis. On the other hand, diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, is well known for its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether diosgenin protects MDCK renal epithelial cells from COM-induced apoptotic death. Diosgenin was isolated from fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum by silica gel column chromatography. It was obtained in high yields (1.23%) and the purity was ascertained by HPTLC analysis. Characterization of diosgenin was done by mp, UV-visible spectrophotometry, elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analysis. Cells were co-incubated with COM (80μg/cm(2)) and diosgenin (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10μg/mL) for 24h. It was found that diosgenin attenuated the apoptotic death induced by COM as measured in terms of cell viability, caspase -9/3 activities and DNA fragmentation percent. The inhibitory role of diosgenin on caspase -9/3 activities was also analyzed using molecular docking experiments, which showed interactions to their active sites by H-bonds. Diosgenin also attenuated the increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion induced by COM crystals. In conclusion, the preventive effect of diosgenin is associated to the inhibition of oxidative stress and caspases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate an...

  2. On the protection by inorganic phosphate of calcium-induced membrane permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, E; Moreno-Sánchez, R; Zazueta, C; Rodríguez, J S; Bravo, C; Reyes-Vivas, H

    1997-12-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate as inhibitor of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition was studied. It is shown that in mitochondria containing a high phosphate concentration, i.e., 68 nmo/mg, Ca2+ did not activate the pore opening. Conversely, at lower levels of matrix phosphate, i.e., 38 nmol/mg, Ca2+ was able to induce subsequent pore opening. The inhibitory effect of phosphate was apparent in sucrose-based media, but it was not achieved in KCI media. The matrix free Ca2+ concentration and matrix pH were lowered by phosphate, but they were always higher in K+-media. In the absence of ADP, phosphate strengthened the inhibitory effect of cyclosporin A on carboxyatractyloside-induced Ca2+ efflux. Acetate was unable to replace phosphate in the induction of the aforementioned effects. It is concluded that phosphate preserves selective membrane permeability by diminishing the matrix free Ca2+ concentration.

  3. Rapid, Room-Temperature Formation of Crystalline Calcium Molybdate Phosphor Microparticles via Peptide-Induced Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    accomplished by methods based on solid-state reaction, coprecipitation , combustion synthesis , or pyrolysis of organic precursors, such powder processing...lighting applications),[4] as catalysts in petrochemical process- ing (e.g., as an ester-exchange copolymerization catalyst ),[5] and as nontoxic... coprecipitation with low-melting organic or inorganic salts). Furthermore, the identification of peptides that locally induce the precipitation of such

  4. Calcium antagonism and the vasorelaxation of the rat aorta induced by rotundifolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The vasorelaxing activity of rotundifolone (ROT, a major constituent (63.5% of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, was tested in male Wistar rats (300-350 g. In isolated rat aortic rings, increasing ROT concentrations (0.3, 1, 10, 100, 300, and 500 µg/ml inhibited the contractile effects of 1 µM phenylephrine and of 80 or 30 mM KCl (IC50 values, reported as means ± SEM = 184 ± 6, 185 ± 3 and 188 ± 19 µg/ml, N = 6, respectively. In aortic rings pre-contracted with 1 µM phenylephrine, the smooth muscle-relaxant activity of ROT was inhibited by removal of the vascular endothelium (IC50 value = 235 ± 7 µg/ml, N = 6. Furthermore, ROT inhibited (pD2 = 6.04, N = 6 the CaCl2-induced contraction in depolarizing medium in a concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free solution, ROT inhibited 1 µM phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine (20 mM. In conclusion, in the present study we have shown that ROT produces an endothelium-independent vasorelaxing effect in the rat aorta. The results further indicated that in the rat aorta ROT is able to induce vasorelaxation, at least in part, by inhibiting both: a voltage-dependent Ca² channels, and b intracellular Ca2+ release selectively due to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate activation. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ROT-induced relaxation.

  5. Risk of drug-induced agranulocytosis: the case of calcium dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater, Pedro; Horga, José Francisco; García, Antonio

    2003-03-01

    In the last 20 years, some cases of agranulocytosis associated with calcium dobesilate consumption in Spain have been reported. A high risk of dobesilate-associated agranulocytosis (121 cases per million per year) calculated using both a case-control and a case-population strategy has been published. However few spontaneous reports have been noted in the same period of time. No explanation exists for this disagreement. Estimated incidence rates of agranulocytosis in the IAAAS study and the calculated risk of dobesilate-associated agranulocytosis were used as background risks in a Poisson-based methodology, to calculate the number of coincidental reports of agranulocytosis among patients treated with dobesilate. The influence of treatment duration, notification rate and population characteristics were calculated. During the period 1978-2000, a total of 23 cases would have taken place if the background risk of agranulocytosis were 4.7 per million per year (IAAAS's risk); however, only 9 spontaneous cases of agranulocytosis associated to dobesilate were noted. A simulation showed that with notification rates equal to or higher than 17%, it was not possible to exclude that the 9 cases were false-positives. With notification rates equal or inferior to 16%, it would be unlikely that cases of agranulocytosis were noted in this population with a risk of 4.7 per million per year; therefore, it is necessary to assume a higher agranulocytosis risk. More than 1 case per year could be a false-positive if the background risk of agranulocytosis is 9.5 per million per year, this being the appropriate risk for a population of patients older than 60 years. The duration of treatment beyond 30 days increases the probability of a random coincidence of the intake of drug and an agranulocytosis event. The disagreement between calculated dobesilate-associated agranulocytosis risk and the number of noted spontaneous reports may be explained by at least three different factors: under

  6. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Bae [The Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changsoo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunmi [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Park, Hyelim; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chun [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague–Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0 ± 14.0 to 142.1 ± 18.4 ms (p = 0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/ml for 30 min, n = 5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p = 0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5 mmol/L, n = 3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/ml for 20 min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5 mmol/L, n = 5), nifedipine (10 μmol/L, n = 5), and active Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1 μmol/L, n = 5), but not by thapsigargin (200 nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10 μmol/L, n = 5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1 μmol/L, n = 5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5 μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► The ambient PM consistently prolonged repolarization. ► The ambient PM induced triggered activity and ventricular arrhythmia. ► These effects were prevented by antioxidants, I{sub CaL} blockade and CaMKII blockade. ► The ambient PM can induce

  7. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells.

  8. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Changsoo; Choi, Eunmi; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Hyelim; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Shin, Dong Chun; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Joung, Boyoung

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague-Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0±14.0 to 142.1±18.4ms (p=0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200μg/ml for 30min, n=5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p=0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5mmol/L, n=3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5μg/ml for 20min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5mmol/L, n=5), nifedipine (10μmol/L, n=5), and active Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1μmol/L, n=5), but not by thapsigargin (200nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10μmol/L, n=5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1μmol/L, n=5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PhoP-Induced Genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Andrés; Cabeza, María Laura; Spinelli, Silvana V.; McClelland, Michael; García Véscovi, Eleonora; Soncini, Fernando C.

    2006-01-01

    The invasive pathogen Salmonella enterica has evolved a sophisticated device that allows it to enter nonphagocytic host cells. This process requires the expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), which encodes a specialized type III protein secretion system (TTSS). This TTSS delivers a set of effectors that produce a marked rearrangement of the host cytoskeleton, generating a profuse membrane ruffling at the site of interaction, driving bacterial entry. It has been shown that the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system represses the expression of the SPI-1 machinery by down-regulating the transcription of its master regulator, HilA. In this work, we reveal the presence of a PhoP-activated operon within SPI-1. This operon is composed of the orgB and orgC genes, which encode a protein that interacts with the InvC ATPase and a putative effector protein of the TTSS, respectively. Under PhoP-inducing conditions, expression of this operon is directly activated by the phosphorylated form of the response regulator, which recognizes a PhoP box located at the −35 region relative to the transcription start site. Additionally, under invasion-inducing conditions, orgBC expression is driven both by the prgH promoter, induced by the SPI-1 master regulator HilA, and by the directly controlled PhoP/PhoQ promoter. Together, these results indicate that in contrast to the rest of the genes encompassed in the SPI-1 locus, orgBC is expressed during and after Salmonella entry into its host cell, and they suggest a role for the products of this operon after host cell internalization. PMID:16980492

  10. Effect of timing of administered calcium lactate on the sucrose-induced intraoral demineralization of bovine enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashket, S; Yaskell, T

    1992-03-01

    A number of soluble calcium salts are known to reduce the demineralization of enamel in the mouth. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of rinses containing different concentrations of calcium lactate, and the time of giving the rinses with respect to sucrose challenges. Subjects wore palatal appliances containing blocks of bovine enamel whose surfaces were covered with Streptococcus mutans IB 1600, and rinsed with 10% sucrose for 1 min. Changes in iodide penetrability of the enamel, and the pH and extracellular ion concentrations of the streptococcal plaque were determined. When added to the sucrose rinse, 100 or 150 mM calcium lactate reduced demineralization by about 35%, although the plaque pH was not affected. Plaque calcium was elevated but diffused away rapidly so that concentrations after 45 min were close to control values. Plaque inorganic phosphate and lactate were not affected. Ongoing demineralization appeared to be stopped when 100 mM calcium lactate was given 15 min after the sucrose rinse. When the lactate was given 15 min before the sucrose rinse, demineralization was reduced by only about 25%, consistent with the rapid diffusion of plaque calcium. The combination of (i) pretreatment with calcium lactate and (ii) admixture of calcium lactate with sucrose was most effective. Demineralization was reduced about 55% with 100 mM calcium lactate under these conditions, and protective effects were seen with as little as 25 mM. In summary, the findings demonstrate the enamel-protective effect of relatively low concentrations of calcium lactate, and point to the need to sustain a high plaque calcium during periods of maximum acidogenicity.

  11. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetal globin gene inducers: novel agents and new potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Susan P; Castaneda, Serguei A; Chui, David H K; Faller, Douglas V; Berenson, Ronald J; Siritanaratku, Noppadol; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2010-08-01

    Inducing expression of endogenous fetal globin (gamma-globin) gene expression to 60-70% of alpha globin synthesis produces beta-thalassemia trait globin synthetic ratios and can reduce anemia to a mild level. Several classes of therapeutics have induced gamma-globin expression in beta-thalassemia patients and subsequently raised total hemoglobin levels, demonstrating proof-of-concept of the approach. Butyrate treatment eliminated transfusion requirements in formerly transfusion-dependent patients with treatment for as long as seven years. However, prior generation inducers were not readily applicable for widespread use. Currently, a novel oral dual-action therapeutic, sodium 2,2-dimethylbutyrate, is in clinical trials, an oral decitabine formulation is under development, and agents with complementary mechanisms of action can be applied in combined regimens. Identification of three major genetic trait loci which modulate clinical severity provides avenues for developing tailored regimens. These refinements offer renewed potential to apply fetal globin induction as a treatment approach in patient-friendly regimens that can be used worldwide.

  13. Quercetagetin-Loaded Zein-Propylene Glycol Alginate Ternary Composite Particles Induced by Calcium Ions: Structure Characterization and Formation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuixia; Wei, Yang; Li, Ruirui; Dai, Lei; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-05-17

    The complexation of zein and propylene glycol alginate (PGA) was confirmed to improve the entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of quercetagetin (Q) in our previous study. The present work focused on the influence and induction mechanism of calcium ions on structures of Q-loaded zein-PGA ternary composite particles. The incorporation of Ca 2+ resulted in the formation of aggregates with a large dimension between zein particles, led to obvious conformational, secondary, and tertiary structural changes of zein, and caused the disappearance of crystalline structure of zein. PGA exhibited a fine filamentous network structure and became much thicker and stronger in the presence of Ca 2+ . The presence of Q promoted the affinity and binding capacity of Ca 2+ to zein and PGA. An interwoven network structure with enhanced firmness and density was observed in Q-loaded zein-PGA composite particles, leading to improved thermal stability. Three potential mechanisms were proposed to explain the structural characteristics induced by Ca 2+ , including particle-particle collision for zein particles, chain-chain association for PGA molecules, and simultaneous cross-linking coupled with aggregating for Q-loaded zein-PGA composite particles.

  14. Automated Measurement of Magnesium/Calcium Ratios in Gastropod Shells Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Paleoclimatic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Adolfo; García-Escárzaga, Asier; Gutiérrez-Zugasti, Igor; Setién, Jesús; González-Morales, Manuel R; López-Higuera, José Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The chemical composition of mollusk shells offers information about environmental conditions present during the lifespan of the organism. Shells found in geological deposits and in many archeological sites can help to reconstruct past climatic conditions. For example, a correlation has been found between seawater temperature and the amount of some substituent elements (e.g., magnesium, strontium) in the biogenerated calcium carbonate matrix of the shell, although it is very species-specific. Here we propose the use laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate Mg/Ca ratios in modern specimens of the common limpet Patella vulgata. An automated setup was used to obtain a sequence of Mg/Ca ratios across a sampling path that could be compared with the seawater temperatures recorded during the organism's lifespan. Results using four shells collected in different months of the year showed a direct relationship between the Mg/Ca ratios and the seawater temperature, although the sequences also revealed small-scale (short-term) variability and an irregular growth rate. Nevertheless, it was possible to infer the season of capture and the minimum and maximum seawater temperatures from the LIBS sequences. This fact, along with the reduction in sampling and measurement time compared with other spectrometric techniques (such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry [ICP-MS]), makes LIBS useful in paleoclimatic studies.

  15. In Vitro Spectrophotometry of Tooth Discoloration Induced by Tooth-Colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Marjan; Khalilak, Zohreh; Rajabi, Moones; Esnaashari, Ehsan; Saati, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous factors that can lead to tooth discoloration after endodontic treatment, such as penetration of endodontic materials into the dentinal tubules during root canal treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare discoloration induced by tooth colored mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in extracted human teeth. Thirty two dentin-enamel cuboid blocks (7×7×2 mm) were prepared from extracted maxillary central incisors. Standardized cavities were prepared in the middle of each cube, leaving 1 mm of enamel and dentin on the labial surface. The specimens were randomly divided into two study groups (n=12) and two positive and negative control groups (n=4). In either study groups the cavities were filled with MTA or CEM cement. The positive and negative control groups were filled with blood or left empty, respectively. The cavities were sealed with composite resin and stored in normal saline. Color measurement was carried out by spectrophotometry at different time intervals including before (T0), and 1 week (T1), 1 month (T2) and 6 months (T3) after placement of materials. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the discoloration between the groups; the material type was considered as the inter-subject factor. The level of significance was set at 0.05. No significant differences were detected between the groups in all time intervals (P>0.05). Tooth discoloration was similarly detectable with both of the two experimental materials.

  16. [Role of calcium activated-potassium channels in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sun, Jingzhi; Yang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium activated-potassium channels (KCa) in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz. The experiments were conducted on a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) in vitro, where crystal silica (100 üg/ml) and amorphous silica (100 üg/ml) were used as the test substances and the cells without any treatment as negative controls. At first the effects of two kinds of quartz were compared. Then KCa special inhibitors (Paxilline for BK, Tram-34 for IK, Apamin for SK) were added in different doses to the in vitro test system with 100 üg/ml crystal quartz as matrix, to observe the function of such channels. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) were tested. Comparing to the negative control group, cell viability reduced, LDH leakage, IL-1β and TNF-α release increased significantly in the amorphous quartz group, furthermore, the effects by crystal quartz were much more serious than those by amorphous quartz, with a statistical significance (P quartz group, IK blockers (Tram-34) led to increase in cell viability significantly, with a statistical significance (P quartz in the rat alveolar macrophages cell line in vitro, which might serve as a signal in the early regulation of inflammatory responses by quartz.

  17. TRPM7 is involved in angiotensin II induced cardiac fibrosis development by mediating calcium and magnesium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Chen, Shaorui; Xiao, Chuyao; Jia, Yanyan; Guo, Jinlei; Jiang, Jianmin; Liu, Peiqing

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is involved in a lot of cardiovascular pathological processes. Cardiac fibrosis can block conduction, cause hypoxia, strengthen myocardial stiffness, create electrical heterogeneity, and hamper systolic ejection, which is associated with the development of arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Besides the initial stimulating factors, the cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are the principal responsible cells in the fibrogenesis cascade of events. TRPM7, a member of the TRPM (Melastatin) subfamily, is a non-selective cation channel, which permeates both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Here we demonstrated TRPM7 expression in CFs, and 2-APB (TRPM7 inhibitor), inhibited Ang II-induced CTGF, α-SMA expression and CFs proliferation. Besides, knocking down TRPM7 by shRNA, we proved that TRPM7 mediated both calcium and magnesium changes in cardiac fibroblasts which contribute to fibrosis progress. This study suggested that TRPM7 should play a pivotal role in cardiac fibroblast functions associated to cardiac fibrosis development. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-treatment with calcium prevents endothelial cell activation induced by multiple activators, necrotic trophoblastic debris or IL-6 or preeclamptic sera: possible relevance to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Zhang, Y; Tong, M; Wu, M; Snowise, S; Stone, P; Chamley, L W

    2013-12-01

    A hallmark of preeclampsia is endothelial cell dysfunction/activation in response to "toxins" from the placenta. Necrotic trophoblastic debris (NTD) is one possible placental toxin and others include inflammatory cytokines. Calcium supplementation appears to protect "at-risk" women from developing preeclampsia by an unknown mechanism. In this study we investigate whether the addition of high levels of calcium to endothelial cells prior to their exposure to the preeclampsia-associated activators could reduce the endothelial cell activation. NTD was harvested from 1st trimester placental explants. Endothelial cells were treated with varied concentrations of calcium prior to exposure to NTD, IL-6 or preeclamptic sera or low levels of calcium. Activation was monitored by quantifying endothelial cell-surface ICAM-1 by ELISA or U937 adhesion to endothelial cells. The activity of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthetase was blocked with L-NAME. Pre-treatment with increasing concentrations of calcium inhibited the activation of endothelial cells in response to NTD or IL-6 or preeclamptic sera. Inhibiting nitric oxide synthetase, using L-NAME, reduced the ability of high calcium levels to protect endothelial cell activation. Pre-treatment with calcium did not prevent endothelial cell activation induced by the reduction of the levels of calcium but additional calcium treatment did prevent endothelial cell activation induced by low calcium. Our results demonstrate calcium supplementation may prevent the activation of the endothelium in response to activators. These results may partially explain the benefits of calcium supplementation in the reduction of risk for developing preeclampsia and provide in vitro mechanistic support for the use of calcium supplementation in at-risk women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of calcium signals in the nucleus by a nucleoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Wihelma; Leite, M Fatima; Guerra, Mateus T; Zipfel, Warren R; Nathanson, Michael H

    2003-05-01

    Calcium is a second messenger in virtually all cells and tissues. Calcium signals in the nucleus have effects on gene transcription and cell growth that are distinct from those of cytosolic calcium signals; however, it is unknown how nuclear calcium signals are regulated. Here we identify a reticular network of nuclear calcium stores that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. This network expresses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, and the nuclear component of InsP3-mediated calcium signals begins in its locality. Stimulation of these receptors with a little InsP3 results in small calcium signals that are initiated in this region of the nucleus. Localized release of calcium in the nucleus causes nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) to translocate to the region of the nuclear envelope, whereas release of calcium in the cytosol induces translocation of cytosolic PKC to the plasma membrane. Our findings show that the nucleus contains a nucleoplasmic reticulum with the capacity to regulate calcium signals in localized subnuclear regions. The presence of such machinery provides a potential mechanism by which calcium can simultaneously regulate many independent processes in the nucleus.

  20. L-glutamine Induces Expression of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Haber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high environmental adaptability of bacteria is contingent upon their ability to sense changes in their surroundings. Bacterial pathogen entry into host poses an abrupt and dramatic environmental change, during which successful pathogens gauge multiple parameters that signal host localization. The facultative human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes flourishes in soil, water and food, and in ~50 different animals, and serves as a model for intracellular infection. L. monocytogenes identifies host entry by sensing both physical (e.g., temperature and chemical (e.g., metabolite concentrations factors. We report here that L-glutamine, an abundant nitrogen source in host serum and cells, serves as an environmental indicator and inducer of virulence gene expression. In contrast, ammonia, which is the most abundant nitrogen source in soil and water, fully supports growth, but fails to activate virulence gene transcription. We demonstrate that induction of virulence genes only occurs when the Listerial intracellular concentration of L-glutamine crosses a certain threshold, acting as an on/off switch: off when L-glutamine concentrations are below the threshold, and fully on when the threshold is crossed. To turn on the switch, L-glutamine must be present, and the L-glutamine high affinity ABC transporter, GlnPQ, must be active. Inactivation of GlnPQ led to complete arrest of L-glutamine uptake, reduced type I interferon response in infected macrophages, dramatic reduction in expression of virulence genes, and attenuated virulence in a mouse infection model. These results may explain observations made with other pathogens correlating nitrogen metabolism and virulence, and suggest that gauging of L-glutamine as a means of ascertaining host localization may be a general mechanism.

  1. Functionalized nanoparticles for AMF-induced gene and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Souvik

    The properties and broad applications of nano-magnetic colloids have generated much interest in recent years. Specially, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention since their magnetic properties can be used for hyperthermia treatment or drug targeting. For example, enhanced levels of intracellular gene delivery can be achieved using Fe3O4 nano-vectors in the presence of an external magnetic field, a process known as 'magnetofection'. The low cytotoxicity, tunable particle size, ease of surface functionalization, and ability to generate thermal energy using an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) are properties have propelled Fe3O4 research to the forefront of nanoparticle research. The strategy of nanoparticle-mediated, AMF-induced heat generation has been used to effect intracellular hyperthermia. One application of this 'magnetic hyperthermia' is heat activated local delivery of a therapeutic effector (e.g.; drug or polynucleotide). This thesis describes the development of a magnetic nano-vector for AMF-induced, heat-activated pDNA and small molecule delivery. The use of heat-inducible vectors, such as heat shock protein ( hsp) genes, is a promising mode of gene therapy that would restrict gene expression to a local region by focusing a heat stimulus only at a target region. We thus aimed to design an Fe3O4 nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer vehicle for AMF-induced localized gene expression. We opted to use 'click' oximation techniques to assemble the magnetic gene transfer vector. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis, characterization, and transfection studies of the oxime ether lipid-based nano-magnetic vectors MLP and dMLP. The synthesis and characterization of a novel series of quaternary ammonium aminooxy reagents (2.1--2.4) is described. These cationic aminooxy compounds were loaded onto nanoparticles for ligation with carbonyl groups and also to impart a net positive charge on the nanoparticle surface. Our studies indicated that the

  2. Cantharidin Induces Apoptosis Through the Calcium/PKC-Regulated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chin-Chuan; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Kuan-I; Huang, Kou-Tong; Lu, Tien-Hui; Fang, Kai-Min; Wu, Chin-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Lai, Chih-Ho; Su, Yi-Chang; Huang, Chun-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. However, there is still no effective therapy for bladder cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of cantharidin [a natural toxin produced (pure compound) from Chinese blister beetles (Mylabrisphalerata or Mylabriscichorii) and Spanish flies (Cantharis vesicatoria)] in human bladder cancer cell lines (including: T24 and RT4 cells). Treatment of human bladder cancer cells with cantharidin significantly decreased cell viability. The increase in the expressions of caspase-3 activity and cleaved form of caspase-9/-7/-3 were also increased in cantharidin-treated T24 cells. Furthermore, cantharidin increased the levels of phospho-eIF2α and Grp78 and decreased the protein expression of procaspase-12, which was accompanied by the increase in calpain activity in T24 cells. Cantharidin was capable of increasing the intracellular Ca (2+) and the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) in T24 cells. The addition of BAPTA/AM (a Ca (2+) chelator) and RO320432 (a selective cell-permeable PKC inhibitor) effectively reversed the increase in caspase-3 and calpain activity, the phosphorylation levels of PKC and eIF2α and Grp78 protein expression, and the decrease in procaspase-12 expression induced by cantharidin. Importantly, cantharidin significantly decreased the tumor volume (a dramatic 71% reduction after 21 days of treatment) in nude mice xenografted with T24 cells. Taken together, these results indicate cantharidin induced human bladder cancer cell apoptosis through a calcium/PKC-regulated ER stress pathway. These findings suggest that cantharidin may be a novel and potential anticancer agent targeting on bladder cancer cells.

  3. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from platelet plasma membrane vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengasamy, A.; Feinberg, H.

    1988-02-15

    A platelet membrane preparation, enriched in plasma membrane markers, took up /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in exchange for intravesicular Na+ and released it after the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The possibility that contaminating dense tubular membrane (DTS) vesicles contributed the Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was eliminated by the addition of vanadate to inhibit Ca/sup +/-ATPase-mediated DTS Ca/sup 2 +/ sequestration and by the finding that only plasma membrane vesicles exhibit Na/sup +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was dependent on low extravesicular Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations. IP3-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release was additive to that released by Na/sup +/ addition while GTP or polyethylene glycol (PEG) had no effect. These results strongly suggest that IP3 facilitates extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ influx in addition to release from DTS membranes.

  4. Calcium imaging reveals glial involvement in transcranial direct current stimulation-induced plasticity in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monai, Hiromu; Ohkura, Masamichi; Tanaka, Mika; Oe, Yuki; Konno, Ayumu; Hirai, Hirokazu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Nakai, Junichi; Iwai, Youichi; Hirase, Hajime

    2016-03-22

    Transcranical direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a treatment known to ameliorate various neurological conditions and enhance memory and cognition in humans. tDCS has gained traction for its potential therapeutic value; however, little is known about its mechanism of action. Using a transgenic mouse expressing G-CaMP7 in astrocytes and a subpopulation of excitatory neurons, we find that tDCS induces large-amplitude astrocytic Ca(2+) surges across the entire cortex with no obvious changes in the local field potential. Moreover, sensory evoked cortical responses are enhanced after tDCS. These enhancements are dependent on the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor and are not observed in IP3R2 (inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2) knockout mice, in which astrocytic Ca(2+) surges are absent. Together, we propose that tDCS changes the metaplasticity of the cortex through astrocytic Ca(2+)/IP3 signalling.

  5. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits sulfur mustard-induced and TRPA1-dependent calcium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Bernhard; Popp, Tanja; John, Harald; Siegert, Markus; Tsoutsoulopoulos, Amelie; Schmidt, Annette; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    Transient receptor potential family channels (TRPs) have been identified as relevant targets in many pharmacological as well as toxicological studies. TRP channels are ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and act among others as sensors for different external stimuli, such as mechanical stress or noxious impacts. Recent studies suggest that one member of this family, the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 cation channel (TRPA1), is involved in pain, itch, and various diseases, suggesting TRPA1 as a potential therapeutic target. As a nociceptor, TRPA1 is mainly activated by noxious or electrophilic compounds, including alkylating substances. Previous studies already revealed an impact of 2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide on the ion channel TRPA1. In this study, we demonstrate that sulfur mustard (bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) activates the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) in a dose-dependent manner measured by the increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Besides that, SM-induced toxicity was attenuated by antioxidants. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevents SM-induced hTRPA1-activation. HEK293-A1-E cells, overexpressing hTRPA1, show a distinct increase in [Ca2+]i immediately after SM exposure, whereas this increase is reduced in cells pretreated with NAC in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, glutathione, although being highly related to NAC, did not show an effect on hTRPA1 channel activity. Taken together, our results provide evidence that SM-dependent activation of hTRPA1 can be diminished by NAC treatment, suggesting a direct interaction of NAC and the hTRPA1 cation channel. Our previous studies already showed a correlation of hTRPA1-activation with cell damage after exposure to alkylating agents. Therefore, NAC might be a feasible approach mitigating hTRPA1-related dysregulations after exposure to SM.

  6. Differential gene expression in liver tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in response to resveratrol treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Sadi

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the genome-wide gene expression profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat liver tissues in response to resveratrol treatment and to establish differentially expressed transcription regulation networks with microarray technology. In addition to measure the expression levels of several antioxidant and detoxification genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was also used to verify the microarray results. Moreover, gene and protein expressions as well as enzymatic activities of main antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 and SOD-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST-Mu were analyzed. Diabetes altered 273 genes significantly and 90 of which were categorized functionally which suggested that genes in cellular catalytic activities, oxidation-reduction reactions, co-enzyme binding and terpenoid biosynthesis were dominated by up-regulated expression in diabetes. Whereas; genes responsible from cellular carbohydrate metabolism, regulation of transcription, cell signal transduction, calcium independent cell-to-cell adhesion and lipid catabolism were down-regulated. Resveratrol increased the expression of 186 and decreased the expression of 494 genes in control groups. While cellular and extracellular components, positive regulation of biological processes, biological response to stress and biotic stimulants, and immune response genes were up-regulated, genes responsible from proteins present in nucleus and nucleolus were mainly down-regulated. The enzyme assays showed a significant decrease in diabetic SOD-1 and GST-Mu activities. The qRT-PCR and Western-blot results demonstrated that decrease in activity is regulated at gene expression level as both mRNA and protein expressions were also suppressed. Resveratrol treatment normalized the GST activities towards the control values reflecting a post-translational effect. As a conclusion, global gene expression in the liver tissues is

  7. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migraine...... pathophysiology. Here we study the expression and localization of BK(Ca) channels and CGRP in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) as these structures are involved in migraine pain. Also the effect of the BK(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin and the BK(Ca) channel opener NS...

  8. Live-cell imaging to compare the transfection and gene silencing efficiency of calcium phosphate nanoparticles and a liposomal transfection agent

    OpenAIRE

    Chernousova, S; Epple, M.

    2017-01-01

    The processing of DNA (for transfection) and short interfering RNA (siRNA; for gene silencing), introduced into HeLa cells by triple-shell calcium phosphate nanoparticles, was followed by live-cell imaging. For comparison, the commercial liposomal transfection agent Lipofectamine was used. The cells were incubated with these delivery systems, carrying either enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-encoding DNA or siRNA against eGFP. In the latter case, HeLa cells that stably expressed eGFP ...

  9. Different Roles for Contracture and Calpain in Calcium Paradox-Induced Heart Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ying; Bi, Sheng-Hui; Xu, Ming; Jin, Zhen-Xiao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Xiao-Fan; Zhou, Jing-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The Ca2+ paradox represents a good model to study Ca2+ overload injury in ischemic heart diseases. We and others have demonstrated that contracture and calpain are involved in the Ca2+ paradox-induced injury. This study aimed to elucidate their roles in this model. The Ca2+ paradox was elicited by perfusing isolated rat hearts with Ca2+-free KH media for 3 min or 5 min followed by 30 min of Ca2+ repletion. The LVDP was measured to reflect contractile function, and the LVEDP was measured to indicate contracture. TTC staining and the quantification of LDH release were used to define cell death. Calpain activity and troponin I release were measured after Ca2+ repletion. Ca2+ repletion of the once 3-min Ca2+ depleted hearts resulted in almost no viable tissues and the disappearance of contractile function. Compared to the effects of the calpain inhibitor MDL28170, KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, reduced the LVEDP level to a greater extent, which was well correlated with improved contractile function recovery and tissue survival. The depletion of Ca2+ for 5 min had the same effects on injury as the 3-min Ca2+ depletion, except that the LVEDP in the 5-min Ca2+ depletion group was lower than the level in the 3-min Ca2+ depletion group. KB-R7943 failed to reduce the level of LVEDP, with no improvement in the LVDP recovery in the hearts subjected to the 5-min Ca2+ depletion treatment; however, KB-R7943 preserved its protective effects in surviving tissue. Both KB-R7943 and MDL28170 attenuated the Ca2+ repletion-induced increase in calpain activity in 3 min or 5 min Ca2+ depleted hearts. However, only KB-R7943 reduced the release of troponin I from the Ca2+ paradoxic heart. These results provide evidence suggesting that contracture is the main cause for contractile dysfunction, while activation of calpain mediates cell death in the Ca2+ paradox. PMID:23284963

  10. Effects of calcium dobesilate on Nrf2, Keap1 and HO-1 in the lenses of D-galactose-induced cataracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Bin; Hao, Youjuan; Yang, Xueli

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of calcium dobesilate on Nrf2, Keap1 and HO-1 in the lenses of D-galactose-induced cataracts in rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: a blank control group, a model control group and a model administration group. A normal diet was given to the rats in the blank control group and the rats with D-galactose-induced cataracts of the model control group. Calcium dobesilate was also given to the rats with D-galactose-induced cataracts of the model administration group. A slit lamp microscope was used to check the degree of lens opacity. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1 and HO-1 in the lenses of the three groups. There was a significant difference in the degree of lens opacity among the three groups (Pdobesilate can effectively increase the levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the lenses of diabetic cataract rats and inhibit the level of Keap1. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of calcium dobesilate against cataracts is related to the improvement of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway.

  11. FATE1 antagonizes calcium- and drug-induced apoptosis by uncoupling ER and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doghman-Bouguerra, Mabrouka; Granatiero, Veronica; Sbiera, Silviu; Sbiera, Iuliu; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Brau, Frédéric; Fassnacht, Martin; Rizzuto, Rosario; Lalli, Enzo

    2016-09-01

    Several stimuli induce programmed cell death by increasing Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Perturbation of this process has a special relevance in pathologies as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake mainly takes place in correspondence of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized contact sites between the two organelles. Here, we show the important role of FATE1, a cancer-testis antigen, in the regulation of ER-mitochondria distance and Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria. FATE1 is localized at the interface between ER and mitochondria, fractionating into MAM FATE1 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cells under the control of the transcription factor SF-1 decreases ER-mitochondria contact and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, while its knockdown has an opposite effect. FATE1 also decreases sensitivity to mitochondrial Ca(2+)-dependent pro-apoptotic stimuli and to the chemotherapeutic drug mitotane. In patients with ACC, FATE1 expression in their tumor is inversely correlated with their overall survival. These results show that the ER-mitochondria uncoupling activity of FATE1 is harnessed by cancer cells to escape apoptotic death and resist the action of chemotherapeutic drugs. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Different oxidative status and expression of calcium channel components in stress-induced dysfunctional chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, T; Zhao, X; Wang, P; Chen, H; Xu, X; Zhou, G

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of transport stress at high ambient temperatures on the oxidation status and the expression of essential elements responsible for the Ca transport (sarco- (endo-) plasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA1) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in (PM) muscles of broilers. Briefly, Arbor Acres broiler chickens ( = 112) were randomly categorized into 2 treatments: unstressed control (C) and 0.5 h transport (T). Each treatment consisted of 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were transported according to a designed protocol. PM muscle samples in T group were collected and classified as normal (T-NOR) or pale, soft, and exudative-like (T-PSE) using meat quality parameters. The results indicated that production of corticosterone (CORT) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly after transportation ( biochemical changes which may lead to different oxidative states and, importantly, to different expressions of SERCA and RyR. These induced changes in abnormal sarcoplasmic Ca homeostasis have significant implications for the development of PSE-like meat.

  13. Downregualtion of dynamin-related protein 1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity via regulating mitochondrial function in a calcium dependent manner in HT22 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Xian-rui; Li, Hao-yu; Zhao, Zi-jin; Liao, Yi-wei; Wang, Xiang-yu; Su, Jun; Sang, Shu-shan; Liu, Qing, E-mail: xiangyaliuqing@163.com

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Downregulation of Drp-1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. •Downregulation of Drp-1 inhibits glutamate-induced apoptosis. •Downregulation of Drp-1 reduces glutamate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. •Downregulation of Drp-1 preserves intracellular calcium homeostasis. -- Abstract: Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is involved in many acute and chronic brain diseases. Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp-1), one of the GTPase family of proteins that regulate mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, is associated with apoptotic cell death in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigated the effect of downregulating Drp-1 on glutamate excitotoxicity-induced neuronal injury in HT22 cells. We found that downregulation of Drp-1 with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after glutamate treatment. Downregulation of Drp-1 also inhibited an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Drp-1 siRNA transfection preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced cytochrome c release, enhanced ATP production, and partly prevented mitochondrial swelling. In addition, Drp-1 knockdown attenuated glutamate-induced increases of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+}, and preserved the mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} buffering capacity after excitotoxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that downregulation of Drp-1 protects HT22 cells against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection may be dependent at least in part on the preservation of mitochondrial function through regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  14. Genomic Analysis Reveals Contrasting PIFq Contribution to Diurnal Rhythmic Gene Expression in PIF-Induced and -Repressed Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guiomar; Soy, Judit; Monte, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Members of the PIF quartet (PIFq; PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5) collectively contribute to induce growth in Arabidopsis seedlings under short day (SD) conditions, specifically promoting elongation at dawn. Their action involves the direct regulation of growth-related and hormone-associated genes. However, a comprehensive definition of the PIFq-regulated transcriptome under SD is still lacking. We have recently shown that SD and free-running (LL) conditions correspond to “growth” and “no growth” conditions, respectively, correlating with greater abundance of PIF protein in SD. Here, we present a genomic analysis whereby we first define SD-regulated genes at dawn compared to LL in the wild type, followed by identification of those SD-regulated genes whose expression depends on the presence of PIFq. By using this sequential strategy, we have identified 349 PIF/SD-regulated genes, approximately 55% induced and 42% repressed by both SD and PIFq. Comparison with available databases indicates that PIF/SD-induced and PIF/SD-repressed sets are differently phased at dawn and mid-morning, respectively. In addition, we found that whereas rhythmicity of the PIF/SD-induced gene set is lost in LL, most PIF/SD-repressed genes keep their rhythmicity in LL, suggesting differential regulation of both gene sets by the circadian clock. Moreover, we also uncovered distinct overrepresented functions in the induced and repressed gene sets, in accord with previous studies in other examined PIF-regulated processes. Interestingly, promoter analyses showed that, whereas PIF/SD-induced genes are enriched in direct PIF targets, PIF/SD-repressed genes are mostly indirectly regulated by the PIFs and might be more enriched in ABA-regulated genes. PMID:27458465

  15. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (p<0.01 vs. control). The highest levels of [Ca²⁺]i were detected in the 130 dB SPL infrasonic exposure group. Meanwhile, apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was found to increase on day 7 following 90 dB SPL infrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons.

  16. Influence of colloidal calcium phosphate level on the microstructure and rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Andersen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal calcium phosphate is an essential part of casein micelles and being responsible for their stability. Different mineralization of casein micelles was obtained by acidification of skim milk to pH 6.5, 6.0 or 5.5, followed by a dialysis method, using simulated milk ultrafiltrate without...... lactose, to obtain varying levels of micellar calcium and phosphorus but constant value of pH, serum and free calcium, and serum phosphorus. Bovine chymosin was added to the skim milk samples after dialysis and microstructural and rheological properties during gel formation were recorded at 30°C. Samples...

  17. Deficiency of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Beta Induces Brain Iron Accumulation through Upregulation of Divalent Metal Transporter 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goichi Beck

    Full Text Available Mutations in PLA2G6 have been proposed to be the cause of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying brain iron accumulation during the deficiency of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta (iPLA2β, which is encoded by the PLA2G6 gene. Perl's staining with diaminobenzidine enhancement was used to visualize brain iron accumulation. Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of molecules involved in iron homeostasis, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1 and iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and 2, in the brains of iPLA2β-knockout (KO mice as well as in PLA2G6-knockdown (KD SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, mitochondrial functions such as ATP production were examined. We have discovered for the first time that marked iron deposition was observed in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice since the early clinical stages. DMT1 and IRP2 were markedly upregulated in all examined brain regions of aged iPLA2β-KO mice compared to age-matched wild-type control mice. Moreover, peroxidized lipids were increased in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice. DMT1 and IRPs were significantly upregulated in PLA2G6-KD cells compared with cells treated with negative control siRNA. Degeneration of the mitochondrial inner membrane and decrease of ATP production were observed in PLA2G6-KD cells. These results suggest that the genetic ablation of iPLA2β increased iron uptake in the brain through the activation of IRP2 and upregulation of DMT1, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Fetal Globin Gene Inducers: Novel Agents & New Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Susan P.; Castaneda, Serguei A.; Chui, David H.; Faller, Douglas V.; Berenson, Ronald J.; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2013-01-01

    Inducing expression of endogenous fetal globin (γ-globin) gene expression to 60-70% of alpha globin synthesis produces β-thalassemia trait globin synthetic ratios and can reduce anemia to a mild level. Several classes of therapeutics have induced γ-globin expression in beta thalassemia patients and subsequently raised total hemoglobin levels, demonstrating proof-of-concept of the approach. Butyrate treatment eliminated transfusion requirements in formerly transfusion-dependent patients with treatment for as long as 7 years. However, prior generations were not readily applicable for widespread use. Currently, a novel oral dual-action therapeutic sodium 2,2-dimethylbutyrate is in clinical trials, an oral decitabine formulation is under development, and agents with complementary mechanisms of action can be applied in combined regimens. Identification of 3 major genetic trait loci which modulate clinical severity provides avenues for developing tailored regimens. These refinements offer renewed potential to apply fetal globin induction as a treatment approach in patient-friendly regimens that can be used world-wide. PMID:20712788

  19. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  20. Host-Induced Gene Silencing of Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Pathogenicity Genes Mediated by the Brome Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Zhixue; Wang, Zhengyi; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Hong

    2017-09-26

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating plant pathogen, which has a detrimental impact on rice production worldwide. Despite its agronomical importance, some newly-emerging pathotypes often overcome race-specific disease resistance rapidly. It is thus desirable to develop a novel strategy for the long-lasting resistance of rice plants to ever-changing fungal pathogens. Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-induced RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a useful tool to study host-resistance genes for rice blast protection. Planta-generated silencing of targeted genes inside biotrophic pathogens can be achieved by expression of M. oryzae -derived gene fragments in the BMV-mediated gene silencing system, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). In this study, the effectiveness of BMV-mediated HIGS in M. oryzae was examined by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, MoABC1, MoMAC1 and MoPMK1 . Systemic generation of fungal gene-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules induced by inoculation of BMV viral vectors inhibited disease development and reduced the transcription of targeted fungal genes after subsequent M. oryzae inoculation. Combined introduction of fungal gene sequences in sense and antisense orientation mediated by the BMV silencing vectors significantly enhanced the efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi, implying that these fungal genes played crucial roles in pathogenicity. Collectively, our results indicated that BMV-HIGS system was a great strategy for protecting host plants against the invasion of pathogenic fungi.

  1. Synaptic activity induces dramatic changes in the geometry of the cell nucleus: interplay between nuclear structure, histone H3 phosphorylation, and nuclear calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Malte; Queisser, Gillian; Eder, Anja; Wiegert, J Simon; Bengtson, C Peter; Hellwig, Andrea; Wittum, Gabriel; Bading, Hilmar

    2009-11-25

    Synaptic activity initiates many adaptive responses in neurons. Here we report a novel form of structural plasticity in dissociated hippocampal cultures and slice preparations. Using a recently developed algorithm for three-dimensional image reconstruction and quantitative measurements of cell organelles, we found that many nuclei from hippocampal neurons are highly infolded and form unequally sized nuclear compartments. Nuclear infoldings are dynamic structures, which can radically transform the geometry of the nucleus in response to neuronal activity. Action potential bursting causing synaptic NMDA receptor activation dramatically increases the number of infolded nuclei via a process that requires the ERK-MAP kinase pathway and new protein synthesis. In contrast, death-signaling pathways triggered by extrasynaptic NMDA receptors cause a rapid loss of nuclear infoldings. Compared with near-spherical nuclei, infolded nuclei have a larger surface and increased nuclear pore complex immunoreactivity. Nuclear calcium signals evoked by cytosolic calcium transients are larger in small nuclear compartments than in the large compartments of the same nucleus; moreover, small compartments are more efficient in temporally resolving calcium signals induced by trains of action potentials in the theta frequency range (5 Hz). Synaptic activity-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine 10 was more robust in neurons with infolded nuclei compared with neurons with near-spherical nuclei, suggesting a functional link between nuclear geometry and transcriptional regulation. The translation of synaptic activity-induced signaling events into changes in nuclear geometry facilitates the relay of calcium signals to the nucleus, may lead to the formation of nuclear signaling microdomains, and could enhance signal-regulated transcription.

  2. Methylxanthines and calcium-mobilizing agents inhibit the expression of cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in murine microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, M; Bereta, J; Georgoff, I; Coffman, F D; Cohen, S; Cohen, M C

    1994-06-01

    In response to exposure to the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), murine brain microvascular endothelial cells (MME) synthesize the cell surface molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the intracellular enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, iNOS synthesis requires the presence of both TNF and IFN-gamma, while VCAM-1 can be induced by either cytokine alone. We examined the induction of VCAM-1 and iNOS under a variety of conditions to better define the regulation of TNF and IFN-gamma signal transduction pathways in MME. We utilized the analysis of steady-state levels of iNOS mRNA as well as the measurement of MME-released NO-EDRF (nitric oxide as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor) activity and accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium to define iNOS expression and activity. VCAM-1 expression was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Our data indicate that low density lipoproteins inhibited cytokine-induced iNOS activity by affecting the steady-state levels of iNOS mRNA. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline) as well as several calcium-mobilizing agents inhibited the expression/activity of both iNOS and VCAM-1 in MME. The effectiveness of these agents was dependent upon the degree of disruption in cell calcium homeostasis during cytokine treatment. Cells which had been pretreated with calcium-modulating drugs and then washed and allowed to return to normal calcium homeostasis showed little to no effect from these agents. In addition, our results suggest that NO produced by iNOS acts as a metabolic switch during inflammation by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation and forcing vascular endothelial cells to temporarily utilize anaerobic energy metabolism.

  3. An integrated platform for simultaneous multi-well field potential recording and Fura-2-based calcium transient ratiometry in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Georg; Weber, Jürgen; Disch, Christoph; Schuck, Elmar; Ittrich, Carina; Guth, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are available from various sources and they are being evaluated for safety testing. Several platforms are available offering different assay principles and read-out parameters: patch-clamp and field potential recording, imaging or photometry, impedance measurement, and recording of contractile force. Routine use will establish which assay principle and which parameters best serve the intended purpose. We introduce a combination of field potential recording and calcium ratiometry from spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes as a novel assay providing a complementary read-out parameter set. Field potential recording is performed using a commercial multi-well multi-electrode array platform. Calcium ratiometry is performed using a fiber optic illumination and silicon avalanche photodetectors. Data condensation and statistical analysis are designed to enable statistical inference of differences and equivalence with regard to a solvent control. Simultaneous recording of field potentials and calcium transients from spontaneously beating monolayers was done in a nine-well format. Calcium channel blockers (e.g. nifedipine) and a blocker of calcium store release (ryanodine) can be recognized and discriminated based on the calcium transient signal. An agonist of L-type calcium channels, FPL 64176, increased and prolonged the calcium transient, whereas BAY K 8644, another L-type calcium channel agonist, had no effect. Both FPL 64176 and various calcium channel antagonists have chronotropic effects, which can be discriminated from typical "chronotropic" compounds, like (±)isoprenaline (positive) and arecaidine propargyl ester (negative), based on their effects on the calcium transient. Despite technical limitations in temporal resolution and exact matching of composite calcium transient with the field potential of a subset of cells, the combined recording platform enables a refined interpretation of the field potential

  4. A functional genomics method for assaying gene function in phytopathogenic fungi through host-induced gene silencing mediated by agroinfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of genomic information, there is an increasing demand for efficient analysis tools to study the function of predicted genes coded in genomes. Agroinfiltration, the delivery of gene constructs into plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltrated into leaves, is one such versatile, simple, and rapid technique that is increasingly used for transient gene expression assay in plants. In this chapter, we focus on the use of agroinfiltration as a functional genomics research tool in molecular plant pathology. Specifically, we describe in detail its use in expressing phytopathogenic fungal gene sequences in a host plant to induce RNA silencing of corresponding genes inside the pathogen, a method which has been termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). We target the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina which causes leaf rust on its wheat host, but the method is applicable to a variety of pathosystems.

  5. Resveratrol inhibits the intracellular calcium increase and angiotensin/endothelin system activation induced by soluble uric acid in mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertoni, G.; Schor, N. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-24

    Resveratrol (Resv) is natural polyphenol found in grapes. This study evaluated the protective effect of Resv against the effects of uric acid (UA) in immortalized human mesangial cells (ihMCs). ihMCs were preincubated with Resv (12.5 µM) for 1 h and treated with UA (10 mg/dL) for 6 or 12 h. The intracellular calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]i was quantified by fluorescence using flow cytometry. Angiotensinogen (AGT) and pre-pro endothelin-1 (ppET-1) mRNA were assayed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were assayed by ELISA. UA significantly increased [Ca{sup 2+}]i. Pre-incubation with Resv significantly reduced the change in [Ca{sup 2+}]i induced by UA. Incubation with UA for 6 or 12 h also increased AGT mRNA expression and AII protein synthesis. Resv blunted these increases in AGT mRNA expression and AII protein. Incubation with UA in the ihMCs increased ppET-1 expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h. When ihMCs were pre-incubated with Resv, UA had a significantly diminished effect on ppET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h, respectively. Our results suggested that UA triggers reactions including AII and ET-1 production in mesangial cells. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of renal function and chronic kidney disease. Resv can minimize the impact of UA on AII, ET-1 and the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in mesangial cells, suggesting that, at least in part, Resv can prevent the effects of soluble UA in mesangial cells.

  6. The combined mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein- and calcium phosphate-induced skeletal tissue formation by human periosteum derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, J; Ji, W; Geris, L; Bloemen, V; Chai, Y C; Schrooten, J; Luyten, F P

    2016-01-05

    When combining osteogenic progenitor cells such as human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) with osteoconductive biomaterials like calcium phosphate (CaP)-scaffolds, in vivo bone formation can be achieved. This process is dependent on the early activation of Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signalling. However, the bone forming process is slow and routinely only a limited amount of bone and bone marrow is formed. Therefore, we hypothesised that a robust clinically relevant outcome could be achieved by adding more physiological levels of potent BMP-ligands to these cell- and CaP-based constructs. For this, hPDCs were characterised for their responsiveness to BMP-ligands upon in vitro 2D stimulation. BMP-2, -4, -6 and -9 robustly induced osteochondrogenic differentiation. Subsequently, these ligands were coated onto clinically approved CaP-scaffolds, BioOss® and CopiOs®, followed by hPDC-seeding. Protein lysates and conditioned media were investigated for activation of BMP signalling pathways. Upon in vivo implantation, the most abundant bone formation was found in BMP-2 and BMP-6-coated scaffolds. Implanted cells actively contributed to the newly formed bone. Remnants of cartilage could be observed in BMP-coated CopiOs®-constructs. Computational analysis displayed that the type of BMP-ligand as well as the CaP-scaffold affects skeletal tissue formation, observed in a qualitative as well as quantitative manner. Furthermore, the in vitro mechanism appears to predict the in vivo outcome. This study presents further evidence for the potential of BMP-technology in the development of clinically relevant cell-based constructs for bone regenerative strategies.

  7. Calcium chloride effects on salinity-induced oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Manivannan, Paramasivam; Sankar, B; Kishorekumar, Ashok; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2007-09-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. plants were grown with NaCl and CaCl2 in order to study the effect of CaCl2 on NaCl-induced oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), H2O2 content, osmolyte concentration, proline (PRO)-metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and indole alkaloid accumulation. The plants were treated with solutions of 80 mM NaCl, 80 mM NaCl with 5 mM CaCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 alone. Groundwater was used for irrigation of control plants. Plants were uprooted randomly on 90 days after sowing (DAS). NaCl-stressed plants showed increased TBARS, H2O2, glycine betaine (GB) and PRO contents, decreased proline oxidase (PROX) activity, and increased gamma-glutamyl kinase (gamma-GK) activity when compared to control. Addition of CaCl2 to NaCl-stressed plants lowered the PRO concentration by increasing the level of PROX and decreasing the gamma-GK activities. Calcium ions increased the GB contents. CaCl2 appears to confer greater osmoprotection by the additive role with NaCl in GB accumulation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased under salinity and further enhanced due to CaCl2 treatment. The NaCl-with-CaCl2-treated C. roseus plants showed an increase in total indole alkaloid content in shoots and roots when compared to NaCl-treated and untreated plants.

  8. Bacterial‐induced calcium oscillations are common to nitrogen‐fixing associations of nodulating legumes and nonlegumes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granqvist, Emma; Sun, Jongho; Op den Camp, Rik; Pujic, Petar; Hill, Lionel; Normand, Philippe; Morris, Richard J; Downie, J. Allan; Geurts, Rene; Oldroyd, Giles E. D

    2015-01-01

    .... Central to symbiotic signalling are nuclear‐associated oscillations in calcium ions (Ca 2+ ), occurring in the root hairs of several legume species in response to the rhizobial Nod factor signal...

  9. Role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and calcium homeostasis in human lymphocyte death induced by nickel carbonate hydroxide in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    When isolated human lymphocytes were treated in vitro with various concentrations of soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-1 mM), at 37 C for 4 h, both concentration- and time-dependent effects of NiCH on lymphocyte death were observed. Increased generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), superoxide anion (O{sub 2} {sup -}), depletion of both no protein (NP-) and protein (P-) sulfhydryl (SH) contents and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were induced by NiCH. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with either catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or deferoxamine (DFO) (iron chelator), or excess glutathione (GSH) (an antioxidant) not only significantly reduced the NiCH-induced generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and LPO, but also increased the NP-SH and P-SH contents initially reduced by NiCH. NiCH-induced generation of excess O{sub 2} {sup -} but not excess LPO was significantly reduced by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD). NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was significantly prevented by pre-treatment with either catalase, or dimethylthiourea/mannitol (hydroxyl radical scavengers), or DFO, or excess GSH/N-acetylcysteine. NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was also significantly prevented by pretreatment with excess SOD. Thus, various types of oxidative stresses play an important role in NiCH-induced lymphocyte death. Cotreatment with cyclosporin A, a specific inhibitor of alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}), not only inhibited NiCH-induced alteration in {delta}{psi}{sub m}, but also significantly prevented Ni-compound-induced lymphocyte death. Furthermore, NiCH-induced destabilization of cellular calcium homeostasis. As such, NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was significantly prevented by modulating intracellular calcium fluxes such as Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} antagonist. Thus, the mechanism of NiCH (soluble form)-induced activation of lymphocyte death signalling pathways involves not only the excess

  10. Selection of Arabidopsis mutants overexpressing genes driven by the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, D.A.M. van der; Schuyer, M.; Pinas, J.E.; Zaal, B.J. van der; Hooykaas, P.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants were isolated that contained a T-DNA construct in which the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from tobacco was fused to the kanamycin resistance (nptII) as well as to the β-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene. Subsequently, seeds were

  11. Negative feedback regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression by heme oxygenase-1 induction in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamanaka, Rieko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2008-04-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced under infectious diseases in macrophages. We performed experiments using various gene deficient mouse-derived macrophages to determine a detailed induction mechanism of HO-1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the functional role of HO-1 induction in macrophages. LPS (1 microg/mL) maximally induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and HO-1 mRNAs in wild-type (WT) macrophages at 6h and 12h after treatment, respectively, and liberated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) from WT macrophages. LPS also induced iNOS and HO-1 in TNFalpha(-/-) macrophages, but not in iNOS(-/-