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Sample records for calcium fluorides

  1. Viscosity estimation for slags containing calcium fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifeng Shu; Jiayun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on recently published experimental data, the Riboud model was modified for viscosity estimation of the slags containing calcium fluoride. The estimated values were in good agreement with measured data. Reasonable estimation can be achieved using the modified Riboud model for mould fluxes and ESR (eletro slag remelting) slags. Especially for ESR slags, the modified Riboud model can provide much more precise values than the original Riboud model.

  2. Ion chromatography detection of fluoride in calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Jamie E; Ivey, Michelle M

    2011-09-01

    Fluoride in aquatic systems is increasing due to anthropogenic pollution, but little is known about how this fluoride affects organisms that live in and around aquatic habitats. Fluoride can bioaccumulate in structures comprised of calcium carbonate, such as shells and skeletons of both freshwater and saltwater species as diverse as snails, corals, and coccolithophorid algae. In this article, ion chromatography (IC) techniques are developed to detect and quantify fluoride in a matrix of calcium carbonate. Solid samples are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, pretreated to remove the majority of the chloride ions, and then analyzed using IC. With these methods, the 3σ limit of detection is 0.2 mg of fluoride/kg of calcium carbonate. PMID:21859530

  3. Thermochemistry of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide in fluoride slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-08-01

    Calcium oxide activity in binary CaF2-CaO and ternary CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 and CaF2-CaO-SiO2 slags has been determined by CO2-slag equilibrium experiments at 1400 °C. The carbonate ca-pacity of these slags has also been computed and compared with sulfide capacity data available in the literature. The similarity in trends suggests the possibility of characterizing carbonate capacity as an alternative basicity index for fluoride-base slags. Slag-D2O equilibrium experi-ments are performed at 1400°C with different fluoride-base slags to determine water solubility at two different partial pressures of D2O, employing a new slag sampling technique. A novel isotope tracer detection technique is employed to analyze water in the slags. The water solubility data found show higher values than the previous literature data by an order of magnitude but show a linear relationship with the square root of water vapor partial pressure. The activity of hydroxide computed from the data is shown to be helpful in estimating water solubility in in-dustrial electroslag remelting (ESR) slags.

  4. Observation of color center peaks in calcium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T. [LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1704, USA (United States); Garvie, L.A.J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Rez, P., E-mail: Peter.Rez@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Alkali halides such as calcium fluoride all have color center defects that absorb light in the visible region. Using a moncochromator equipped, aberration corrected, scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) we recorded spectra showing the time evolution of the generation of F and H centers in calcium fluoride. The final stage of electron beam irradiation is the formation of metallic calcium nanoparticles. High resolution low loss spectra for the Vacuum Ultraviolet region were also recorded. - Highlights: • Color center defects clearly identified by high resolution EELS of CaF{sub 2}. • Both F Centers and H Centers produced by electron beam irradiation. • Ultimately metallic calcium is left as evidenced by plasmon and density of states. • High resolution low loss (VUV) spectra also recorded.

  5. Observation of color center peaks in calcium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkali halides such as calcium fluoride all have color center defects that absorb light in the visible region. Using a moncochromator equipped, aberration corrected, scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) we recorded spectra showing the time evolution of the generation of F and H centers in calcium fluoride. The final stage of electron beam irradiation is the formation of metallic calcium nanoparticles. High resolution low loss spectra for the Vacuum Ultraviolet region were also recorded. - Highlights: • Color center defects clearly identified by high resolution EELS of CaF2. • Both F Centers and H Centers produced by electron beam irradiation. • Ultimately metallic calcium is left as evidenced by plasmon and density of states. • High resolution low loss (VUV) spectra also recorded

  6. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  7. The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

  8. Characterization and biocompatibility of fluoridated biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.L. [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yu, H.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: yhyang6812@tfol.com; Zeng, Q. [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); He, H.W. [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP) has been widely used in tooth and bone implants due to its excellent biocompatibility. Incorporation of fluorine ions in BCP has drawn much attention because of the beneficial role played by the fluorine ions in bone and tooth growth. The aim of this study was to obtain fluoridated biphasic calcium phosphate (FBCP) by immersing BCP into saturated ZnF{sub 2} solution with F{sup -} concentration of 3500 mg/l at different times. The phase and incorporation of fluoride into BCP were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The biomineralization and influence of FBCP on osteoblastic behavior were evaluated and compared with that of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). The results exhibited that the phase evolution of the BCP was affected by the fluoride incorporation and the FBCP significantly improved the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. These findings suggest that the FBCP would be very useful as a bone reconstructive material.

  9. Improved flexibility with grayscale fabrication of calcium fluoride homogenizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremiah; Brakhage, Peter; Simmons, Lamarr; Mueller, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    High quality and highly uniform illumination is a critical component for advanced lithography systems and wafer inspection tools. Homogenizer elements fabricated in calcium fluoride have demonstrated good performance for deep UV applications. Grayscale photolithography allows for the fabrication of single-sided micro lens array (MLA) elements with excellent optical performance. The MLA offers some significant advantages over crossed cylinders fabricated using grayscale photolithography processes, including the reduction in the number of fabrication steps and the added flexibility of manufacturing noncylindrical surface geometries. This research presentation reviews the fabrication process and compares grayscale crossed cylindrical arrays and MLAs in terms of their capabilities and performance.

  10. Growth kinetics of calcium fluoride at high supersaturation in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, K; Zhou, K G; Yang, Y C; Du, H

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization process in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been regarded as an environmentally friendly technology for the removal and recovery of fluoride from industrial wastewater. The growth kinetics of calcium fluoride at high supersaturation was studied for design, control, and operation of an FBR. The main variables, including supersaturation, superficial velocity, pH value, and particle size of seed that influenced the crystal growth were investigated. Then, a growth model was used to predict the linear growth rate of calcium fluoride at a high influent concentration of fluoride. The pressure difference in the FBR was used as a feature to characterize the growth rate of calcium fluoride. The aggregation and adsorption between seeds and fine particles were proven to be a possible mechanism for growth of calcium fluoride.

  11. Fluoride varnishes with calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride release and effect on in vitro enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Saads CARVALHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to assess the amount of fluoride (F released from varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP and (2 to assess the effect of the experimental varnishes on in vitro demineralization. Six test groups using 5 varnishes: base varnish (no active ingredients; Duraphat® (2.26% NaF; Duofluorid® (5.63% NaF/CaF2; experimental varnish 1 (1% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2; experimental varnish 2 (5% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2; and no varnish were set up. In stage 1, 60 acrylic blocks were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n = 10. Then 300 µg of each varnish was applied to each block. The blocks were immersed in deionized water, which was changed after 1, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Fluoride concentration in the water was analyzed using a fluoride electrode. In stage 2, 60 bovine enamel samples were distributed into 6 groups (n = 10, and treated with 300 µg of the respective varnish. After 6 h the varnish was removed and the samples were subjected to a 7-day in vitro pH cycle (6 h demineralization/18 h remineralization per day. The demineralization was measured using surface hardness. The results showed that both experimental varnishes released more fluoride than Duofluorid® and Duraphat® (p < 0.05, but Duraphat® showed the best preventive effect by decreasing enamel hardness loss (p < 0.05. Therefore, we conclude that even though (1 the experimental varnishes containing CaGP released greater amounts of F, (2 they did not increase in the preventive effect against enamel demineralization.

  12. Preliminary Study on Chemical Components and Uranium Content of Calcium Fluoride Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xiao-hu; YANG; Lei; YANG; Jin-ling; SONG; Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    In the uranium conversion process,UF4 reduction is needed using calcium as reduction regent,so a great deal of calcium fluoride are generated,in which a no negligible amount of uranium(about 5%alleged)can be left in the calcium fluoride wastes by the entrainment effect.It is meaningful to extract and purify the uranium from these wastes,but chemical components of these waste is needed primarily.

  13. Synthesis of Calcium Silicate (Casio3 Using Calcium Fluoride, Quartz and Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gopal Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes like bacteria, algae, fungi and virus play an important role to catalyst chemical reactions. In Nature, ores or minerals of different compounds are formed due to microbial environment and other factors like weathering. Microbial environment is also instrumental in forming calcium containing silicate minerals. Chemical reactions occur under microbial environment because microbes have the ability to control or modify different factors like pH, chemical potential and temperature during reactions. In this paper, synthesis of calcium silicate (CaSiO3 using calcium fluoride (CaF2 and quartz (SiO2 under microbial environment in a laboratory is being adopted to produce the required material. XRD technique is used to confirm the formation of CaSiO3.

  14. Mechanism of Calcium Fluoride Acceleration for Vacuum Carbothermic Reduction of Magnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Liu, Yu-qin; Ma, Hong-wen; Zhou, Wei-gong

    2016-04-01

    The use of a small amount of calcium fluoride as an additive greatly accelerated the reduction of magnesia during the preparation of magnesium from magnesia using the vacuum carbothermic reduction method. At 1573 K (1300 °C), the magnesia reaction rates of the samples with 1, 3, and 5 pct CaF2 were all approximately 26 pct, three times that of free CaF2, and they were arranged in order of the calcium fluoride weight percentages at 1673 K (1400 °C). The residues were analyzed using chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, EDS, and XRF. The possible acceleration mechanism was discussed. Calcium fluoride combined with magnesia and silicon dioxide to form a eutectic that melted as a channel to aid the solid-solid reaction between carbon and magnesia at approximately 1573 K (1300 °C). Calcium fluoride in the molten state offered free calcium ions and fluorine ions. Fluorine ions entered and distorted the magnesia crystal lattice. The structural strength and chemical stability of the magnesia crystal lattice decreased, which facilitated the magnesia reduction by carbon. Calcium ions were employed to generate the calcium and magnesium silicate. The easyly evaporating fluorides, including magnesium fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride, were regarded as the main reason for the loss of fluorine.

  15. 78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... to request a hearing (76 FR 39918) on the license amendment request. No requests for hearing were... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works... fluoride ponds in-place, by stabilization of the contents and construction of a cover system over...

  16. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

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    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the initial surface microhardness. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups (n=10 of CPP-ACPF, fluoride and CPP-ACP. The teeth were micro-abraded with Opalustre. Microhardness test was performed to assess the post-abrasion hardness. Three remineralization modalities were performed on samples of each group. The enamel surface microhardness measurements were performed. To compare the difference between groups, the rehardening and softening values were defined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test at a significance level of 5% were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean microhardness value (MMV had a significant decrease after microabrasion from baseline. The MMV had a significant increase after remineralization in all groups. The MMV of CPP-ACPF group was significantly more than that of fluoride group (P=0.027. The rehardening value of fluoride group was significantly more than that of other groups (P<0.001.Conclusion: All the remineralizing agents were effective for rehardening the enamel after microabrasion. The CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF pastes are effective, but to a lesser extent than neutral sodium fluoride gel in remineralizing enamel surface. Incorporation of fluoride to CPP-ACP formulation does not provide any additional remineralizing potential.Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex; Enamel Microabrasion; Hardness; Sodium Fluoride

  17. Thermoluminescence studies of natural and doped calcium fluoride phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various aspects of thermoluminescence (TL) of calcium fluoride phosphors obtained both from natural and laboratory-grown CaF2 crystals have been investigated in the temperature range from room temperature to 750 deg C. Dopants used in these studies were Mn, Y and lanthanide series rare earths. The aspects which have been investigated are : (1) effect of single and double doping on TL glow curves and TL emission spectra after gamma irradiation, (2) TL traps : their kinetics including evaluation of the activation energy using different techniques, their decay kinetics and their behaviour under partially filled conditions, and (3) effect of temperature on emission of intensity of X-ray induced luminescence and TL. During the course of these investigations, a new glow peak was observed at 650 deg C in natural CaF2. It was found that this peak could also be produced in synthetic CaF2 doped with (Y + Sm). A new model for the TL trap has also been proposed. (M.G.B.)

  18. Electron magnetic resonance of gadolinium-doped calcium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.br [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N., E-mail: mluciag@uerj.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectra of gadolinium-doped calcium fluoride have been studied at room temperature for Gd concentrations between 0.01 and 2.00 mol%. Gd{sup 3+} ions in sites with two different symmetries were observed. One of the sites, with cubic symmetry, is unstable at room temperature and decays with a time constant of 2.2 day{sup -1}. The other site, with tetragonal symmetry, is stable and is attributed to Gd{sup 3+} ions in substitutional sites next to a charge-compensating F{sup -} interstitial ion. The linewidth and intensity of the EMR spectrum with tetragonal symmetry increase with increasing Gd concentration. A theoretical calculation based on the concentration dependence of the EMR linewidth yields an effective range of the exchange interaction between Gd{sup 3+} ions in CaF{sub 2} of 0.774 nm, of the same order as that of Gd{sup 3+} ions in other cubic ionic compounds.

  19. Apatite precipitation on a novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement containing fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Chevallier, Jacques; Salehi, Hamideh; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Isidor, Flemming; Løvschall, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Calcium silicate cements are widely used in endodontics. Novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement with fluoride (Protooth) has been developed for potential applications in teeth crowns including cavity lining and cementation. Objective: To evaluate the surface apatite-forming ability of Protooth compositions as a function of fluoride content and immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Material and methods: Three cement compositions were tested: Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 10% radiocontrast), ultrafast Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 20% radiocontrast), and high fluoride Protooth (15% fluoride and 25% radiocontrast). Powders were cap-mixed with liquid, filled to the molds and immersed in PBS. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the precipitations morphology and composition after 1, 7, 28, and 56 days. Apatite/belite Raman peak height indicated the apatite thickness. Results: Spherical calcium phosphate precipitations with acicular crystallites were formed after 1-day immersion in PBS and Raman spectra disclosed the phosphate band at 965 cm−1, supporting the apatite formation over Protooth compositions. The apatite deposition continued and more voluminous precipitations were observed after 56 days over the surface of all cements. Raman bands suggested the formation of β-type carbonated apatite over Protooth compositions. High fluoride Protooth showed the most compact deposition with significantly higher apatite/belite ratio compared to Protooth and ultrafast Protooth after 28 and 56 days. Conclusions: Calcium phosphate precipitations (apatite) were formed over Protooth compositions after immersion in PBS with increasing apatite formation as a function of time. High fluoride Protooth exhibited thicker apatite deposition. PMID:27335901

  20. Dielectric spectra of doped and X-ray irradiated calcium fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium fluoride crystals doped with PbF2 and codoped with LiF, NaF have been grown using the vertical Bridgman method. The frequency (1-100 kHz) dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant, ε1 and ε2, have been studied in the temperature range 160-300 K; the activation parameters of the relaxation process have been determined for various doped and X-irradiated calcium fluoride crystals. The optical absorption spectra of the crystals are also investigated. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Trace Level Rare Earth Elements Separation From Gram Scale Uranium by Calcium Fluoride Coprecipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiu-feng

    2013-01-01

    In the fission yield measurement of rare earth elements of uranium induced by neutron,and the analysis of rare earth elements in spent fuel,the separation of trace rare earth elements from a large number of uranium has very important significance.We separated trace level rare earth elements from gram scale uranium by calcium fluoride coprecipitation in this paper.

  2. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF CALCIUM-FLUORIDE USING MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J

    1993-01-01

    Investigations on the caries-preventive effect of calcium fluoride have been seriously hampered by the lack of adequate detection techniques. In this paper, the micro-Raman technique is introduced as a suitable method for CaF2 quantification with a spot size typically 5 mum. Advantages of this measu

  3. Thermodynamics of the conversion of calcium and magnesium fluorides to the parent metal oxides and hydrogen fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

    1997-02-01

    The authors have used thermodynamic modeling to examine the reaction of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) with water (H{sub 2}O) at elevated temperatures. The calculated, equilibrium composition corresponds to the global free-energy minimum for the system. Optimum, predicted reaction temperatures and reactant mole ratios are reported for the recovery of hydrogen fluoride (HF), a valuable industrial feedstock. Complete conversion of MgF{sub 2} is found at 1,000 C and a ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of MgF{sub 2}. For CaF{sub 2}, temperatures as high as 1,400 C are required for complete conversion at a corresponding mole ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of CaF{sub 2}. The authors discuss the presence of minor chemical constituents as well as the stability of various potential container materials for the pyrohydrolysis reactions at elevated temperatures. CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} slags are available as wastes at former uranium production facilities within the Department of Energy Complex and other facilities regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Recovery of HF from these wastes is an example of environmental remediation at such facilities.

  4. Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  5. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  6. In Vitro Properties of Orthodontic Adhesives with Fluoride or Amorphous Calcium Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ka Wai Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of orthodontic adhesives with fluoride or amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP in reducing bacterial adhesion and enamel demineralization. Forty human premolars each sectioned buccolingually into three parts were bracketed with control resin (Transbond XT or adhesives containing ACP (Aegis Ortho or fluoride (QuickCure. Artificial lesions induced by pH cycling were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometry (XPS and polarized light microscopy (PLM. After 28 days, Aegis Ortho demonstrated the lowest calcium and phosphorous content by XPS analysis. After 42 days, reductions in lesion depth areas were 23.6% for Quick Cure and 20.3% for Aegis Ortho (P<0.05. In the presence of 1% sucrose, adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to Aegis Ortho and Quick Cure was reduced by 41.8% and 37.7% (P<0.05 as compared to Transbond XT. Composites containing ACP or fluoride reduced bacterial adherence and lesion formation as compared to a composite without ACP or fluoride.

  7. Loss on drying, calcium concentration and pH of fluoride dentifrices

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    Arella Cristina Muniz Brito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride dentifrices containing calcium carbonate have advantages such as control of dental plaque and progression of dental caries, also contributing to oral hygiene, represent most dentifrices marketed in Brazil. Aim: To evaluate the physicochemical properties of seven fluoride dentifrices containing calcium carbonate in relation to hydrogen potential (pH, loss on drying and calcium concentration. Materials and Methods: Data collection was performed using the potentiometric method for pH ranges, gravimetric analysis for loss on drying and atomic absorption spectrometry for the concentration of calcium ions. All tests were performed in triplicate and the analysis was performed entirely at random according to one-way analysis of variance at 5% significance level. Results: The pH values were alkaline and ranged from 8.67 (Oral-B 123® to 10.03 (Colgate Mαxima Proteηγo Anticαries® . The results of loss on drying ranged from 33.81% (Oral-B 123® to 61.13% (Close Up® , with significant differences between brands tested. In relation to the calcium content, the highest and lowest concentrations were found in dentifrices Even® (155.55 g/kg and Colgate Ultra Branco® (129 g/kg, respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Fluoride dentifrices analyzed showed alkaline pH and high levels of loss on drying and calcium concentration. However, these physicochemical characteristics differed according to the different brands tested.

  8. Scintillation detector using an europium-doped calcium fluoride single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilar, O.; Pavlicek, Z.; Jursova, L. (Tesla, Premysleni (Czechoslovakia). Vyzkumny Ustav Pristroju Jaderne Techniky)

    1981-06-01

    A europium-doped calcium fluoride monocrystal-based scintillator is suitable for detecting X, alpha, beta and low-energy gamma radiations. It is resistant to thermal and mechanical shocks. Its outstanding physical properties include the index of refraction of 1.443. The results are reported of measuring the spectra of selected radionuclides and the energy resolution dependence on the gamma radiation energy.

  9. In vitro enamel remineralization by low-fluoride toothpaste with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Edo; Danelon, Marcelle; Freire, Isabelle Rodrigues; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of a low fluoride toothpaste (450 µgF/g, NaF) combined with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks had the enamel surface polished sequentially to determine the surface hardness. After production of artificial carious lesions, the blocks selected by their surface hardness were submitted to remineralization pH cycling and daily treatment with dentifrice suspensions (diluted in deionized water or artificial saliva): placebo, 275, 450, 550 and 1,100 µgF/g and commercial dentifrice (positive control, 1,100 µgF/g). Finally, the surface and cross-section hardness was determined for calculating the change of surface hardness (%SH) and mineral content (%∆Z). Fluoride in enamel was also determined. The data from %SH, %∆Z and fluoride were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls's test (p0.05). The 450 Cacit/TMP toothpaste and the positive control showed similar results (p>0.05) when diluted in water. A dose-response was observed between fluoride concentration in toothpastes and fluoride present in enamel, regardless of dilution. It was concluded that it is possible to enhance the remineralization capacity of low F concentration toothpaste by of organic (Cacit) and inorganic (TMP) compounds with affinity to hydroxyapatite. PMID:23969915

  10. Report on the Study of Radiation Damage in Calcium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride Crystals for use in Excimer Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-04

    A study was performed to investigate the effects of radiation damage in calcium fluoride and magnesium fluoride crystals caused by gamma rays and UV photons from excimer lasers. The purpose was to study and correlate the damage caused by these two different mechanisms in various types of material used for fabricating optical elements in high power excimer lasers and lens systems of lithography tools. These optical systems are easily damaged by the laser itself, and it is necessary to use only the most radiation resistant materials for certain key elements. It was found that a clear correlation exists between the, radiation induced damage caused by high energy gamma rays and that produced by UV photons from the excimer laser. This correlation allows a simple procedure to be developed to select the most radiation resistant material at the ingot level, which would be later used to fabricate various components of the optical system. This avoids incurring the additional cost of fabricating actual optical elements with material that would later be damaged under prolonged use. The result of this screening procedure can result in a considerable savings in the overall cost of the lens and laser system.

  11. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, V; Rajkumar, S; Murugesh, S; Darchen, A

    2012-07-30

    Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  12. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivasankar, V., E-mail: vsivasankar@tce.edu [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering (Autonomous), Madurai 625015, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajkumar, S. [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering (Autonomous), Madurai 625015, Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesh, S. [Department of Chemistry, SACS M.A.V.M.M. Engineering College, Madurai 625301, Tamil Nadu (India); Darchen, A. [UMR CNRS No. 6226 Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, ENSCR, Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes, Cedex 7 (France)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonization of Tamarind fruit shell improved its defluoridation efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium carbonate particles were involved in the defluoridation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorbent dose, pH, and fluoride concentration showed significant effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum adsorption of fluoride was achieved at pH 7-8. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepared carbons were efficient in treating three natural waters. - Abstract: Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  13. Fluoride-assisted activation of calcium carbide: a simple method for the ethynylation of aldehydes and ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abolfazl; Seidel, Daniel; Miska, Andreas; Schreiner, Peter R

    2015-06-01

    The fluoride-assisted ethynylation of ketones and aldehydes is described using commercially available calcium carbide with typically 5 mol % of TBAF·3H2O as the catalyst in DMSO. Activation of calcium carbide by fluoride is thought to generate an acetylide "ate"-complex that readily adds to carbonyl groups. Aliphatic aldehydes and ketones generally provide high yields, whereas aromatic carbonyls afford propargylic alcohols with moderate to good yields. The use of calcium carbide as a safe acetylide ion source along with economic amounts of TBAF·3H2O make this procedure a cheap and operationally simple method for the preparation of propargylic alcohols.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUORIDE EMISSION FROM FIVE CLAY MINERALS AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE,HEATING TIME AND ADDITION OF CALCIUM COMPOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of fluoride emission from five clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, vermiculite, geothite, and allophane) as affected by temperature, heating time and addition of calcium compounds were studied. Marked increase of the fluoride emission rate was noticed with increase of temperature. The fluoride release, began at 500 ℃-600 ℃, and the main bulk of the fluoride emission occurred at the temperature of about 800 ℃. The loss of crystalline water was primarily responsible for the increase of fluoride emission. When minerals were heated at 800 ℃, The fluoride emission rate from the clay minerals reached the highest after heating for 1 hour. The samples treated by CaO, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, Ca3(PO4)2, and CaSO4 had 55.45%, 59.58%, 46.45%, 54.31%, 31.25% reduction in the fluoride emission from montmorillonite at the temperature of 800 ℃, respectively. CaCO3 had the highest fluoride fixing capacity compared to other calcium compounds.

  15. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Abdul Shahariyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divided into three subgroups - (1 control (2 CPP-ACP (3 chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash. The SBSs were then measured using a universal testing machine. Results: SBS of the conventional group was significantly higher than the self-etching group. The intragroup differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash did not adversely affect SBS of orthodontic brackets irrespective of the method of conditioning. Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP.

  16. Synthesis of Calcium Silicate (Casio3) Using Calcium Fluoride, Quartz and Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gopal Krishna; M. Jagannadha Rao

    2015-01-01

    Microbes like bacteria, algae, fungi and virus play an important role to catalyst chemical reactions. In Nature, ores or minerals of different compounds are formed due to microbial environment and other factors like weathering. Microbial environment is also instrumental in forming calcium containing silicate minerals. Chemical reactions occur under microbial environment because microbes have the ability to control or modify different factors like pH, chemical potential and tempera...

  17. Properties of calcium fluoride up to 95 kbar: A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chun-Sheng Wang

    2010-08-01

    We have studied the high-pressure and high-temperature behaviour of calcium fluoride (CaF2) using molecular dynamics simulations with the Born–Mayer–Huggins potentials. The thermal (pressure-volume) equation of state, radial distribution functions (RDFs) just nearby the melting temperature, isothermal bulk modulus, and volume thermal expansion coefficients were calculated from the isobaric and isothermal ensemble. Structural and thermodynamical properties at ambient temperature were well reproduced for the cubic fluorite-type phase of CaF2. At an extended pressure and temperature ranges, the thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of CaF2 have also been predicted. The RDFs indicated that the melting temperature is bracketed between 1600 and 1700 K, and the thermodynamic properties of CaF2 with fluorite-type cubic structure are investigated in the pressure range 0–95 kbar and temperature up to 1600 K.

  18. Fabrication of three-dimensional microdisk resonators in calcium fluoride by femtosecond laser micromachining

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jintian; Tang, Jialei; Wang, Nengwen; Song, Jiangxin; He, Fei; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    We report on fabrication of on-chip calcium fluoride (CaF2) microdisk resonators using water-assisted femtosecond laser micromachining. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is used to create ultra-smooth sidewalls. The quality (Q)-factors of the fabricated microresonators are measured to be 4.2x10^4 at wavelengths near 1550 nm. The Q factor is mainly limited by the scattering from the bottom surface of the disk whose roughness remains high due to the femtosecond laser micromachining process. This technique facilitates formation of on-chip microresonators on various kinds of bulk crystalline materials, which can benefit a wide range of applications such as nonlinear optics, quantum optics, and chip-level integration of photonic devices.

  19. Bones and Crohn's: No benefit of adding sodium fluoride oribandronate to calcium and vitamin D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Klaus; Max Reinshagen; Katharina Herdt; Christoph Schr(o)ter; Guido Adler; Georg BT von Boyen; Christian von Tirpitz

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of calcium and cholecalciferol alone and along with additional sodium fluoride or ibandronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Patients (n =148) with reduced BMD (T-score< -1) were randomized to receive cholecalciferol (1000 IU) and calcium citrate (800 mg) daily alone(group A, n =32) or along with additional sodium fluoride (25 mg bid ) (group B, n = 62) or additional ibandronate (1 mg iv/3-monthly) (group C, n = 54). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal right femurand X-rays of the spine were performed at baseline and after 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 years. Fracture-assessment included visual reading of X-rays and quantitative morphometry of vertebral bodies (T4-L4).RESULTS: One hundred and twenty three (83.1%) patients completed the first year for intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Ninety two (62.2%) patients completed thesecond year and 71 (47.8%) the third year available for per-protocol (PP) analysis. With a significant increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by +0.28 ± 0.35 [95%confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.460, P < 0.01], +0.33 ± 0.49 (95% CI: 0.109-0.558, P < 0.01), +0.43 ± 0.47 (95% CI: 0.147-0.708, P < 0.01) in group A, +0.22 ±0.33 (95% CI: 0.125-0.321, P < 0.01); +0.47 ± 0.60 (95% CI: 0.262-0.676, P < 0.01), +0.51 ± 0.44 (95%CI: 0.338-0.682, P < 0.01) in group B and +0.22 ±0.38 (95% CI: 0.111-0.329, P < 0.01), +0.36 ± 0.53(95% CI: 0.147-0.578, P < 0.01), +0.41 ± 0.48 (95%CI: 0.238-0.576, P < 0.01) in group C, respectively, duringthe 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 year periods (PP analysis), no treatment regimen was superior in any in- or betweengroup analyses. In the ITT analysis, similar results in allin- and between-group analyses with a significant ingroup but non-significant between-group increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by 0.38 ± 0.46 (group A,P < 0.01), 0.37 ± 0.50 (group B, P < 0.01) and 0.35 ±0.49 (group C, P < 0.01) was

  20. Quantitative microradiographic analysis of remineralization of enamel lesions promoted by casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and fluoride complex on artificial enamel subsurface white spot lesions in vitro in order to provide a new method to treat the postorthodontic enamel demineralization. Methods: Extracted premolar teeth for orthodontic reason were immersed into lactic acid gel to prepare artificial white spot lesions. Then the specimens were randomly assigned to seven groups: 5.0% CPP-ACFP group, 1.0% CPP-ACP group, 0.1% CPP-ACPgroup, calcium phosphate saturated solution group, calcium phosphate saturated solution plus fluorid group, deionized water group. Lesion depths and mineral loss were quantitatively determined by microradiography in various groups. Results: The lesion depths and mineral loss after remineralization in each group were significantly reduced (P0.05), but the lesion depths and mineral loss in these three groups were significantly lower than those in deionized water group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: CPP-ACP has the ability of promoting remineralization of enamel artificial white spot lesions which can be enhanced by fluorid. The remineralization ability depends on the concentration of calcium phosphate stabilized by CPP-ACP. (authors)

  1. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  2. Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: Early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, M.G.; Taddei, P.; Siboni, F.; Modena, E.; Ginebra Molins, Maria Pau; Prati, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Gandolfi MG, Taddei P, Siboni F, Modena E, Ginebra MP, Prati C. Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution. International Endodontic Journal, 44, 938–949, 2011. Aim To test the chemical–physical properties and apatite-forming ability of experimental fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements designed to create novel bioactive materials for use in endodontics ...

  3. An AC phase measuring interferometer for measuring dn/dT of fused silica and calcium fluoride at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N.

    1998-09-01

    A novel method for the measurement of the change in index of refraction vs. temperature (dn/dT) of fused silica and calcium fluoride at the 193 nm wavelength has been developed in support of thermal modeling efforts for the development of 193 nm-based photolithographic exposure tools. The method, based upon grating lateral shear interferometry, uses a transmissive linear grating to divide a 193 nm laser beam into several beam paths by diffraction which propagate through separate identical material samples. One diffracted order passing through one sample overlaps the undiffracted beam from a second sample and forms interference fringes dependent upon the optical path difference between the two samples. Optical phase delay due to an index change from heating one of the samples causes the interference fringes to change sinusoidally with phase. The interferometer also makes use of AC phase measurement techniques through lateral translation of the grating. Results for several samples of fused silica and calcium fluoride are demonstrated.

  4. Calcium Prerinse before Fluoride Rinse Reduces Enamel Demineralization: An in situ Caries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João Gabriel S; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Nóbrega, Diego Figueiredo; Budin, Renan R; de Queiroz, Mateus X; Vogel, Gerald L; Cury, Jaime A

    2016-01-01

    A calcium (Ca) prerinse before a fluoride (F) rinse has been shown to increase oral F levels. We tested the anticaries effect of this combination in a dose-response in situ caries model. In a double-blind, crossover experiment, 10 volunteers carried enamel slabs in palatal appliances for 14 days, during which they rinsed twice/day with one of four rinse combinations: (1) a placebo prerinse (150 mM sodium lactate) followed by a distilled water rinse (negative control); (2) a placebo prerinse followed by a 250 ppm F rinse; (3) a placebo prerinse followed by a 1,000 ppm F rinse, or (4) a Ca prerinse (150 mM Ca, as calcium lactate) followed by a 250 ppm F rinse. Sucrose solution was dripped onto the slabs 8×/day to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. The percent surface hardness loss (%SHL) was significantly lower in the Ca prerinse used with the 250 ppm F rinse group (%SHL = 38.0 ± 21.0) when compared with the F rinse alone (%SHL = 59.5 ± 24.1) and similar to the 1,000 ppm F rinse group (%SHL = 42.0 ± 18.3). Compared with the 250 ppm F rinse, the Ca prerinse increased biofilm fluid F only twice (nonsignificant). However, it greatly increased F in biofilm solids (∼22×). The Ca prerinse had little effect on loosely or firmly bound enamel F. The results showed an increased level of protection against demineralization by the use of a Ca prerinse, which seems to be caused by the enhancement of F concentration in the biofilm. PMID:27355353

  5. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on The Thermoluminescent Properties of Locally Prepared Calcium Fluoride Phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic Calcium Fluoride ( CaF2 ) doped with rare earth elements (RE) have been prepared in the form of single and double doped TL materials. The single doped CaF2 phosphors with RE3+ dopants show multi- peak TL glow curves after irradiation by gamma rays. It could be concluded that the peak temperatures corresponding to the different traps are basically a nature of the host lattice ( CaF2 ). While the influence of the impurities (RE) is to provide efficient luminescent centers and efficient traping sites. The most sensitive dopants seems to be Dy, Gd, Ho and Sm. While elements like Er and Tm are seen to be inefficient as TL activator in CaF2. All these dopants exhibit the phenomenon of concentration quenching. The optimum concentration being in the range of 0.05% to 0.1% by weight. The double doping of (RE) in CaF2 as (CaF2:Ho + Tb of conc. 0.05% by wt.) improves its TL sensitivity by one decade than the individual doping. Also the case of CaF2:Sm + Y gave a new high temperature peak at 650 degree C. The activation energy of this newly peak could be calculated and found it ranges between 2.85 eV and 2.99 eV. The characteristics of this peak have been discussed in some details

  6. Calcium fluoride nanoparticles induced suppression of Streptococcus mutans biofilm: an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shatavari; Khan, Shakir; Hasan, Sadaf; Khan, M Ehtisham; Misba, Lama; Khan, Asad U

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation on the tooth surface is the root cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Streptococcus mutans is known to produce biofilm which is one of the primary causes of dental caries. Acid production and acid tolerance along with exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation are major virulence factors of S. mutans biofilm. In the current study, calcium fluoride nanoparticles (CaF2-NPs) were evaluated for their effect on the biofilm forming ability of S. mutans in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro studies revealed 89 % and 90 % reduction in biofilm formation and EPS production, respectively. Moreover, acid production and acid tolerance abilities of S. mutans were also reduced considerably in the presence of CaF2-NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were in accordance with the other results indicating inhibition of biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. The qRT-PCR gene expression analysis showed significant downregulation of various virulence genes (vicR, gtfC, ftf, spaP, comDE) associated with biofilm formation. Furthermore, CaF2-NPs were found to substantially decrease the caries in treated rat groups as compared to the untreated groups in in vivo studies. Scanning electron micrographs of rat's teeth further validated our results. These findings suggest that the CaF2-NPs may be used as a potential antibiofilm applicant against S. mutans and may be applied as a topical agent to reduce dental caries.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Mony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. Materials and Methods: A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Results: Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. Relevance: NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  8. Reuse of hazardous calcium fluoride sludge from the integrated circuit industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Cao, Zhenbang; Ye, YiLi; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Bo; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The Chinese integrated circuit industry has been transformed from a small state-owned sector into a global competitor, but chip manufacturing produces large amounts of calcium fluoride sludges (CFS). In China, landfill is a current option for treating CFS. In order to solve the problem of unavailable landfill sites and prevent fluorine from dissolved CFS polluting water sources, CFS was tested as a component for a ceramic product made with sodium borate, sodium phosphate and waste alumina using a low-temperature sintering technology, and the effects of various factors on characteristics of the ceramic were investigated to optimize the process. The best sintering temperature was controlled at 700°C, and the optimal raw material ratio of the ceramic was 11% sodium borate, 54% sodium phosphate, 30% CFS and 5% waste alumina. The CFS ceramic was characterized by a morphological structure and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that CFS was transformed into Na2Ca(PO4)F as an inert and a main crystalline phase in the ceramic, which was enclosed by the borophosphate glass. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, corrosion resistance and compressive strength tests verified CFS ceramic as a qualified construction ceramic material, and the fluorine from CFS was solidified in the inert crystalline phase, which would not be released to cause secondary pollution. This novel technology not only avoids the CFS hydrolyzing reaction forming harmful hydrofluoric acid gas at 800°C and above, but also produces high-performance ceramics as a construction material, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. PMID:24025370

  9. Reuse of hazardous calcium fluoride sludge from the integrated circuit industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Cao, Zhenbang; Ye, YiLi; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Bo; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The Chinese integrated circuit industry has been transformed from a small state-owned sector into a global competitor, but chip manufacturing produces large amounts of calcium fluoride sludges (CFS). In China, landfill is a current option for treating CFS. In order to solve the problem of unavailable landfill sites and prevent fluorine from dissolved CFS polluting water sources, CFS was tested as a component for a ceramic product made with sodium borate, sodium phosphate and waste alumina using a low-temperature sintering technology, and the effects of various factors on characteristics of the ceramic were investigated to optimize the process. The best sintering temperature was controlled at 700°C, and the optimal raw material ratio of the ceramic was 11% sodium borate, 54% sodium phosphate, 30% CFS and 5% waste alumina. The CFS ceramic was characterized by a morphological structure and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that CFS was transformed into Na2Ca(PO4)F as an inert and a main crystalline phase in the ceramic, which was enclosed by the borophosphate glass. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, corrosion resistance and compressive strength tests verified CFS ceramic as a qualified construction ceramic material, and the fluorine from CFS was solidified in the inert crystalline phase, which would not be released to cause secondary pollution. This novel technology not only avoids the CFS hydrolyzing reaction forming harmful hydrofluoric acid gas at 800°C and above, but also produces high-performance ceramics as a construction material, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  10. The Remineralization of Enamel Lesions by Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Fluoride Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨2%酪蛋白磷酸多肽钙氟磷复合体(CPP-ACFP)溶液对牙釉质缺损的再矿化作用。方法:从人第3磨牙切取28块釉质块(每片中制备两条釉质缺损),随机平分为4组,每组分别于再矿化液中浸泡1,3,5,10天,测定矿物质含量。结果:再矿化率分别为9.19%,14.27%,29.07%,38.45%。经One-wayScheffe差异多因素分析比较发现每两组间差异皆有显著性。结论:CPP-ACFP作为食物及牙膏添加剂,在龋病预防中将起重要作用。%Objective:To evaluate the remineralizing effect on artificialenamel subsurface lesions in vitro by 2% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate complexes(CPP-ACFP).Methods:Twenty-eight enamel blocks were cut from human third molars,and 2 lesions were prepared from each block.Twenty-eight samples were randomly assigned to four groups,each group was incubated in reminera-lization solution for 1,3,5,10 days respectively.The mineral content was determined by microdensitometry.Results:The remineralizing rate was 9.19%,14.27%,29.07,38.45% respectively.Significant differences were found in remineralizing rate between two groups using One-way Scheffe multiple comparison.Conclusion:The CPP-ACFP plays an important role as a food and/or a toothpaste additive for the control of dental caries.

  11. Strontium hydroxyapatite and strontium carbonate as templates for the precipitation of calcium-phosphates in the absence and presence of fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Vanessa; Janousch, Markus; Heeb, Michèle B.; Hering, Janet G.; Johnson, C. Annette

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous precipitation of calcium-phosphates on calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 or HAP) in the presence and absence of fluoride is important in the formation of bone and teeth, protection against tooth decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis and defluoridation of drinking water. Strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr10(PO4)6(OH)2 or SrHAP) and strontium carbonate (SrCO3) were used as calcium-free seed templates in precipitation experiments conducted with varying initial calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) or calcium-to-phosphate-to-fluoride (Ca/P/F) ratios. Suspensions of SrHAP or SrCO3 seed templates (which were calcium-limited for both templates and phosphate-limited in the case of SrCO3) were reacted at pH 7.3 (25 °C) over 3 days. The resulting solids were examined with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Calcium apatite was the predominant phase identified by all techniques independent of the added Ca/P ratios and of the presence of fluoride. It was not possible to make an unambiguous distinction between HAP and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2, FAP). The apatite was calcium-deficient and probably contained some strontium.

  12. Combining casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride: synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayad, Iman; Sakr, Amal; Badr, Yahia

    2009-07-01

    Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). The remineralizing potential of CPP-ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl gel on artificially demineralized enamel using laser florescence, is investigated. Mesial surfaces of 15 sound human molars are tested using a He-Cd laser beam at 441.5 nm with 18-mW power as an excitation source on a suitable setup based on a Spex 750-M monochromator provided with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) for detection of collected autofluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces are subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel are measured. Teeth are divided into three groups according to the remineralizing regimen: group 1 Recaldent per se, group 2 Recaldent combined with fluoride gel and ACP, and group 3 artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from the remineralized enamel are measured. The spectra of enamel autofluorescence are recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare spectra from sound, demineralized, and remineralized enamel surfaces. A slight red shift occurred in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group 2 shows the highest remineralizing potential. Combining fluoride and ACP with CPP-ACP can give a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization.

  13. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  14. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity ...

  15. Ab-initio Calculations of Electronic Properties of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohara, Bir; Franklin, Lashounda; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    We have performed first principle, local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of cubic calcium fluorite (CaF2) . Our non-relativistic computations employed the Ceperley and Alder LDA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) formalism. The implementation of the LCAO formalism followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We discuss the electronic energy bands, including the large band gap, total and partial density of states, electron and hole effective masses, and the bulk modulus. Our calculated, indirect (X- Γ) band gap is 12.98 eV; it is 1 eV above an experimental value of 11.8 eV. The calculated bulk modulus (82.89 GPA) is excellent agreement with the experimental result of 82.0 +/-0.7. Our predicted equilibrium lattice constant is 5.42Å. Acknowledgments: This work is funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR], and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy, National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE-NA-0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  16. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moezizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion.

  17. Remineralization potential of fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate-casein phospho peptide on enamel lesions: An in vitro comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This in vitro study was conducted on enamel blocks of human premolars with the aim of evaluating the remineralization potential of fluoride and ACP-CPP and the combination of ACP-CPP and fluoride on early enamel lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen intact carious free human premolars were selected. The coronal part of each tooth was sectioned into four parts to make 4 enamel blocks. The baseline SMH (surface microhardness was measured for all the enamel specimens using Vickers microhardness (VHN testing machine. Artificial enamel carious lesions were created by inserting the specimens in demineralization solution for 3 consecutive days. The SMH of the demineralised specimens was evaluated. Then the four enamel sections of each tooth were subjected to various surface treatments , i.e. Group 1- Fluoride varnish, Group 2- ACP-CPP cream, Group 3- Fluoride + ACP-CPP & Group 4- Control (No surface treatment. A caries progression test (pH cycling was carried out, which consisted of alternative demineralization (3hours and remineralization with artificial saliva (21 hours for five consecutive days. After pH cycling again SMH of each specimen was assessed to evaluate the remineralization potential of each surface treatment agent. Then, to asses the remineralization potential of various surface treatments at the subsurface level, each enamel specimen was longitudinally sectioned through the centre to expose the subsurface enamel area. Cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH was evaluated to assess any subsurface remineralization Results: Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple comparisons test was applied to detect significant differences at P ≤ 0.05 levels between various surface treatments at different phases. Conclusions: With in the limits, the present study concludes that; ACP-CPP cream is effective, but to a lesser extent than fluoride in remineralizing early enamel caries at surface level. Combination of fluoride and ACP

  18. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  19. The Impact of pH and Calcium on the Uptake of Fluoride by Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Jianyun; Ma, Lifeng; Shi, Yuanzhi; HAN, WENYAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species.

  20. Effect of calcium fluoride on sintering behaviour of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-MgO glass-ceramic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mirhadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of glasses based on the SiO2-CaO-Na2O-MgO (SCNM system containing calcium fluoride (CaF2 have been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The partial replacement of CaO by CaF2 in the studied glass-ceramics led to the development of different crystalline phase assemblages, including wollastonite and diopside using various heat-treatment processes. With the increase of CaF2 content, the crystallization temperature of the glass and the strength of the crystallization peak temperature decreases. Addition of CaF2 up to 6.0 mol%, as expected, improved the sinterability. This sample reached to maximum density by sintering at 950 °C.

  1. Analysis of bone formation on porous and calcium phosphate-coated acetabular cups: a randomised clinical [18F]fluoride PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmark, Gösta; Sörensen, Jens; Nilsson, Olle

    2012-01-01

    We present a study using Fluoride-Positron Emission Tomography (F-PET/CT) to analyse new bone formation in periacetabular bone adjacent to press fit cups following THA. In 16 THA (8 patients) with bilateral hip osteoarthritis simultaneous bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) was performed, employing electrochemically applied calcium phosphate coated (HA) cups or porous-coated (PC) cups allocated at random to compare the two sides. A reference group of 13 individuals with a normal healthy hip was used to determine 'normal' bone metabolism. [18F]fluoride -PET/CT was used to analyze bone formation adjacent to the cups 1 week, 4 months and 12 months after surgery. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed preoperatively, postoperatively and at 2 years. Bone forming activity had a mean of 5.71, 4.69 and 3.47 SUV around the HA- and 5.04, 4.80 and 3.50 SUV around the PC-cups at 1 week, 4 months and 12 months respectively. Normal bone metabolism was 3.68 SUV. After 1 year activity had declined to normal levels for both groups. The clinical results were good in all cases. HA coating resulted in higher uptake indicating higher bone forming activity after 1 week. F-PET/CT is a valuable tool to analyse bone formation and secondary stabilisation of an acetabular cup. PMID:22547382

  2. EDTA间接滴定法测定铁水脱硫剂中氧化钙和氟化钙%Determination of calcium oxide and calcium fluoride in molten iron desulphurizer by EDTA indirect titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾波; 张强; 涂昀; 吴迎红; 付志军

    2012-01-01

    A method was introduced for the determination of calcium oxide and calcium fluoride in KR molten iron desulphurizer. By taking advantage of alkaline characteristics of activated calcium oxide in KR molten iron desulphurizer, the sample was dissolved by excess hydrochloric acid, and the excessive hydrochloric acid was back-titrated by sodium hydroxide standard solution with phenolphthalein as indicator. Thus the content of calcium oxide could be calculated by deducting the consumption of hydrochloric acid by magnesium oxide. Simultaneously, in consideration of the acid-soluble characteristics of calcium oxide and calcium fluoride in KR molten iron desulphurizer, the samples were dissolved by hydrochloric acid. After iron and aluminum was separated by precipitation with hexamethyl-enetetramine, their interference was further masked by triethanolamine solution in acidic solution. Being adjusted to pH 12 with potassium hydroxide solution, the content of total calcium was determined by EDTA complexometry (national method) with calcein as indicator. Being adjusted to pH 8-9 with ammonia buffer solution, the total content of calcium and magnesium was determined by EDTA complexometry with acid chrome blue K-naphthol B green as indicator. Thereby the content of magnesium was obtained by subtraction. In KR molten iron desulphurizer, the content of calcium fluoride was determined indirectly by deduction of the content of active calcium oxide from the content of total calcium and the formula calculation. A number of parallel determinations of KR molten iron desulphurizer synthetic samples were carried out with this method. The results were consistent with the reference values, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6)) were less than 1%. Recovery test was conducted by adding calcium fluoride and calcium oxide certified reference materials, and the recoveries were between 97% and 102%.%建立了KR铁水脱硫剂中氧化钙和氟化钙含量的测定方法.利用KR铁

  3. Evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Awasthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurobiological disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, communication difficulties, and lacking manual dexterity. These limitations make the oral hygiene maintenance very difficult. Aim: The aim of this present study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism. Setting and Design: Sample comprised 22 children with autism who daily visited a day care and education center named ARUSHI - a center for children with special health care needs in Bhopal. Methods: Children were divided into two groups (Group A and B according to toothbrush used and further divided into subgroups (A1 and B1 [low fluoridated − Pediflor toothpaste] and A2 and B2 [calcium sucrose phosphate − Enafix toothpaste]. Oral hygiene instructions and brushing technique demonstration were given every day for a period of 1-month. Oral health status was evaluated before and after the study using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S and its Miglani's modification for primary dentition, plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT/deft index. The perception of parents regarding oral hygiene practices for their kids was also evaluated by an awareness and attitude questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: OHI-S, GI, PI, and DMFT/deft were statistically evaluated using Mann–Whitney U- test. Results and Conclusion: Mean value of OHI-S decreased significantly with powered toothbrush (0.035 [P < 0.05] in both groups. However, PI decreased significantly for Enafix when used with powered toothbrush (0.042 [P < 0.05]. Perception of parents was seen to improve significantly after 1-month study (0.000 [P < 0.05].

  4. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  5. The effect of fluoride and silicate ions on the coprecipitation of gadolinium with calcium in phosphoric and sulpho-phosphoric media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhlassa, S.; Salhamen, F. [Univ. Mohammed V - Agdal, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Radiochimie

    2013-05-01

    This work was carried out with the aim to establish the effect of some impurities on the coprecipitation of gadolinium with calcium phosphate and gypsum. The tests were performed using the radioactive tracer technique to monitor the fate of gadolinium in various phosphoric and sulpho-phosphoric media containing fluoride and silicate ions as impurities. In 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} M NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution, the Gd(III) at a concentration of 10{sup -4} M is almost entirely precipitated as amorphous phosphate. However, the presence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at C{sub H{sub 3SO{sub 4}}} {>=} 0.1 M, reduces the coprecipitation to less than 8 at. %, on average. The fluoride ions in solution, even at C{sub HF} {<=} 0.1 M, induce a reduction of coprecipitation of 10 to 30% according to HF concentration. In the media containing 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} M NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and 10{sup -1} M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the effect of HF is almost negligible in the absence of Si(IV); nevertheless, the presence of fluorosilicate in solution may contribute to the enhancement of the coprecipitation of the REE. The sulphuric acid (0.1 M) in phosphoric media (0.74 {<=} C{sub H{sub 3PO{sub 4}}} {<=} 4.44 M), leads to a significant coprecipitation of the REE (1.3 {+-} 0.2 {<=}D{sub Gd}{<=} 3.1 {+-} 0.5), whilst the addition of HF (0.1 M) to these media enhances the solubility of the REE (left angle D{sub Gd} right angle = 0.06 {+-} 0.01). XRD, IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses of the solid phases in conjunction with the variation of the distribution coefficient D indicate that the coprecipitation of the REE is likely controlled by heterovalent substitution of REE in gypsum and its precipitation as phosphate or fluorosilicate. (orig.)

  6. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  7. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  8. Urinary fluoride output in children following the use of a dual-fluoride varnish formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to DuraphatTM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I, children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92% fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71% fluorine, sodium fluoride, FGM TM. After 1-month interval (phase II, the same amount (0.2 mL of the fluoride varnish Duraphat (2.26% fluorine, sodium fluoride, ColgateTM was applied. Before each application all the volunteers brushed their teeth with placebo dentifrice for 7 days. Urinary collections were carried out 24 h prior up to 48 h after the applications. Fluoride intake from the diet was also estimated. Fluoride concentration in diet samples and urine was analyzed with the fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Data were tested by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the urinary fluoride output between phases I and II. The use of Duofluorid XII did not significantly increase the urinary fluoride output, when compared to baseline levels. The application of Duraphat caused a transitory increase in the urinary fluoride output, returning to baseline levels 48 h after its use. CONCLUSIONS: The tested varnish formulation, which has been shown to be effective in in vitro studies, also can be considered safe.

  9. Metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems formed by fluorides of alkali, alkali earth, rare earth elements, yttrium, zirconium, hafnium, bismuth, antimony are investigated with the aim of preparing new fluoride materials and studying their thermodynamic and other physical and chemical properties. The respective phase diagrams are plotted. On the basis of the research fluoroberyllate glasses with rare earth additions of improved qualities (moisture resistance, crystallization resistance, resistance against radiation up to 100 Mrad) are prepared. The rho-T-x phase diagrams of the systems studied show that many compounds are sublimated congruently at certain temperatures and incongruently - above them. The existence of congruently sublimated compounds and azeotropically sublimated compositions provides for the preparation of uniform optical films. In connection with the search for new materials-luminophores and matrices of optical quantum generators - the fluoride systems of alkali metals and lanthanides are studied; the formation of binary fluorides of M3LnF6, M2LnF5, MLnF4, MLn2F7, MLn3F10 compositions is established. To search for new solid electrolytes, the solid-phase interaction of Sb-and Bi trifluorides with their oxides and alakali metal fluorides is studied. The electric conductivity of the compounds obtained is studied

  10. 添加含钙化合物对茶园土壤pH及有效氟的影响%Influence of Addition of Calcium compounds on pH and Available Fluoride Content in Tea Garden Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永利; 廖万有; 王烨军; 苏有健; 孙力

    2013-01-01

    鉴于长期饮用高氟茶可引起饮茶型氟中毒,拟通过探明茶园土壤有效氟的调控机制,为治理土壤氟污染并降低茶叶中氟含量提供理论依据.以湖南某茶园0~20 cm和20~40 cm土壤为对象,通过室内模拟培养,研究不同形态和添加量的钙离子对土壤pH和有效氟含量的影响.结果表明,添加200~400 mg/kg Ca2+[Ca(NO3)2]和100~1000 mg/kg Ca2+[CaCl2]后2层土壤pH由4.0降至3.5~3.7,土壤水溶态氟含量明显增加;添加60~1400 mg/kg Ca2+[Ca(OH)2]时,随Ca(OH)2添加量的增加,2层土壤pH分别升至5.13、5.23,土壤水溶态氟含量呈现先增加再降低最后增加的趋势;添加3种形态含钙化合物均降低土壤交换态氟含量.当土壤pH在3.5~6.0间变化时,以pH 5.0为拐点,土壤pH降低或升高水溶态氟含量均增加,土壤酸化时尤甚.因此,可在酸性土壤上施用白云石粉、Ca(OH)2,在偏碱性土壤上施用Ca(NO3)2、CaCl2,调整土壤pH至5.0左右,以有效降低茶园土壤有效氟含量.%Long-term consumption of high-fluoride tea probably causes drinking tea fluorosis. This article ascertained the regulation mechanism of available fluoride content in tea garden soil, to provide theory of controlling soil fluoride pollution and reducing fluoride content of tea leaves. Laboratory incubation tests were conducted, using 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers soils from two tea gardens of Hunan Province as experiment materials, to study the influence of different forms and addition amount of calcium ion on soil pH and available fluoride content. The results showed that soil pH value fell to 3.5 from 4.0-3.7 and soil water soluble fluoride content increased obviously when the addition amount of Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2 was increased. With the increase of addition amount of Ca(OH)2, the soil pH value change ranged from 4.0 to 5.2, soil water soluble fluorine content was decreased obviously at first, then increased. Soil exchangeable fluoride content was

  11. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level in water is not enough to prevent tooth decay; however, some groundwater and natural springs can have ... the tooth’s surface, or enamel. Water fluoridation prevents tooth decay by providing frequent and consistent contact with low ...

  12. [Comparative in vitro evaluation of modern glass ionomer cements for adhesion strength and fluoride release].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkov, M Yu; Rusanov, F S; Poyurovskaya, I Ya

    2016-01-01

    The study proved similar adhesion strength and fluoride release level in aqueous extracts of glass ionomer cements Cemion (VladMiVa, Russia), Glassin Rest (Omega-Dent, Russia), Cemfil 10 (StomaDent, Russia) and Fuji VIII (GC Corporation, Japan). Despite of close concentrations of fluoride in glasses, the rate of fluoride release in water from calcium and calcium-barium glasses is much higher than that of strontium glasses. PMID:27239999

  13. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SnehaPanchal; RamtejJ. Verma

    2014-01-01

    High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  14. Bioactivity of Sodium Free Fluoride Containing Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojing Chen; Xiaohui Chen; Brauer, Delia S.; Rory M. Wilson; Hill, Robert G.; Natalia Karpukhina

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity of a series of fluoride-containing sodium-free calcium and strontium phosphosilicate glasses has been tested in vitro. Glasses with high fluoride content were partially crystallised to apatite and other fluoride-containing phases. The bioactivity study was carried out in Tris and SBF buffers, and apatite formation was monitored by XRD, FTIR and solid state NMR. Ion release in solutions has been measured using ICP-OES and fluoride-ion selective electrode. The results show that...

  15. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Panchal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  16. The Effect of Acute Fluoride Poisoning on Nitric Oxide and Methemoglobin Formation in the Guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    ŞİRELİ, Meltem

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of acute fluoride poisoning on nitric oxide and methemoglobin formation, 250 mg/kg bw sodium fluoride was applied alone and verapamil was applied together with fluoride. Blood nitric oxide (Griess reaction) and calcium levels; hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hematocrit values; and erythrocyte counts were determined and compared with those of the controls. After the fluoride application it was found that there was a relative relationship between the increase in nitric oxide a...

  17. Oxidative stress in cases of chronic fluoride intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Ailani, Vinita; R. C. Gupta; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Kapil

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out the level of oxidative stress and effect of supplementation of vitamin C, D and Calcium on levels of SOD, serum and urinary fluoride in children residing in endemic fluorosis area. For this the fluoride belt of Jaipur district was selected. The parameters selected were Super oxide dismutase, serum fluoride and urinary fluoride. The study was conducted on one hundred children, selected from four areas (25 from each area) consuming water containing 1.2, 2.4,...

  18. How Does Fluoride Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mid-1940s, communities started to put more fluoride in their water supplies to protect people against tooth decay. Fluoride ... might suggest supplements — which are like vitamins containing fluoride. Just how effective is fluoridated water? Thanks to it, dentists say half of kids ...

  19. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  20. 氟化钙参与石煤提钒过程的浸出行为研究%Acid-Leaching of Vanadium from Stone Coal with Calcium Fluoride Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王非; 张一敏; 黄晶; 刘涛; 赵杰; 张国斌

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of leaching vanadium from stone coal with calcium fluoride was researched under the conditions of 95 ℃,4 h,1 ml·g-1,15% (volume fraction) H2SO4 and 5% (mass fraction) calcium fluoride.The leaching rate of vanadium could reach 92.39%.Through the analyses of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),valence state vanadium and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for the raw ore of stone coal,ICP-AES,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 19F liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the leachate,and XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the leaching residue,the whole leaching process could be summarized that calcium fluoride reacted with sulfuric acid to generate hydrofluoric acid and the hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) could enhance the leaching process owing to its strong destructiveness to vanadium-bearing minerals; calcite consumed part of acid to generate CaSO4 and CO2 ; chlorite and vanadium-bearing phlogopite were thoroughly broken down and released V,Al,K,Mg,Si etc.[AlF5] 2-and [SiF6] 2-were generated and left in the leachate after F-reacted with other elements in the vanadium leaching.In the process of intense stir,the released Ⅴ(Ⅲ) was oxidized into VO2+ by O2 from air to exist in leachate.Part of the released Al existed in leachate as Al3 + and others combined with F to generate [AlF5] 2-.Part of the released Si existed in residue as SiO2,and the rest combined with F to generate [SiF6] 2-.It was because the bond energies of Al-F and Si-F were bigger than that of Al-O and Si-O,and the generation of [AlF5] 2-and [SiF6] 2-made the leaching system more stable and facilitated leaching vanadium.%研究了氟化钙参与石煤提钒过程的浸出行为,浸出条件为95℃,4h,1ml·g-1,15%(体积分数)硫酸和5%(质量分数)氟化钙.在此条件下钒的浸出率可达到92.39%.通过对石煤原矿进行电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱分析(ICP-AES)、钒价态分析和X射线衍射(XRD

  1. Fluoride stimulates [3H]thymidine incorporation and alkaline phosphatase production by human osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of sodium fluoride on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) release and [3H]thymidine uptake by human osteoblasts in culture was investigated. Sodium fluoride stimulated both ALP release and [3H]thymidine uptake at concentrations of sodium fluoride greater than 250 mumol/L. This stimulation was similar in magnitude to that induced by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The fluoride-induced increase in ALP was inhibited by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. We conclude that sodium fluoride stimulates osteoblasts to proliferate and to release ALP. This stimulation by fluoride is dependent on calcium influx. Fluoride-induced stimulation of human osteoblasts may be relevant to its effect in enhancing bone formation in patients with osteoporosis

  2. Effect of different fluoride varnishes on mineralization of artificial enamel carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Said, Siti Norhazlin Binti

    2015-01-01

    The chalky white appearance on enamel is known as White Spot Lesion (WSL). This initial caries lesion involves the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization. Fluoride varnish has been shown to prevent WSL in post-eruptive tooth. The literature review summarized the available evidence on the various agents added to topical fluoride varnish, such as casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), xylito-coated calcium and phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate (A...

  3. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, B J; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. BASIC RESEARCH...... different schools were enrolled after informed consent and their class unit was randomly allocated to one of two fluoride programs. INTERVENTIONS: One group received a semi-annual fluoride varnish applications (FV) and the other group continued with an existing program with fluoride mouth rinses once per...... in caries development over two years among children participating in a school-based fluoride varnish or mouth rinse program....

  4. Hair as Biomarker of Fluoride Exposure in a Fluoride Endemic Area and a Low Fluoridated Area

    OpenAIRE

    Parimi, Nalini; V. Viswanath; Kashyap, Bina; Patil, Pavan Uday

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine whether hair could be used as biomarker of fluoride exposure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 people living in an endemically fluoridated area and a low fluoridated area. Samples of hair from the occipital were taken and subjected to fluoride analysis by a fluoride ion electrode. Results: Lower fluoride levels in water supplies correlated with lower levels of fluoride in hair and more over higher fluoride levels in wate...

  5. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  6. Effect of fluoride dentifrices on salivary fluoride levels in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul S; Tandon S; Murthy K

    1993-01-01

    Fluoride dentifrices are well accepted for their caries preventive effects. The fluoride concentration in the oral fluids after tooth brushing with fluoride dentifrices may have an important relationship to the caries reducing capacity. The present study was aimed to clinically evaluate the salivary fluoride retention of dentifrices containing low fluoride concentration in 50 children, aged 7-9 years before, during and after the use of fluoride toothpaste. Estimation of fluoride in saliva was...

  7. Enhancing Fluoride: Clinical Human Studies of Alternatives or Boosters for Caries Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries remains a major public health problem, especially for certain high-risk population groups. The goal of this study was to assess the evidence regarding strategies meant to be used as alternatives or booster/supplements to fluoride for caries prevention and management. Articles were selected for inclusion if they had a prospective longitudinal design, with a fluoride control arm, and were conducted in human subjects. Of the included studies, 7/18 studies on calcium-based strategies favored the test product (the majority of studies included exposure of fluoride in all groups). All the arginine studies (8/8) included a combination of arginine and a calcium base, and concluded that this has the potential to significantly boost the performance of fluoride. The remaining included studies focused on the addition of microbial-related strategies to a fluoride-containing vehicle (2 xylitol studies and 1 study using a probiotic milk), and all favored the combination as a booster to fluoride. Thus, the current study did not identify evidence for any strategy to effectively be used as a substitute or alternative to fluoride, but identified some consistent evidence derived from the use of prebiotic strategies (primarily from use of arginine combined with calcium) to support their potential use to boost the mechanism of action of fluoride. Thus, fluoride-based strategies remain the standard for caries prevention and management, with some evidence that boosting the effects of fluoride by the use of prebiotic strategies is a promising possibility. PMID:27100833

  8. 酪蛋白磷酸肽-非结晶型磷酸钙与含氟制剂抑制牙釉质脱矿的比较研究%Comparative studies of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride products in inhibiting enamel demineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春波; 孙新华; 侯旭; 闫阔

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价酪蛋白磷酸肽-非结晶型磷酸钙(casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate,CPP-ACP)与几种临床常用的含氟制剂抑制牙釉质脱矿的作用,为正畸临床预防牙釉质脱矿提供依据.方法 将70颗离体牙分为7组,每组10颗,即A组:CPP-ACP组;B组:CPP-ACP+含氟漱口水组;C组:含氟漱口水组;D组:含氟玻璃离子牙体保护剂组;E组:含氟树脂粘接剂组;F组:氟保护漆组;G组:空白对照组.将7组样本按三餐进食时间放人人工致龋液中,每次10 min,前6组分别于样本颊面釉质表面涂布CPP-ACP、CPP-ACP和含氟漱口水、含氟漱口水、含氟玻璃离子牙体保护剂、含氟树脂粘接剂、氟保护漆,空白对照组不处理,7组样本其余时间均浸泡于人工唾液中.于实验1、2、3个月用原子力显微镜检测.结果 实验1个月D组釉质表面粗糙度[(114±1) nm]显著低于G组[(172±9) nm] (P <0.05);实验2和3个月各组釉质表面粗糙度与G组差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组粗糙度2和3个月为(87±9)和(27±6) nm,显著低于其他各组(P<0.05);C组2和3个月粗糙度分别为(145±8)和(126±7)nm,显著高于D、E、F组(P<0.05).结论 CPP-ACP与含氟制剂在人工致龋环境中均有抑制牙釉质脱矿的作用,CPP-ACP与含氟制剂联合应用效果更佳;含氟固体(D、E、F组)比含氟液体(C组)抑制牙釉质脱矿作用效果更好.%Objective To evaluate casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and several fluoride products in inhibiting enamel demineralization.Methods Seventy healthy premolars extracted before orthodontic treatment were divided into seven groups (A: CPP-ACP; B:CPP-ACP + fluoride mouth rinses; C:fluoride mouth rinses; D:fluoride glass ionomer protection; E:fluoride resin binder; F:fluoride varnish; G:control group).There were ten samples in each group. The teeth were dipped into an artificial caries solution ten minutes at a time

  9. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  10. Synthesis of reagents for fluoride technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordienko; P.; S.; Kolzunov; V.; A.; Dostovalov; V.; A.; Kaidalova; T.; A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing demand for fluorinating reagents to be used in rare-metal industry has stimulated conducting research in the field of production for these reagents. That is why the fluorinating reagents production has recently formed an independent segment of industry. Main industrial fluorinating reagents include hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, technical ammonium hydrodifluoride, fluorosilicic acid and its salts. To produce technical etching acid, fluor-spar with calcium fluoride content at least 92% is used in most cases. To produce anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, fluor-spar with calcium fluoride content 96 %-97 % is necessary. The fluorine-containing raw materials refinement from silica by means of flotation makes the fluorinating reagents production substantially more expensive. In this work we have attempted to process unconcentrated raw materials by fluorine removal in the form of volatile silicon tetrafluoride. In this process silicon tetrafluoride was recovered by liquid ammonia with subsequent hydrolysis of the formed ammonia hexafluorosilicate. Hydrolysis occurred according to the reaction:(NH4)2 SiF6 + 4NH3 + 2 H2O= 6NH4F+ SiO2 The products of the ammonia hexafluorosilicate hydrolysis included ammonia fluoride and amorphous silica gel ("white soot") as by-product. This "white soot" was of high purity-with main component content 99.95% and total admixture content 0.05%. Silica gel is a superfine material with specific surface of 267.6 m2/g and is recommended as filler in the production of rubber, plastics and for other applications.Ammonia fluoride was transformed into ammonia hydrodifluoride (main processing product) according to the reaction:2NH4F→NH3+NH4 HF2 It was stated that the NH4F: NH4 HF2 ratio depends on boiling point temperature-with its increase the ammonia hydrofluoride concentration in solution increases as well.

  11. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  12. Fluoride levels and osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmi Kharb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor, commonly occurring in the age group of 10 to 24 years. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Aims: The present study was planned to analyze serum levels of fluoride in patients of osteosarcoma and fluoride content of their drinking water. Settings and Design: The present study was carried out comparing 10 patients of osteosarcoma and 10 healthy volunteers (who served as controls. Materials and Methods: Serum and drinking water fluoride levels were estimated by ion selective electrode. Statistical analysis used: The data were computed as mean ± SD and Student′s t test was applied. Results: Both, the serum and drinking water fluoride levels, were significant by higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma.

  13. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature. PMID:27352462

  14. EFFECT OF CALCIUM ADDITION ON THE DEFLUORIDATION CAPACITY OF BONE CHAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Dosage of small amounts of calcium chloride to fluoride water prior to contact with bone char which has already been saturated with fluoride is shown to provide an additional fluoride removal capacity. The additionally obtained removal capacity increases with slower filtration velocities and incr...

  15. Fluoride in the drinking water of Pakistan and the possible risk of crippling fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore the possibility of fluoride toxicity, 747 water samples were collected from surface water and groundwater sources of 16 major cities of Pakistan, adopting a uniform sampling design with distribution of samples: Lahore (79, Kasur (46, Faisalabad (30, Khushab (50, Chakwal (51, Mianwali (30, Jhelum (53, Bahawalpur (60, Karachi (60, Mirpur Khas (55, Peshawar (38, Risalpur (35, Quetta (81, Ziarat (21, Loralai (21, and Mastung (37. Comparison of analytical findings with WHO Guidelines of Drinking Water for Fluoride (i.e., 1.5 ppm has concluded that 16% of the monitored water sources have fluoride concentration beyond the permissible safe limit of 1.5 mg L−1 falling in the concentration range of 1.6–25 mg L−1. The highest fluoride contamination (22% is detected in the Balochistan province followed by 19% in Punjab province. Comparatively higher fluoride levels of > 20% in the groundwater sources like hand pumps supported the possibility of increased groundwater contamination as excessive fluoride concentrations are expected to come from calcium-poor aquifers and in areas where fluoride-bearing minerals are common or where cation exchange of sodium for calcium occurs. Field observations have also indicated the prevalence of fluoride-associated health implications in the study areas with excessive fluoride in water sources. Findings of this study have provided bidirectional vision for the epidemiological investigations as well as to mitigate the issues in the affected vicinities of fluoride-rich areas.

  16. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  17. PRODUCTION OF THORIUM FLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariasen, W.H.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing anhydrous thorium fluoride comprising the step of contacting a saturated aqueous solution of thorium nitrate with an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid having a concentration of about 45 to 50% by weight at a temperature above 70 deg C whereby anhydrous thorium fluoride precipitates.

  18. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical appl

  19. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water Print A ... thirds of 16- to 19-year-olds continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  20. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Kata Rošin-Grget; Kristina Peroš; Ivana Šutej; Krešimir Bašić

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possible cariostatic mechanisms of the action of fluoride. In the past, fluoride inhibition of caries was ascribed to reduced solubility of enamel due to incorporation of fluoride (F–) into the enamel minerals. The present evidence from clinical and laboratory studies suggests that the caries-preventive mode of action of fluoride is mainly topical. There is convincing evidence that fluoride has a major effect on demineralisation and remineralisation of dental hard t...

  1. Fluoride toothpastes and fluoride mouthrinses for home use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses with emphasis on their use at home. Toothpastes and mouthrinses are just two of many ways of providing fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The first investigations into incorporating fluoride into toothpastes and mouthrinses were reported in the middle 1940s. Unlike water fluoridation (which is ‘automatic fluoridation’, fluoride-containing toothpastes and fluoride-containing mouthrinses are, primarily, for home use and need to be purchased by the individual. By the 1960s, research indicated that fluoride could be successfully incorporated into toothpastes and clinical trials demonstrated their effectiveness. By the end of the 1970s, almost all toothpastes contained fluoride. The widespread use of fluoride-containing toothpastes is thought to be the main reason for much improved oral health in many countries. Of the many fluoride compounds investigated, sodium fluoride, with a compatible abrasive, is the most popular, although amine fluorides are used widely in Europe. The situation is similar for mouthrinses. Concentrations of fluoride (F, commonly found, are 1500 ppm (1500 μg F/g for toothpastes and 225 ppm (225 μg F/ml for mouthrinse. Several systematic reviews have concluded that fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses are effective, and that there is added benefit from their use with other fluoride delivery methods such as water fluoridation. Guidelines for the appropriate use of fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses are available in many countries.Conclusion. Fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses have been developed and extensive testing has demonstrated that they are effective and their use should be encouraged.

  2. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  3. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014 Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  4. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  5. Changes and ore-forming significance of calcium and fluoride in Gannan Xintang fluorite mining area%赣南新塘萤石矿区地下水元素钙氟变化及其成矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明生; 常凤琴; 赖劲虎

    2012-01-01

    Gannan is one of the most important areas of high quality fluorite in China. The systematic analysis on the calcium and fluorine ions of groundwater in Xintang fluorite mining area can not only reveal the properties of the mine itself,but also be important for the exploring of new mine areas. Our study results indicated that the ion contents of calcium and fluorine had obviously different spatial distribution. The a-bundance of calcium and fluorine in the groundwater of deposits and around was much higher,compared to that in the underground water 2 kilometers away from the deposit. The former's figure was almost ten times the latter"s. The analysis also showed that the contents of calcium have a higher correlation with that of fluorine in the groundwater. The paper revealed that the fluorite was mineralized by calcium and fluorine produced in the process that hydrothermal circulation incessantly leached the wall crack. Hence fluorite mineralization was determined by calcium and fluorine,and was closely related with the groundwater activity in this area as well. We finally reached the conclusion that the abnormal changes of calcium and fluorine could be used as an important indicator for exploring orgs.%对新塘脉状矿床及其附近地下水的钙、氟元素进行了系统检测,发现钙、氟含量存在明显的空间分布差异.采矿矿床及其附近地下水的钙、氟含量偏高,而2 km远的地下水钙、氟含量低且接近流域平均值,两处平均含量相差近10倍.钙、氟的相关性分析显示,水体中钙、氟含量具有很好的相关性,揭示该区萤石矿成矿受沉积物钙氟控制,并与地下水运动密切相关,通过热液循环不断淋滤溶蚀围岩获取钙氟形成萤石矿.由此,矿区的钙氟异常变化可以作为找矿的重要指标.

  6. Prediction for new magnetoelectric fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenert, G.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    We use symmetry considerations in order to predict new magnetoelectric fluorides. In addition to these magnetoelectric properties, we discuss which among these fluorides are the ones susceptible to present multiferroic properties. We emphasize that several materials exhibit ferromagnetic properties.

  7. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  8. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  9. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  10. Effect of trimetaphosphate and fluoride association on hydroxyapatite dissolution and precipitation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Souza, José Antonio Santos; Zaze, Ana Carolina Soares Fraga; Takeshita, Eliana Mitsue; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Moraes, João Carlos Silos

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzed the action of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and/or fluoride on hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite powder was suspended in different solutions: deionized water, 500 µg F/mL, 1,100 µg F/mL, 1%TMP, 3%TMP, 500 µg F/mL plus 1%TMP and 500 µg F/mL plus 3%TMP. The pH value of the solutions was reduced to 4.0 and after 30 min, raised to 7.0 (three times). After pH-cycling, the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The concentrations of calcium fluoride, fluoride, calcium and phosphorus were also determined. Adding 1% or 3% TMP to the solution containing 500 µg F/mL produced a higher quantity of calcium fluoride compared to samples prepared in a 1,100 µg F/mL solution. Regarding the calcium concentration, samples prepared in solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP were statistically similar and showed higher values. Using solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP resulted in a calcium/phosphorus ratio close to that of hydroxyapatite. It is concluded that the association of TMP and fluoride favored the precipitation of a more stable hydroxyapatite. PMID:25590192

  11. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni;

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...... and the manganese(III) zero-field-splitting parameters are unambiguously determined by inelastic neutron scattering to yield J = 33.0(2) cm(-1) (Ĥ = JŜ1·Ŝ2 Hamiltonian definition) and single-ion D = -4.0(1) cm(-1). Additionally, high-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic measurements...... support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes...

  12. Effect on the energy efficiency of tunnel kilns manufacturing structural clay products of fluoride emission. Phase 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-31

    The Phase 3 project involved the firing of test bricks under full scale and normal process conditions in four different plants utilizing tunnel kilns. Placement of test bricks across diagonal cross-sections of brick hacks facilitated a limited investigation of fluoride loss characteristics versus hack siting. Comparative effects were observed among the different raw material and additive blends comprising the test bricks. The effects of density of car packing and other process conditions were observed. Analytical comparisons were made between dried unfired and fired brick fluoride contents to yield interpretable fluoride changes. Key conclusions indicated that major factors in controlling fluoride losses were: material (with calcium content a likely control leader), car packing density and cross-section (with the lower-loss materials most affected). Recommended future work would centre on correlation between full scale process fluoride losses and a select group of cationic components (particularly calcium) in the raw materials. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride on the erosive tooth wear in an in vitro model%含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物对牙齿耐磨性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘烨; 陈溯; 张振庭

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate( CPP-ACP) with fluoride on the erosive enamel wear. Methods Forty bovine lower incisors were collected, and 5mm × 5mm enamel window on each crown created. The other areas were sealed with nail polisher. The samples were stratified and allocated into 4 groups (A-D)with 10 samples in each group,which were then treated with different method . Group A remained untreated and served as negative control. Group B and C were treated by phosphoric acid, group C was further renimeralized with CPP-ACP, group D was renimeralized by CPP-ACP with fluoride after the erosion. After the above treatment,the samples received tooth wear, which included 4 circulations, with 3600 strokes in each circulation, 14400 strokes in total The quantity of enamel wear was recorded. Results The quantity of enamel wear in group D was significantly lower than in group C,group D and group C were lower than group A and B. There was significant difference between each group (P < 0. 01) . Conclusion Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride can reduce tooth wear.%目的 研究含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物(CPP-ACP)在体外对酸蚀牛牙釉质耐磨性的影响.方法 选择新鲜拔除的牛下切牙40个,每个牙冠唇面形成5mm×5mm的釉质窗,其余部分由抗酸指甲油涂抹封闭,将釉质块样本完全随机分为4组,每组10个,A 组为阴性对照组;B 组使用20%磷酸溶液酸蚀;C 组经酸蚀后使用CPP-ACP再矿化处理;D 组则经酸蚀后使用含氟CPP-ACP再矿化.每组分别采取以上不同处理方式后进入磨损循环,每个循环磨损3600次,共4个循环,总计磨损次数14400次.使用三维白光干涉表面形貌仪,测定每个样本磨损深度,比较各组磨损量的差别.结果 D组磨损量小于C组,C组及D组磨损量均低于A组和B组,各组间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸

  14. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride on microhardness of erosived enamel%含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽—磷酸钙复合物对酸蚀牙釉质显微硬度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘烨; 陈溯; 张振庭

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物(CPP-ACP)在体外对酸蚀牛牙釉质显微硬度的影响.方法 选择新鲜拔除的牛下切牙60个,制成60个5mm×5mm正方形釉质开窗区,其余部分由抗酸指甲油涂抹封闭,将釉质块样本完全随机分为4组,每组15个,分别进行4种不同处理(A组为阴性对照组;B组为阳性对照组,使用碳酸饮料酸蚀处理;C组为碳酸饮料酸蚀后使用CPP-ACP进行再矿化;D 组为酸蚀后使用含氟CPP-ACP(氟浓度为900ppm)再矿化.使用显微硬度仪测定样本显微硬度,比较各组显微硬度的差别.结果 D组显微硬度较C组高,C组及D组显微硬度均高于B组但低于A组,各组间的差异具有统计学意义(P< 0.01).结论 含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物可以提高酸蚀牙釉质的显微硬度.%Objective To evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide -amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP) with fluoride on microhardness of erosive enamel. Methods Sixty fresh bovine lower incisors were selected, then enamel window of 5mm x 5mm was made on each of them, and other area was sealed with nail polisher. The samples were stratified and allocated to 4 groups (A-D). Samples in group A remained untreated and served as negative control; group B treated with coke, group C renimeralized with CPP-ACP after erosion; group D renimeralized by CPP-ACP with fluoride after erosion. Samples' microhardness was measured to compare the difference. Results The microhardness of group D was significantly higher than that of group C and group D, and group C was higher than that of group B but lower than group A There was significant difference among all groups(P <0. 01). Conclusion The microhardness of erosived enamel can be increased by casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride.

  15. Efecto de la arginina 8%-carbonato de calcio y del fluoruro de sodio al 5% en la reducción de la hipersensibilidad dentinaria post terapia periodontal: ensayo clínico Effect of 8% arginine, calcium carbonate and 5% sodium fluoride on the reduction of the dentine hipersensitivity post periodontal therapy: clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Márquez

    2011-04-01

    embargo, se logró una mayor reducción del dolor en aquellos pacientes que utilizaron la terapia de arginina al 8% y carbonato de calcio, con un 60% de los individuos sin dolor y con una mediana final de 0 en comparación al grupo con barniz de flúor al 5% y un dentrífico fluorado que mantuvieron en el 100% de los sujetos algún grado de dolor y presentando una mediana final en la escala VAS de 2.Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and to compare the efficacy in reducing the dentine hypersensitivity of an 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, 1.450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice with topical application and twice-daily brushing, with a negative control toothpaste containing calcium carbonate and 1.450 ppm fluoride as MFP, after periodontal treatment (baseline and four weeks respectively. Methods: A four-week clinical study with 20 subjects with diagnosis of slight to moderate chronic periodontitis under mechanical periodontal treatment and presence of gingival recessions in incisors, canines or premolars, stratified based on baseline tooth sensitivity. Subjects brushed with either a 1.450 ppm fluoride dentifrice or a marketed 8% arginine calcium carbonate dentifrice twice daily for approximately one minute. At screening, baseline and weeks four, subjects' tooth sensitivity was determined through both evaporative (Schiff and Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]. The same examiner throughout the study performed subject assessments using each stimulus. Results: Both subject groups exhibited significant reductions from baseline to four weeks in dentine hypersensitivity. However, patients who received 8% arginine calcium carbonate therapy, exhibited a greater reduction, with a 60% of individuals lacking of pain and with a final median of 0 in comparison with the 5% fluoride varnish and fluoride toothpaste group in which a 100% of subjects felt some degree of pain, presenting a final medium VAS scale of 2.

  16. Fluoride retention by kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of kaolin clay liners in storage of fluoride contaminated waste, an experimental study of the sorption and desorption behaviour of fluoride in kaolin clay was conducted. The degree of fluoride sorption by kaolin was found to depend on solution p......H and available fluoride concentration with equilibrium being achieved within 24 h. A site activation process involving the uptake of fluoride was also observed at the initial stages of sorption. This behaviour was attributed to a layer expansion process of the clay during sorption. The maximum fluoride sorption...... capacity was found to be 18.3 meq/100 g at pH 6 and 8.6 meq/100 g at pH 7. A competitive Langmuir sorption isotherm where sorption is dependant on both pH and fluoride concentration is employed to characterise the experimental sorption and desorption data. The sorption and desorption isotherms revealed...

  17. Other Fluoride Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in preventing tooth decay in people of all ages. Use the information listed below to compare the other fluoride products ... even among children younger than 6 years of age. Proper application technique ... cleared for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as ...

  18. Fluoride rinse effect on retention of CaF2 formed on enamel/dentine by fluoride application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda FALCÃO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium fluoride-like materials (“CaF2” formed on dental surfaces after professional fluoride application are unstable in the oral environment but can be retained longer with a daily NaF mouthrinse. We tested the effect of twice daily 0.05% NaF rinses on the retention of “CaF2” formed on enamel and dentine after applying acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF. “CaF2” formed on enamel/dentine by APF application significantly decreased after exposure to artificial saliva and the 0.05% NaF rinse was ineffective to avoid this reduction. These findings suggest that the combination of APF and 0.05% NaF is not clinically relevant, either for caries or dental hypersensitivity.

  19. Fluoride rinse effect on retention of CaF2 formed on enamel/dentine by fluoride application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amanda; Masson, Nadia; Leitão, Tarcísio Jorge; Botelho, Juliana Nunes; Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Calcium fluoride-like materials ("CaF2") formed on dental surfaces after professional fluoride application are unstable in the oral environment but can be retained longer with a daily NaF mouthrinse. We tested the effect of twice daily 0.05% NaF rinses on the retention of "CaF2" formed on enamel and dentine after applying acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). "CaF2" formed on enamel/dentine by APF application significantly decreased after exposure to artificial saliva and the 0.05% NaF rinse was ineffective to avoid this reduction. These findings suggest that the combination of APF and 0.05% NaF is not clinically relevant, either for caries or dental hypersensitivity. PMID:27050937

  20. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  1. Fluoride in the drinking water of Pakistan and the possible risk of crippling fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the possibility of fluoride toxicity, seven hundred and forty seven (747 water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources of sixteen major cities of Pakistan, adopting a uniform sampling design with distribution of samples as: Lahore (79, Kasur (46, Faisalabad (30, Khushab (50, Chakwal (51, Mianwali (30, Jhelum (53, Bahawalpur (60, Karachi (60, Mirpur Khas (55, Peshawar (38, Risalpur (35, Quetta (81, Ziarat (21, Loralai (21, Mastung (37. The comparison of analytical findings with WHO Guidelines of Drinking Water for Fluoride (i.e. 1.5 ppm has concluded that 16% of the monitored water sources have fluoride concentration beyond the permissible, safe limit of 1.5 mg l−1, falling in the concentration range of 1.6–25 mg l−1. The highest fluoride contamination (22% has been detected in the Balochistan province followed by 19% in Punjab province. Comparatively higher fluoride levels of >20% in groundwater sources such as hand pumps has supported the possibility of increased ground water contamination, as excessive fluoride concentrations are expected to come from calcium-poor aquifers and from areas where fluoride-bearing minerals are common or where cation exchange of sodium for calcium occurs. Field observations have also indicated the prevalence of fluoride-associated health implications in the study areas with excessive fluoride in water sources. The findings in this study have provided a bidirectional vision for epidemiological investigations as well as for mitigating the issues in the affected vicinities of fluoride-rich areas.

  2. Prevalence of certain inorganic constituents in groundwater samples of Erode district, Tamilnadu, India, with special emphasis on fluoride, fluorosis and its remedial measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K; Nanthakumar, K; Velmurugan, P; Tamilarasi, S; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2010-01-01

    A total of 60 drinking water samples collected from Erode district, Tamilnadu, India were analysed for fluoride contamination, besides water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride, bicarbonates, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, sodium and potassium. The results obtained were found to exceed the permissible limits. The concentration of fluoride in the water samples ranged between 0.5 and 8.2 mg/l and revealed that 80% of the water samples contain fluoride above the maximum permissible limit. Similarly, the concentrations of nitrate, hardness, calcium and magnesium in some samples were also more than the permissible level. Pearson's correlation coefficient among the parameters showed a positive correlation of fluoride with total hardness and calcium. It is inferred from the study that these water sources can be used for potable purpose only after prior treatment.

  3. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  4. Water fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máiréad Antoinette Harding

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Water fluoridation, is the controlled addition of fluoride to the water supply, with the aim of reducing the prevalence of dental caries. Current estimates suggest that approximately 370 million people in 27 countries consume fluoridated water, with an additional 50 million consuming water in which fluoride is naturally occurring. A pre-eruptive effect of fluoride exists in reducing caries levels in pit and fissure surfaces of permanent teeth and fluoride concentrated in plaque and saliva inhibits the demineralisation of sound enamel and enhances the remineralisation of demineralised enamel. A large number of studies conducted worldwide demonstrate the effectiveness of water fluoridation. Objections to water fluoridation have been raised since its inception and centre mainly on safety and autonomy. Systematic reviews of the safety and efficacy of water fluoridation attest to its safety and efficacy; dental fluorosis identified as the only adverse outcome. Conclusion: Water fluoridation is an effective safe means of preventing dental caries, reaching all populations, irrespective of the presence of other dental services. Regular monitoring of dental caries and fluorosis is essential particularly with the lifelong challenge which dental caries presents.

  5. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  6. Fluoride in dental erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, A C; Wiegand, A.; Rios, D.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Lussi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Dental erosion develops through chronic exposure to extrinsic/intrinsic acids with a low pH. Enamel erosion is characterized by a centripetal dissolution leaving a small demineralized zone behind. In contrast, erosive demineralization in dentin is more complex as the acid-induced mineral dissolution leads to the exposure of collagenous organic matrix, which hampers ion diffusion and, thus, reduces further progression of the lesion. Topical fluoridation inducing the formation of a protective l...

  7. Relationship between dental fluorosis, serum calcium level, and ERαgene methylation in children exposed to fluoride%氟暴露儿童 ERα基因甲基化水平与氟斑牙及血清钙水平的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科妍; 崔蕊蕊; 丁中; 崔留欣; 赵明旭; 程学敏; 巴月

    2015-01-01

    Aim:To explore the relationship between estrogen receptor α( ERα) gene methylation and children dental fluorosis,serum calcium level .Methods:A total of 174 primary school students aged 8~12 years, born and raised up in fluoride exposure areas of Henan Province were selected by cluster sampling , and were divided into normal group(n=85), mild group(n=53), as well as moderate and severe group (n=36) according to dental fluorosis degree .Dental fluorosis was identified with Dean method .Urine fluoride and serum calcium levels were determined using fluoride ion selective elec -trode and flame atomic absorption spectrometry methods , respectively .The methylation level of ERαgene promoter was de-tected by real-time PCR procedure .Results:The percentage of ERαgene methylation in the boys of moderate and severe group[(2.61 ±0.95)%] was significantly higher than those in normal group [(1.89 ±0.74)%] and mild group [(1.99 ±0.89)%](P<0.05).No significant difference in ERαgene methylation percentage was observed among the girls from different groups(F=0.585,P=0.559).Negative correlation between methylation level in ERαgene and serum calcium level of children was observed (r=-0.172,P=0.024).Conclusion:ERαgene methylation may be related with the degree of children dental fluorosis and this may have gender specificity .There is a negative correlation between the methylation level of ERαgene and serum calcium level .%目的:分析雌激素受体α( ERα)基因启动子区甲基化水平与儿童氟斑牙及血清钙水平的关系。方法:采用整群抽样的方法抽取河南省某县氟病区2所小学8~12岁儿童174人,采用Dean分级法对儿童氟斑牙进行分级,并依据病情分为正常组(n=85)、轻度组(n=53)和中重度组(n=36)。采用原子吸收分光光度法测定血清钙含量,采用氟离子选择电极法测定尿氟含量,采用real-time PCR法检测ERα基因启动子区甲基化率。结果:中

  8. Conjugated effects of fluoride and aluminium on rat whole blood zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium and copper level%氟铝联合对大鼠全血锌、铁、钙、镁、铜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫非; 夏曙华; 王世君; 喻茂娟; 崔华; 陈继荣; 曹华梅

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of excessive fluoride,aluminum on Zn,Fe,Ca,Mg,Cuin rat blood.Methods Forty eight SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups matched with their weights:control group,high aluminum group,high fluorine group and high fluorine-aluminum group.Aluminum content in their drinking water was 0,90,0,90 mg/L respectively.Fluorine content of their feed was 5.2,5.2,106.0,106.0 mg/kg and aluminum Was 6.8,6.8,19.7,19.7 mg/kg respectively.90 days later,the level of blood Zn,Fe,Ca,Mg, Cu Was detected by the atomic absorption spectrometry.Results Compared among these groups,Zn,Fe,Mg and Cu content of the whole blood had significant difierences(F=46.25,14.74,6.10,2.93,P0.05).Factorial analysis showed that excessive intake of aluminum could significantly decreased Zn,Fe,Mg content of the blood(F=42.66,5.41,7.04,P0.05).Compared with the control group [(131.30 ±13.86)μmol/L,(10.24 ±1.02),(1.71 ±0.19)mmol/L,(20.43 ±4.42)μmol/L],Zn content in the high aluminum group[(90.84±9.98)μmol/L]decreased significantly(P0.05).析因分析显示.高铝摄入明显降低全血含Zn、Fe、Mg量(F值分别为42.66、5.41、7.04,P0.05).与对照组全血含Zn、Fe、Mg、Cu量[(131.30±13.86)μmol/L,(10.24±1.02)、(1.71±0.19)mmol/L,(20.43±4.42)μmol/L]比较,高铝组全血含Zn量[(90.84±9.98)μmol/L]明显降低(P<0.05),高氟组全血含Zn、Fe、Mg量[(85.85±10.92)μmol/L,(8.49±0.68)、(1.52±0.13)mmol/L]也明显降低(P<0.05),高氟铝组全血含Zn、Fe、Mg、Cu量[(82.82±11.00)μmol/L,(8.16±0.45)、(1.46±0.09)mmol/L,(15.69±2.38)μmol/L]均明显降低(P<0.05);与高铝组[(9.43±1.09)mmool/L]比较,高氟铝组全血含Fe量[(8.16±0.45)mmol/L]明显降低(P<0.05).结论 过量氟能引起全血含Zn Fe、Mg、Cu量下降,过量铝能引起全血含Zn、Fe、Mg量降低;氟铝联合对大鼠全血含Ca量无影响,仅对全血含Zn量有明显交互作用.

  9. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is the responsibility of the homeowner to know and understand the quality of the water from their well. The U.S. ... or area. Additional information on testing well water quality in private wells ... do I need to know about fluoride and groundwater from a well? Fluoride ...

  10. Prediction for new magnetoelectric fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Nenert, G.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    We use symmetry considerations in order to predict new magnetoelectric fluorides. In addition to these magnetoelectric properties, we discuss which among these fluorides are the ones susceptible to present multiferroic properties. We emphasize that several materials exhibit ferromagnetic properties. This ferromagnetism should enhance the interplay between the magnetic and dielectric properties in these materials.

  11. WET FLUORIDE SEPARATION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-11-25

    The separation of U/sup 233/ from thorium, protactinium, and fission products present in neutron-irradiated thorium is accomplished by dissolving the irradiated materials in aqueous nitric acid, adding either a soluble fluoride, iodate, phosphate, or oxalate to precipltate the thorium, separating the precipltate from the solution, and then precipitating uranlum and protactinium by alkalizing the solution. The uranium and protactinium precipitate is removcd from the solution and dissolved in nitric acid. The uranyl nitrate may then be extracted from the acid solution by means of ether, and the protactinium recovered from the aqueous phase.

  12. Study of interaction of uranium, plutonium and rare earth fluorides with some metal oxides in fluoric salt melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of plutonium, uranium, and rare-earth elements (REE) fluorides with aluminium and calcium oxides in melts of eutectic mixture LiF-NaF has been studied at 800 deg C by X-ray diffraction method. It has been shown that tetravalent uranium and plutonium are coprecipitated by oxides as a solid solution UO2-PuO2. Trivalent plutonium in fluorides melts in not precipitated in the presence of tetravalent uranium which can be used for their separation. REE are precipitated from a salt melt by calcium oxide and are not precipitated by aluminium oxide. Thus, aluminium oxide in a selective precipitator for uranium and plutonium in presence of REE. Addition of aluminium fluoride retains trivalent plutonium and REE in a salt melt in presence of Ca and Al oxides. The mechanism of interacting plutonium and REE trifluorides with metal oxides in fluoride melts has been considered

  13. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  14. Fabrication and characterization of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanopowders via mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahrani, E. Mohammadi [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: emohamadizahrani@gmail.com

    2009-05-05

    The aim of this work was preparation and characterization of fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) nanopowders with different degrees of fluoridation via mechanical alloying (MA) method. FHA nanopowders with a chemical composition of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2-x}F{sub x} (where x values were selected equal to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) were synthesized using a mixture of appropriate amounts of calcium hydroxide, phosphorous pentoxide, and calcium fluoride powders by 6 h of mechanical alloying at 300 rpm, using eight balls with a diameter of 20 mm, and the ball-to-powder weight ratio equal to 35:1. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ICP-OES analysis techniques were utilized in order to evaluate phase composition, agglomerates size distribution, morphology and particle size, functional groups, and purity of synthesized FHA nanopowders. The FTIR result combined with the X-ray diffraction indicated that single phase of homogeneous FHA with the carbonate peaks in the FTIR spectrum could be prepared after 6 h MA. TEM photomicrograph revealed that obtained powder after 6 h of MA was composed of FHA nanoparticles (35-65 nm). The results of ICP-OES analysis illustrated that synthesized nanopowder could fulfill the requirement of ASTM F1185-88 to be used as a biomaterial.

  15. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  16. Study of relation between crystal structure and laser damage of calcium flouride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azumi, Minako; Nakahata, Eiichiro

    2010-11-01

    The artificially grown calcium fluoride is one of key materials for microlithography and used for excimer laser optics etc. Such calcium fluoride is required high laser durability and laser induced bulk damage threshold (LIDT). However, the artificially grown calcium fluoride is not a complete crystal, and there are a lot of sub-grain boundaries inside the crystal that have the possibility of causing degradation of laser durability and LIDT. Moreover, mechanical properties of calcium fluoride are different according to the crystal axis, therefore there is a possibility that mechanical properties influences LIDT. In this study, we examined the relation between crystal structure and LIDT. First, we examined the relation between the crystal axis and LITD of single crystal calcium fruoride. The relation between the crystallographic axis and LIDT that the laser enters was examined. The ArF excimer laser and the fifth high harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 213nm were used for the irradiation source of light. We prepared samples that optical axes were , and from the same crystal. From the result of this examination, when the laser irradiated in axis, LIDT was the highest. Next, we observed the damage with polarizing microscope and optical microscope. The result of this observation suggested that the laser damage of calcium fluoride was related to the crystal orientation. Finally, we investigated the damage mechanism of calcium fluoride. It is thought that the laser irradiation induced stress is relaxed most easily when the optical axis is . Therefore, LIDT of calcium fluoride is supposed to be highest when the optical axis is .

  17. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established

  18. Trabecular stress fractures during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnitzler, C.M.; Solomon, L.

    1985-10-01

    Joint pain and swelling in patients on fluoride therapy are generally attributed to rheumatic phenomena; however, their occurrence exclusively in the lower limbs suggests a mechanical cause. Eight patients receiving daily doses of sodium fluoride 1.09 mg/kg, elemental calcium 1 gm, and vitamin D 1000-2800 units for osteoporosis spontaneously developed 17 episodes of periarticular pain and swelling in the lower limbs. Radiographs taken within two weeks of the onset of pain were negative, but when repeated 4-6 weeks later showed features of healing stress fractures in the periarticular cancellous bone at the following sites: distal femur (2) proximal tibia (3), distal tibia (6), calcaneum (6). Bone scintigraphy was positive on five occasions, two before radiographic signs had appeared. (orig.).

  19. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  20. Effect of water fluoridation on the development of medial vascular calcification in uremic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • F− prevents calcification in vitro, cell death and trans-differentiation. • Prevention is independent of cellular activity, with IC50 of 8.7 μM, similar to PPi. • In rats with experimental CKD F− dramatically increases aortic calcification. • This effect seems to be mediated through deterioration of residual renal function. • F− alters the crystallization, composition and shape of calcium phosphates. - Abstract: Public water fluoridation is a common policy for improving dental health. Fluoride replaces the hydroxyls of hydroxyapatite, thereby improving the strength of tooth enamel, but this process can also occur in other active calcifications. This paper studies the effects of water fluoridation during the course of vascular calcification in renal disease. The effect of fluoride was studied in vitro and in vivo. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were calcified with 2 mM Pi for 5 days. Fluoride concentrations of 5–10 μM – similar to those found in people who drink fluoridated water – partially prevented calcification, death, and osteogene expression in vitro. The anticalcifying mechanism was independent of cell activity, matrix Gla protein, and fetuin A expressions, and it exhibited an IC50 of 8.7 μM fluoride. In vivo, however, fluoridation of drinking water at 1.5 mg/L (concentration recommended by the WHO) and 15 mg/L dramatically increased the incipient aortic calcification observed in rats with experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD, 5/6-nephrectomy), fed a Pi-rich fodder (1.2% Pi). Fluoride further declined the remaining renal function of the CKD animals, an effect that most likely overwhelmed the positive effect of fluoride on calcification in vitro. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that fluoride did not modify the Ca/P atomic ratio, but it was incorporated into the lattice of in vivo deposits. Fluoride also converted the crystallization pattern from plate to rode-like structures. In conclusion, while fluoride prevents

  1. Method of aluminium fluoride manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of aluminium fluoride is based on waste processing in uranium hexafluoride conversion to uranium oxides within the fuel cycle. The conversion is the stoichiometric conversion of uranium hexafluoride with aluminium nitrate to uranyl nitrate. This is extracted from the water phase by phosphoric acid trialkyl ester to an organic solvent and further processed. The discharge water phase is solidified by evaporation to solid aluminium fluoride and nitric acid. (M.S.)

  2. FLUORIDE TOXICITY – A HARSH REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandlapalli Pavani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many incidents of fluoride toxicity whether it is acute or chronic. Fluoride toxicity is an environmental hazard which arises from the upper layers of geological crust and is dissolved in water. Prolonged drinking of such water causes chronic fluoride toxicity. Use of fluoride containing compounds for various purposes such as dental products, metal, glass, refrigerator and chemical industries act as a source of fluoride poisoning and increase the risk of toxicity. This review reflects the deleterious effects of fluorides on various organs in the physiological system.

  3. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  4. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  5. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  6. Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, L; Maylin, G A

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence river, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973; considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant has been designated as the "major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island." Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall island cattle was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. Cows died at or were slaughtered after the third pregnancy. The deterioration of cows did not allow further pregnancies. Fluoride concentrations in ash of biopsied coccygeal vertebrae increased significantly with age and were dependent on distance from and direction to the aluminum plant. Fluoride in bone ash of a 7-month old-fetus exceeded 500 ppm; fluoride thus was passed transplacentally. Analyses of fluoride in ash of bones obtained at necropsy of cattle from 4 months of age to 4 to 5 years of age showed increased amounts with age. Cancellous bone retained far higher amounts than cortical bone, a reflection of the normally higher metabolic rate of cancellous bone. Concentrations exceeding 10,000 ppm fluoride were recorded in cancellous bone of a 4-to 5-year-old cow. The target cells for fluoride in chronic fluorosis were shown to be the ameloblasts, the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts and, in bone, primarily the resorbing osteocytes and also the osteoblasts. Atrophy and necrosis of the ameloblasts were responsible for enamel defects. The existing enamel showed brown discoloration from fluoride deposits. The pulp cells underwent fibrous and osseous metaplasia and necrosis of the ectopic bone occurred. The odontoblasts were atrophic and the dentin showed brown discoloration. The resorbing osteocytes were inactive and osteosclerosis resulted. This was especially pronounced in areas of normally great apposition, i.e. in the metaphyses. The epiphyseal

  7. Fluoride level in saliva after bonding orthodontic brackets with a fluoride containing adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogaard, B; Arends, J; Helseth, H; Dijkman, G; vanderKuijl, M

    1997-01-01

    The fluoride level in saliva is considered an important parameter in caries prevention. Elevation of the salivary fluoride level by a fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding adhesive would most likely be beneficial in the prevention of enamel caries. In this study, the fluoride level in saliva was me

  8. Fluoridering af drikkevandet i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Spliid, Henrik; Bruvo, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Første gang sammenhængen mellem caries (huller i tænderne) og fluoridindholdet i drikkevand blev diskuteret i vandværkskredse i Danmark var ved årsmødet i 1958. Her blev det oplyst, at fluorid i drikkevand beskytter mod caries, men man konstaterede også, at der nok ikke var stemning for fluorid......-tilsætning til drikkevandet (fluoridering). Siden da er emnet ikke taget op. Formålet med dette indlæg er at besvare spørgsmålene: 1. Er der behov for fluoridering af drikkevandet i Danmark? 2. Er der alternativer? Hvordan påvirker blødgøring af vand og andre vandbehandlingsmetoder dental caries hos børn og unge......? Som baggrund herfor vil vi redegøre for resultaterne af et netop afsluttet studium af sammenhængen mellem caries og drikkevandets sammensætning, specielt m.h.t. luoridindholdet og vandets calciumindhold (hårdhed). Undersøgelsen bekræfter, at fluorid i drikkevand i væsentlig grad beskytter mod caries...

  9. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF6 and UO2F2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF6, UO2F2, and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  11. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  12. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  13. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  14. Fluoride: its role in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló Tenuta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of research on fluoride and the recognition of its role as the cornerstone of dental caries reduction in the last fifty years, questions still arise on its use at community, self-applied and professional application levels. Which method of fluoride delivery should be used? How and when should it be used? How can its benefits be maximized and still reduce the risks associated with its use? These are only some of the challenging questions facing us daily. The aim of this paper is to present scientific background to understand the importance of each method of fluoride use considering the current caries epidemiological scenario, and to discuss how individual or combined methods can be used based on the best evidence available.

  15. Molten fluorides for nuclear applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie. Delpech

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of pyrochemistry is being increasingly acknowledged and becomes unavoidable in the nuclear field. Molten salts may be used for fuel processing and spent fuel recycling, for heat transfer, as a homogeneous fuel and as a breeder material in fusion systems. Fluorides that are stable at high temperature and under high neutron flux are especially promising. Analysis of several field cases reveals that corrosion in molten fluorides is essentially due to the oxidation of metals by uranium fluoride and/or oxidizing impurities. The thermodynamics of this process are discussed with an emphasis on understanding the mass transfer in the systems, selecting appropriate metallic materials and designing effective purification methods.

  16. Intergranular fracture of lithium fluoride-22 percent calcium fluoride hypereutectic salt at 800 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Subramanium V.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Substantial strain-hardening was noted during the initial stages of deformation in constant-velocity compression tests conducted on as-cast samples of the LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 hypereutectic salt at 800 K. The deformed specimens exhibited extensive grain-boundary cracking and cavitation, suggesting that such cracking, in conjunction with interfacial sliding, is important for cavity nucleation at grain boundaries and at the LiF-CaF2 interfaces. Cavity growth and interlinkage occur through the preferential failure of the weaker LiF phase.

  17. Fluoride in African groundwater: Occurrence and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasak, S.; Griffioen, J.; Feenstra, L.

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride in groundwater has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Fluoride bearing minerals, volcanic gases and various industrial and agricultural activities can contribute to high concentrations. High intake of fluoride from drinking water is the main cause of fluorosis and may lead to many othe

  18. METHOD OF PREPARING METAL FLUORIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.J.; Sheft, I.

    1959-08-11

    A method is presented for preparing the halides of elements which are relatively non-reactive with halogenating agents. The method involves reacting a mixture of an oxygen containing salt of a difficulty halogenated metal with an oxygen containing salt of an easily halogenated metal with a halogenating agent. Accordingly plutonium tetrafluoride is produced by reacting a mixture of plutonium dioxide and uranium octaoxide with bromine trifluoride. The reaction proceeds smoothly at moderate temperatures and the resulting plutonium trifluoride may be readily separated from many impurities which form volatile fluorides by volatilizing these volatile fluorides from the reaction chamber.

  19. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda; Katsushi, Okuyama; Hiroko, Yamamoto; Hisanori, Komatsu; Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato; Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials ["MS coats F" (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials ("hybrid coats 2" [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8-4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  20. A preliminary investigation of lithogenic and anthropogenic influence over fluoride ion chemistry in the groundwater of the southern coastal city, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S

    2015-03-01

    A total of 72 groundwater samples were collected from open wells and boreholes during pre- and post-monsoon periods in Tuticorin. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major cations, and anions in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The fluoride concentration was analyzed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatography. The geographic information system-based spatial distribution map of different major elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 9.3. The fluoride concentration ranges between 0.16 mg/l and 4.8 mg/l during pre-monsoon and 0.2-3.2 mg/l during post-monsoon. Alkaline pH, low calcium concentrations, high groundwater temperatures, and semiarid climatic conditions of the study area may cause elevated fluoride concentrations in groundwater, by increasing the solubility of fluoride-bearing formations (fluoride). Linear trend analysis on seasonal and annual basis clearly depicted that fluoride pollution in the study area is increasing significantly. Fluoride concentrations showed positive correlations with those of Na(+) and HCO3 (-) and negative correlations with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The alkaline waters were saturated with calcite in spite of the low Ca(2+) concentrations. Northwestern parts of the study area are inherently enriched with fluorides threatening several ecosystems. The saturation index indicates that dissolution and precipitation contribute fluoride dissolution along with mixing apart from anthropogenic activities. PMID:25666649

  1. Fluoride remediation using floating macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Six aquatic macrophytes, such as Pistia stratiotes, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphoides indica, Lemna major, Azolla pinnata,and Eichhornia crassipes were considered for remove fluoride from aqueous solution. Five different concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 100 ppm of fluoride solution were taken in 1 L plastic container. Fixed weight (20 g of macrophytes along with 500 ml fluoride solution was taken in each plastic container for 72 hours observation. Results demonstrated all the macrophytes show highest fluoride removal during 24 h to 48 h, but after 72 h their efficiency reduced drastically. The species N. indica showed better removal efficiency than other experimental macrophytes. In general, pigment measurement data indicated higher concentration at 72 h. However, Pistia sp. showed higher concentration of pigmentation at intermediate time interval (48 h. Higher level of dry weight to fresh weight ratio was recorded for L. major and A. pinnata at all concentrations, excepting at 10 ppm. In addition, all macrophytes showed lower RGR at higher concentration. Isotherm study indicated that macrophyte C. demersum is a good fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm whereas L. major with Langmuir isotherm during 24 hours.

  2. Special Report: Fluoridation of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hileman, Bette

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the controversy regarding water fluoridation in the United States during the last 50 years. Discusses the current status; benefits; and health risks including skeletal fluorosis, kidney disease, hypersensitivity, mutagenic effects, birth defects, and cancer. Presents statistics and anecdotal accounts. (CW)

  3. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  4. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  5. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  6. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencova Erika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake

  7. Changes in mesophyll element distribution and phytometabolite contents involved in fluoride tolerance of the arid gypsum-tolerant plant species Atractylis serratuloides Sieber ex Cass. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Asma; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Rabier, Jacques; Salducci, Marie-Dominique; El Kadri, Lefi; Tonetto, Alain; Tatoni, Thierry; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Atractylis serratuloides is an abundant native spiny species that grows in the surroundings of superphosphate factories in Tunisia. This plant species is adapted to arid environments and tolerates a high level of fluoride pollution in soils. The aim of this study was to better understand the physiological mechanisms of fluoride tolerance of this species, comparing the fluoride-contaminated sites of Gabes and Skhira with the reference site of Smara. Results demonstrated the involvement of leaf element and phytometabolite balances in the in situ response of A. serrulatoides to fluoride. Calcium, sulphur and magnesium were differently distributed between the sites of Gabes and Smara in all plant organs. No specific tissue fluorine accumulation in root, stem and leaf, even in the most contaminated site at Gabes, was detected by EDAX mapping. Lower anthocyan and flavonol levels but enhanced nitrogen balance index were found in A. serrulatoides leaves from Gabes compared to the two other sites. A. serratuloides appeared as a fluoride excluder and its tolerance involved calcium interactions with fluoride. Moreover, an occurrence of dark septate endophytes and arbuscular mycorhizal fungi in root systems of A. serratuloides was reported for the first time, and these symbioses were present but low at all sites. We suggest the use of this plant species for fluoride-polluted soil stabilization. PMID:25510616

  8. Bioactivity of Sodium Free Fluoride Containing Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The bioactivity of a series of fluoride-containing sodium-free calcium and strontium phosphosilicate glasses has been tested in vitro. Glasses with high fluoride content were partially crystallised to apatite and other fluoride-containing phases. The bioactivity study was carried out in Tris and SBF buffers, and apatite formation was monitored by XRD, FTIR and solid state NMR. Ion release in solutions has been measured using ICP-OES and fluoride-ion selective electrode. The results show that glasses with low amounts of fluoride that were initially amorphous degraded rapidly in Tris buffer and formed apatite as early as 3 h after immersion. The apatite was identified as fluorapatite by 19F MAS-NMR after 6 h of immersion. Glass degradation and apatite formation was significantly slower in SBF solution compared to Tris. On immersion of the partially crystallised glasses, the fraction of apatite increased at 3 h compared to the amount of apatite prior to the treatment. Thus, partial crystallisation of the glasses has not affected bioactivity significantly. Fast dissolution of the amorphous phase was also indicated. There was no difference in kinetics between Tris and SBF studies when the glass was partially crystallised to apatite before immersion. Two different mechanisms of apatite formation for amorphous or partially crystallised glasses are discussed.

  9. Fluoride contamination in the lakes region of the Ethiopian rift: origin, mechanism and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closed lake basins occupying the Main Ethiopian Rift are characterised by unique hydrogeological conditions which have resulted in very high contents of fluoride associated with highly concentrated sodium bicarbonate waters. The origin, mechanism and evolution of fluoride contents have been examined successively by studying (i) the reservoirs which provide this element in solution, (ii) the hydrochemical context, and (iii) the hydrological evolution which modifies the concentrations. Groundwaters of the ignimbrites present low values compared to those of the lacustrine sediments which can provide contents 5 to 10 times greater. The non equilibrium initial stage between the alkalinity and the calcium, derived from weathering of volcanic rocks, is responsible for the specific chemical evolution and the very high fluoride values. Furthermore, in the thermal waters, the high temperatures (especially those up to 100 deg. C) and the presence of large amounts of CO2 coming from depth increase significantly the fluoride contents. Finally, the fluoride concentrations can change depending on the interrelation of ancient or present surface waters and groundwaters (mixing) and on the hydrological balance (concentration and dilution processes). (author)

  10. The effect of bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrices on human plaque pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Haskins, J C; Gaffar, A; Volpe, A R; Bánóczy, J; Gintner, Z; Dombi, C

    1997-01-01

    The acidogenic response in dental plaque after rinsing with sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice slurries was studied using three intra-oral models. In the first model, resting plaque pH was monitored in mesiobuccal plaque on upper molars and premolars in six healthy subjects after abstinence from normal oral hygiene for three days. These measurements were followed by a three-minute rinse with 10% sucrose and, following a two-minute interval, a three-minute rinse with a test dentifrice slurry. After the test dentifrice rinse, pH was monitored at regular intervals up to 60 minutes. Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of stimulated saliva were also determined. Changes in resting pH, plaque pH minima, and maximum pH drop were calculated. A clear elevation in the resting pH was observed after bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinses, and a significant increase was obtained in the pH minima. The smallest pH drop also was found after treatment with the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinse treatment (p antimony pH electrodes was used to study the effects of rinsing with increasing concentrations of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate solutions, and with a fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate. The response to these treatments was found to be rapid, dose-dependent, and was the greatest from the sodium bicarbonate. A third model used 24 subjects to assess the effects of sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice on plaque pH before and after a glucose challenge. The use of the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice resulted in significantly less measurable plaque acid than the fluoride dentifrice treatment. Collectively, these results indicate bicarbonate in dentifrice to be an effective buffering agent for stabilizing the pH and neutralizing plaque acids in dental plaque. PMID:9586535

  11. In vitro assessment of an experimental coat applied over fluoride varnishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The time of contact between the product and enamel surface is important in ensuring the efficacy of fluoride varnishes. Thus, some alternatives could avoid fluoride loss to saliva and improve the anticariogenic action of the product. This study evaluated the effect of an experimental coat on the anticariogenic action of fluoride varnishes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel bovine blocks were selected by evaluating surface microhardness and randomized into five groups (n=24: placebo, DuraphatTM, DuraphatTM with coat, DuofluoridTM and DuofluoridTM with coat. Twelve blocks from each group were used to analyze calcium fluoride (CaF2 formed on enamel after treatment. The other 12 blocks were subjected to pH cycling for 7 days. The varnishes were kept on enamel for 6 h. Next, the percentage change of surface microhardness (%SMHC and mineral loss (ΔZ were calculated. CaF2 retained and fluoride present in the pH-cycled solutions were also measured. RESULTS: The use of the coat did not decrease %SMHC and ΔZ, but all fluoride varnishes had better results when compared to the placebo (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis, respectively. The values from CaF2 formed were higher compared to the values of CaF2 retained (non-paired t test, p<0.05. There was a trend to decrease the amount of F in the solutions at the end of pH cycling (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Although the experimental coat increased the formation of CaF2 on the enamel surface, it did not significantly improve the anticariogenic action of fluoride varnishes.

  12. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniela Correia Cavalcante; Maltz, Marisa; Hashizume, Lina Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four treatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  13. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  14. Contamination of fluoride in groundwater and its effect on human health: a case study in hard rock aquifers of Siddipet, Telangana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimha, A.; Sudarshan, V.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation has been carried out in the granitic terrain of Siddipet area, Medak district, Telangana State, India with an aim to understand the distribution of fluoride in the groundwater and to understand the relationship of fluoride with other major ions, and also to identify the high fluoride-bearing groundwater zones. 104 groundwater samples were analyzed in the study area for fluoride and other major ions like calcium, magnesium, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and nitrate in addition to pH and electrical conductivity. The studies revealed that the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is ranging from 0.2 to 2.2 mg L-1 with a mean of 1.1 mg L-1. Nearly 22 % of groundwater has more than the permissible limit of fluoride (1.5 mg L-1), which is responsible for the endemic dental fluorosis in the area concerned. Geochemical classification of groundwater shows that Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3-Na are the dominant hydrochemical facies. Gibbs diagram shows rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance, which are responsible for the change in the quality of water in the hard rock aquifer of the study area. The groundwater in villages and its environs are affected by fluoride contamination, and consequently majority of the population living in these villages suffer from dental fluorosis. Hence, they are advised to consume drinking water which has less than 1.5 mg L-1 fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  15. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, D A; Schilke, P; Phillips, T G; Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2 - 1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of 3E-10 relative to H2. If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for ~ 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously...

  16. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts containing fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Guidone, Stefano; Songis, Olivier; Falivene, Laura; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya; Jacobsen, Heiko; Cavallo, Luigi; Cazin, Catherine S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors gratefully acknowledge the EC through the 7th framework program (grant CP-FP 211468-2 EUMET), the Royal Society (University Research Fellowship to CSJC) for financial support. The reaction of the ruthenium complex cis-Caz-1 with silver fluoride affords the first example of an active olefin metathesis pre-catalyst containing fluoride ligands. The cis geometry of the precursor complex is key to the successful fluoride exchange reaction. Computational studies highlight the stabili...

  17. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  18. FLUORIDATION CHEMISTRY: EQUILIBRIA AND KINETICS OF FLUORIDE AND FLUORO-COMPLEXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common fluoridating agents used by major American waterworks are hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and sodium hexxafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6). According to the 1992 Water Fluoridation Census where 10,002 utilities responded affirmatively to fluoridating their water, 59% ...

  19. Effect of titanium tetrafluoride, amine fluoride and fluoride varnish on enamel erosion in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A; Ruben, JL; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of 1 and 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) gels, amine fluoride (AmF) 1 and 0.25% and a fluoride varnish (FP) on the prevention of dental erosion. Two experimental groups served as controls, one with no pretreatment and another one pre-treated with a fluoride

  20. PRECIPITATION OF URANIUM PEROXIDE OF LOW FLUORIDE CONTENT FROM SOLUTIONS CONTAINING FLUORIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.J.; Clark, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    S>A method is described for the preparation of fluoride free uraniunn peroxide precipitates, even though the solution from which the precipitation is made is contaminated with fluorides. This is accomplished by add ing aluminum ions to the solution, where they complex any fluoride present and prevent its precipitation with the uramum peroxide.

  1. High fluoride exposure in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, V A; Gitelman, H J

    1990-04-01

    The observation of higher plasma flouride levels in our hemodialysis (HD) patients than our continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients (4.0 +/- 0.5 mumol/L [n = 17] v 2.5 +/- 0.3 mumol/L [n = 17], P less than 0.005) prompted an evaluation of fluoride metabolism during HD. We found that serum fluoride was completely ultrafiltrable across cuprophane membranes (99% +/- 4%) and that HD produced acute changes in plasma fluoride levels that correlated well with the fluoride gradient between plasma and dialysis fluid at the start of dialysis. Our HD fluids contained significantly higher fluoride concentrations than were present in commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis fluid. Our fluids are prepared from fluoridated tap water that is purified by reverse osmosis (RO). We conclude that the different concentrations of fluoride in our dialysis fluids account for the differences in the plasma flouride concentrations between our dialysis groups. Since many HD units rely on RO systems to purify fluoridated tap water, it is likely that many HD patients are being exposed inadvertently to increased concentrations of fluoride.

  2. Fluoride in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fluorosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y H; Wu, S S

    1988-01-01

    The CSF fluoride level of individuals drinking water with normal fluoride content and of patients with endemic fluorosis were studied. For the purpose of studying the relationship between the dynamic equilibrium of the CSF fluoride and other body fluids, urine and blood fluoride were examined simultaneously. Fluoride was revealed in every CSF sample of the control group and its mean value was lower than that of the blood. The CSF fluoride concentration of patients with fluorosis was slightly ...

  3. 76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... that provide fluoride now include mouthrinses, fluoride supplements, and professionally applied... fluoride toothpaste (if swallowed) and fluoride supplements, have become available. Fluoride intake from... pharyngeal cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries: a report on recommendations of the Task...

  4. Effect of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents containing fluoride or calcium on tensile strength of human enamel Efeito de agentes clareadores à base de peróxido de carbamida contendo fluoreto e cálcio na resistência à tração do esmalte humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Giannini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents (CPG containing fluoride (CF or calcium (CCa on the ultimate tensile strength of enamel (UTS. METHOD: A "cube-like" resin composite structure was built-up on the occlusal surface of twenty-two sound third molars to facilitate specimen preparation for the micro-tensile test. The restored teeth were serially sectioned in buccal-lingual direction in slices with approximate 0.7 mm thickness. Each slice was trimmed with a fine diamond bur to reduce the buccal, internal slope enamel of the cusps to a dumb-bell shape with a cross-sectional area at the "neck" of less than 0.5 mm². The samples were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=11. The control groups were not submitted to the bleaching regimen. Specimens were treated with 10% CPG gel or with 10% CPG formulations containing CF (0.2% and 0.5% or CCa (0.05% and 0.2%. Bleached groups received the application of the 10% CPGs for 6 hours/day at 37º C, during 14 consecutive days and were stored in artificial saliva (AS or 100% relative humidity (RH among each application. After bleaching, specimens were tested with the microtensile method at 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (5%. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between groups stored in AS or RH. Specimens treated with CF or CCa presented similar UTS as unbleached control groups. CONCLUSION: Either 10% CPG formulations containing CF or CCa can preserve the UTS after bleaching regimen.OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de agents clareadores à base de peróxido de carbamida (CPG contendo fluoreto (CF e cálcio (CCa na resistência à tração do esmalte (UTS. MÉTODO: Um bloco de resina composta foi confeccionada na superfície oclusal de vinte e dois terceiros molars hígidos para facilitar a preparação dos espécimes para o teste de micro-tração. Os dentes restaurados foram

  5. Presence and Origin of Fluoride in the Complex Terminal Water of Ouargla Basin (Northern Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed E. Nezli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The underground waters in the oriental regions of the Algerian Sahara, present real chemical quality problems. Their content in fluorides always exceeds the limit of the recommended levels. That is 0.8 mg L-1, according to the maximum temperature in the region. Combined to a high salinity, it affects the health of the population living around the region. The present work, deals with the presence of fluoride and the geochemical origin in the Complex Terminal aquifer of Ouargla, rarely examined in the Algerian Sahara. Approach: Is based on the following aspects: Sampling and physico-chemicals analysis of water, statistical treatment of the physico-chemical water parameters and simulation to natural and isotherm 25°C evaporation of water parameters. Results: The results show the presence of fluoride in the studied water. The rates vary between 1 and 2 mg L-1. The calculation of water saturation index in relation with the preponderant minerals, using the thermodynamic model ‹‹phreeqci›› reveals a sensitivity of carbonate minerals towards precipitation and dissolution of evaporitic minerals and clayey fluorides as well. Conclusions/Recommendations: The increasing alkalinity of water in contact with the aquifer during long periods of stay decreases the chemical activity of calcium and helps with alteration of clayey minerals and fluoride as a necessary condition for a possible fluorite mineralization. Knowing the origin of that fluoridation leads to possible solutions, through the optimization of a water treatment meets the standards.

  6. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  7. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  8. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  9. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  10. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  11. Geochemistry of fluoride in the Black Creek aquifer system of Horry and Georgetown Counties, South Carolina--and its physiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Allen L.

    1980-01-01

    High concentrations of fluoride in ground-water supplies in certain areas of Horry and Georgetown Counties, S.C., have been the cause of dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) among persons who have lived in these areas and have ingested the water as children. Geochemical evidence and laboratory experiments demonstrate that fluorapatite in the form of fossil shark teeth is the source of fluoride, and that the fluoride ions are liberated to the ground-water system through anion exchange, rather than by dissolution. Calcite-cemented quartz sand in the upper third of the Black Creek Formation of Late Cretaceous age contains the fossil shark teeth. As ground water progresses downdip, the calcite matrix dissolves and hydrolyzes, releasing bicarbonate, hydroxyl, and calcium ions. The calcium ions are immediately exchanged for sodium ions adsorbed on sodium-rich clays, and the bicarbonate ions accumulate. As the shark teeth are exposed, the hydroxyl ions in solution exchange with fluoride ions on fluorapatite surfaces. Experiments using fossil shark teeth show that sodium chloride in solution inhibits the rate of exchange of fluoride ions from tooth surfaces for hydroxyl ions in solution. The amount of fluoride removed from water and exchanged for hydroxyl ions in the presence of pure hydroxylapatite (hog teeth) was greater in saline water than in freshwater.

  12. A comparative assessment of fluoride concentration available in saliva using daily prescribed topical fluoride agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Manjit; Tewari, Amrit; Chawla, H. S.; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the availability of fluoride concentration in saliva following the use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in 7–15 year-old school children of Chandigarh (n = 90). The children were nonfluoride users. Baseline saliva samples were collected. The subjects were exposed to two test agents, i.e., fluoride mouthrinse (0.05%, 225 ppm F) and dentifrice (1000 ppm F) for 7 days and on the day 8, saliva samples were collected over a 20 hrs period. Wash out period of 31/2 months was there before the subjects were exposed to the second test agent. Fluoride in saliva was estimated using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Written informed consent was taken. Statistical Analysis: Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was applied to test the normality of the variables. Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the fluoride concentration available in saliva at respective time intervals subsequent to use of the two test agents. Results: Fluoride concentration was elevated in saliva compared to baseline for both the test agents. Fluoride mouthrinse (0.05% sodium fluoride [NaF]) and dentifrice (1000 ppm monofluorophosphate [MFP]) showed a biphasic clearance. Peak in saliva occurred at 15 mins postuse. Night-time use resulted in higher concentration of fluoride in saliva compared to baseline. There was statistically significantly higher fluoride concentration available in saliva for the dentifrice at 5 hrs, 10 hrs, and 20 hrs postuse (P fluoride concentration in saliva remained elevated to a level of 0.12 ppm for mouthrinse and 0.14 ppm for dentifrice compared to baseline (0.03 ppm) up to 20 hrs postuse. The therapeutic window though not yet established but suggested is 0.1–1 ppm for prevention of demineralization, indicating that daily use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice provides fluoride concentration in saliva for the prevention of demineralization. PMID:27433050

  13. Determination of fluoride content in drinking water and tea infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric analysis of fluoride content (as F- ion in solutions by using fluoride ion-selective electrode is simple, reliable and cheap. Very small concentrations of fluoride-ions (to 10-6 mol/dm3 can be determined by fluoride selective electrode, with regulation of ion strength of a solution and control of concentration of hydroxide ions and interfering ions of metals. The influence of pH and complexing ions of metals can be successfully regulated by the TISAB solution and by preserving pH value in the range from 5.00 to 7.00. The content of fluorides in the samples can be determined by the method of direct potentiometer, and in the case of very low concentration by standard addition method. In this paper it was analyzed the determination of fluoride ions concentration in bottled mineral waters and water from Belgrade plumbing in two Belgrade districts (Palilula and Novi Beograd and in tea, by using the fluoride selective electrode. It was determined that the content of fluoride ions in bottled mineral water significantly differs from values given on declaration, and that content of fluoride ions varies over a period of time. The content of fluoride ions in water from plumbing in two Belgrade districts at the time of analysis was significantly increased and exceeded values given in Regulation for drinking water quality. The received results from the analysis of fluorides in teas show that fluorides exist in teas in different concentrations. There are also differences between the same kinds of tea, which is noted with mint (Mentha piperitae folium, as a consequence of differences between soils where it was planted. As taking of fluorides, according to World Health Organisation recommendation (WHO, is limited in the range from 2 to 4 mg per day, it is necessary to give the content of fluorides on all products that are used in human consumption.

  14. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malata-Chirwa, Charles David

    This research work aimed at characterising composition, hydration and physical properties of fluoride cement, by studying samples of the cement obtained from Malawi, and comparing them to ordinary Portland cement. By confirming the suitable characteristics of fluoride cement through this work, the results of the research work provide a good basis for the wider adoption of fluoride cement as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, especially in developing economies. Numerous accounts have been cited regarding the production and use of fluoride cement. Since there have not been conclusive agreement as to its properties, this study was limited to the theories of successful incorporation of fluoride compounds in the manufacture of fluoride cement. Hence, the properties and characteristics reported in this study relate to the cement currently manufactured in Malawi, and, on a comparative basis only, to that manufactured in other parts of the world. Samples of the fluoride cement used in the study were obtained by synthetic manufacture of the cement using common raw materials for the manufacture of fluoride cement that is limestone, silica sand, and fluorspar. These samples were subjected to several comparative tests used to characterise cements including examination under x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tests for setting time and compressive strength. Under similar laboratory conditions, it was possible to prove that fluoride cement hardens more rapidly than ordinary Portland cement. Also observed during the experimental work is that fluoride cement develops higher compressive strengths than ordinary Portland cement. The hardening and setting times are significantly different between the two cements. Also the nature of the hydration products, that is the microstructural development is significantly different in the two cements. The differences brought about between the two cements are because of the presence of fluorine during the clinkering

  15. Diethylenetriaminium hexafluoridotitanate(IV fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lhoste

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C6H21N4[TiF6]F, was synthesized by the reaction of TiO2, tris(2-aminoethylamine, HF and ethanol at 463 K in a microwave oven. The crystal structure consists of two crystallographically independent [TiF6]2− anions, two fluoride anions and two triply-protonated tris(2-aminoethylamine cations. The Ti atoms are coordinated by six F atoms within slightly distorted octahedra. The anions and cations are connected by intermolecular N—H...F hydrogen bonds.

  16. Method of treating fluoride contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.K.; Kakaria, V.K.

    1988-04-05

    A method for treating spent aluminum smelting potliner material containing fluoride contaminants is described which comprises: adding silica to the material to form a mixture thereof; elevating the temperature of the mixture within the range of 1,000/sup 0/ to 1,700/sup 0/C. to form a slag; providing sufficient silica in the mixture and forming the slag in the presence of sufficient water for pyrohydrolysis conditions resulting in the volatilization of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants mostly in the form of hydrogen fluoride; and cooling the slag remaining after volatilizatiion of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants to produce an insoluble silicate glass-residue containing any remaining portion of the fluoride contaminants in an immobile state.

  17. In vitro study of demineralization resistance and fluoride retention in dental enamel irradiated with Er,Cr: YSGG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to establish irradiation conditions of Er,Cr:YSGG laser (λ of 2.79 μm) which could propitiate changes on human dental enamel and increase its resistance to demineralization, when associated or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Fluences of 2,8 J/cm2, 5,6 J/cm2 e 8,5 J/cm2 were selected; they were associated or not with previous application of a photo absorber (coal paste) and then APF was applied or not after laser irradiation. In a first step, the morphological findings, the surface temperatures, and the pupal temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiation. After that, the treated samples were submitted to a a ten-day pH-cycling model. After producing the incipient white-spots lesions, the following aspects were evaluated: the mineral loss, the loosely bound fluoride and the firmly bound fluoride. All the demineralizing and remineralizing pH-cycling solutions were evaluated with respect to their calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorous (Pi) and fluoride (F-) concentrations. The data had their normality and homogeneity distribution statistically evaluated, and it was chosen an appropriated statistical test for each performed analysis according to the obtained results, considering 5% significant level. The fluences selected for this study created ablated surfaces; the fluences of 5.6 J/cm2 and 8.5 J/cm2 promoted increments in surface temperature above 110 deg C. The intrapupal temperature changes revealed that laser irradiation did not increase the pulpal temperatures above the critical threshold for induction of pulpitis. The coal paste did not promote any changes on surface morphology or in the intrapulpal temperature changes; however, this paste increased the surface temperatures during laser irradiation. Only laser irradiation at 8.5 J/cm2 was able to decrease the mineral loss when compared to the no-treatment group; although the association of coal paste + laser at 2.8 J/cm2 + APF application presented the

  18. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F(-)) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F(-) ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF2) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F(-) incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential.

  19. Arsenic and fluoride removal from groundwater by electrocoagulation using a continuous filter-press reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Athziri; Nava, José L; Coreño, Oscar; Rodríguez, Israel; Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated simultaneous arsenic and fluoride removal from ground water by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum as the sacrificial anode in a continuous filter-press reactor. The groundwater was collected at a depth of 320 m in the Bajío region in Guanajuato Mexico (arsenic 43 µg L(-1), fluoride 2.5 mg L(-1), sulfate 89.6 mg L(-1), phosphate 1.8 mg L(-1), hydrated silica 112.4 mg L(-1), hardness 9.8 mg L(-1), alkalinity 31.3 mg L(-1), pH 7.6 and conductivity 993 µS cm(-1)). EC was performed after arsenite was oxidized to arsenate by addition of 1 mg L(-1) hypochlorite. The EC tests revealed that at current densities of 4, 5 and 6 mA cm(-2) and flow velocities of 0.91 and 1.82 cm s(-1), arsenate was abated and residual fluoride concentration satisfies the WHO standard (CF silicates of calcium and magnesium. Arsenate removal by EC involves adsorption on aluminum flocs, while fluoride replaces a hydroxyl group from aluminum aggregates. The best EC was obtained at 4 mA cm(-2) and 1.82 cm s(-1) with electrolytic energy consumption of 0.34 KWh m(-3). PMID:26583293

  20. Arsenic and fluoride removal from groundwater by electrocoagulation using a continuous filter-press reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Athziri; Nava, José L; Coreño, Oscar; Rodríguez, Israel; Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated simultaneous arsenic and fluoride removal from ground water by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum as the sacrificial anode in a continuous filter-press reactor. The groundwater was collected at a depth of 320 m in the Bajío region in Guanajuato Mexico (arsenic 43 µg L(-1), fluoride 2.5 mg L(-1), sulfate 89.6 mg L(-1), phosphate 1.8 mg L(-1), hydrated silica 112.4 mg L(-1), hardness 9.8 mg L(-1), alkalinity 31.3 mg L(-1), pH 7.6 and conductivity 993 µS cm(-1)). EC was performed after arsenite was oxidized to arsenate by addition of 1 mg L(-1) hypochlorite. The EC tests revealed that at current densities of 4, 5 and 6 mA cm(-2) and flow velocities of 0.91 and 1.82 cm s(-1), arsenate was abated and residual fluoride concentration satisfies the WHO standard (CF < 1.5 mg L(-1)). Spectrometric analyses performed on aluminum flocs indicated that these are mainly composed of aluminum-silicates of calcium and magnesium. Arsenate removal by EC involves adsorption on aluminum flocs, while fluoride replaces a hydroxyl group from aluminum aggregates. The best EC was obtained at 4 mA cm(-2) and 1.82 cm s(-1) with electrolytic energy consumption of 0.34 KWh m(-3).

  1. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

  2. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride... the purpose of this section, poly(vinyl fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by...

  3. Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

  4. Fluoridation and Defluoridation. Training Module 2.230.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with fluoridation and fluoride feeding equipment. Enclosed are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. The module considers the principles and purposes of fluoridation, methods of feeding fluoride,…

  5. Evaluation of toxic action of fluorides on agricultural plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Grishko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of potassium fluoride, sodium fluoride and ammonium fluoride for pea, maize, oat and onion was studied. It was found that the level of the toxic influence had grown with increase of fluoride concentration in the media of growth (from 5 to 100 mg of F–/l. By increase of the toxic influence the agricultural crops are disposed in the following row: oat < onion < maize < pea. Ammonium fluoride demonstrates lesser toxicity, than potassium and sodium fluorides. Under low concentrations of fluoride compounds (5 and 10 mg of F–/l stimulation of roots growth is noted only for the oat.

  6. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  7. A fluoride release-adsorption-release system applied to fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suljak, J P; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    1996-09-01

    This investigation compared the initial fluoride release and release following refluoridation of three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Photac-Fil Applicap, Vitremer, and Fuji II LC) and a new polyacid-modified resin composite material (Dyract). After daily flouride release was measured for 8 days, specimens were refluoridated in 1,000-ppm solutions of fluoride ion for 10 minutes and fluoride release was measured for 5 days. Two further 5-day refluoridation-release periods were carried out. All materials released fluoride initially. Photac released the most; Dyract released the least. Initial release was greatest over the first few days. All materials released significantly more fluoride for 24 to 48 hours after refluoridation. Less fluoride was released with each successive refluoridation for the three glass-ionomer cements. The release from the Dyract compomer remained at a comparatively constant and significantly lower level following each refluoridation.

  8. A study of fluoride groundwater occurrence in Nathenje, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msonda, K. W. M.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Fabiano, E.

    A study was carried out to determine fluoride concentration in groundwaters of Nathenje area situated in Lilongwe District in the central region of Malawi. Water samples were collected from 176 boreholes and shallow wells during different months in 2001 and 2002. Samples were then analysed for fluoride by using a fluoride electrode and an ion selective meter. The results showed that fluoride concentrations for the rainy season varied from fluorosis in areas where the fluoride concentration was high.

  9. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  10. The effect of fluoride impregnated dental floss on enamel fluoride uptake in vitro and streptococcus mutans colonization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaet, R; Wei, S H

    1977-01-01

    The conclusions reached from this investigation can be summarized as follows: Fluoride can be incorporated into unwaxed dental floss. Placement of the fluoride impregnated dental floss in acid-buffer solution results in the release of most of the fluoride in the floss. Interproximal surfaces of teeth treated in vitro with fluoride impregnated dental floss acquired significantly (approximately three fold) more enamel fluoride than those treated with plain dental floss. The number of in vivo interproximal areas harboring Streptococcus mutans was reduced significantly after treatment with fluoride impregnated dental floss. Further studies should be done to establish the biological, physiochemical, manufacturing, and practical aspects of fluoride impregnated dental floss.

  11. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (pfluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure.

  12. The Adsorption of Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluoride Ion on a Water Treatment Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Taek-Keun; Saeki, Kazutoshi

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen fluoride (HF) and fluoride ion (F^-) adsorption potentials of a water treatment sludge were investigated in a batch mode as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentrations, and other co-existing anions. The maximum removal of total fluoride was apparently observed at pH 5.1, whereas HF or F^- adsorptions showed nearly 100% in pH range from 2.2 to 4.3. The HF or F^- adsorption by the water treatment sludge has occurred rapidly during the initial 5.60 min and therea...

  13. Determination of fluoride content in drinking water and tea infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Novaković Ivana D.

    2007-01-01

    Potentiometric analysis of fluoride content (as F- ion) in solutions by using fluoride ion-selective electrode is simple, reliable and cheap. Very small concentrations of fluoride-ions (to 10-6 mol/dm3) can be determined by fluoride selective electrode, with regulation of ion strength of a solution and control of concentration of hydroxide ions and interfering ions of metals. The influence of pH and complexing ions of metals can be successfully regulated by the TISAB solution and by preservin...

  14. Determination of trace contaminants of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in fluorides of alkaline metals by inversion voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of determination of n·10-5-n·10-6% trace contaminants of copper, lead, cadmium and zink by means of inversion voltammetry method in fluorides of calcium and lithium is elaborated. Researches are conducted with application of mercury-graphite electrodes on polarographic analyzer and oscillograph polarography. The influence of conditions of electrochemical concentration on characteristics of anode peaks of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc is studied.

  15. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries

  16. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda, E-mail: matsuda@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Katsushi, Okuyama [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiroko, Yamamoto [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University (Japan); Hisanori, Komatsu [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA (Japan); Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  17. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

  18. Fluoride release and uptake capacities of fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Nuray; Turgut, Melek D

    2003-01-01

    Many fluoride-releasing dental materials are being sold on the basis of their cariostatic properties. However, the amount fluoride release of these materials is still uncertain. This study investigated the fluoride release and uptake characteristics of four flowable resin composites (Heliomolar Flow, Tetric Flow, Wave, Perma Flo), one flowable compomer (Dyract flow), one conventional glass ionomer cement mixed with two different powder/liquid ratios (ChemFlex Syringeable and ChemFlex Condensable), one packable resin composite (SureFil), one ion-releasing composite (Ariston pHc) and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer). Seven discs (6-mm diameter and 1.5-mm height) were prepared for each material. Each disc was immersed in 3.5 ml of deionized water within a plastic vial and stored at 37 degrees C. The deionized water was changed every 24 hours and the release of fluoride was measured for 30 days. At the end of this period, the samples were recharged with 2 ml of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for four minutes. Then, all samples were reassessed for an additional 10 days. The fluoride release of all samples was measured with a specific fluoride electrode and an ionanalyzer. Statistical analyses were conducted using two-way repeated measure ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests. For all tested materials, the greatest fluoride release was observed after the first day of the study (p0.05). Ariston pHc released the highest amount of fluoride, followed by ChemFlex Syringeable, Vitremer and ChemFlex Condensable. There were statistically significant differences among these materials (p<0.05). Fluoride release of all materials were significantly increased after the first day following refluoridation and Ariston pHc released the greatest among all materials (p<0.01). At the end of two days of refluoridation, the fluoride release rate for each material dropped quickly and stabilized within three days.

  19. Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Blaine, McCleskey R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal water samples from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have a wide range of pH (1-10), temperature, and high concentrations of fluoride (up to 50mg/l). High fluoride concentrations are found in waters with field pH higher than 6 (except those in Crater Hills) and temperatures higher than 50??C based on data from more than 750 water samples covering most thermal areas in YNP from 1975 to 2008. In this study, more than 140 water samples from YNP collected in 2006-2009 were analyzed for free-fluoride activity by ion-selective electrode (ISE) method as an independent check on the reliability of fluoride speciation calculations. The free to total fluoride concentration ratio ranged from 99% at high pH. The wide range in fluoride activity can be explained by strong complexing with H+ and Al3+ under acidic conditions and lack of complexing under basic conditions. Differences between the free-fluoride activities calculated with the WATEQ4F code and those measured by ISE were within 0.3-30% for more than 90% of samples at or above 10-6 molar, providing corroboration for chemical speciation models for a wide range of pH and chemistry of YNP thermal waters. Calculated speciation results show that free fluoride, F-, and major complexes (HF(aq)0, AlF2+, AlF2+ and AlF30) account for more than 95% of total fluoride. Occasionally, some complex species like AlF4-, FeF2+, FeF2+, MgF+ and BF2(OH)2- may comprise 1-10% when the concentrations of the appropriate components are high. According to the simulation results by PHREEQC and calculated results, the ratio of main fluoride species to total fluoride varies as a function of pH and the concentrations and ratios of F and Al. ?? 2011.

  20. Well Waters Fluoride in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Ugwuja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (p<0.05. The mean value for the whole city was 0.63 mg/L. Although, the mean level of fluoride recorded in this study is currently within safe limits (1.5 mg/L, WHO 2011, it is important to monitor continuously the fluoride content of well waters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride.

  1. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate. PMID:26066938

  2. Analysis of fluoride concentration in solutions prepared at dispensing pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pizzatto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride plays an important role in oral health promotion and is considered important in dental caries prevention both in children and adults. Fluoride is widely used at high-risk conditions of caries, when the use of fluoride-containing mouthwashes is recommended, considering that fluoride itself reduces the risk of dental caries. Objective: To evaluate the fluoride concentration in solutions prepared at different dispensing pharmacies in the city of Curitiba – PR, Brazil. Material and methods: The analysis of fluoride concentration was preformed through Ion Chromatography method (DIONEX. Results: The results obtained through this analysis showed that all solutions presented fluoride concentration above that required in the dentist’s prescription, varying between 5.48% and 24.02% more fluoride, at absolute concentration. Conclusion: This finding highlights the increasing risk of fluoride acute intoxication in cases of accidental ingestion of the solution.

  3. Chemisorption of uranium hexa-fluoride on sodium fluoride pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper comprises kinetics of chemical reaction or rather chemisorption of uranium hexafluoride gas on sodium fluoride pellets. The chemisorption is essentially irreversible at room temperature, while the process reverses at high temperature above 280 deg C. This chemisorption process was experimentally conducted in static condition at room temperature and its kinetics was studied. In the experiments, practically pure UF6 was used and the effects of gas pressure and weight of NaF pellets, were studied. In this heterogenous reaction, in which diffusion through ash layer is followed by chemical reaction, the reaction part is instantaneous and is first order with respect to gas concentration. Since the process of chemisorption is not only pure chemical reaction but also gas diffusion through ash layer, the rate constant depreciates with the percentage loading of UF6 on NaF pellets. The kinetic equation for the above process has been established for a particular size of NaF pellets and pellet porosity. (author)

  4. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  5. Fluoride concentration in plaque in adolescents after topical application of different fluoride varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld-Larsson, K; Modéer, T; Twetman, S

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the fluoride (F) concentration in plaque after a single topical application of different fluoride varnishes with contrasting levels of F. Thirty adolescents (12-17 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Bifluoride (6% F), Duraphat (2.23% F) and Fluor Protector (0.1% F). The varnishes were applied after professional cleaning in one upper quadrant, leaving the opposite quadrant untreated according to the split-mouth technique. Pooled plaque samples from each quadrant were collected at baseline and 3 days, 7 days and 30 days after the varnish treatment, and fluoride was analysed by microdiffusion. All fluoride varnishes increased the fluoride concentration in plaque compared with baseline, and the mean values varied between 23 and 138 ng F/mg after 3 days, depending on varnish F concentration. Compared with the control quadrant, statistically significant elevations were recorded for Bifluoride after 3 days and 7 days and Duraphat after 3 days, while no significant differences were revealed in the Fluor Protector group. The fluoride concentration in plaque was back to baseline levels for all participants in the Duraphat group after 7 days, while some individuals in the Bifluoride and Fluor Protector groups still registered slightly increased levels after 30 days. The results suggest that fluoride varnish treatments resulted in elevated fluoride levels in plaque adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances for a period of up to 1 week, although different patterns was disclosed for the various brands.

  6. Determination of Fluoride in the Bottled Drinking Waters in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Amanlou, Massoud; Hosseinpour, Maedeh; Azizian, Homa; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Navabpoor, Mojtaba; Souri, Effat

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is recognized as an effective agent for dental caries prevention. Generally, the main source of fluoride intake is drinking water. In this study, fluoride content in 18 commercial brands of bottled waters was investigated. Six samples from each batch of 18 Iranian commercial brands of bottled waters were supplied. The fluoride content of samples was analyzed by Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode. The mean ± SD fluoride content of the bottled waters was 0.202 ± 0.00152 mg/L with a range...

  7. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  8. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  9. Caries inhibition by fluoride-releasing primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, L J; Donly, K J

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the caries inhibition of dentin primers with the addition of fluoride. Two standardized Class V preparations were placed in 20 molars, the gingival margin placed below the cementoenamel junction and the occlusal margin placed in enamel. Two dentin primers (Syntac and ScotchPrep) were placed in equal numbers of 20 preparations, according to manufacturer's instructions. Ammonium fluoride (10% by weight) was then added to these primers and they were placed in the remaining 20 preparations, opposing the non-fluoridated primer of the same system. All teeth were then restored with a non-fluoridated resin composite. All teeth were subjected to an artificial caries challenge (pH 4.2) for 5 days. Sections of 100 microns were obtained, photographed under polarized light microscopy, then demineralized areas were quantitated by digitization. Results demonstrated the mean areas (mm2 +/- S.D.) demineralization at 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm from the restoration margin to be: Syntac/fluoride (1.44 +/- 0.49, 1.68 +/- 0.54, 3.72 +/- 0.74); Syntac (1.99 +/- 0.58, 1.50 +/- 0.35, 2.98 +/- 1.26); ScotchPrep/fluoride (1.23 +/- 0.68, 1.55 +/- 0.64, 3.08 +/- 1.16); ScotchPrep (1.90 +/- 0.83, 1.71 +/- .038, 3.36 +/- 0.62). A paired t-test indicated primers with fluoride to demonstrate significantly less demineralization 0.25 mm from the restoration margin (P < 0.07). PMID:7880460

  10. Fluoride release and uptake abilities of different fissure sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andenna, Gianluigi; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Cucca, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The long-term capability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride is associated to a reduction in pit and fissure caries. The regular use of fluoride varnishes/toothpastes can result in the absorption of fluoride into the sealant. The objective of the present study was to assess the fluoride release/uptake capacities of different fissure sealants. Material and Methods Three different fissure sealants (Fuji Triage/GC, Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco) were examined. Ten discs of each material were prepared. Each disc was incubated with distilled water and then the solution analyzed for diluted for fluoride concentration, using a combination of fluoride electrode (OrionGP 1 S/N 13824, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA) connected to an expandable ion analyzer (Orion 720A, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA). Standard curves between 1 and 100 ppm F- were used to calibrate the electrode. Cumulative fluoride release was measured on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 21, 35 and 49, then two different fluoride varnishes/pastes (Profluorid Varnish/Voco, MI Paste Plus/GC), were applied to the sealants tested, and fluoride release (after reuptake) was measured on days 56, 70 and 84. Results Kruskal Wallis test confirmed significant differences in fluoride release between Fuji Triage/GC and Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco from day 1 (P fluoride varnish Profluorid Varnish enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants (P fluoride release for all sealants except for Fuji Triage/GC (P > 0.05). Conclusions The GIC-based sealant (Fuji Triage/GC) released significantly more fluoride than the resin sealants tested. The exposure to the fluoridated varnish (Profluorid Varnish) significantly recharged the sealants tested more than the CPP-ACPF toothpaste (MI Paste Plus). Key words:Fissure sealants, fluoride release, fluoride uptake, glass ionomer cements. PMID:27398179

  11. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  12. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  13. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project

  14. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho and others

    2001-05-01

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project.

  15. Emissions of fluorides from welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pągowska, Emilia; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    The levels of fluoride airborne particulates emitted from welding processes were investigated. They were sampled with the patented IOM Sampler, developed by J. H. Vincent and D. Mark at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), personal inhalable sampler for simultaneous collection of the inhalable and respirable size fractions. Ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used for quantitative analysis. The efficiency of fluoride extraction from the cellulose filter of the IOM sampler was examined using the standard sample of urban air particle matter SRM-1648a. The best results for extraction were obtained when water and the anionic surfactant N-Cetyl-N-N-N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in an ultrasonic bath. The limits of detection and quantification for the whole procedure were 8μg/L and 24μg/L, respectively. The linear range of calibration was 0.01-10mg/L, which corresponds to 0.0001-0.1mg of fluorides per m(3) in collection of a 20L air sample. The concentration of fluorides in the respirable fraction of collected air samples was in the range of 0.20-1.82mg/m(3), while the inhalable fraction contained 0.23-1.96mg/m(3) of fluorides during an eight-hour working day in the welding room. PMID:26574102

  16. Removing Fluoride Ions with Continously Fed Activated Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yeun C.; Itemaking, Isara Cholapranee

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the mathematical basis for determining fluoride removal during water treatment with activated alumina. The study indicates that decreasing particle size decreases the pore diffusion effect and increases fluoride removal. (AS)

  17. Serum calciotropic hormone levels,and dental fluorlsis in Children exposed to different concentrations of fluoride and iodine in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA Yue; ZHANG Ya-wei; ZHU Jiang-yuan; YANG Yue-jin; YU Bo; HUANG Hui; WANG Gang; REN Li-jun; CHENG Xue-min; CUI Liu-xin

    2010-01-01

    Background High fluoride exposure can result in dental fluorosis.Fluoride and iodine are coexistent in the drinking water of areas in China and may affect the prevalence of dental fluorosis and osteogenesis.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum calciotropic hormone level.and dentaI fluorisis in children exposed to different concentrations of fluoride and iodine in drinking water.Methods A pilot study was conducted in three villages located in the Kaifeng and Tongxu counties of Henan Province,China in 2006.Children aged 8 to 12 years.born and raised in the three villages were recruited.The fluoride levels in the samples of urine from these children were detected by fluoride ion selective electrode.Calcitonin and osteocalcin levels in the serum,and serum calcium were measured by radioimmunassay and flame atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively.Results Fluoride levels in urine were significantly lower in children from control area(CA)as compared with those from the high fluoride & iodine areas(HFIA)and the high fluoride area(HFA)(P<0.05 respectively),and no statistically significant difference was found between the children from HFIA and HFA.Additionally,calcitonin levels in the serum were significantly lower in children from CA and HFA as compared with that from HFIA(P<0.05 respectively),and osteocalcin levels in the serum was lower in children from CA than those from HFIA (P<0.05).No statistically significant difference in serum osteocalcin concentrations was found between children from HFA and HFIA.Conclusion This study provides an evidence that iodine exposure may modify the serum calciotropic hormone levels related to fluorine exposure.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoride Uptake Rate in the Enamel of Primary Teeth after Application of Two Pediatric Dentifrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Malekafzali

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The effectiveness of fluoride dentifrices in reducing dental caries is well documented. However, not all fluoride dentifrices are equally effective Purpose: The objective of this experimental study was to compare fluoride uptake from Pooneh pediatric toothpaste and an ADA-approved pediatric dentifrice, in sound enamel of primary teeth.Materials and Methods: In an in vitro randomized controlled trial, 20 sound primary canines were divided into 2 groups according to the experimental dentifrices. Each tooth was sectioned longitudinally into experimental and control halves. The test groups were treated with dentifrice slurries for 1 hour. All specimens were then suspended in 5ml artificial saliva for 24 hours at 37°C and were etched twice for 30 seconds with a 1ml solution of 0.5M percholoric acid. Fluoride and calcium concentrations were measured by a potentiometer and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer,respectively. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey's test.Results: The mean fluoride concentrations in the Aqua fresh group (4098.44 and 3755.25 ppm in first and both layers respectively were higher than Pooneh (first layer 2420.51 ppm and both layers 2242.73 ppm, and both were higher than the controls (P<0.05. No significant difference was observed between the control groups. Theenamel thickness in Aqua fresh cases was less than the teeth treated with Pooneh (first layer 3.09 vs. 3.85 μm, both layers 4.98 vs. 6.09 μm and both were less than the controls (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the control groups.Conclusion: Fluoride uptake was lower in Pooneh pediatric toothpaste as compared to the tested ADA-approved dentifrice, but considerably higher than the control group.

  19. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  20. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 ± 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO4 at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO2F2. Studies on the effect of added LiNO3 or Na2WO4·2H2O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF6 content of WF6 gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF6

  1. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M;

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  2. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for... § 180.575 Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues. (a)(1) General. Tolerances are established for residues of sulfuryl fluoride in or on the following commodities from the postharvest fumigation...

  3. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  4. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  5. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5...

  6. 40 CFR 60.222 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.222 Section... Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.222 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 30 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed...

  7. 40 CFR 60.242 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.242 Section... Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.242 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 0.25...

  8. 40 CFR 60.232 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.232 Section... Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.232 Standard for fluorides. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 100 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.20...

  9. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, M.; Tadano, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.; Chen, X. [Regional Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-0083 Ibaraki (Japan); Asanuma, S. [Japan Institute of Rural Medicine, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, T. [Matsumoto Dental College, Shiojiri, Nagano (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Otsuma Women' s University, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ji, R.; Liang, C.; Cao, S. [Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China); Hong, Z. [Shanxi Maternity and Children' s Hospital, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  10. Plasma processing of fluoride solutions of refractory rare metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsol, A.F. [Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Less-Common Elements and Raw Materials, Murmanskaya oblast` (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    Features of plasma processing of fluoride solutions of refractory metals were studied. It was shown that pyrohydrolysis of niobium, tantalum, and titanium fluorides occurs in the gas phase, thus providing fine oxide powders. The pyrohydrolysis of low-volatility zirconium fluoride occurs in the solid phase, yielding oxide particles corresponding to the size of initial droplets.

  11. Onderzoek naar de bepaling van fluoride in een doorstroomsysteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele J; Nagtegaal-Wouterse GWM; Reijnders HFR

    1989-01-01

    Een snelle methode voor de bepaling van fluoride in een doorstroomsysteem met potentiometrische detectie en een lage onderste analysegrens is ontwikkeld. De mate waarin fluoride uit fluoride-verbindingen wordt vrijgemaakt door complexvormende stoffen is gevolgd om vast te stellen hoeveel tijd hierv

  12. Enhanced fluoride sorption by mechanochemically activated kaolinites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, S; Sundaram, C Sairam; Sukumar, Rugmini

    2008-05-01

    Kaolinite clay obtained from the mines was processed and studied for its fluoride sorption capacity. The surface area of the clay mineral was increased from 15.11 m(2)/g (raw) to 32.43 m(2)/g (activated) by mechanochemical activation. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions like the effect of contact time, dosage, pH for both raw and micronized kaolinites (RK and MK). The effect of other interfering anions on the defluoridation capacity (DC) of the sorbents was studied. Sorption of fluoride by the sorbents was observed over a wide pH range of 3-11. The studies revealed there is an enhanced fluoride sorption on MK. FTIR and XRD were used for the characterization of the sorbent. The surface morphology of the clay material was observed using SEM. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at three different temperatures, viz., 303, 313 and 323 K. The sorption data obtained at optimized conditions were subjected to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Sorption intensity (1/n) (0.770-0.810) has been evaluated using Freundlich isotherm, whereas the values of sorption capacity Q(0) (0.609, 0.714 and 0.782 mg/g) and binding energy b (0.158, 0.145 and 0.133 L/mg) at three different temperatures have been estimated using Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption process was found to be controlled by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption of fluoride on MK is endothermic and a spontaneous process. The kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of fluoride on MK follows pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion models.

  13. Enhanced fluoride sorption by mechanochemically activated kaolinites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenakshi, S. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: drs_meena@rediffmail.com; Sundaram, C. Sairam [Department of Science and Humanities, Karaikal Polytechnic College, Karaikal 609609, Puducherry (India); Sukumar, Rugmini [Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Regional Research Laboratory, Trivandrum 695019, Kerala (India)

    2008-05-01

    Kaolinite clay obtained from the mines was processed and studied for its fluoride sorption capacity. The surface area of the clay mineral was increased from 15.11 m{sup 2}/g (raw) to 32.43 m{sup 2}/g (activated) by mechanochemical activation. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions like the effect of contact time, dosage, pH for both raw and micronized kaolinites (RK and MK). The effect of other interfering anions on the defluoridation capacity (DC) of the sorbents was studied. Sorption of fluoride by the sorbents was observed over a wide pH range of 3-11. The studies revealed there is an enhanced fluoride sorption on MK. FTIR and XRD were used for the characterization of the sorbent. The surface morphology of the clay material was observed using SEM. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at three different temperatures, viz., 303, 313 and 323 K. The sorption data obtained at optimized conditions were subjected to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Sorption intensity (1/n) (0.770-0.810) has been evaluated using Freundlich isotherm, whereas the values of sorption capacity Q{sup 0} (0.609, 0.714 and 0.782 mg/g) and binding energy b (0.158, 0.145 and 0.133 L/mg) at three different temperatures have been estimated using Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption process was found to be controlled by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption of fluoride on MK is endothermic and a spontaneous process. The kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of fluoride on MK follows pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion models.

  14. Reconstructing temporal variation of fluoride uptake in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from a high-fluoride area by analysis of fluoride distribution in dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Rhede, Dieter; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Trace element profiling in the incrementally formed dentine of mammalian teeth can be applied to reconstruct temporal variation of incorporation of these elements into the tissue. Using an electron microprobe, this study analysed fluoride distribution in dentine of first and third mandibular molars of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a high-fluoride area, to assess temporal variation in fluoride uptake of the animals. Fluoride content in the early-formed dentine of first molars was significantly lower than in the late-formed dentine of these teeth, and was also lower than in both, the early and the late-formed dentine of third molars. As early dentine formation in M1 takes place prior to weaning, this finding indicates a lower dentinal fluoride uptake during the pre-weaning compared to the post-weaning period. This is hypothetically attributed to the action of a partial barrier to fluoride transfer from blood to milk in lactating females and a low bioavailability of fluoride ingested together with milk. Another factor contributing to lower plasma fluoride levels in juveniles compared to adults is the rapid clearance of fluoride from blood plasma in the former due to their intense skeletal growth. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered to explain why in kangaroos from high-fluoride areas, the (early-formed) first molars are not affected by dental fluorosis while the (later-formed) third and fourth molars regularly exhibit marked to severe fluorotic lesions. PMID:26736058

  15. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  16. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  17. Modeling and optimization of fluoride and cadmium trapping in phosphogypsum using design methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajem, Besma; Djebali, Kais; M' nif, Adel [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et des Materiaux de Recuperation, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, Pole Technologique de Borj Cedria, Hammam Lif (Tunisia)

    2010-09-15

    The manufacturing of phosphoric acid from natural calcium phosphate generates a solid residue containing 25-30% humidity. This solid residue (phosphogypsum) generates acidic solution (pH {approx} 2.5) containing several toxic ionic species, that coat its grains. Fluorides and heavy metals such as cadmium are considered the most harmful species contained in the released solution from phosphogypsum. The purpose of this work is to study the trapping of fluorides and cadmium in phosphogypsum as well as effluent neutralization before its discharge into natural recipient. Therefore, calcium carbonate finely ground was added and fully mixed with wet phosphogypsum. A four factors central composite design was used to model and to optimize the operating parameters that govern the process. The studied factors were temperature, reaction time, mass, and grains size of CaCO{sub 3}. Considered responses were pH, F{sup -}, and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the released solution after reaction with CaCO{sub 3}. The optimum operating conditions were quite efficient to trap, respectively, 99% Cd{sup 2+} and 97% of F{sup -} with a final pH of 6.66. So an original, easy, simple, and cost effective method to trap some toxic species on phosphogypsum through CaCO{sub 3} addition would likely to be integrated in phosphoric acid manufacturing plant. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Comparative evaluation of fluoride release from PRG-composites and compomer on application of topical fluoride: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhull K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To determine the fluoride release from Giomer and Compomer, using different topical fluoride regimes, and to compare the amount of fluoride release from giomer with that of compomer. Materials and Method: Forty-eight specimens of each giomer and compomer were divided into four treatment groups, namely, control group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm twice daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily + fluoridated mouthwash (225 ppm group. Each specimen was suspended in demineralizing solution for six hours and remineralizing solution for 18 hours. Fluoride release was measured in both the demineralizing solution and remineralizing solution daily for seven days. Total daily fluoride release for each specimen was calculated by adding the amount released in the demineralizing solution to that released in remineralizing solution. Results and Conclusion: The fluoride release (ppm was found to be more in Giomer when compared to Compomer. The fluoride released from Giomer and Compomer was significantly greater in the acidic demineralizing solution than in the neutral remineralizing solution. It was found that increasing fluoride exposure significantly increased fluoride release from the giomer and compomer. It was found that the fluoride release from the subgroups of giomer and compomer was in the following order: fluoridated dentifrice twice daily > fluoridated dentifrice once daily + fluoridated mouthwash > fluoridated dentifrice once daily > control group. It was found that the giomer showed a greater fluoride uptake than the compomer.

  19. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  20. Some electronic and magnetic properties of Fluoride ion in Fluoride structure nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtani, Ali Nasir

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the environment potential around Fluoride ion on some important electronic and magnetic properties such as dipole polarisability, moment of oscillator strengths S(k) and magnetic susceptibility. The theoretical procedure is based on the variational-perturbation theory with two parameter trial functions incorporated in an ionic model. We estimate these properties in four cases for Fluoride ion; free ion, ion under different potentials, ion in the crystals and ion in nanocrystal, CdF2, CaF2, PbF2, SrF2 and BaF2. Our results indicate that these properties vary with ion environments and the free state of Fluoride ion has higher values and there is linearity behaviour of these properties with lattice constant. For Fluoride ion in nanocrystal, we have found that there is an extra parameter that can also affect the dipole polarisability, the number of ions in the structure.

  1. Geochemical appraisal of fluoride-laden groundwater in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present study has been carried out covering two blocks—Suri I and II in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. The evaluation focuses on occurrence, distribution and geochemistry in 26 water samples collected from borewells spread across the entire study area homogeneously. Quantitative chemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from the present study area has shown that samples from two locations—Gangta and Dhalla contain fluoride greater than the permissible limit prescribed by WHO during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sampling sessions. Significant factor controlling geochemistry of groundwater has been identified to be rock-water interaction processes during both sampling sessions based on the results of Gibb's diagrams. Geochemical modeling studies have revealed that fluorite (CaF2) is, indeed, present as a significant fluoride-bearing mineral in the groundwaters of this study area. Calcite or CaCO3 is one of the most common minerals with which fluorite remains associated, and saturation index calculations have revealed that the calcite-fluorite geochemistry is the dominant factor controlling fluoride concentration in this area during both post- and pre-monsoon. High fluoride waters have also been found to be of `bicarbonate' type showing increase of sodium in water with decrease of calcium.

  2. Fluoride in Drinking Water -Its Effects and Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Gopal

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of fluoride in water, its metabolism, excretion. effect oingestion in human and cattle system and methods of fluoridation and defluoridation have been discussed. The presence of fluoride in waters occurring in India, with special reference to Rajasthan desert has been reviewed. Based on the survey and physico-chemical analyses of about 2,700 water samples of Rajasthan, distribution of fluoride in this area has been discussed wrth reference to drinking water standards. A water resources map showing concentrations of fluoride in four arid districts of Rajasthan is also presented.

  3. Oral Fluoride Including Drinking Water in Prevention of Tooth Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Vitoria I

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present a review of the role of oral fluoride in the prevention of tooth decay, together with updated recommendations on fluoride supplements. Fluoridation of public drinking water is still considered effective, but the recommended level of fluoride is now 0.7 mg/L, compared with the previously recommended range of 0.7-1.2 mg/L. Oral fluoride supplements are currently not restricted to the children at high risk for tooth decay, but recommended initiate at 6 months&nbs...

  4. Fluoride: a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin-Arbelet, Benoit; Moum, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    Although the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and oral hygiene has been noticed before, there has been little research on prolonged fluoride exposure as a possible risk factor. In the presented cases, exposure to fluoride seems indirectly associated with higher incidence of IBD. Fluoride toxicology and epidemiology documents frequent unspecific chronic gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal inflammation. Efflux genes that confer resistance to environmental fluoride may select for IBD associated gut microbiota and therefore be involved in the pathogenesis. Together these multidisciplinary results argue for further investigation on the hypothesis of fluoride as a risk factor for IBD. PMID:27199224

  5. Manufacture of high purity low arsenic anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for manufacturing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity from arsenic contaminated anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is described which comprises: (a) contacting the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the arsenic impurity in the presence of a catalyst which comprises a catalytic amount of (i) molybdenum or an inorganic molybdenum compound and (ii) a phosphate compound, at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to oxidize volatile trivalent arsenic impurities in the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to non-volatile pentavalent arsenic compounds, and (b) distilling the resulting mixture and recovering anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity

  6. Combining CPP-ACP with fluoride: a synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayad, I. I.; Sakr, A. K.; Badr, Y. A.

    2008-08-01

    Background and objective: Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) calls for early detection and remineralization of initial demineralization. Laser fluorescence is efficient in detecting changes in mineral tooth content. Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which delivers calcium and phosphate ions to enamel. A new product which also contains fluoride is launched in United States. The remineralizing potential of CPP- ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl supplied in an oral care gel on artificially demineralised enamel using laser fluorescence was investigated. Methods: Fifteen sound human molars were selected. Mesial surfaces were tested using He-Cd laser beam at 441.5nm with 18mW power as excitation source on a suitable set-up based on Spex 750 M monochromator provided with PMT for detection of collected auto-fluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces were subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel were measured. Teeth were then divided according to the remineralizing regimen into three groups: group I recaldent per se, group II recaldent combined with fluoride gel and group III artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from remineralized enamel from the three groups were measured. The spectra of enamel auto-fluorescence were recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare between spectra from sound, demineralized and remineralized enamel surfaces. Results: A slight red shift was noticed in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group II showed the highest remineralizing potential. Conclusions: Combining fluoride with CPP-ACP had a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization. In addition, laser auto-fluorescence is an accurate technique for assessment of changes in tooth enamel minerals.

  7. Total Fluoride Intake by Children from a Tropical Brazilian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carolina V; Cury, Jaime A; Vale, Glauber C; Lima, Marina D M; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima A D; Moura, Marcoeli Silva de

    2015-01-01

    The main sources of fluoride intake by children are fluoridated water and toothpaste. Little has been studied regarding fluoride intake from these sources in regions with tropical climates and high temperatures throughout the year. This study aimed to determine the amount of fluoride ingested from diet and tooth brushing by children who live in a city with a tropical climate. Sixty-seven children from Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, took part in this study. The city's water supply was optimally fluoridated. The duplicate-diet method was used to determine the fluoride intake from diet. The intake of fluoride from dentifrice was determined by subtracting the amount of fluoride placed on the toothbrush and that recovered after brushing. The concentration of fluoride was measured using an ion-specific electrode and is expressed as milligrams/kilogram of body weight/day. The mean (±SD) total amount was 0.071 ± 0.036 mg F/kg body weight/day, and the relative contributions of diet and toothpaste were 0.025 ± 0.010 and 0.046 ± 0.035, respectively. The factors associated with fluoride intake from toothpaste were: use of children's toothpaste (p = 0.003), use of large amounts of toothpaste (p fluorosis risk. The results suggest that the amount of fluoride ingested by most children who live in a Brazilian city with a tropical climate is considered safe in terms of the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:26655142

  8. Estimation of atmospheric fluoride by limed filter papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limed filter paper method of static sampling of atmospheric fluoride is reviewed in this report. Use of the technique, in conjunction with precise measurement of the absorbed fluoride and calibration with dynamic air sampling techniques, to estimate atmospheric fluoride levels, is considered to give only qualitative data (± 50%). The limed filter paper method is site specific due to variations in meteorological conditions. Its main value is to indicate seasonal and annual trends in fluoride exposure of vegetation. Subject to these considerations, the lower and upper limits of atmospheric fluoride exposure and the applicability to atmospheric fluoride estimation under routine or emergency fluoride release conditions are discussed, with special emphasis on the limiting factors

  9. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis. PMID:27086437

  10. Fluoride in the prey of barn owls (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A G

    1987-01-01

    Bone fluoride in short-tailed voles (Microtus agrestis) and common shrews (Sorex araneus), the prey of barn owls (Tyto alba), was studied on Anglesey, North Wales. The average fluoride content of M. agrestis skulls obtained from a location 0.9 km from an aluminium reduction plant was significantly greater than that of skulls from another location 22 km from the source of industrial fluoride pollution. At both locations, mean fluoride levels of skulls extracted from owl pellets and those of voles trapped mechanically were broadly similar but important differences existed. Near the aluminium reduction plant, owls caught voles and shrews with a much wider range of fluoride levels than occurred at a single trapping site. However, there was no evidence for selection of heavily fluoridated prey. Within 1 km of the aluminium reduction plant, six trapping sites yielded S. araneus with a fourfold difference between the highest and lowest mean bone fluoride level. PMID:15092770

  11. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Cury

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80 or children’s toothpaste (n = 78. The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p 0.05. The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used.

  12. Solid electrolytes for fluoride ion batteries: ionic conductivity in polycrystalline tysonite-type fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongeat, Carine; Reddy, M Anji; Witter, Raiker; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-02-12

    Batteries based on a fluoride shuttle (fluoride ion battery, FIB) can theoretically provide high energy densities and can thus be considered as an interesting alternative to Li-ion batteries. Large improvements are still needed regarding their actual performance, in particular for the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. At the current state of the art, two types of fluoride families can be considered for electrolyte applications: alkaline-earth fluorides having a fluorite-type structure and rare-earth fluorides having a tysonite-type structure. As regard to the latter, high ionic conductivities have been reported for doped LaF3 single crystals. However, polycrystalline materials would be easier to implement in a FIB due to practical reasons in the cell manufacturing. Hence, we have analyzed in detail the ionic conductivity of La(1-y)Ba(y)F(3-y) (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.15) solid solutions prepared by ball milling. The combination of DC and AC conductivity analyses provides a better understanding of the conduction mechanism in tysonite-type fluorides with a blocking effect of the grain boundaries. Heat treatment of the electrolyte material was performed and leads to an improvement of the ionic conductivity. This confirms the detrimental effect of grain boundaries and opens new route for the development of solid electrolytes for FIB with high ionic conductivities. PMID:24444763

  13. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, R. J.; Kazi, Z. H.; Zhao, X.-L.; Chartrand, M. G.; Charles, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF3. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF3 precipitates were diluted about 6-8 fold with PbF2. The measured concentrations of 239,240Pu and 241Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of 239,240Pu and 241Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  14. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  15. Separative recovery with lime of phosphate and fluoride from an acidic effluent containing H3PO4, HF and/or H2SiF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouider, Mbarka; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-10-30

    formation, leading to CaF2 precipitate. Calcium fluoride and calcium phosphate based-by-products resulting from the two-step treatment process can be used as raw materials in several industrial sectors, such as ceramic and phosphate fertilizer industries. PMID:19524365

  16. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  17. Effects of fluoridated milk on root dentin remineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H Arnold

    Full Text Available The prevalence of root caries is increasing with greater life expectancy and number of retained teeth. Therefore, new preventive strategies should be developed to reduce the prevalence of root caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoridated milk on the remineralization of root dentin and to compare these effects to those of sodium fluoride (NaF application without milk.Thirty extracted human molars were divided into 6 groups, and the root cementum was removed from each tooth. The dentin surface was demineralized and then incubated with one of the following six solutions: Sodium chloride NaCl, artificial saliva, milk, milk+2.5 ppm fluoride, milk+10 ppm fluoride and artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarized light microscopy and quantitative morphometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The data were statistically evaluated using a one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons.The depth of the lesion decreased with increasing fluoride concentration and was the smallest after incubation with artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. SEM analysis revealed a clearly demarcated superficial remineralized zone after incubation with milk+2.5 ppm fluoride, milk+10 ppm fluoride and artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. Ca content in this zone increased with increasing fluoride content and was highest after artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride incubation. In the artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride group, an additional crystalline layer was present on top of the lesion that contained elevated levels of F and Ca.Incubation of root dentin with fluoridated milk showed a clear effect on root dentin remineralization, and incubation with NaF dissolved in artificial saliva demonstrated a stronger effect.

  18. Fluoride uptake into the developing enamel and dentine of sheep incisors following daily ingestion of fluoridated milk or water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caries preventive action of fluoride is common knowledge, although some of the mechanisms involved remain equivocal. At present, raised local levels of fluoride at, or in, the surface of tooth enamel is the most commonly accepted explanation of the anti-cariogenic action of fluoride. However, fluoride incorporated as fluorapatite into the tooth during its formation remains a possible alternative or complementary anti-cariogenic mechanism. If so, regular ingestion of fluoride during tooth formation is beneficial. Although use of fluoridated water is the preferred method in public health programmes, access to suitable potable water is required, and often this in not feasible. Fresh, preserved, or dried cow's milk products are widely used as nutritional and dietary items in most populations, particularly for young children. Milk is a practical, controllable means for regular delivery of fluoride. Processing of milk is commonly centralised and uses standardised conditions, allowing easy supplementation of fluoride for distribution to communities. The purpose of this study was to resolve the question of availability of fluoride ingested in milk compared with fluoride ingested in water by measuring fluoride deposition in the developing permanent incisors of young sheep. Incisors were analysed using a proton microprobe. (author). 18 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Peckham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine is the world’s 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed.

  20. Ability of Pit and Fissure Sealant-containing Amorphous Calcium Phosphate to inhibit Enamel Demineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Zawaideh, Feda I; Owais, Arwa I; Kawaja, Wasan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the effect of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-containing pit and fissure sealant on inhibition of enamel demineralization in vitro. Materials and methods: Enamel specimens (n = 75) were prepared using freshly extracted noncarious human third molars. Box-shaped cavities (8 × 2 × 2 mm) on the buccal or lingual surfaces were prepared and restored with resin-based sealant (Concise™), ACP-containing sealant (Aegis®) or fluoride-containing sealant (Conseal-F™). The sampl...

  1. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  2. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbets during coal combustion (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-jie; LIN Zhi-yan; LIU Jian-zhong; WU Xian; ZHOU Jun-hu; CEN Ke-fa

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide experimental guide to commercial use of fluorine pollution control during coal combustion, with fluorine pollution control during coal combustion in mind, this paper proposed the theory of combustion fluorine retention technology. Feasibility of fluorine retention reaction with calcium-based fluorine retention agent was analyzed through thermo-dynamic calculation during coal combustion. By simulating the restraining and retention effects and influential factors of calcium-based sorbets on vaporized fluoride during experimental combustion using fixed bed tube furnace, the paper systematically explored the influential law of such factors as combustion temperature, retention time, and added quantities of calcium-based sorbets on effects of fluorine retention. The research result shows that adding calcium-based fluorine retention agent in coal combustion has double effects of fluorine retention and sulfur retention, it lays an experimental foundation for commercial test of combustion fluorine retention.

  3. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    , due to changing living conditions and dietary habits, and inadequate exposure to fluorides. Research on the oral health effects of fluoride started around 100 years ago; the focus has been on the link between water and fluorides and dental caries and fluorosis, topical fluoride applications, fluoride...

  4. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  5. Fluoride content of clay minerals and argillaceous earth materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J., Jr.; Glass, H.D.; White, W.A.; Trandel, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable method, utilizing a fluoride ion-selective electrode, is described for the determination of fluoride in clays and shales. Interference by aluminum and iron is minimal. The reproducibility of the method is about ??5% at different levels of fluoride concentration. Data are presented for various clay minerals and for the clays and shales. Fluoride values range from 44 ppm (0.0044%) for nontronite from Colfax, WA, to 51,800 ppm (5.18%) for hectorite from Hector, CA. In general, clays formed under hydrothermal conditions are relatively high in fluoride content, provided the hydrothermal waters are high in fluoride content. Besides hectorite, dickite from Ouray, CO, was found to contain more than 50 times as much fluoride (6700 ppm) as highly crystalline geode kaolinite (125 ppm). The clay stratum immediately overlying a fluorite mineralized zone in southern Illinois was found to have a higher fluoride content than the same stratum in a nonmineralized zone approximately 1 mile away. Nonmarine shales in contact with Australian coals were found to be lower in fluoride content than were marine shales in contact with Illinois coals. It is believed that, in certain instances, peak shifts on DTA curves of similar clay minerals are the result of significant differences in their fluoride content. ?? 1977.

  6. Arsenic from community water fluoridation: quantifying the effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Emily; Shapiro, Howard; Li, Ye; Minnery, John G; Copes, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Community water fluoridation is a WHO recommended strategy to prevent dental carries. One debated concern is that hydrofluorosilicic acid, used to fluoridate water, contains arsenic and poses a health risk. This study was undertaken to determine if fluoridation contributes to arsenic in drinking water, to estimate the amount of additional arsenic associated with fluoridation, and compare this to the National Sanitation Foundation/American National Standards Institute (NSF/ANSI) standard and estimates from other researchers. Using surveillance data from Ontario drinking water systems, mixed effects linear regression was performed to examine the effect of fluoridation status on the difference in arsenic concentration between raw water and treated water samples. On average, drinking water treatment was found to reduce arsenic levels in water in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated systems by 0.2 μg/L. However, fluoridated systems were associated with an additional 0.078 μg/L (95% CI 0.021, 0.136) of arsenic in water when compared to non-fluoridated systems (P = 0.008) while controlling for raw water arsenic concentrations, types of treatment processes, and source water type. Our estimate is consistent with concentrations expected from other research and is less than 10% of the NSF/ANSI standard of 1 μg/L arsenic in water. This study provides further information to inform decision-making regarding community water fluoridation.

  7. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age.

  8. Parabens do not increase fluoride uptake by dental enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva Tramontino

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether methylparaben and propylparaben, which present a similar chemical structure, increase fluoride uptake by demineralized dental enamel when present in buffered solutions. Methods: The study comprised an in vitro experiment using blocks of bovine dental enamel with artificial carious lesions. Enamel blocks were exposed to the following treatment (n=12: fluoride solution (200 ppm fluoride - control; solution containing fluoride and 13 mM methylparaben; solution containing fluoride and 13 mM propylparaben in 35% propylene glycol; solution containing fluoride in 35% propylene glycol. All solutions were buffered (0.01 M cacodilate and the pH was adjusted to 6.27. The blocks were exposed to the treatment solutions in the proportion of 2 ml per mm2 of exposed enamel area and fluoride formed was estimated after removing an enamel layer by acid etching. Fluoride extracted was determined by ion specific electrode and the amount of enamel removed was estimated by phosphorus analysis. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical analysis, with significance level at 5%. Results: The dental blocks of treatment groups containing both parabens and the control group presented similar fluoride concentration in enamel and no statistical difference was observed among them (p>0.05. The dental blocks of treatment group containing fluoride and propylene glycol showed the lowest value of fluoride present in enamel, which was significantly different from the control and fluoride and methylparaben groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Methyl and propylparaben in a buffered solution do not enhance fluoride uptake by demineralized dental enamel.

  9. Geochemical studies of fluoride and other water quality parameters of ground water in Dhule region Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dilip A; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Fursule, Ravindra A; Patil, Pravin O

    2010-07-01

    This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra State in India. The analysis was carried out for the parameters pH, DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Cl-, NO3-, F-, S(2)-, total alkalinity, total solid, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, calcium, magnesium, carbonate and noncarbonate hardness, and concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These parameters were compared against the standards laid down by World Health Organization (WHO) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for drinking water quality. High levels of NO(3)-, Cl-, F-, S(2)-, total solid, TDS, TSS, total hardness, magnesium and calcium have been found in the collected samples. From these observations, it has been found that fluoride is present as per the permissible limit (WHO 2003) in some of the villages studied, but both fluoride and nitrate levels are unacceptable in drinking water samples taken from several villages in Dhule. This is a serious problem and, therefore, requires immediate attention. Excess of theses impurities in water causes many diseases in plants and animals. This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra.

  10. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  11. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  12. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Katsushi, E-mail: katsu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan) and School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Komatsu, Hisanori [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiroko [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Osaka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Pereira, Patricia N.R. [School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Bedran-Russo, Ana K. [University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, 801 S. Paulina St., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Nomachi, Masaharu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Osaka, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sato, Takahiro [TARRI, JAEA, Advanced Radiation Technology, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Gunma, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Sano, Hidehiko [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission ({mu}-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by {mu}-PIGE and {mu}-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F

  13. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Katsushi; Komatsu, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Pereira, Patricia N. R.; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Sato, Takahiro; Sano, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  14. Characterization of transport of calcium by microsomal membranes from roots maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates calcium transport by membranes of roots of maize isolated by differential centrifugation. The preparation was determined to be enriched in plasma membrane using market enzyme and electron microscopy. Using the /sup 45/Ca filtration technique and liquid scintillation counting, vesicular calcium uptake was shown to be stimulated by added calmodulin and specific for and dependent on ATP. Conditions for maximal calcium accumulation were found to be 30 min incubation in the presence of 5 mM ATP, 5 mM MgCl/sub 2/, 50 ..mu..M CaCl/sub 2/, at 23/sup 0/C, and at pH 6.5. Calcium uptake was inhibited by the ionophores A23187, X-537A, and ionomycin. Sodium fluoride, ruthenium red, and p-chloromercuribenzoate completely inhibited transport: diamide and vanadate produced slight inhibition; caffeine, caffeic acid, oligomycin, and ouabain produced little or no inhibition. Chlorpromazine, W7, trifluoperazine, and R 24 571 inhibit calcium uptake irrespective of added calmodulin, while W5 showed little effect on uptake. Verapamil, nifedipine, cinnarizine, flunarizine, lidoflazine, and diltiazem decreased calcium uptake by 17%-50%. Electron microscopic localization of calcium by pyroantimonate showed vesicles incubated with calmodulin and ATP showed the greatest amount of precipitate. These results suggest that these vesicles accumulate calcium in an ATP-dependent, calmodulin-stimulated manner.

  15. Analysis of differentially expressed genes between fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-endurable individuals in midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Heying; Li, Gang; He, Qingling; Zhang, Huaguang; Xu, Anying

    2016-08-15

    Fluoride tolerance is an economically important trait of silkworm. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the dominant endurance to fluoride (Def) gene in Bombyx mori has been constructed before. Here, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of midgut of fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-endurable individuals of Def NILs by using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools, and identified differentially expressed genes between these individuals. A total of 3,612,399 and 3,567,631 clean tags for the libraries of fluoride-endurable and fluoride-sensitive individuals were obtained, which corresponded to 32,933 and 43,976 distinct clean tags, respectively. Analysis of differentially expressed genes indicates that 241 genes are differentially expressed between the two libraries. Among the 241 genes, 30 are up-regulated and 211 are down-regulated in fluoride-endurable individuals. Pathway enrichment analysis demonstrates that genes related to ribosomes, pancreatic secretion, steroid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, and glycerolipid metabolism are down-regulated in fluoride-endurable individuals. qRT-PCR was conducted to confirm the results of the DGE. The present study analyzed differential expression of related genes and tried to find out whether the crucial genes were related to fluoride detoxification which might elucidate fluoride effect and provide a new way in the fluorosis research. PMID:27106117

  16. Fluoride ion encapsulation by Mg2+ ions and phosphates in a fluoride riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Aiming; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2012-06-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of RNA architecture, folding and recognition have emerged from structure-function studies on riboswitches, non-coding RNAs whose sensing domains bind small ligands and whose adjacent expression platforms contain RNA elements involved in the control of gene regulation. We now report on the ligand-bound structure of the Thermotoga petrophila fluoride riboswitch, which adopts a higher-order RNA architecture stabilized by pseudoknot and long-range reversed Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen A•U pair formation. The bound fluoride ion is encapsulated within the junctional architecture, anchored in place through direct coordination to three Mg(2+) ions, which in turn are octahedrally coordinated to water molecules and five inwardly pointing backbone phosphates. Our structure of the fluoride riboswitch in the bound state shows how RNA can form a binding pocket selective for fluoride, while discriminating against larger halide ions. The T. petrophila fluoride riboswitch probably functions in gene regulation through a transcription termination mechanism. PMID:22678284

  17. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Norman F.; Williams, Joe L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a process for decontaminating particulate nickel contaminated with actinide-metal fluorides. In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel containing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  18. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  19. Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000\\/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.

  20. Revisiting the thermochemistry of chlorine fluorides

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, H R

    2016-01-01

    In this work, accurate calculations of standard enthalpies of formation of chlorine fluorides (ClF$_n$, n=1--7; Cl$_2$F and Cl$_3$F$_2$) were performed through the isodesmic reactions scheme. It is argued that, for many chlorine fluorides, the gold standard method of quantum chemistry (CCSD(T)) is not capable to predict enthalpy values nearing chemical accuracy if atomization scheme is used. This is underpinned by a thorough analysis of total atomization energy results and the inspection of multireference features of these compounds. Other thermodynamic quantities were also calculated at different temperatures. In order to complement the energetic description, elimination curves were studied through density functional theory as a computationally affordable alternative to highly correlated wave function-based methods.

  1. Fluoride complexation of element 104, rutherfordium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hiromitsu; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Asai, Masato; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Hirata, Masaru; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Nagame, Yuichiro; Yasuda, Ken-Ichiro; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Goto, Shin-Ichi; Ono, Sawako; Hirai, Toshiyuki; Kudo, Hisaaki; Shigekawa, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Atsushi; Oura, Yasuji; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Sueki, Keisuke; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Tsuruga, Naoya; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Sakama, Minoru; Enomoto, Shuich; Schädel, Matthias; Brüchle, Willy; Kratz, Jens V

    2004-04-28

    Fluoride complexation of element 104, rutherfordium (Rf), produced in the 248Cm(18O,5n)261Rf reaction has been studied by anion-exchange chromatography on an atom-at-a-time scale. The anion-exchange chromatographic behavior of Rf was investigated in 1.9-13.9 M hydrofluoric acid together with those of the group-4 elements Zr and Hf produced in the 18O-induced reactions on Ge and Gd targets, respectively. It was found that the adsorption behavior of Rf on anion-exchange resin is quite different from those of Zr and Hf, suggesting the influence of relativistic effects on the fluoride complexation of Rf.

  2. Perspectives in the effective use of fluoride in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P E; Phantumvanit, P

    2012-01-01

    services, in particular, exposure to disease prevention programs (Petersen, 2003, 2008a). Benefits of fluoride for caries prevention have been substantiated in many countries (Petersen and Lennon, 2004; Jones et al., 2005). In the second half of the 20th century, this focus shifted to the development...... and evaluation of fluoride toothpastes and rinses and, to a lesser extent, to alternatives to water fluoridation, such as salt and milk fluoridation. Most recently, efforts have been made to summarize this extensive database through systematic reviews of fluoride administration (McDonagh et al., 2000; Marinho et...... al., 2003; Australian Government, 2007). The Asian workshop held in Phan-Nga, Thailand, during March 22-24, 2011, aimed to discuss current information on fluoride and dental caries, as well as to try identifying barriers and opportunities that countries of Asia may have for implementing such programs...

  3. Adsorption of Fluoride Ion by Inorganic Cerium Based Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Zhongzhi(焦中志); Chen Zhonglin; Yang Min; Zhang Yu; Li Guibai

    2004-01-01

    Excess of fluoride in drinking water is harmful to human health, the concentration of F- ions must be maintained in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L. An inorganic cerium based adsorbent (CTA) is developed on the basis of research of adsorption of fluoride on cerium oxide hydrate. Some adsorption of fluoride by CTA adsorbent experiments were carried out, and results showed that CTA adsorbent has a quick adsorption speed and a large adsorption capacity. Adsorption follows Freundlich isotherm, and low pH value helps fluoride removal. Some physical-chemical characteristics of CTA adsorbent were experimented, fluoride removal mechanism was explored, and results showed that hydroxyl group of CTA adsorbent played an important role in the fluoride removal.

  4. Fluoride contamination in rain water of Sigrauli region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurasia, S.; Mishra, S.K. [Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya, Chitrakoot (India)

    2007-07-01

    In this paper fluoride was monitored in rain water during rainy season at seven locations of Sigrauli region in 2004. The sampling location covered the impact of industrial complex of the area, and its impact on surface water sources monitored for the fluoride, pH, and electrical conductivity. The higher concentration of fluoride in rain water was observed 2.03 mg/L at Dudhar and in ponds water highest value was 3.14 mg/L. This suggested that serious fluoride pollution is occurring in Singrauli region posing a threat to the health and livelihood of the people of the region. Fluoride transported by the air route from coal burning emissions of large thermal power plants concentrate in small geographical area, and industries. Fluoride pollution in Singrauli area deserve intensive scientific studies and urgent attention. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  6. Fluoride solid electrolytes containing rare earth elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viera Trnovcová; Pavel P. Fedorov; Ivan Furár

    2008-01-01

    Relations between the structure, ionic conductivity and dielectric properties of fluoride systems of different structures containing rare earth elements were presented. Superionic conductivities, by fluoride ions, of fluorite-structured (MF2-REF3, M=Ba, Pb, RE=La-Lu, Sc, Y), orthorhombic (REF3, RE=Tb-Er,Y), tysonite-structured (REF3-MF2, RE=La-Nd, M=Sr), monoclinic (BaRE2F8, RE=Ho-Yb, Y) fluoride single crystals and eutectic composites (LiF-REF3, RE=La-Gd,Y) were compared. Anisotropy of electrical properties of crystals with a lower symmetry was explained by modeling optimum ionic paths. For explanation of concentration dependences of fast ionic conductivity, models of aggregation of defects into clusters were proposed. In fluorite-structured crystals, the highest ionic conductivity was found for PbF2: 7 mol% ScF3 (at 500 K, σ500=0.13 S/cm). In tysonite-structured crystals, the highest ionic conductivity was found for LaF3: 3 mol% SrF2 (σ500=2.4×10-2 S/cm). Different types of coordination polyhedrons and their different linking in orthorhombic and tysonite structure explained large differences between conductivities in both structures. Eutectic systems, prepared as directionally solidified composites, enabled to study some orthorhombic fluoride phases (GdF3, SmF3), which cannot be prepared as single crystals. An influence of the orthorhombic-tysonite phase transition on the ionic conductivity was shown.

  7. Effect of fluoride toothpastes on enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintner Zeno

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization. Methods A 3 × 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1; remineralization solution (group 2; Elmex Anticaries (group 3; Elmex Sensitive (group 4; Blend-a-med Complete (group 5 and Colgate GRF (group 6. Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Results The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Conclusion It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations.

  8. Health protection: Fluoridation and dental health.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Tooth decay, which affects 95 percent of Americans, is our most common health problem, costing an estimated +2 billion yearly for treatment. By the time children reach 17 years of age, 94 percent have experienced caries and 36 percent have lost one or more permanent teeth due to caries. Dental disease prevention embodies the spectrum of many activities from the fluoridation of community and school water supplies to the dental health education of the child and adult. At this stage of our knowl...

  9. Delivery Challenges for Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Xylitol

    OpenAIRE

    Featherstone, John DB

    2006-01-01

    The progression or reversal of dental caries is determined by the balance between pathological and protective factors. It is well established that a) fluoride inhibits demineralization and enhances remineralization, b) chlorhexidine reduces the cariogenic bacterial challenge, and c) xylitol is non-cariogenic and has antibacterial properties. The challenge that we face is how best to deliver these anti-caries entities at true therapeutic levels, over time, to favorably tip the caries balance. ...

  10. Comparison of the Effect of Fluoride and Non-fluoride Dentifriceson Enamel Demineralization and Remineralization in Vitro%含氟牙膏对釉质脱矿影响的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈舟; 罗宗莲; 杨松

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨国内常见市售含氟牙膏对完整釉质及脱矿釉质的作用。方法:测定市售的3种含氟牙膏的氟含量,并选取釉质完好的牛牙及人工龋脱矿的牛牙,用3种含氟牙膏和不含氟牙膏刷洗釉面后,乳酸处理1 min,用原子吸收光谱仪测定溶出的钙量。结果:含氟牙膏组和不含氟牙膏组均能使完整釉质的溶钙量明显降低,与空白对照组相比差异有显著性;含氟牙膏组和不含氟牙膏组均能使人工龋脱矿釉质的溶钙量明显下降,并且两组间有显著性差异。结论:含氟牙膏可以增强完整釉质及人工龋脱矿釉质的抗酸溶钙能力,且效果与其氟浓度相关,氟浓度为52.63 μmol/L时可显著提高牙齿抗酸力。%Objective: The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the effect of fluoride dentifrices in China on the intact and artificial caries-like bovine enamels. Methods: The artificial caries-like lesions were created by dipping the teeth into an acid buffered solution. Both the bovine intact enamels and the artificial caries-like enamels were assigned tooth brushing 20 times every half an hour with 3 kinds of fluoride dentifrices and one kind of non-fluoride dentifrices respectively. The amount of calcium dissolved by lactic acid was determined as the susceptibility of demineralization by atomic adsorption spectrometry (AAS). Results: The group treated with fluoride dentifrice showed significantly less demineralization than the non-fluoride group (P<0.02). The effect of inhibition of acid solubility in artificial caries-like enamel after tooth brushing is significantly greater than that in intact enamel. Conclusion: Fluoride dentifrices in this experiment can prevent both intact enamel and artificial caries-like enamel from acid solubility after tooth brushing, and it seems that the effect of the fluoride dentifrices on the redemineralization is greater than the reduction of enamel solubility.

  11. Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J.; Morgan , J.B.

    1975-04-01

    The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Bone scintigraphy in fluoride treated osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative bone scintigraphy was performed on 23 white females with post-menopausal osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures. These patients were then entered into a randomized, double-blind clinical trial or sodium fluoride therapy (NaF=14, placebo=9) which included repeat bone scintigraphy every six months. Scintigraphic images were acquired for 500K counts per image over the total body with computer acquisition over the posterior thoracic and lumbar spine. Images were obtained on a wide field-of-view gamma camera two hours after injecting 15 mCi of Tc-99m MDP. Data analysis showed a significant reduction in the activity ratio of abnormal vertebral body to normal vertebral body in those patients treated with sodium fluoride (paired t-test p=0.0095). No significant change was observed in the control group of (p=0.142). These results suggest that sodium fluoride therapy promotes more rapid healing of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. They also demonstrate the utility of serial quantitative bone scintigraphy in assessing osteoporotic patients with vertebral compression fractures

  13. How and when to prescribe sodium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambaugh, G E

    1989-03-01

    Sodium fluoride has now been used for 24 years in an effort to slow down or arrest sensorineural hearing nerve deterioration in patients with stapedial otosclerosis or after stapedectomy, as well as in patients with pure cochlear otosclerosis. Extensive clinical experience in thousands of patients with this therapy has demonstrated its value in arresting previously progressive sensorineural hearing loss. For a long time there were those who objected to this therapy on the basis that it had not been adequately proven by double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. They have been answered by Bretlau's study in Denmark and Fisch's from Switzerland; both investigators confirmed on small groups the value of sodium fluoride by double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Extensive research by Professor Petrovic of Strasbourg while at our tissue culture laboratory at Northwestern University demonstrated the action of sodium fluoride on bone. A nicely designed study with radioactive strontium by Linthicum, House, and Althaus demonstrated its value in promoting maturation of a spongiotic focus. Today there is no reason to hesitate in prescribing this useful, effective, and safe medication to promote maturation of otospongiotic lesions, and thus to slow down or to arrest progression in sensorineural hearing loss.

  14. Mortality and cancer morbidity after heavy occupational fluoride exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Juel, K; Jensen, Ole Møller

    1985-01-01

    A cohort of 431 male cryolite workers employed for at least six months between 1924 and 1961 was identified from personnel records at the Copenhagen cryolite factory. During this period, heavy fluoride exposure resulted in at least 74 cases of skeletal fluorosis. All workmen in the cohort were......, a possible residual effect of fluoride cannot be excluded. However, any major carcinogenic effect of heavy fluoride exposure would be very unlikely....

  15. 40 CFR 60.202 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.202 Section... Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.202 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 g/Mg of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.020...

  16. 40 CFR 60.192 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.192 Section... Plants § 60.192 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test... total fluorides, as measured according to § 60.195, in excess of: (1) 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of...

  17. The status of community water fluoridation in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, M W

    1990-01-01

    Community water fluoridation has served the American public extremely well as the cornerstone of dental caries prevention activities for 45 years. The dental and general health benefits associated with the ingestion of water-borne fluorides have been well known by researchers for an even longer period. Continued research has repeatedly confirmed the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of community water fluoridation in preventing dental caries for Americans regardless of age, race, ethnicit...

  18. LiFePO_4/C via fluoride doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Non-stoichiometric compound fluoride-doped LiFePO4/C cathode materials were synthesized via solid-state reaction using MgF2 and AlF3 as dopant. The fluoride-doped LiFePO4/C samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical testing. The results show that the materials are well crystallized and fluoride doping cannot change the space structure of LiFePO4. Slight amounts of Fe2O3 with no fluoride impurity were ...

  19. Sodium fluoride influences the expression of keratins in cultured keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, Euridice; Wurtz, Tilmann; Ferbus, Didier; Shabana, El-Hassan; FOREST, Nadine; Berdal, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Epithelia in lung, skin, and kidney are often exposed to fluoride, and tissue damage in lung and kidney due to fluoride is well documented. Nevertheless, the biological effects of fluoride on epithelia are poorly investigated. In the present study, we report effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the differentiation of a human epithelial cell line, HaCaT. These cells may serve as a keratinocyte model, because they express a wide spectrum of keratins (Ks), and they associate into stratified tissu...

  20. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.

  1. Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Viergutz, Gabriele; Neumeister, Volker; Hetzer, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calcula...

  2. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels on root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tavares Borges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries is still the main cause of restoration replacement, especially on the root surface OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the cariostatic effects of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels, on root dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized complete block design was used to test the effects of the restorative systems, fluoride regimes and the interactions among them at different distances from restoration margins. Standardized cavities were prepared on 240 bovine root specimens and randomly assigned to 15 groups of treatments (n=16. Cavities were filled with the following restorative materials: Ketac-Fil (3M-ESPE; Vitremer (3M-ESPE; Dyract/Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply; Charisma/Gluma One Bond (Heraeus Kulzer and the control, Z250/Single Bond (3M-ESPE. The specimens were subjected to a pH-cycling model designed to simulate high-caries activity. During the cycles, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, 2.0% neutral sodium fluoride or deionized/distilled water (control was applied to the specimens for 4 min. The surface Knoop microhardness test was performed before (KHNi and after (KHNf the pH cycles at 100, 200 and 300 mm from the margins. Dentin microhardness loss was represented by the difference in initial and final values (KHNi - KHNf. Data were analyzed by Friedman's and Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%. RESULTS: The interaction of restorative systems and topical treatments was not significant (p=0.102. Dentin microhardness loss was lowest closer to the restoration. Ketac-fil presented the highest cariostatic effect. Vitremer presented a moderate effect, while Dyract and Charisma did not differ from the control, Z250. The effects of neutral and acidulated fluoride gels were similar to each other and higher than the control. CONCLUSION: Conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements as well as neutral and acidulated fluoride gels inhibit the progression of artificial caries

  3. Determination of Fluoride in Toothpaste Using an Ion-Selective Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Truman S.; Cappuccino, Carleton C.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the theory of chemical potentiometry, describes the experimental procedure for free fluoride determination, and presents sample data of fluoride concentration for various brands of toothpaste. (GS)

  4. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STRONTIUM FLUORIDE POWDERS ACTIVATED BY NEODYMIUM FLUORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kuznetsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper deals with preparation processes of ultradisperse, homogeneous powder Sr1-хNdхF2+х (х= 0.003-0.2, with use of ammonium fluoride as the fluorinating agent taken over 114-120 % from stoichiometry. Method. Nitrate of strontium, neodymium nitrate hexahydrate, with the content equal to 99. 99 % of the basic substance and ammonium fluoride were used as the source of substances. Activated powders of strontium fluoride were obtained by the method of deposition from aqueous solutions by washing the precipitate with a solution of ammonium fluoride, taken over 114 - 120% from stoichiometry. The washed precipitate was centrifuged for 5-7 min, dried in the air at 30-350 C. Heat treatment of the dried precipitate was carried out in two stages: the first stage at the temperature of 200- 2500 C for 0.5-1 hour, the second one at 550- 6000 C for 2-3 hours. X-ray analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out on a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer, radiation Cu K. The size and shape measuring of the particles of activated strontium fluoride was carried out by means of electron microscope Carl Zeiss NVision 40. The content of neodymium in activated powders of strontium fluoride was determined by the method of spectral emission analysis on the device LEA - S500. Chemical analysis for determination of ammonium ion (NH4+ content in the obtained samples was performed by the method of Kjeldahl. Calculations of lattice parameters, size of coherent scattering regions and the values of micro-deformations were carried out by TOPAS program. Main Results. Preparation processes of ultradisperse, homogeneous powder Sr1-хNdхF2+х (х= 0.003-0.2, with use of ammonium fluoride as the fluorinating agent taken over 114-120 % from stoichiometry, provides obtaining the firm solution Sr1-x-yNdx(NH4yF2+x-y of the cubic fluorite structure. It has been found out that the morphology and size of the resulting product depend on the quantity of

  5. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs for fluoride, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI from all sources, including non-dietary sources. Fluoride is not an essential nutrient. Therefore, no Average Requirement for the performance of essential physiological functions can be defined. Nevertheless, the Panel considered that the setting of an AI is appropriate because of the beneficial effects of dietary fluoride on prevention of dental caries. The AI is based on epidemiological studies (performed before the 1970s showing an inverse relationship between the fluoride concentration of water and caries prevalence. As the basis for defining the AI, estimates of mean fluoride intakes of children via diet and drinking water with fluoride concentrations at which the caries preventive effect approached its maximum whilst the risk of dental fluorosis approached its minimum were chosen. Except for one confirmatory longitudinal study in US children, more recent studies were not taken into account as they did not provide information on total dietary fluoride intake, were potentially confounded by the use of fluoride-containing dental hygiene products, and did not permit a conclusion to be drawn on a dose-response relationship between fluoride intake and caries risk. The AI of fluoride from all sources (including non-dietary sources is 0.05 mg/kg body weight per day for both children and adults, including pregnant and lactating women. For pregnant and lactating women, the AI is based on the body weight before pregnancy and lactation. Reliable and representative data on the total fluoride intake of the European population are not available.

  6. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  7. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport...

  8. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  9. Irradiation effects on microhardness of fluoridated and non-fluoridated bovine dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of irradiation on microhardness of dentin. Dentin blocks from the cervical region of bovine incisors were treated as follows: 1) no irradiation; 2) irradiation of specimens up to 60 Gy (2Gy/day, 5 days/week); 3) no irradiation, but fluoridation of specimens for 5 min/d; 4) irradiation of specimens and daily fluoridation. Knoop hardness number (KHN) of the control specimens was 62.63±14.75 (mean±SD). This was significantly different from the irradiated dentin samples (8.74±2.59 KHN). Hardness of the fluoridated dentin specimens was 11.19±1.95 KHN in the non-irradiated group and 10.03±2.75 KHN in the irradiated groups, respectively. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it is concluded that dentin is severely affected by irradiation. This could be an explanation for the frequently observed side-effects of irradiation like loss of enamel, gap formation at the amelodentinal junction, and caries of the cervical region. Fluoridation with acidic gels decereases microhardness of dentin surface, and does not prevent softening due to radiation, when saliva is absent. (au)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ruthenium fluorides and oxide fluorides with high oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of ruthenium fluorides and oxide fluorides with high oxidation states was attempted from dioxide RuO2 and tetroxide RuO4. Three fluorinating agents were used: fluorine, chlorine trifluoride and krypton difluoride. The reactions were achieved in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride at room temperature. Thus, the reaction of RuO4 with CIF3 enabled us to prepare chloryl hexafluororuthenate (V), CIO2+ RuF6-, a new compound well identified by vibrational spectroscopy (infra-red and Raman), the structure of which was determined. The reaction of KrF2 with RuO4 gave the oxide tetrafluoride RuOF4, the previously published syntheses and properties of which were not in agreement with each other. This compound was definitely characterized here by chemical analysis, infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The product of thermal decomposition (700C) of RuOF4 is presumably RuF4 since only oxygen is liberated during this decomposition. At last, the reaction of KrF2 with RuO2 probably leads to the formation of the new oxide fluoride RuO2F4. Indeed, no oxygen is given off during this reaction, the chemical analysis of the red-orange coloured solid residue is almost in agreement with the one proposed and its infra-red absorption spectrum indicates the presence of ruthenium-oxygen and ruthenium-terminal and bridging fluorine bonds

  11. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT LEAD (II) IN POTABLE WATER? HEXAFLUOROSILICATE AND FLUORIDE EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafluorosilicate hydrolysi...

  12. Effects of alternating periods of high- and low- fluoride ingestion on dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Carlson, J.R.; Faltin, E.C.

    1972-01-01

    Two- and five-month old Holstein heifers were exposed to different intake patterns of dietary fluoride for 6 years. None of the fluoride treatments affected growth rate or reproduction. There was no consistent effect on milk production. Plasma fluoride concentrations closely followed current fluoride intake. Urinary fluoride concentrations varied with intake but remained elevated during low intake. Skeletal fluoride retention was directly related to total fluoride intake and not to pattern of intake. The degree of dental fluorosis was related to the amount of fluoride fed and to the plasma fluoride concentration at the time each incisor was developing. The most severe effects of fluoride ingestion were in high and low intake. These animals had severly worn molar teeth, extensive osteofluorosis, and they experienced periods of extreme lameness. Short periods of high fluoride intake balanced by periods of lower intake were more damaging to cattle than constant exposure to the same average yearly intake.

  13. Effects of fluoride on proliferation and mineralization in periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K Q; Jia, S S; Ma, M; Shen, H Z; Xu, L; Liu, G P; Huang, S Y; Zhang, D S

    2016-07-11

    Fluoride, which is often added to toothpaste or mouthwash in order to protect teeth from decay, may be a novel therapeutic approach for acceleration of periodontal regeneration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of fluoride on proliferation and mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells in vitro. The periodontal ligament cells were stimulated with various concentrations of NaF added into osteogenic inductive medium. Immunohistochemistry of cell identification, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Alizarin red S staining and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed. Moderate concentrations of NaF (50-500 μmol/L) had pro-proliferation effects, while 500 μmol/L had the best effects. ALP activity and calcium content were significantly enhanced by 10 μmol/L NaF with osteogenic inductive medium. Quantitative RT-PCR data varied in genes as a result of different NaF concentrations and treatment periods. We conclude that moderate concentrations of NaF can stimulate proliferation and mineralization in periodontal ligament cells. These in vitro findings may provide a novel therapeutic approach for acceleration of periodontal regeneration by addition of suitable concentrations of NaF into the medication for periodontitis treatment, i.e., into periodontal packs and tissue patches. PMID:27409336

  14. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H3PO4) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  15. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jie [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang Jiecheng; Liu Xiaochen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma Jian [Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Liu Changsheng [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Fang Jing, E-mail: biomater2006@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: nic7505@263.net [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  16. Computational investigation of the role of fluoride in Tamao oxidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Mary M.; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2002-01-01

    The Tamao oxidation of alkoxysilanes was investigated computationally to determine the role of fluoride. a key additive. in this reaction. A sequence of fluoride equilibria as well as possible transition states. mediated by basic and neutral peroxide, respectively, were examined, and a potential...

  17. Methods of controlling hydrogen fluoride pressure during chemical fabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Wiesmann, Harold

    2009-11-24

    The present invention is a method for producing a crystalline end-product. The method comprising exposing a fluoride-containing precursor to a hydrogen fluoride absorber under conditions suitable for the conversion of the precursor into the crystalline end-product.

  18. 7 CFR 305.8 - Sulfuryl fluoride treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulfuryl fluoride treatment schedules. 305.8 Section 305.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... fluoride treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Pressure Temperature ( °F) Dosage rate(lb/1000 cubic...

  19. Fluoride uptake from restorative dental materials by human enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the uptake in vitro of fluoride from restorative materials by tooth enamel and whether prior etching of the enamel causes a change of uptake. The outermost layer of the labial surface of extracted canines was removed by grinding and the enamel was covered with five different fluoride-containing materials ; a silicate, a composite resin, an amalgam, a silicophosphate, and a polycarboxylate luting cement. The material was either removed immediately or after storing the tooth in distilled water. The fluoride content was determined using a sensitive physical method based on the 19F (p, αγ) 16O reaction. In addition, the fluoride content of enamel after etching for different periods of time and of etched enamel which had been in contact with silicate cement was determined. The mean fluoride content of uncovered interior enamel was 226 parts 106. All materials, except the composite, increased clearly the fluoride content of the underlying enamel. Etching of interior enamel also increased the fluoride values. No difference could be shown in fluoride uptake from silicate and composite resin between etched and unetched enamel. (author)

  20. KINETICS OF SORPTION OF FLUORIDE ON CALCINED MAGNESITE IN BATCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singano, J. J.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mtalo, F. W.;

    1997-01-01

    A series of sorption of fluoride on calcined magnesite are obtained from thermostatic pH-chemostat and jar test experiments. The fluoride removal is observed not to start instantly, as normal, but after a lag time of up to ½ an hour of contact time. A model for sorption kinetics is developed, bas...

  1. Fluoride release by glass ionomer cements, compomer and giomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion:Fuji IX, Fuji VII, Fuji IX Extra, and Fuji II LC released higher amounts of fluoride compared to Beautifil and Dyract Extra in this study. It seems that the extent of the glass ionomer matrix plays an important role in determining the fluoride releasing ability of glass ionomer cement materials.

  2. Fluoride Analysis. Training Module 5.200.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with fluoride analysis procedures. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts, and a list of reference material. This module considers the determination of fluoride in water supplies using the SPANDS and electrode…

  3. Obstacles to extending fluoridation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, M E

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to describe the current extent of water fluoridation in the United States; (2) to address the major obstacles to attaining 75 per cent fluoridation by the year 2000. While 62.1 per cent of the US population has access to fluoridated public water systems, more than 32 million people need to be added to the fluoridation census, primarily from the cities. The legal framework for implementing fluoridation is considered at the state level; a review of fluoridation actions at the local level is presented. The impact of forces affecting the extension of fluoridation in the United States is described: (1) demographic trends--urbanisation, race, ethnicity, language, immigration, age, education levels, housing, income and poverty levels; (2) external environmental forces/political climate; (3) media influence on public opinion and public policy; (4) voter apathy/lack of awareness of the benefits of fluoridation; (5) perceptions of risks vs. benefits; (6) lack of political campaign skills; and (7) legal issues.

  4. Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.R. Buzalaf; J.P. Pessan; H.M. Honório; J.M. ten Cate

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride was introduced into dentistry over 70 years ago, and it is now recognized as the main factor responsible for the dramatic decline in caries prevalence that has been observed worldwide. However, excessive fluoride intake during the period of tooth development can cause dental fluorosis. In o

  5. Poisoning by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, D.; He, Y.G.; Hu, Q.X. [Guizhou Sanitary and Epidemiological Station, Guiyang (China)

    1997-02-01

    An investigation was made into a disease involving skin pigmentation, keratosis of the hands and feet, dental discoloration, and generalized bone and joint pain, stiffness and rigidity, in the village of Bazhi, Zhijin County, Ghizhou Province, People`s Republic of China. Measurements were made of the arsenic and fluoride levels of coal, water, air, food, urine and hair in Bazhi and a control village, Xinzhai, in which coal with a low arsenic content was used. Up to 188 people, including children, in Bazhi and 752 in Xinzhai, were examined for the presence of chronic arsenium, skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis and electrocardiogram abnormalities. The coal in Bazhi was found to contain high levels of arsenic and fluoride resulting, after burning in homes without an adequate chimney systems, in pollution of air and food with arsenic and fluoride. The coal in Xinzhai did not cause arsenic pollution but did produce a higher level of fluoride pollution. It was concluded that the endemic disease in Bazhi was caused by pollution by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride. It is suggested that arsenic may act synergistically with fluoride so that a lower level of fluoride may produce fluoride toxicity with dental and skeletal fluorosis.

  6. Fluoride inhibits the response of bone cells to mechanical loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.E. Willems; E.G.H.M. van den Heuvel; S. Castelein; J. Keverling Buisman; A.L.J.J. Bronckers; A.D. Bakker; J. Klein-Nulend

    2011-01-01

    The response of bone cells to mechanical loading is mediated by the cytoskeleton. Since the bone anabolic agent fluoride disrupts the cytoskeleton, we investigated whether fluoride affects the response of bone cells to mechanical loading, and whether this is cytoskeleton mediated. The mechano-respon

  7. Role of Fish Oil against Physiological Disturbances in Rats Brain Induced by Sodium Fluoride and/or Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of environmental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and to long-term intake of high levels of fluoride have caused health problems and increasingly alarming in recent years. Fish oil omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids essential fatty acids) is found in the highest concentrations in fish oil, claim a plethora of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on sodium fluoride (NaF) and or gamma (γ) rays in inducing neurological and biochemical disturbances in rat’s brain cerebral hemispheres. The results revealed that whole body exposure to γ- radiation at 6 Gy applied as fractionated doses (1.5 Gy x 4 times) and/or chronic receipt of NaF solution (0.13 mg/Kg/day) for a period of 28 days, significantly increased brain fluoride and calcium content, decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and induced brain oxidative stress which led to neurotransmitters dysfunction. Supplementation of treated rats with fish oil, via gavages, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt has significantly modulated oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alterations. It could be concluded that EPA and DHA, found in fish oil, could possibly protect brain from damaging free radicals and consequently minimize the severity of brain biochemical disturbances

  8. Uptake of fluoride into developing sheep teeth, following the 1995 volcanic eruption of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, G. E.; Cutress, T. W.; Suckling, G. W.

    1997-07-01

    In the southern Spring of 1995 (mid-October) the active volcano Mt Ruapehu in the central North Island of New Zealand erupted explosively, spreading up to 40 million m 3 of rhyolite tephra over thousands of km 2 of farmland during the lambing season. This ash contained a high concentration of soluble fluoride, and more than 2000 lactating ewes died of acute fluoride poisoning. To investigate the effects of this brief but acute dose on the teeth of grazing animals we examined the distributions of fluorine and calcium in the permanent incisor teeth of sheep which were one year old at the time. Where part of an incisor had been in the first (secretory) stage of calcification the erupted tooth disclosed surface pitting, a thin layer of enriched mineral across the enamel with as much as 1000 ppm F w/w, and a separate layer with ˜4000 ppm down the dentine. The part of an incisor which had attained the later (maturation) stage showed enriched layers only in the outer enamel and in the dentine. This study has demonstrated some important features of the calcification process, and the risk of fluoride toxicity to grazing animals.

  9. Synthesis and crystal structures of novel LaOAgS-type alkaline earth – Zinc, manganese, and cadmium fluoride pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charkin, Dmitri O., E-mail: charkin@inorg.chem.msu.ru; Urmanov, Arthur V.; Plokhikh, Igor V.; Korshunov, Alexander D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey N.; Kazakov, Sergey M.

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Sight new alkaline earth – Mn, Zn, Cd fluoride pnictides were prepared. • All new compounds adopt the LaOAgS structure type. • Bond distances in their structures are transferable within 2–3%. • Very close similarities are observed in structural chemistry of LaOAgS- and HfCuSi{sub 2}-type compounds of Mn, Cu, Zn, Ag, and Cd. -- Abstract: Systematic studies of the LaOAgS-type compounds among alkaline earth – Zn/Cd/Mn fluoride pnictides revealed the existence of new representatives SrFMnP, SrFMnAs, SrFMnSb, SrFZnAs, SrFZnSb, BaFZnAs, BaFCdP, and BaFCdAs. Similar to rare-earth oxide compounds and contrary to isolobal chalcogenides of Cu/Ag, not all possible compositions could be realized. No compound of the structure type is formed for calcium; strontium forms fluoride pnictides only with zinc and manganese, while for barium, new representatives are also formed with cadmium. This trend, which possibly has a geometrical origin, is corroborated by quantum chemical calculations. Formation of NdOZnP-type compounds also was not observed suggesting the structure to be characteristic only for rare earth – zinc oxide phosphides.

  10. The status of community water fluoridation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, M W

    1990-01-01

    Community water fluoridation has served the American public extremely well as the cornerstone of dental caries prevention activities for 45 years. The dental and general health benefits associated with the ingestion of water-borne fluorides have been well known by researchers for an even longer period. Continued research has repeatedly confirmed the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of community water fluoridation in preventing dental caries for Americans regardless of age, race, ethnicity, religion, educational status, or socioeconomic level. Despite the obvious benefits associated with this proven public health measure, slow progress has been made toward achieving the 1990 national fluoridation objectives as listed in "Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for the Nation." This paper documents the lagging pace of community fluoridation by reviewing and analyzing data reported in "Fluoridation Census, 1985," a document published in late 1988 by the Public Health Service's Centers for Disease Control. Failure to attain the 1990 objectives is attributable to a combination of circumstances, including their low priority within many local, State, and Federal health agencies, inadequate funding at all levels of government, lack of a coordinated and focused national fluoridation effort, failure of most States to require fluoridation, lack of Federal legislation mandating fluoridation, general apathy of most health professional organizations toward fluoridation, misconceptions by the public about effectiveness and safety and, finally, unrelenting opposition by a highly vocal minority of the lay public. In addition, fluoridation successes have not been consistent among States, with wide variation in accomplishments documented in the reported data.While fluoridation still is one of the most cost effective public health measures available to local,State, and Federal public health agencies, it remains significantly underused nearly a half century after its

  11. LUMINESCENCE IN POTENTIAL FLUORIDE GLASS LASERS

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Fluoride glasses of the zirconium barium lanthanide type (invented Rennes, 1975) and lead gallium zinc (or manganese) type (invented Le Mans, 1979) show luminescence of lanthanide J-Levels situated at least 2000 cm-1 above the closest lower level (this limit is a few times larger in most other materials). Not only is the non-radiative de-excitation as weak as incrystalline LaF3 (studied by Weber) but energy transfer between neodymium and ytterbium (III), or from manganese (II), and to some ex...

  12. Electrorecovery of tantalum in molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the privileged situation of Brazil as a productor of tantaliferous minerals, the authors have in view the development of a technology for production of metallic tantalum via molten salts electrolysis; this has the advantage of improving the aggregate value of exportation products, additionally to tantalum oxide and tantalum concentrates. Having in view the preliminary determintion of better conditions of temperature, electrolyte composition and current density for this process, electrolysis were conducted with a solvent composed of an eutetic mixture of lithium, sodium and potassium fluoride for dipotassium fluotantalate and occasionally for tantalum oxide. Current efficiencies as high as 83% were obtained in favoured conditions. (author)

  13. Fluoride microresonators for mid-IR applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Yu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    We study crystalline fluoride microresonators for mid-infrared applications. Whispering gallery mode resonators were fabricated with BaF$_2$, CaF$_2$ and MgF$_2$ crystals. The quality factors were measured at wavelengths of 1.56 {\\mu}m and 4.58 {\\mu}m. The impacts of fabrication technique, impurities, multiphonon absorption and surface water are investigated. It is found that MgF2 resonators have room temperature Q factor of $8.3\\times 10^6$ at wavelength of 4.58 {\\mu}m, limited by multiphonon absorption.

  14. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002......-2008 using "fluoride toothpaste", "fluoride dentifrice" and "fluoride dental cream" as index terms. Relevant publications were identified after assessment of their abstracts. Papers were selected if they reported a prospective controlled design with caries data reported at baseline and at the end...... of the study. The targeted papers were critically assessed concerning design, methodology and performance according to a pre-determined checklist. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 179 papers of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence that daily use of fluoride toothpaste has...

  15. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality with respect to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, P R; Maurya, A; Kumbhare, P S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2008-09-01

    The study was conducted in the summer season (April-May 2007). The fluoride concentration along with physico-chemical parameters in ground water samples was determined in various villages of Kadi tehsil at Mehsana district of Gujarat state (India), since in most of the villages it is the only source of drinking water. The fluoride concentrations in these villages varied from 0.94 to 2.81 mg/L (1.37+/-0.56) with highest fluoride level at Visalpur (2.08 mg/L) and lowest at Adaraj (0.91 mg/L). There was found a positive correlation of pH with fluoride and a negative relationship of fluoride with bicarbonate which is generally observed in deep ground water.

  17. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolán Bánóczy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.

  18. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age. PMID:18078140

  19. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish.

  20. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Product List'' section of the Orange Book. In previous instances (see, e.g., 72 FR 9763, March 5, 2007; 61 FR 25497, May 21, 1996), the Agency has determined that, for purposes of Sec. Sec. 314.161 and 314... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride...

  1. Luminescence in potential fluoride glass lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoride glasses of the zirconium barium lanthanide type (invented Rennes, 1975) and lead gallium zinc (or manganese) type (invented Le Mans, 1979) show luminescence of lanthanide J-Levels situated at least 2000 cm-1 above the closest lower level (this limit is a few times larger in most other materials). Not only is the non-radiative de-excitation as weaK as in crystalline LaF3 (studied by Weber) but energy transfer between neodymium and ytterbium(III), or from manganese(II), and to some extent from chromium(III), to luminescent J-levels of neodymium(III), erbium(III) and thullium(III) is highly efficient even at low concentrations. One advantage for laser applications is that the lowest quartet state of manganese(II) has a life-time 10 to 15 milliseconds (like in many phosphate glasses and crystalline compounds) allowing energy transfer, extending by huge factors the average life-time of the emitting J-levels. Though the tera-watt lasers (Livermore, California, 1978) inducing deuterium-tritium fusion are silicate glass containing neodymium(III), fluoride glasses should be preferable for many purposes. The evaluation of laser parameters from small-scale experimentation is feasible

  2. Polyvinylidene fluoride - a polymer as transducer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinylidene fluoride or PVDF is a flexible, thin piezo film and long chain semicrystalline polymer containing repeated of CH/sub 2/ - CH/sub 2/. In order to obtain desired piezoelectric properties PVDF is poled by subjecting it to high electric field. In poled PVDF piezoelectric constants have different values for each axis and one constant per axis. PVDF polymer exhibits generator and motor action. Usually 1000 A /sup o/ thick vacuum-deposited aluminum electrodes are formed on both sides of the sheet. Polymer material of PVDF can be used as a sensing element with temperature range of -40 /sup 0/ C to 100 /sup 0/C and a frequency range of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -9/ Hz. This paper includes as experimental observation of exciting aluminium open-ended tube at its resonance using PVDF transducer and maintained in this condition using phase lock loop or PLL. The tube is free to resonate when 9-micrometer thin polyvinylidene fluoride transducer is energized. It is observed that a film of such material can easily be used to produced the requisite vibrations in the tube. (author)

  3. Lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles for radiosensitization of tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinov, Konstantin; Bekah, Devesh; Cooper, Daniel; Shastry, Sathvik; Hill, Colin; Bradforth, Stephen; Nadeau, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Dense inorganic nanoparticles have recently been identified as promising radiosensitizers. In addition to dose enhancement through increased attenuation of ionizing radiation relative to biological tissue, scintillating nanoparticles can transfer energy to coupled photosensitizers to amplify production of reactive oxygen species, as well as provide UVvisible emission for optical imaging. Lanthanum fluoride is a transparent material that is easily prepared as nanocrystals, and which can provide radioluminescence at a number of wavelengths through simple substitution of lanthanum ions with other luminescent lanthanides. We have prepared lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles doped with cerium, terbium, or both, that have good spectral overlap with chlorine6 or Rose Bengal photosensitizer molecules. We have also developed a strategy for stable conjugation of the photosensitizers to the nanoparticle surface, allowing for high energy transfer efficiencies on a per molecule basis. Additionally, we have succeeded in making our conjugates colloidally stable under physiological conditions. Here we present our latest results, using nanoparticles and nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates to demonstrate radiation dose enhancement in B16 melanoma cells. The effects of nanoparticle treatment prior to 250 kVp x-ray irradiation were investigated through clonogenic survival assays and cell cycle analysis. Using a custom apparatus, we have also observed scintillation of the nanoparticles and conjugates under the same conditions that the cell samples are irradiated.

  4. Research of the surface properties of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene modified with radio-frequency magnetron sputtering for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverdokhlebov, S.I., E-mail: tverd@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Bolbasov, E.N.; Shesterikov, E.V.; Malchikhina, A.I. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Novikov, V.A. [Tomsk State University, 634050, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Anissimov, Y.G. [School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for surface modification of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of hydroxyapatite target is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is demonstrated that the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene surface becomes hydrophilic as the result of the modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown, using atomic force microscopy that the surface potential biases into positive value field and the surface roughness parameters increase as the result of the modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro testing has not found bio-toxicity of investigated surfaces - Abstract: The properties of thin calcium-phosphate coatings formed by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a solid target made from hydroxyapatite on the surface of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene (VDF-TeFE) were investigated. Atomic force microscopy energy dispersive analysis and optical goniometry showed that deposited calcium-phosphate coatings change significantly the morphological, electrical, chemical, and contact properties of the surface of the initial polymeric substrates. These modified surfaces widen the scope of medical application of the thermoplastic copolymer.

  5. Uptake of fluoride by human surface enamel from ammonium bifluoride and consequent reduction in the penetration in vitro by caries-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, J E; Poole, D F

    1984-01-01

    In-vitro fluoride uptake by mid-coronal, premolar enamel surfaces from topically-applied solutions of NH4HF2 was determined using a multi-electrode system for fluoride and calcium analyses. In tooth surfaces dehydrated with 100 per cent ethanol before the topical application of 1 per cent aqueous NH4HF2, there was a 2-3-fold increase in fluoride concentration up to a depth of 50 microns and fluoride enhancement to a total depth of 100 microns into the enamel. Caries-like lesions were induced in vitro in both treated and untreated enamel by the use of acidified, 6 per cent hydroxymethyl-cellulose gel containing 0.04 per cent hydroxyapatite at pH 4.5. After 120 days exposure, the mean depth of lesion penetration in the controls was 149 (+/- 34) microns. No lesions occurred in half the treated specimens; in specimens with lesions, the mean depth of penetration was 19 (+/- 3) microns. Thus, NH4HF2 was a potent inhibitor of caries-like lesion formation in vitro.

  6. Enrichment of fluoride in groundwater under the impact of saline water intrusion at the salt lake area of Yuncheng basin, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xubo; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian; Guo, Qinghai

    2007-12-01

    Long-term intake of high-fluoride groundwater causes endemic fluorosis. This study, for the first time, discovered that the salt lake water intrusion into neighboring shallow aquifers might result in elevation of fluoride content of the groundwater. Two cross-sections along the groundwater flow paths were selected to study the geochemical processes controlling fluoride concentration in Yuncheng basin, northern China. There are two major reasons for the observed elevation of fluoride content: one is the direct contribution of the saline water; the other is the undersaturation of the groundwater with respect to fluorite due to salt water intrusion, which appears to be more important reason. The processes of the fluorine activity reduction and the change of Na/Ca ratio in groundwater induced by the intrusion of saline water favor further dissolution of fluorine-bearing mineral, and it was modeled using PHREEQC. With the increase in Na concentration (by adding NaCl or Na2SO4 as Na source, calcium content kept invariable), the increase of NaF concentration was rapid at first and then became slower; and the concentrations of HF, HF{2/-}, CaF+, and MgF+ were continuously decreasing. The geochemical conditions in the study area are advantageous to the complexation of F- with Na+ and the decline of saturation index of CaF2, regardless of the water type (Cl-Na or SO4-Na type water).

  7. Influence of Calcium Phosphate and Apatite Containing Products on Enamel Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kensche

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of erosion prevention the present study aimed to compare the efficacy of two biomimetic products and a fluoride solution to optimize the protective properties of the pellicle. After 1 min of in situ pellicle formation on bovine enamel slabs, 8 subjects adopted CPP-ACP (GC Tooth Mousse, a mouthwash with hydroxyapatite microclusters (Biorepair, or a fluoride based mouthwash (elmex Kariesschutz for 1 min each. Afterwards, samples were exposed in the oral cavity for 28 min. Native enamel slabs and slabs exposed to the oral cavity for 30 min without any rinse served as controls. After oral exposure, slabs were incubated in HCl (pH values 2, 2.3, and 3 for 120 s and kinetics of calcium and phosphate release were measured photometrically; representative samples were evaluated by SEM and TEM. The physiological pellicle reduced demineralization at all pH values; the protective effect was enhanced by fluoride. The biomimetic materials also reduced ion release but their effect was less pronounced. SEM indicated no layer formation after use of the different products. However, TEM confirmed the potential accumulation of mineral components at the pellicle surface. The tested products improve the protective properties of the in situ pellicle but not as effectively as fluorides.

  8. Influence of Calcium Phosphate and Apatite Containing Products on Enamel Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, A.; Pötschke, S.; Hannig, C.; Richter, G.; Hoth-Hannig, W.; Hannig, M.

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of erosion prevention the present study aimed to compare the efficacy of two biomimetic products and a fluoride solution to optimize the protective properties of the pellicle. After 1 min of in situ pellicle formation on bovine enamel slabs, 8 subjects adopted CPP-ACP (GC Tooth Mousse), a mouthwash with hydroxyapatite microclusters (Biorepair), or a fluoride based mouthwash (elmex Kariesschutz) for 1 min each. Afterwards, samples were exposed in the oral cavity for 28 min. Native enamel slabs and slabs exposed to the oral cavity for 30 min without any rinse served as controls. After oral exposure, slabs were incubated in HCl (pH values 2, 2.3, and 3) for 120 s and kinetics of calcium and phosphate release were measured photometrically; representative samples were evaluated by SEM and TEM. The physiological pellicle reduced demineralization at all pH values; the protective effect was enhanced by fluoride. The biomimetic materials also reduced ion release but their effect was less pronounced. SEM indicated no layer formation after use of the different products. However, TEM confirmed the potential accumulation of mineral components at the pellicle surface. The tested products improve the protective properties of the in situ pellicle but not as effectively as fluorides. PMID:27430013

  9. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around fluoride-containing dental materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kinugawa, M.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Satou, T.; Oikawa, S.; Kamiya, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Using PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma Emission) technique at TARRI (Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute), Japan, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around two fluoride-containing materials during caries progression using pH cycling. Class V cavities in extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing materials (i.e. 'Fuji IX' (FN) and 'UniFil flow with MEGA bond' (UF)) and a non-fluoride-containing material (i.e. 'SOLARE with MEGA bond' (SO)). Three 120 {mu}m longitudinal sections including the filling material were obtained from each tooth. In order to simulate daily acid attack occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The F and calcium distributions of the specimens were evaluated using PIGE and PIXE techniques. The F distribution of the specimens clearly showed the F uptake from FN into enamel adjacent to the filling material, while the F uptakes from UF and SO were not detected. For UF, the MEGA bond (non-fluoride-containing) between the tooth and UniFil flow interfered with the F absorption into the tooth. For FN, the amount of F uptake into the subsurface enamel increased during pH cycling. The amount of F uptake in 5-week pH cycling had significantly higher value compared to those in 1- and 3-week pH cycling. For UF and SO, there were no significant differences between the different durations of pH cycling. Among fluoride-containing materials, there were some differences in the F uptake with increased pH cycling, which could possibly lead to obtaining difference in clinical performance. The data obtained using PIGE and PIXE techniques were useful in understanding the benefit of fluorine by means of fluoride-containing material for preventing caries.

  10. 21 CFR 355.70 - Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug... Procedures § 355.70 Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug products. (a) A fluoride dentifrice drug... tests: Enamel solubility reduction or fluoride enamel uptake. The testing procedures for...

  11. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  12. Microdialysis Procedure to Investigate the Extent of Neutralization of Palliative Calcium Gluconate Following Ophthalmic Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navpreet Pandher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The performance and validity of the microdialysis system in a time based calibration of the fluoride ion permeation inside the sheep eye following hydrofluoric acid burn was tested. The HF diffusion was measured in microdialysate samples after exposure to 0.15 ml of acid followed by neutralization with calcium gluconate formulations. The in vitro and in situ probe calibration and integrity test were performed. Methods: The stability of 10 BAS microdialysis probes was tested with 0.05 M HF by calculating the in vitro probe recovery. The effect of flow rate variation on recovery of fluoride ions was evaluated by performing an in vitro study for 0.01 M HF, with a constant sample volume of 40 μl at flow rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μl/min. The in situ probe calibration was performed on the aqueous and vitreous humor samples of the sheep eye, which could provide the baseline fluoride concentrations required for the calcium gluconate therapy. Two different formulations, solution (2.5% and 5.0% w/v calcium gluconate and the 3% HPMC gel containing 2.5% w/v calcium gluconate were subjected to neutralization potential study. Results: The BAS probe was accurate and stable with a CV of 0.44-2.45%. A flow rate of 4.0 μl/min can be used for fluoride permeation study. The results showed that the MD probe is capable of dialyzing the acid without interacting with the probe. The in situ testing showed that the HPMC based calcium gluconate formulation showed longer residence time compared to the solution form. Conclusions: The microdialysis technique can be used to ascertain the fluoride ions penetrating in the HF-burnt eyes. The increase in amount of calcium ions available on eye surface, increases the free acid neutralization; the gel preparation being better than the solution of same concentration.

  13. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  14. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  15. High Fluoride Dentifrices for Elderly and Vulnerable Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this work is to present the available evidence that toothpastes containing >1,500 ppm fluoride (2,500-2,800 and 5,000 ppm F) provide an additional caries preventive effect on root caries lesions in elderly patients compared to traditional dentifrices (1,000-1,450 ppm F). The se......The primary aim of this work is to present the available evidence that toothpastes containing >1,500 ppm fluoride (2,500-2,800 and 5,000 ppm F) provide an additional caries preventive effect on root caries lesions in elderly patients compared to traditional dentifrices (1,000-1,450 ppm F......). The secondary aim of this paper is to discuss why high fluoride dentifrices in general should perform better than traditional F-containing toothpaste. When examining the few studies that have considered the preventive benefits of high fluoride products on root caries the relative risk appears to be around 0.......5, and the risk can thus be halved by exchanging traditional F-containing toothpaste for toothpaste containing 5,000 ppm F. There is reasonable evidence that high fluoride dentifrices significantly increase the fluoride concentration in saliva during the day and the fluoride concentration in plaque compared...

  16. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and developm......Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research...... and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently......, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on...

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline mixed metal fluorides in nonaqueous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neetu Tyagi; Epsita Ghanti; Nikesh Gupta; N P Lalla; Rajamani Nagarajan

    2009-12-01

    Synthesis of mixed metal fluorides of the general formula, KMF3 (M = Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn), possessing perovskite structure was investigated in non-aqueous medium. The fluorides were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT–IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM. Monophasic cubic phases were obtained for the central metal ions such as Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn and a tetragonally distorted phase was observed for Cu. The usage of non-aqueous medium is advantageous for the bulk synthesis of these fluorides, since it eliminated the generation and handling of the hazardous HF that has usually been encountered during aqueous preparations. The average crystallite size of the fluorides obtained by this approach was estimated to be in the range of 9–30 nm. SEM micrographs of KZnF3 showed cubic morphology of perovskite phases. TEM studies on KCuF3 confirmed the presence of tetragonal distortion. The fluoride content was determined by titrimetry and found to be nearly stoichiometric. Some of these fluorides were found to be thermally stable up to 225°C in air. These fluorides were employed as fluorinating agents in organic fluorination reactions, thereby suggesting their possible utilization for selective fluorination of aliphatic and aromatic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) that are industrially relevant.

  18. Fluoride Levels of Mothers' Breast Milk in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada, Z A Soliman and Tamer M M Saad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride exists naturally in water sources and is derived from fluorine. It is well known that fluoride helps, prevent and even reverse the early stages of tooth decay. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride levels in plasma and breast milk of lactating mothers in Egypt (Cairo and Giza Governorate. Material and Methods: Two hundred healthy lactating mothers aged between 20-40 years old were asked to give plasma and milk samples voluntary. Breast milk samples were directly refrigerated until measurements. The fluoride concentrations of plasma, milk and drinking tap water were assessed using an ion-selective fluoride electrode combined with an ion analyzer. Results: The fluoride levels of plasma, breast milk and drinking tap water samples were 0.0207±0.012, 0.0111±0.0044 ppm, and 0.482±0.117 ppm, respectively. A significant direct correlation between fluoride content in breast milk and drinking tap water was found (r=0.858, p< 0.01.

  19. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  20. Amelioration of Fluoride Toxicity with the Use of Indigenous Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitra A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was undertaken to study the efficacy of bacterial consortia isolated from different sources viz. rhizosphere of rice plant, oil spill sites of a petrol pump and from the sludge of a pharmaceutical waste water drain against the impact of fluoride. The experiments were conducted with two crops. In this mung bean experiment Vigna radiata was selected as a test crop. The seeds were sown in the field with bacterial consortia, compost and reduced dose (25% less nitrogen than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. After 30days of seed sowing (DAS, plants were collected from the field and dipped into the sodium fluoride solution with different concentrations for 48 hours. Thereafter, the impact of fluoride on chlorophyll, sugar, proline and relative water content (% were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the stem section was performed. SEM studies revealed that anatomical structure deformed with 1.5 mg/l sodium fluoride solution. It was observed that such treatment combination during the sowing of crops leads to combat the impact of lower doses of sodium fluoride (0.2 mg/l. Another experiment was also conducted within plastic pots with and without bacterial consortia isolated from rhizosphere of rice plant and oil spilled soil of petrol pump with the same field soil. Each pot was filled with 5 kg of soil + 2lt of water (on the basis of soil saturation. Oryza sativa seedlings were transplanted with different strength of sodium fluoride solution (25 mgNaF/kg, 50 mgNaF/kg, 100 mgNaF/kg and 500mgNaF/kg within the above pots. In second experiment, rice plants dried in all pots after 500 mgNaF/kg concentration of sodium fluoride. In this pot experiment bacterial strain are capable of reducing fluoride content in soil as noted by measuring fluoride in the pot soil after the experiment.

  1. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  2. Optical absorption and thermoluminescence in calcium fluoride doped with manganese and cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical absorption curves of CaF2 singly doped with Mn or Ce, and doubly doped with both Mn and Ce, show complex arrays of absorption bands after irradiation. In the Mn-only doped samples the absorption can be clearly related to Mn, whereas various forms of Ce centre dominate the radiation-induced absorption in the Ce-doped samples. However, in the doubly doped specimens only the Ce related absorptions can be seen. From these observations, along with thermal and optical bleaching measurements, we suggest that the Mn-related centres are Mn/F centre complexes. These are believed to be the centres responsible for the TL in dosimetry grade CaF2:Mn. Possible mechanisms for the TL production process are discussed. (author)

  3. Seawater intrusion and behaviour of dissolved boron, fluoride, calcium, magnesium and nutrients in Vashisti Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Ram, A.; Sharma, P.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    and Mg at low chlorinities. Upto 25% removal of B also occurred in the intermediate chlorinity range. Mineralization of organic matter in the mid-estuarine region supplemented the nutrient budget of the estuary along with that associated with the tidal...

  4. Dynamics recording of holographic gratings in a photochromic crystal of calcium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladimir N.; Barausova, Ekaterina V.; Veniaminov, Andrey V.; Andervaks, Alexandr E.; Shcheulin, Alexandr S.; Ryskin, Alexandr I.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamics of diffraction efficiency was monitored during recording a holographic grating in additively coloured CaF2 photochromic crystal at 180-200°C. Reciprocity failure revealed in the study was attributed to diffusion playing the crucial role in grating formation: recording at larger laser power goes faster but requires more energy. The efficiency of a recorded hologram is found to depend on the temperature; maximum diffraction is measured at the temperature far below that of recording, supposedly because of dramatic distortions suffered by the crystal along with exposure.

  5. Phase Transition and Melting Curves of Calcium Fluoride via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhao-Yi; CHEN Xiang-Rong; ZHU Jun; Hu Cui-E

    2008-01-01

    The phase transition and melting curves of CaF2 are investigated by using the general utility lattice programme(GULP)via the shell model with molecular dynamics method.By calculating the entropy H(at 0K)and Gibbs free energy G*(at 300K),we find that the phase transition pressure from the face-centred cubic(fcc)structure to the orthorhombic structure is 11.40 GPa and 9.33 GPa at 0K and 300K,respectively.The modified melting point of the fcc CaF2 is in the range of 1650-1733K at 0 GPa.All these results are well consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results.We also obtain that the melting temperature of hihg pressure phase is 990-1073K at 10 GPa.Moreover,the temperature dependences of the elastic constants Cij,bulk module B and shear module G are also predicted.

  6. Lattice dynamics and thermal conductivity of calcium fluoride via first-principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Tian; Cheng, Yan; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Wei, Dong-Qing; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2016-03-01

    The lattice thermal conductivity of CaF2 is accurately computed from a first-principles theoretical approach based on an iterative solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The second- and third-order interatomic force constants are generated from a real-space finite-difference supercell approach. Then, the force constants for both the second- and third-order potential interactions are used to calculate the lattice thermal conductivity and related physical quantities of CaF2 at temperatures ranging from 30 K to 1500 K. The obtained lattice thermal conductivity 8.6 W/(m.K) for CaF2 at room temperature agrees better with the experimental value than other theoretical data, demonstrating the promise of this parameter-free approach in providing precise descriptions of the lattice thermal conductivity of materials. The obtained dielectric parameters and phonon spectrum of CaF2 accord well with available data. Meanwhile, the temperature dependence curves of the lattice thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and phonon mean free path are presented.

  7. Dielectric relaxation in ytterbium- and lead-doped calcium fluoride crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stef, Marius; Nicoara, Irina; Stef, Florica

    2013-04-01

    YbF3-doped and 1 mol% PbF2 co-doped CaF2 crystals were grown by vertical Bridgman method using a shaped graphite furnace in vacuum. Dielectric spectra and optical absorption spectra were measured in order to study the influence of Pb2+ ions on the charge compensating defects formation. The influence of Pb2+ ions on the various charge compensating defects depend on the YbF3 concentration. For low YbF3 concentrations the influence is stronger than for concentrations higher than 1 mol% YbF3. Dielectric relaxation in double doped (Yb,Pb):CaF2 crystals in order the study the charge compensating defects formation was not reported before.

  8. Photo-transfer of Tl grade natural calcium fluoride by induced ultra-violet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural CaF2 shows four main glow peaks. The third one (P3) at 453 K is considered as the dosimetry peak. By deconvolution (CGCD) technique this peak could be analysed into 3 simple overlapping peaks at 440, 455 and 482 K. The kinetic parameters of these peaks have been calculated, like its activation energy (E), frequency factor (s), mean life time (τ) and the resonance escape probability (P). The chemical composition of CaF2 has been analysed specially the major elements as well as the trace elements. The photo-transfer phenomenon has been studied in some details. This transfer due to P3 with UV exposure increase with increasing time till 120 seconds then shows saturation. The rate of photo-transfer is increased by increasing the pre-gamma exposure. From the experimental results and theoretical calculations, it could be evaluated that the first part of P3 will be decayed after 5.05 years while the last part of the same peak could be disappear after 88.73 years when the irradiated Tl material is stored at 25 degree C.

  9. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Fluoride in Toddlers After Application of 5% Sodium Fluoride Dental Varnish

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Peter; Taves, Donald M.; Kim, Amy S.; Watson, Gene E; Jeremy A Horst

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for preventi...

  11. Graphene Fluoride: A Stable Stoichiometric Graphene Derivative and its Chemical Conversion to Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Zbořil, Radek; Karlický, František; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Steriotis, Theodore A.; Athanasios K. Stubos; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Šafářová, Klára; Jančík, Dalibor; Trapalis, Christos; Otyepka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Stoichoimetric graphene fluoride monolayers are obtained in a single step by the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite fluoride with sulfolane. Comparative quantum-mechanical calculations reveal that graphene fluoride is the most thermodynamically stable of five studied hypothetical graphene derivatives; graphane, graphene fluoride, bromide, chloride, and iodide. The graphene fluoride is transformed into graphene via graphene iodide, a spontaneously decomposing intermediate. The calculated ban...

  12. Solubility of fluorides of alkaline earth metals and some rare earths in anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility of fluorides of alkaline earth and some rare earth metals in anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid is studied. For each type of fluoride solubility depends on the ionic radius of the cation. Solubility of fluorides of alkaline earth metals grows from magnesium to barium. All the fluorides in anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid form solvates. Solvates of strontium and scandium fluorides are shown to decompose at 110 and 150 deg C respectively

  13. Fluoride and lead adsorption on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuguang; LI Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The properties and applications of CNT have been studied extensively since Iijima discovered them in 1991[1,2]. They have exceptional mechanical properties and unique electrical property, highly chemical stability and large specific surface area. Thus far, they have widely potential applications in many fields. They can be used as reinforcing materials in composites[3], field emissions[4], hydrogen storage[5], nanoelectronic components[6], catalyst supports[7], adsorption material and so on. However, the study on the potential application of CNT, environmental protection field in particular, was hardly begun.Long[8] et al. reported that CNT had a significantly higher dioxin removal efficiency than that of activated carbon. The Langmuir adsorption constant is 2.7 × 1052, 1.3 × 1018 respectively. The results indicated that CNT is potential candidate for the removal of micro-organic pollutants. However, the reports on the CNT used as fluoride and heavy metal adsorbent are seldom.In this paper, A novel material, alumina supported on carbon nanotubes (Al2O3/CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and Al(NO3)3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra demonstrate that alumina is amorphous, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that CNT and alumina are homogeneously mixed. Furthermore, the fluoride adsorption behavior on the surface of Al2O3/CNT has been investigated and compared with other adsorbents. The results indicate that Al2O3/CNT has a high adsorption capacity, with a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mg/g. It is also found that the adsorption capacity of Al2O3/CNT is 3.0~4.5 times that of γ-Al2O3while almost equal to that of IRA-410 polymeric resin at 25 ℃. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride on Al2O3/CNT is fit the Freundlich equation well, optimal pH ranging from 5.0 to 9.0.Also in this paper, a novel material, modified carbon nanotubes (CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and HNO3 under boiling condition. Infrared spectroscopy (IR

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of fluorides in water with Hach equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrophotometric method for the determination of the fluoride ion in water, demineralized water, raw waters, laundry waters and waters treated with ion exchange resins , using the technique and the SPADNS coloring indicated in the operation manual of the Hach equipment is described. This method covers the determination of the fluoride ion in the range from 0 to 2 mg/l on 25 ml. of radioactive base sample. These limits can be variable if the size of the used aliquot one is changed for the final determination of the fluoride ion. (Author)

  15. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  16. Fluorine-fixing efficiency on calcium-based briquette: pilot experiment, demonstration and promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiao-lan; CHEN Dong-qing; LI Shu-min; YUE Yin-ling; JIN Xin; ZHAO Bing-cheng; YING Bo

    2010-01-01

    Background The fluorosis derived from coal burning is a very serious problem in China. By using fluorine-fixing technology during coal burning we are able to reduce the release of fluorides in coal at the source in order to reduce pollution to the surrounding environment by coal burning pollutants as well as decrease the intake and accumulating amounts of fluorine in the human body. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot experiment on calcium-based fluorine-fixing material efficiency during coal burning to demonstrate and promote the technology based on laboratory research.Methods A proper amount of calcium-based fluorine sorbent was added into high-fluorine coal to form briquettes so that the fluorine in high-fluorine coal can be fixed in coal slag and its release into atmosphere reduced. We determined figures on various components in briquettes and fluorine in coal slag as well as the concentrations of indoor air pollutants, including fluoride, sulfur dioxide and respirable particulate matter (RPM), and evaluated the fluorine-fixing efficiency of calcium-based fluorine sorbents and the levels of indoor air pollutants.Results Pilot experiments on fluorine-fixing efficiency during coal burning as well as its demonstration and promotion were carried out separately in Guiding and Longli Counties of Guizhou Province, two areas with coal burning fluorosis problems. If the calcium-based fluorine sorbent mixed coal was made into honeycomb briquettes the average fluorine-fixing ratio in the pilot experiment was 71.8%. If the burning calcium-based fluorine-fixing bitumite was made into a coalball, the average of fluorine-fixing ratio was 77.3%. The concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 of indoor air were decreased significantly. There was a 10% increase in the cost of briquettes due to the addition of calcium-based fluorine sorbent.Conclusions The preparation process of calcium-based fluorine-fixing briquette is simple yet highly flammable and it is

  17. Determination of fluoride content in toothpaste using spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti Pudji Hastuti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intake excessive fluoride in children’s teeth are generally marked with white and brown patches. Excessive fluoride of more than 4.0 mg/L can cause a person suffering from poisoning, fragility of the bones (osteoporosis, liver and kidney damage. Knowledge about the spectrophotometry for determination method of fluoride content in commercially available toothpaste is very few. Purpose: The purposes of study were to examine the suitable method for fluoride extraction and to determine out the accuracy, precision, linearity, and stability of the measurement method of fluoride content in toothpaste. Methods: The suitable F extraction method was determined by the comparison among 3 methods of extraction; e.g. the dried samples were immersed in (1 distilled water, (2 96% HCl, and (3 96% HNO3; and the validation methods of measurement were the maximum wavelength, standart curve, accuracy test, precision test, and stability test. Results: Result showed that the fluoride extraction by using the concentrated HNO3 was found to have the highest levels of fluoride, followed by hydrochloric acid dissolution (HCl and distilled water, while the method of validation showed that SPADNS revealed the acceptable accuracy. Precision has the RSD ≤ 2.00%. Furthermore the stability test result showed that the measurement of fluoride less than 2 hours was still reliable. Conclusion: The study suggested that the best result of fluoride extraction from toothpaste could be gained by using concentrate HNO3, and the spectrophotometer (UV-Vis Mini Shimadzu U-1240 and SPADNS have the acceptable accuracy.Latar Belakang: Pemasukan fluoride yang berlebihan pada gigi anak ditandai dengan bercak putih dan coklat. Fluoride lebih dari 4.0 mg / L dapat menyebabkan seseorang menderita keracunan , kerapuhan tulang (osteoporosis, kerusakan hati dan ginjal. Pengetahuan tentang spektrofotometri untuk metode penentuan kadar fluoride dalam pasta gigi yang tersedia secara

  18. Using High Fluoride Concentration Products in Public Policy: A Rapid Review of Current Guidelines for High Fluoride Concentration Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gail V A; Ramsdale, Martin P; Vinall-Collier, Karen; Csikar, Julia I

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in dental caries levels since the widespread introduction of fluoride toothpastes, it is still a disease which is considered to be a priority in many countries around the world. Individuals at higher risk of caries can be targeted with products with a high fluoride concentration to help reduce the amount and severity of the disease. This paper compares guidance from around the world on the use of products with a high fluoride concentration and gives examples of how guidance has been translated into activity in primary care dental practice. A rapid review of electronic databases was conducted to identify the volume and variation of guidance from national or professional bodies on the use of products with a high fluoride concentration. Fifteen guidelines published within the past 10 years and in English were identified and compared. The majority of these guidelines included recommendations for fluoride varnish use as well as for fluoride gels, while a smaller number offered guidance on high fluoride strength toothpaste and other vehicles. Whilst there was good consistency in recommendations for fluoride varnish in particular, there was sometimes a lack of detail in other areas of recommendation for other vehicles with a high fluoride concentration. There are good examples within the UK, such as the Childsmile project and Delivering Better Oral Health, which highlight that the provision of evidence-based guidance can be influential in directing scarce resources towards oral health improvements. Policy can be influenced by evidence-based national recommendations and used to help encourage dental professionals and commissioners and third-party payers to adopt higher levels of practices aimed at oral health improvement. PMID:27100106

  19. Cerium fluoride crystals for calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution homogeneous calorimetry is fully justified for part of the physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main design features of proposed CeF3 crystals for calorimetry for LHC are discussed. The severe constraints LHC imposes on detectors make the use of 'classical' crystals impossible. Therefore, a large R and D effort has been undertaken by the 'Crystal Clear' collaboration in order to find new, dense, fast and radiation hard crystals. A good candidate, cerium fluoride, has been identified and studied. It is interesting at this stage to review the specifications of scintillators for LHC and to see how well available data on CeF3 luminescence, decay time, light yield, optical transmission and resistance to radiation meet them. Milestones to reach before starting a large scale crystal production in view of the eventual construction of a calorimeter, are also discussed. (author) 15 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  20. Further results on cerium fluoride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.; Auffray, E.; Aziz, T.; Baccaro, S.; Banerjee, S.; Bareyre, P.; Barone, L.E.; Borgia, B.; Boutet, D.; Burq, J.P.; Chemarin, M.; Chipaux, R.; Dafinei, I.; D' Atanasio, P.; De Notaristefani, F.; Dezillie, B.; Dujardin, C.; Dutta, S.; Faure, J.L.; Fay, J.; Ferrere, D.; Francescangeli, O.; Fuchs, B.A.; Ganguli, S.N.; Gillespie, G.; Goyot, M.; Gupta, S.K.; Gurtu, A.; Heck, J.; Herve, A.; Hillemanns, H.; Holdener, F.; Ille, B.; Joensson, L.; Kierstead, J.; Krenz, W.; Kway, W.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lebeau, M.; Lebrun, P.; Lecoq, P.; Lemoigne, Y.; Loomis, G.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Madjar, N.; Majni, G.; El Mamouni, H.; Mangla, S.; Mares, J.A.; Martin, J.P.; Mattioli, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Mazumdar, K.; Mengucci, P.; Merlo, J.P.; Moine, B.; Nikl, N.; Pansart, J.P.; Pedrini, C.; Poinsignon, J.; Polak, K.; Raghavan, R.; Rebourgeard, P.; Rinaldi, D.; Rosa, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Sahuc, P.; Samsonov, V.; Sarkar, S.; Schegelski, V.; Schmitz, D.; Schneegans, M.; Seliverstov, D.; Stoll, S.; Sudhakar, K.; Sven; Crystal Clear Collaboration

    1993-08-15

    A systematic investigation of the properties of cerium fluoride monocrystals has been performed by the 'Crystal Clear' collaboration in view of a possible use of such crystals for the construction of high precision electromagnetic calorimeters for the future generation of high luminosity accelerators. A large sample of different crystals grown by several producers has been studied. The spectroscopic characteristics, the transmission, luminescence and excitation spectra and the decay time curves are analysed. The light yield of the different crystals is measured with photomultipliers and Si photodiodes and compared to reference standards like BGO and NaI(Tl). The radiation damage behaviour is then presented for [gamma] and neutron irradiations, at different doses and dose rates, including thermal and optical bleaching. (orig.)

  1. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  2. A highly sensitive colorimetric and ratiometric sensor for fluoride ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu Xu; Jin Tang; He Tian

    2008-01-01

    A new benzoimidazole-naphthalimide derivative 4 was synthesized and its photophysical properties were studied.This compound showed highly selectively and sensitive colorimetric and ratiometric sensing ability for fluoride anion.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. DeVol

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminescent properties. We discuss the synthesis, properties, and application of heavy metal fluorides; specifically LaF3:RE and PbF2, and group IIA fluorides. Particular attention is given to the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles, including selectively RE-doped LaF3/LaF3, and CaF2/CaF2 core/(multi-shell nanoparticles, and the CaF2-LaF3 system.

  4. Estuarine response of fluoride - Investigations in Azhikode Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    behaved conservatively during the postmonsoon season. However, during the premonsoon season 25% removal of fluoride was observed due to estuarine mixing. The possible mechanisms for the removal are explained....

  5. Quantitative measure for the "nakedness" of fluoride ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Karl O; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2003-08-01

    A quantitative measure for the donor strength or "nakedness" of fluoride ion donors is presented. It is based on the free energy change associated with the transfer of a fluoride ion from the donor to a given acceptor molecule. Born-Haber cycle calculations were used to calculate both the free energy and the enthalpy change for this process. The enthalpy change is given by the sum of the fluoride ion affinity of the acceptor (as defined in strict thermodynamic convention) and the lattice energy difference (DeltaU(POT)) between the fluoride ion donor and the salt formed with the acceptor. Because, for a given acceptor, the fluoride affinity has a constant value, the relative enthalpy (and also the corresponding free energy) changes are governed exclusively by the lattice energy differences. In this study, BF(3), PF(5), AsF(5), and SbF(5) were used as the acceptors, and the following seven fluoride ion donors were evaluated: CsF, N(CH(3))(4)F (TMAF), N-methylurotropinium fluoride (MUF), hexamethylguanidinium fluoride (HMGF), hexamethylpiperidinium fluoride (HMPF), N,N,N-trimethyl-1-adamantylammonium fluoride (TMAAF), and hexakis(dimethylamino)phosphazenium fluoride (HDMAPF). Smooth relationships between the enthalpy changes and the molar volumes of the donor cations were found which asymptotically approach constant values for infinitely large cations. Whereas CsF is a relatively poor F(-) donor [(U(POT)(CsF) - U(POT)(CsSbF(6))) = 213 kJ mol(-)(1)], when compared to N(CH(3))(4)F [(U(POT)(TMAF) - U(POT)(TMASbF(6))) = 69 kJ mol(-)(1)], a 4 times larger cation (phosphazenium salt) and an infinitely large cation are required to decrease DeltaU(POT) to 17 and 0 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that very little is gained by increasing the cation size past a certain level and that secondary factors, such as chemical and physical properties, become overriding considerations.

  6. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLUORIDE IN SAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-mei; SU Bao-yu

    2006-01-01

    The transport and transformation of fluoride in sand were studied by using soil tank test under the condition of saturated water in this article. Based on the analysis of the laboratory experiments, the rules of fluorine transportation and transformation were simulated in sand by solving the advection-diffusion equation. Through comparison between computed results and observed data , it is shown that the established model and determined parameters could be used to simulate the fluoride transport in sand.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    DeVol, Timothy A.; Basak Yazgan-Kukouz; Baris Kokuoz; DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Kevin B. Sprinkle; James, Tiffany L.; Kucera, Courtney J.; Jacobsohn, Luiz G.; John Ballato

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE) doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP) that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminesc...

  9. Thermodynamic investigation of fluoride salts for nuclear energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Beilmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this work thermodynamic properties of molten fluoride salts and salt mixtures are investigated. Fluoride salts have advantageous properties to be used in energy producing systems based on the conversion from heat to energy like i.e in Molten Salt Reactors. For this purpose it is very important to have detailed information about the heat capacity of the pure salts and salt mixtures. To get a better understanding about the heat capacity in mixtures drop calorimetry measurements of mixture...

  10. Fluoride-assisted synthesis of bimodal microporous SSZ-13 zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Kosinov, Nikolay; Hofmann, Jan P; Mezari, Brahim; Qian, Qingyun; Rohling, Roderigh; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-02-21

    The presence of small amount of fluoride in alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of SSZ-13 zeolite yields bimodal microporous particles with substantially improved performance in the methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction. Hydrocarbon uptake measurements and fluorescence microspectroscopy of spent catalysts demonstrate enhanced diffusion through micropores at the grain boundaries of nanocrystals running through the zeolite particles. Fluoride-assisted SSZ-13 synthesis is a cheap and scalable approach to optimize the performance of MTO zeolite catalysts. PMID:26810114

  11. Heterolysis of Dihydrogen by Silver Alkoxides and Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Brandon K; Nguyen, Jenna T; Bacsa, John; Sadighi, Joseph P

    2015-07-01

    Alkoxide-bridged disilver cations react with dihydrogen to form hydride-bridged cations, releasing free alcohol. Hydrogenolysis of neutral silver fluorides affords hydride-bridged disilver cations as their bifluoride salts. These reactions proceed most efficiently when the supporting ligands are expanded N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) derived from 6- and 7-membered cyclic amidinium salts. Kinetics studies show that silver fluoride hydrogenolysis is first-order in both silver and dihydrogen.

  12. The economic value of Quebec’s water fluoridation program

    OpenAIRE

    Tchouaket, Eric; Brousselle, Astrid; Fansi, Alvine; Dionne, Pierre Alexandre; Bertrand, Elise; Fortin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Aim Dental caries is a major public health problem worldwide, with very significant deleterious consequences for many people. The available data are alarming in Canada and the province of Quebec. The water fluoridation program has been shown to be the most effective means of preventing caries and reducing oral health inequalities. This article analyzes the cost-effectiveness of Quebec’s water fluoridation program to provide decision-makers with economic information for assessing its usefulnes...

  13. Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water Resources; North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.I. PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims Fluoride is one of the anions present in soil and water, and determining its level in drinking water is vital for preventing dental and bone diseases in societies. This research aimed to determine fluoride concentrations in drinking water sources of rural and urban areas of Babol City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Babol City, Iran, in 2014. 384 water samples were taken from 43 wells and 3 springs in the rural areas, and from 20 wells, 3 water reservoirs, and the water distribution system in the urban areas. Fluoride concentrations of water samples were measured with a model DR2000 spectrophotometer using the standard SPADNS method. Data were entered to SPSS 16 software and were analyzed by ANOVA test. Findings The mean fluoride concentrations in the water samples of the deep wells were higher compared to those of the springs (p=0.01. The mean fluoride concentrations in the plains areas were higher compared to the mountainous regions (p=0.02. The mean fluoride concentrations in the wells of the urban areas, in the urban reservoirs, and in the urban water distribution system were 0.40±0.14, 0.39±0.15, and 0.40±0.15mg/l, respectively (p=0.07. Fluoride concentrations in water in urban areas during various seasons varied from 0.31 to 0.45mg/l (p=0.06. Conclusion Fluoride concentrations in all drinking water sources in urban and rural areas of Babol are less than the ranges recommended by WHO and Iranian national standards.

  14. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fluoride, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI) from all sources, including non-dietary sources. Fluoride is not an essential nutrient. Therefore, no Average Requirement for the performance of essential physiological functions can be defined. Nevertheless, the Panel considered that the setting of an AI is appropriate because of the be...

  15. Corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Anie Thomas; Sathyanarayanan Sridhar; Shant Aghyarian; Pilanda Watkins-curry; Chan, Julia Y.; Alessandro Pozzi; Danieli C. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) representing acidic environments and fluoride treatments was studied. Material and Methods Zirconia rods were immersed in 1.23% and 0.123% APF solutions and maintained at 37°C for determined periods of time. Surfaces of all specimens were imaged using digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sample mass and dimensions were measured for mass loss determination. Samples were charac...

  16. Corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Anie; Sridhar, Sathyanarayanan; Aghyarian, Shant; Watkins-Curry, Pilanda; Chan, Julia Y.; Pozzi, Alessandro; Danieli C. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) representing acidic environments and fluoride treatments was studied. Material and Methods Zirconia rods were immersed in 1.23% and 0.123% APF solutions and maintained at 37°C for determined periods of time. Surfaces of all specimens were imaged using digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sample mass and dimensions were measured for mass loss determination. Samples were characteri...

  17. Fluoride levels in commercial dentifrices and drinking Water in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    MERGHACHE, D.; BELLOUT, B.; MERGHACHE, S.; BOUCHERIT-ATMANI, Z.

    2011-01-01

    More and more scientific evidence show that fluorides have a cariostatic action to the plaque-saliva-tooth interface during cariogenous dissolution. Fluorides slow down demineralization and enhance remineralization. Their action is optimal, in the oral environment, when used at low concentrations on a continuous basis. The use of the fluorinated toothpastes during brushing of the teeth is a simple, rational method of daily topics application of fluorine, largely used in the context of prevent...

  18. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  19. Removal of fluoride from water using aluminium containing compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Karthikeyan; K. P. Elango

    2009-01-01

    Batch adsorption studies were undertaken to assess the suitability of aluminium titanate (AT) and bismuth aluminate (BA) to remove fluoride ions from water.The effect of pH,dose of adsorbent,contact time,initial concentration,co-ions and temperature on fluoride removal efficiency were studied.The amounts of fluoride ions adsorbed,at 30℃ from 4 mg/L of fluoride ion solution,by AT and BA are 0.85 and 1.55 mg/g,respectively.The experimental data fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms.Thermodynamic parameters such as △H~0,△S~0 and △G~0 indicated that the removal of fluoride ions by AT is exothermic and non-spontaneous while that by BA is endothermic and spontaneous.Furrier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the adsorbent before and after adsorption indicated that fluoride ions are chemisorbed by these adsorbents.

  20. Preparation of mixed rare earths modified chitosan for fluoride adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹏; 张艺; 汪东风; 徐莹; 罗斓

    2013-01-01

    This paper described the fluoride removal from water using a new adsorbent namely mixed rare earths modified chitosan (CR). Mixed rare earths mainly contained La followed by Ce which was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). La(III)-modified chitosan (CL) was also prepared as control. For the batch technique, the effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, initial fluoride concentration and co-ions on fluoride adsorption were studied. Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize adsorbents. It was observed that the fluo-ride adsorption capacity of CR (3.72 mgF-/g) was higher than CL (3.16 mgF-/g) at 2 h. The presence of co-ions such as bicarbonate and carbonate greatly affected the fluoride adsorption from water. Characterization experiments indicated the successful chelation between mixed rare earths and chitosan. The possible fluoride adsorption mechanism of CR was explained by a chemical reaction.

  1. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, W Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status.

  2. Fluoride release from restorative materials coated with an adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Letícia Algarves; Weidlich, Patrícia; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Maltz, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    The retention of both fluoride resins and resin-modified glass ionomer cements to dental tissues can be improved by the association of an adhesive system which promotes the bonding between the resin component and dentin, forming a hybrid layer. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate if the presence of the adhesive, being part of the hybrid layer composition, interfered with the fluoride released to tooth tissues. The restorative materials studied were: Vitremer (3M), Heliomolar (Vivadent) and Z100 (3M) using an adhesive application (Scotch Bond MultiPurpose Plus--3M). Ten discs of each material were prepared: 5 were covered with the adhesive and 5 were not. The discs were immersed in individual flasks containing artificial saliva which was changed daily. Fluoride release was measured at days 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 by a fluoride combined electrode (9609 BN--Orion) coupled to an ion analyzer (SA-720 Procyon). One-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test were applied to compare the materials. The results showed that the use of a dental adhesive significantly decreased the fluoride release of Vitremer and reduced the fluoride release of Heliomolar to undetectable levels with the methodology used. PMID:11870961

  3. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Saurabh; Krishnan, Sunderrajan; Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0-2mgl(-1). Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. PMID:26874766

  4. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  5. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  6. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lim, Shin-Saeng [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Kim, Jong-Ghee [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jung Sun [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Youngji [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young-Mi, E-mail: young@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Chae, E-mail: leejc88@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ► The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ► NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ► NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ► JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ► ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  7. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ► The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ► NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ► NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ► JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ► ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  8. Using High Fluoride Concentration Products in Public Policy – A Rapid Review of Current Guidelines for High Fluoride Concentration products

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, GVA; Ramsdale, M; Vinall, K.; Csikar, J

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in caries levels since widespread introduction of fluoride toothpastes it remains a priority in many countries around the world. Higher caries risk individuals can be targeted with products with a high fluoride concentration to help reduce the amount and severity of disease. This paper compares guidance from around the world on the use of such products and gives examples of how guidance has been translated into activity in primary care dental practice. A rapid review of e...

  9. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  10. Profile of Fluoride Release from a Nanohybrid Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Assed Bezerra Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the amount and profile of fluoride release from a fluoride-containing nanohybrid composite resin (Tetric® N-Ceram by direct potentiometry. Thirty specimens (5 mm diameter x 3 mm high; n=10/material were made of Tetric® N-Ceram, Vitremer® resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC (positive control or Filtek® Z350 nanofill composite resin (negative control. The specimens were stored individually in plastic tubes containing 1 mL of artificial saliva at 37°C, which was daily renewed during 15 days. At each renewal of saliva, the amount of fluoride ions released in the solution was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode with ion analyzer, and the values obtained in mV were converted to ppm (µg/mL. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that the resins Tetric® N-Ceram and Filtek® Z350 did not release significant amounts of fluoride during the whole period of evaluation (p>0.05. Only Vitremer® released significant amounts of fluoride ions during the 15 days of the experiment, with greater release in first 2 days (p0.05. In conclusion, the nanohybrid composite resin Tetric® N-Ceram did not present in vitro fluoride-releasing capacity throughout the 15 days of study.

  11. Compression of lithium fluoride to 92 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haini; Dorfman, Susannah M.; Holl, Christopher M.; Meng, Yue; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; He, Duanwei; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    The equation of state and compression behavior of lithium fluoride, LiF, have been determined to 92 GPa by X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. A neon pressure-transmitting medium was used to minimize the effect of differential stress on the sample. Consistent results using multiple pressure standards were obtained. By fitting the pressure-volume data to a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the isothermal bulk modulus and its corresponding pressure derivative at zero pressure were determined to be K0=70.1±0.7 GPa, and K‧0=4.3±0.1. If the bulk modulus is fixed at 66.2 GPa, a value well constrained by independent elasticity measurements, we obtain K‧0=4.6±0.1. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative obtained from this work resolve the large discrepancy in previously reported values of K0 and K‧0 for this material. Consequently, the equation of state of LiF is now sufficiently well constrained to allow its use as a pressure calibrant in high pressure experiments.

  12. Characterization of cerium fluoride nanocomposite scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Leif O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Couture, Aaron J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mckigney, Edward A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Del Sesto, Rico E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilbertson, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mccleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reifarth, Rene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of a number of short-lived isotopes would advance both pure and applied scientific research. These cross-sections are needed for calculation of criticality and waste production estimates for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, for analysis of data from nuclear weapons tests, and to improve understanding of nucleosynthesis. However, measurement of these cross-sections would require a detector with a faster signal decay time than those used in existing neutron capture experiments. Crystals of faster detector materials are not available in sufficient sizes and quantities to supply these large-scale experiments. Instead, we propose to use nanocomposite detectors, consisting of nanoscale particles of a scintillating material dispersed in a matrix material. We have successfully fabricated cerium fluoride (CeF{sub 3}) nanoparticles and dispersed them in a liquid matrix. We have characterized this scintillator and have measured its response to neutron capture. Results of the optical, structural, and radiation characterization will be presented.

  13. Magnetic separation of uranium from magnesium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attraction or repulsion of particles by a magnetic gradient, based on the respective susceptibilities, provides the basis for physical separation of particles that are comprised predominantly of uranium from those that are predominantly magnesium fluoride (MgF2). To determine the effectiveness of this approach, a bench-scale magnetic separator from the S.G. Frantz Co., Inc. was used. In the Frantz Model L-1, particles are fed through a funnel onto a vibration tray and through a magnetic field. The specific design of the Frantz magnet causes the magnetic field strength to vary along the width of the magnet, setting up a gradient. The tray in the magnetic field is split at a point about half way down its length so that the separated material does not recombine. A schematic is presented of Frantz Model L-1 CN - the same magnet configured for high gradient magnetic separation of liquid-suspended particles. Here different pole pieces create a uniform magnetic field, and stainless steel wood in the canister between the pole pieces creates the high gradient. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Characterization of cerium fluoride nanocomposite scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of a number of short-lived isotopes would advance both pure and applied scientific research. These cross-sections are needed for calculation of criticality and waste production estimates for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, for analysis of data from nuclear weapons tests, and to improve understanding of nucleosynthesis. However, measurement of these cross-sections would require a detector with a faster signal decay time than those used in existing neutron capture experiments. Crystals of faster detector materials are not available in sufficient sizes and quantities to supply these large-scale experiments. Instead, we propose to use nanocomposite detectors, consisting of nanoscale particles of a scintillating material dispersed in a matrix material. We have successfully fabricated cerium fluoride (CeF3) nanoparticles and dispersed them in a liquid matrix. We have characterized this scintillator and have measured its response to neutron capture. Results of the optical, structural, and radiation characterization will be presented.

  15. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  16. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  17. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  18. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  19. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  20. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  1. In vivo and in vitro studies of a cetylamine fluoride mouthrinse: evaluation of a device used for in vitro experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO Sílvia Magaly Sasso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A mouthrinse containing cetylamine fluoride (230 ppm in fluoride was prepared for in vitro studies of fluoride clearance and adsorption by enamel and/or hydroxyapatite using a device that simulates the oral cavity. In vivo studies of fluoride clearance from this mouthrinse were conducted and compared with other fluoride sources. The amount of fluoride adsorbed to tooth blocks or powdered hydroxyapatite, both treated with this cetylamine fluoride mouthrinse once or twice a day, was determined. The results of these studies showed that it is possible to prepare a mouthrinse with cetylamine fluoride for alternative use by patients for the prevention and therapy of dental caries.

  2. Stabilization of fluoroindate glasses by magnesium fluoride and other heavy metal fluorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Costa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Their extended transparency in the IR makes them attractive for use as optical fibers for CO laser power delivery and optical amplification. This paper firstly describes the spectacular stabilizing effect of MgF2 on the binary system InF3-BaF2. The investigation of the InF3-BaF2-MgF2 system led to samples up to 5mm in thickness. Further optimization of this system was achieved by incorporation of limited amounts of other fluorides and resulted in increased resistence to devitrification. The second approach of this work was concerned to the investigation of the pseudo-ternary system InF3-GdF3-GaF3 at constant concentrations of ZnF2-SrF2-BaF2-NaF. Several compositions were studied in this system. The samples presented a better thermal stability when compared to other families of fluoride glasses. Therefore, these glasses seem to be very promising for the fabrication of special optical fibers. Thermal data are reported.

  3. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  4. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  5. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed.

  6. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed. PMID:26058000

  7. Aquaporin 5 Interacts with Fluoride and Possibly Protects against Caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Anjomshoaa

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQP are water channel proteins and the genes coding for AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 are clustered in 12q13. Since AQP5 is expressed in serous acinar cells of salivary glands, we investigated its involvement in caries. DNA samples from 1,383 individuals from six groups were studied. Genotypes of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the aquaporin locus were tested for association with caries experience. Interaction with genes involved in enamel formation was tested. The association between enamel microhardness at baseline, after creation of artificial caries lesion, and after exposure to fluoride and the genetic markers in AQP5 was tested. Finally, AQP5 expression in human whole saliva, after exposure to fluoride in a mammary gland cell line, which is known to express AQP5, and in Wistar rats was also verified. Nominal associations were found between caries experience and markers in the AQP5 locus. Since these associations suggested that AQP5 may be inhibited by levels of fluoride in the drinking water that cause fluorosis, we showed that fluoride levels above optimal levels change AQP5 expression in humans, cell lines, and rats. We have shown that AQP5 is involved in the pathogenesis of caries and likely interacts with fluoride.

  8. Improved fluoride volatility reprocessing for MOX fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Fukasawa, T.; Sawa, T.; Yamashita, J.; Kamoshida, M.; Sasahira, A.; Kawamura, F. [Nuclear Systems Div., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Several countries had stopped developing fluoride volatility reprocessing method in the 1970's due to difficulties in recovering pure Pu. Although, nuclear societies recently favor dirty Pu (MOX). which has high proliferation resistance and needs remote fuel fabrication technologies. This situation reminded the authors to re-evaluate the fluoride volatility process. Preliminary investigation clarified that conventional fluoride volatility process could be simplified to recover dirty MOX and pure U from spent LWR fuels. Pure U is suitable to transfer it to re-enrichment (LWR cycle again), to storage certain period for future FBRs, and to dispose with relatively simple barrier. The improved process also enables to prepare directly the dirty MOX particles which are suitable for remote fuel fabrication (vibration packing). This paper describes the system of improved fluoride volatility reprocessing, and compatibility of each elemental process such as thermal decladding, two stage fluorination of U and U+Pu, U purification, direct conversion. of mixed fluoride into oxide particles and vibration packing fuel fabrication. (authors)

  9. A Review on Adsorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Habuda-Stanić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is one of the anionic contaminants which is found in excess in surface or groundwater because of geochemical reactions or anthropogenic activities such as the disposal of industrial wastewaters. Among various methods used for defluoridation of water such as coagulation, precipitation, membrane processes, electrolytic treatment, ion-exchange, the adsorption process is widely used. It offers satisfactory results and seems to be a more attractive method for the removal of fluoride in terms of cost, simplicity of design and operation. Various conventional and non-conventional adsorbents have been assessed for the removal of fluoride from water. In this review, a list of various adsorbents (oxides and hydroxides, biosorbents, geomaterials, carbonaceous materials and industrial products and by-products and its modifications from literature are surveyed and their adsorption capacities under various conditions are compared. The effect of other impurities on fluoride removal has also been discussed. This survey showed that various adsorbents, especially binary and trimetal oxides and hydroxides, have good potential for the fluoride removal from aquatic environments.

  10. Fluoride and aluminum release from restorative materials using ion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Okte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the amounts of fluoride and aluminum released from different restorative materials stored in artificial saliva and double-distilled water. Material and METHODS: Cylindrical specimens (10 x 1 mm were prepared from 4 different restorative materials (Kavitan Plus, Vitremer, Dyract Extra, and Surefil. For each material, 20 specimens were prepared, 10 of which were stored in 5 mL artificial saliva and 10 of which were stored in 5 mL of double-distilled water. Concentrations of fluoride and aluminum in the solutions were measured using ion chromatography. Measurements were taken daily for one week and then weekly for two additional weeks. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The highest amounts of both fluoride and aluminum were released by the resin-modified glass ionomer cement Vitremer in double-distilled water (p<0.05. All materials released significantly more fluoride in double-distilled water than in artificial saliva (p<0.05. In artificial saliva, none of the materials were observed to release aluminum. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that storage media and method of analysis should be taken into account when the fluoride and aluminum release from dental materials is assessed.

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Grade 7 in Fluoride-Containing NaCl Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, T; Whalen, M T; Wong, L

    2004-10-25

    The effects of fluoride on the corrosion behavior of Titanium Grade 7 (0.12-0.25% Pd) have been investigated. Up to 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at 95 C, and three pH values of 4, 8, and 11 were selected for studying pH dependence of fluoride effects. It was observed that fluoride significantly altered the anodic polarization behavior, at all three pH values of 4, 8, and 11. Under acidic condition fluoride caused active corrosion. The corrosion of Titanium grade 7 was increased by three orders of magnitude when a 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at pH 4, and the Pd ennoblement effect was not observed in acidic fluoride-containing environments. The effects of fluoride were reduced significantly when pH was increased to 8 and above.

  12. A NOVEL BIO-WASTE INCORPORATED ALGINATE SORBENT FOR DE-FLUORIDATION OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmalin Sophia Ayyappan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the feasibility of using tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed powder for de-fluoridation of fluoride contaminated water. Batch study confirmed that tamarind seeds in dry powder form could remove 87% of fluoride from water. This bio-sorbent can be used effectively in areas where fluoride concentrations are above the permissible limits of 1.5 mg·l-1 as per WHO Standard, 1984. Tamarind seed powder was incorporated in a matrix of sodium alginate and made into gel-beads. The beads were tested for de-fluoridation efficiency by conducting column studies. The effect of various factors, such as flow rate, retention time, and the number of runs on the efficacy of fluoride removal was also studied. The results revealed that flow rate did not seem to have much effect on the percentage fluoride removal but the fluoride concentration decreased drastically upon greater retention time and multiple runs.

  13. Caries status in 16 year-olds with varying exposure to water fluoridation in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, J

    2012-12-01

    Most of the Republic of Ireland\\'s public water supplies have been fluoridated since the mid-1960s while Northern Ireland has never been fluoridated, apart from some small short-lived schemes in east Ulster.

  14. Tetrabutylammonium fluoride promoted regiospecific reactions of trimethylsilyl-o-carborane with aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimethylsilyl-o-carborane serves as o-carborane carbanion upon fluoride ion promoted reaction with carbonyl compounds. Thus, in the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride, trimethylsilyl-o-carborane undergoes facile, unprecedented, carbodesilylation with aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. (author)

  15. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-01-01

    coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition...

  16. Analyse van fluoride en fosfaat in complexe milieumatrices met capillaire zone elektroforese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staden JJ van; Hoop MAGT van den; LAC

    1996-01-01

    Dit onderzoek bestudeert de toepasbaarheid van een eerder ontwikkelde methode voor de analyse van fluoride en fosfaat op meer complexe matrices zoals oppervlaktewater, loogextracten, grondwater en stemflowwater. De storende waterstofcarbonaat-piek bij de bepaling van fluoride in loogextracten ko

  17. Highly Selective Fluoride Recognition by a Simple Carbazole-based Hydrozone Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Li-jun; ZHAO Guo-you; HUANG Zhen-long; WANG Nan-nan; GUO Jiao-jiao

    2013-01-01

    A simple carbazole hydrozone derivative(1) was synthesized and used as an optical probe for fluoride recognition in CH3CN.Receptor 1 exhibited colorimetric and fluorescent dual-channel response to fluoride anions.Addition of fluoride to a receptor 1 solution in CH3CN induced a distinct color change from yellow to magenta,the solution also displayed significant fluorescence blue shift.Thus receptor 1 exhibited dual-channel responses to fluoride with a high selectivity and sensitivity.

  18. Effects of fluoride in drinking water on health of deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Duška; Stojšin Ivana

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION High incidence of decayed deciduous teeth, as well as lack of adequate therapy, makes tooth decay prevention very important. One of the simplest ways to reduce tooth decay is fluoridation of drinking water. The optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1 ppm/l, and many waters naturally contain this quantity. Waters in Vojvodina are mainly poor in fluoride, except in a few regions. It has long been postulated that fluoride has a prophyilactic effect during intrauteri...

  19. Batch and Column Experiments on Fluoride Removal from Waters Using Modified Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    High fluoride groundwater occurs widely in China, presenting a quite serious environmental problem. Zeolite from Xinyang, China was tested as the fluoride-removing adsorbent. Batch and column experiments on fluoride removal using modified zeolites treated with hydrochloric acid,sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and ferric chloride, respectively show that 0. 1 mol/L HCImodified zeolite can be used as an adsorbent for fluoride, with an adsorption capacity of 173. 16mg/kg.

  20. Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Seraj B.; Shahrabi M; Falahzade M; Falahzade F; Akhondi N.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: Human and animal studies linking fluoride with diminished intelligence have been published. Although adverse effects of high intake of fluoride on intelligence and mental acuity continue to be reported, they are still controversial. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between fluoride in drinking water and children's intelligence. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 41 children were selected from the high fluoride area with 2...

  1. Kinetic Analysis of 18F-Fluoride PET Images of Breast Cancer Bone Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Doot, Robert K; Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; Schubert, Erin K; Gralow, Julie R.; Specht, Jennifer M.; Mankoff, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The most common site of metastasis for breast cancer is bone. Quantitative 18F-fluoride PET can estimate the kinetics of fluoride incorporation into bone as a measure of fluoride transport, bone formation, and turnover. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of 18F-fluoride model parameter estimates for characterizing regional kinetics in metastases and normal bone in breast cancer patients.

  2. Absorption, distribution and excretion of inhaled hydrogen fluoride in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole body HF exposure for 6 hrs or to nose-only HF exposure for 1 hr. Total and/or ionic fluoride concentrations in selected tissues were determined at various times following exposure. In rats sacrificed 6 hrs after whole body exposure, dose-dependent increases in lung, plasma, and kidney total and ionic fluoride concentration occurred. Rats excreted more fluoride in the urine after whole body exposure than could be explained by the amount of HF inhaled. Considerable evidence suggests that airborne HF deposits on fur and is then ingested due to preening activity. Urinary fluoride excretion was increased by nose-only exposure. The urinary fluoride excretion accounted for approximately twice the fluoride estimated to be inhaled during exposure. Tissue fluoride concentrations were elevated immediately after nose-only exposure. Fluoride concentrations in lung and kidney returned to control levels within 12 hrs. Plasma fluoride concentration was slightly elevated 24 hrs after the start of the 1 hr exposure but was at control levels at 96 hrs. Immediately following nose-only exposure, lung ionic fluoride concentrations were less than plasma ionic fluoride concentrations suggesting that the fluoride in the lung had reached that site via plasma transport rather than by inhalation. A dose-dependent increase in plasma ionic fluoride concentration occurred after upper respiratory tract HF exposure providing strong evidence that fluoride is absorbed systemically from that site. The plasma ionic fluoride concentration after upper respiratory tract exposure was of sufficient magnitude to account for the plasma fluoride concentrations observed in intact nose-only exposed rats. (ERB)

  3. Fluorescent naphthalene-based benzene tripod for selective recognition of fluoride in physiological condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barun kumar Datta; Chirantan Kar; Gopal Das

    2015-02-01

    Aluminium complex of a naphthalene-based benzene tripod ligand system has been reported for the selective recognition of fluoride in aqueous medium in physiological condition. The ligand can selectively recognize Al3+ through enhancement in the fluorescence intensity and this in situ formed aluminium complex recognizes fluoride through quenching of fluorescence. The receptor system detects fluoride in nanomolar range. The sensing property was extended for practical utility to sense fluoride in tap water, pond water and river water.

  4. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ene Indermitte; Astrid Saava; Enn Karro

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water sys...

  5. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  6. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  7. Tamarind seed coat ameliorates fluoride induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameeramja, Jaishabanu; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Govindarajan, Vimal; Jeyachandran, Sivakamavalli; Baskaralingam, Vaseeharan; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2016-01-15

    Fluoride (F) is an environmental contaminant and industrial pollutant. Molecular mechanisms remain unclear in F induced pulmonary toxicity even after numerous studies. Tamarind fruits act as defluoridating agents, but no study was conducted in in vitro systems. Hence, we aimed to assess the ameliorative impact of the tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) against F toxicity utilizing lung epithelial cells, A549. Cells were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF-5 mM) alone and in combination with TSCE (750 ng/ml) or Vitamin C (positive control) for 24 h and analyzed for F content, intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) level, oxidative stress, mitochondrial integrity and apoptotic markers. TSCE treatment prevented the F induced alterations in [Ca(2+)]i overload, F content, oxidant (reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and nitric oxide) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione) parameters. Further, TSCE modulates F activated changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, permeability transition pore opening, cytochrome-C release, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 and PARP-1 expressions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that TSCE as a potential protective agent against F toxicity, which can be utilized as a neutraceutical.

  8. TO STUDY THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CHANGE IN CONCENTRATION OF CALCITE FLUORIDE OF METAL CORED WELDING ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild steels are the most common type of steels used in various engineering applications. Mild steels are widely used in various structural and fabrication applications like Bridges, buildings, machineries etc. Being very common and general purpose structural steel, it is widely applied to welding all over the world. A variety of electrodes are available globally for welding of mild steel, but the development of new electrodes is always a necessity.Dissertation aims to find out the mechanical behavior of change in concentration of Calcite Fluoride in the flux composition on the various characteristics of metal cored coated electrodes for the purpose of developing efficient and better rutile electrodes for structural mild steel. The information about the effects of CaF2 on the electrodes characteristics is scarce in international welding literature. In this work five rutile metal cored coated electrodes were prepared by increasing Calcium Fluoride (CaF2, at the expense of cellulose and Si-bearing components like Mica and Calcite in the fluxes. Various mechanical properties like micro hardness, tensileproperties and Impact toughness were measured and metallographic studies were undertaken. Qualitative measurements of operational properties like porosity, slag detachability, arc stability and smoke level were also carried out.

  9. The Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental approach has been implemented for accurate measurements of neutron capture cross sections in the energy range from 5 to 200 keV. The Karlsruhe 4π Barium Fluoride Detector consists of 42 crystals shaped as hexagonal and pentagonal truncated pyramids forming a spherical shell with 10 cm inner radius and 15 cm thickness. All crystals are supplied with reflector and photomultiplier, thus representing independent gamma-ray detectors. Each detector module covers the same solid angle with respect to a gamma-ray source located in the centre. The energy resolution of the 4π detector is 14% at 662 keV and 7% at 2.5 MeV gamma-ray energy, the overall time reslution is 500 ps and the peak efficiency 90% at 1 MeV. The detector allows to register capture cascades with 95% probability above a threshold energy of 2.5 MeV in the sum energy spectrum. Neutrons are produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction using the pulsed proton beam of a Van de Graaff accelerator. The neutron spectrum can be taylored according to the experimental requirements in an energy range from 5 to 200 keV by choosing appropriate proton energies. A collimated neutron beam is passing through the detector and hits the sample in the centre. The energy of captured neutrons is determined via time of flight, the primary flight path being 77 cm. The combination of short primary flight path, a 10 cm inner radius of the spherical BaF2 shell, and the low capture cross section of barium allows to discriminate background due to capture of sample scattered neutrons in the scintillator by time of flight, leaving part of the neutron energy range completely undisturbed. (orig./HSI)

  10. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  11. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  12. Mesoporous zeolite and zeotype single crystals synthesized in fluoride media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Kustova, Marina; Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs;

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of new mesoporous zeolite and zeotype materials made available by combining new and improved procedures for directly introducing carbon into reaction mixtures with the fluoride route for conventional zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous...... characterized by XRPD, SEM, TEM and N-2 physisorption measurements. For the zeolite materials it A as found that mesoporous MFI and MEL structured single crystals could indeed be crystallized from fluoride media using an improved carbon-templating approach. More importantly, it was found that mesoporous BEA......-type single crystals could be crystallized from fluoride media by a newly developed procedure presented here. Thus, we here present the only known route to mesoporous BEA-type single crystals, since crystallization of this framework structure from basic media is known to give only nanosized crystals...

  13. Antimicrobial and fluoride release capacity of orthodontic bonding materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Machado Caldeira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and fluoride releasing capacity of 3 bonding materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty nine specimens with standardized surface smoothness and dimensions were prepared. The antimicrobial capacity of the materials against S. mutans, L. casei and C. albicans was evaluated by determining the percentage of growth inhibition of these microorganisms in an inoculated medium, obtained by optical density readouts on a spectrophotometer. The potential to interfere in microbial growth on the surface of the studied materials was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The fluoride release capacity in ultrapure water for 14 days was analyzed by means of ion chromatography. RESULTS: The PLUS group presented the highest percentage of microbial inhibition and the most contamination-free surface. The FUJI group presented the best fluoride release capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The TransbondTM Plus Color Change was the one that presented the best general behavior considering the evaluated aspects.

  14. Influence of milk products on fluoride bioavailability in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, J; Ehrnebo, M

    1979-09-01

    The effect of milk products on the gastrointestinal absorption of fluoride from sodium fluoride tablets was studied in five healthy subjects. Two different diets were tested: (1) 250 ml standardized milk (3% fat) and (2) 500 ml of milk, 3 pieces of white bread with cheese and 150 ml of yoghurt. The 100% bioavailability of sodium fluoride tablets during fasting was greatly decreased by coadministration of milk products: with Diet 1 the absolute bioavailability calculated from combined plasma and urine data was in the range 50--79% and with Diet 2 it ranged from 50--71%. It is suggested that the decreased bioavailability produced by dairy products should be taken into account when establishing flouride dosage regimens for prophylaxis of caries.

  15. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  16. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  17. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  18. Total and free fluoride in toothpastes from some non-established market economy countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren, C. van; Moorer, W.R.; Buijs, M.J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2005-01-01

    In 101 fluoride toothpastes, bought in local shops in Burkina Faso (n = 3), China (n = 5), Myanmar (n = 22), Nepal (n = 19), Philippines (n = 13), Syria (n = 22), Togo (n = 7) and Vietnam (n = 10), the total and free ionisable fluoride concentrations were established. The total fluoride concentratio

  19. 76 FR 19001 - Sulfuryl Fluoride; Addendum to Proposed Order Granting Objections to Tolerances and Denying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... the Proposed Order On January 19, 2011 (76 FR 3422, Jan. 19, 2011), EPA issued a proposed order... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Sulfuryl Fluoride; Addendum to Proposed Order Granting Objections to Tolerances... supplementing its proposed order published January 19, 2011, regarding sulfuryl fluoride and fluoride...

  20. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... level for fluoride. 142.61 Section 142.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride. (a) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1415(a)(1... means generally available for achieving compliance with the Maximum Contaminant Level for fluoride....

  1. 40 CFR 415.230 - Applicability; description of the aluminum fluoride production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum fluoride production subcategory. 415.230 Section 415.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.230 Applicability; description of the aluminum fluoride production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  2. 40 CFR 415.550 - Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium fluoride production subcategory. 415.550 Section 415.550 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.550 Applicability; description of the sodium fluoride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  3. A method for producing controlled fluoride release from an orthodontic bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Hobson, Ross S; Bai, Yuxing; Yan, Zhuoqun; Carrick, Thomas E; McCabe, John F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture and test, in vitro, a novel modification to provide fluoride-releasing orthodontic brackets. Thirty-two orthodontic brackets were drilled to produce a recess (approximately 1.3 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm in depth) at the centre of the bracket base. Four materials, with and without the addition of sodium fluoride, a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem micro), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; GC Fuji Ortho LC), a zinc phosphate (Zinc Cement Improved), and a resin (Transbond XT) were used to fill the recess in the bracket base. Fluoride release was measured daily during the first week and then weekly for 10 weeks. An ion chromatograph with suppressed conductivity was used for free fluoride ion determination. Statistical analysis to determine the amount of flouride release was undertaken using analysis of variance and Tukey's test. During the first 2 weeks, the resin group, with the addition of 38 per cent sodium fluoride added, released significantly more free fluoride (P < 0.05), but after 2 weeks the fluoride release markedly decreased. After 5 weeks, the RMGIC group, with 15 per cent added sodium fluoride, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily fluoride release than the other groups. The findings demonstrated that an appropriate fluoridated material can be used as a fluoride-releasing reservoir in a modified orthodontic bracket to enable it to release fluoride over the period of fixed appliance treatment.

  4. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind ran

  5. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  6. Contemporary perspective on the use of fluoride products in caries prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. ten Cate

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries has declined in the 40 years since fluoridated toothpastes were introduced. Much has been learned about why fluoride is so effective and how this knowledge can be used to optimise programmes for caries prevention. Fluoride works through enhancing the remineralisation of early stages of

  7. Fluoride Consumption and Its Impact on Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Jacinto-Alemán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries and dental fluorosis among Mexican preschoolers and school-aged children in a non-endemic zone for fluorosis and to measure its biological indicators. Methods. DMFT, DMFS, dmft, dmfs, and CDI indexes were applied. Fluoride urinary excretion and fluoride concentrations in home water, table salt, bottled water, bottled drinks, and toothpaste were determined. Results. Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96 and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97. Preschoolers presented dmft = 4.85 and dmfs = 8.80. DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF. Variable fluoride concentrations were found in the analyzed products (home water = 0.18–0.44 ppm F, table salt = 0–485 ppm F, bottled water = 0.18–0.47 ppm F, juices = 0.08–1.42 ppm F, nectars = 0.07–1.30 ppm F, bottled drinks = 0.10–1.70 ppm F, toothpaste = 0–2,053 ppm F. Mean daily fluoride excretion was 422 ± 176 µg/24 h for schoolchildren and 367 ± 150 µg/24 h for preschoolers. Conclusions. Data from our study show that, despite values of excretion within an optimal fluoride intake range, the prevalence of caries was significant in both groups, and 60% of the 11- to 12-year-old children presented with dental fluorosis. In addition, variable fluoride concentrations in products frequently consumed by children were found.

  8. Fluoride Consumption and Its Impact on Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Farfán, María Dolores; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Juárez-López, Lilia Adriana; Jacinto-Alemán, Luis Fernando; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries and dental fluorosis among Mexican preschoolers and school-aged children in a non-endemic zone for fluorosis and to measure its biological indicators. Methods DMFT, DMFS, dmft, dmfs, and CDI indexes were applied. Fluoride urinary excretion and fluoride concentrations in home water, table salt, bottled water, bottled drinks, and toothpaste were determined. Results Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96) and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97). Preschoolers presented dmft = 4.85 and dmfs = 8.80. DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF). Variable fluoride concentrations were found in the analyzed products (home water = 0.18–0.44 ppm F, table salt = 0–485 ppm F, bottled water = 0.18–0.47 ppm F, juices = 0.08–1.42 ppm F, nectars = 0.07–1.30 ppm F, bottled drinks = 0.10–1.70 ppm F, toothpaste = 0–2,053 ppm F). Mean daily fluoride excretion was 422 ± 176 μg/24 h for schoolchildren and 367 ± 150 μg/24 h for preschoolers. Conclusions Data from our study show that, despite values of excretion within an optimal fluoride intake range, the prevalence of caries was significant in both groups, and 60% of the 11- to 12-year-old children presented with dental fluorosis. In addition, variable fluoride concentrations in products frequently consumed by children were found. PMID:21318021

  9. Stimulated Raman scattering in soft glass fluoride fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Agger, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650 nm. We found a peak gain of gR=4.0±2×10−14 m W−1.......We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650 nm. We found a peak gain of gR=4.0±2×10−14 m W−1....

  10. The dissolution of kaolin by acidic fluoride wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of kaolin as a lining material for the storage of acidic and acidic fluoride wastes is investigated, No significant changes are observed gravimetrically or structurally for kaolin soaked under acidic conditions down to pH 2 for periods up to 90 days, Some release of aluminium...... was noted with decreasing pH, Severe kaolin dissolution was apparent, however, when soaked in solutions less than pH 3 to 4 with a fluoride concentration of 0.05 M. Aluminium-oxygen bonding in kaolin appears to be substantially more prone to hydrofluoric acid attack than does silicon-oxygen bonding...

  11. Stimulated Raman scattering in soft glass fluoride fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune; Agger, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1.......We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1....

  12. Investigation of In Vitro Effects of Fluoride on Bovine Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    TANYILDIZI, Sadettin

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro effects of various concentrations of sodium fluoride on the percentages of motile spermatozoa and abnormal spermatozoa with the hyaluronidase activities of semen were investigated. Holstein bulls (n=20), aged between 4 and 5 years, were used in this study. The semen samples obtained from all animals were divided into five parts and one of them was used as the control sample. Sodium fluoride solutions were prepared at concentrations of 30, 60, 120 and 240mM and then these solutio...

  13. Thermoluminescent lithium fluorides dosemeters in personnel monitoring in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeters of lithium fluoride used in centralized personnel monitoring in the GDR. Results of large-scale experiment are presented to compare the accuracy of readings of lithium fluoride or teflon dosemeter and that of film dosemeters. 332 persons were controlled for the experiment. A phantom was irradiated simultaneously by X and gamma radiation. The experience in application of thermoluminescent dosemeters to personnel monitoring of radiation load of a whole body and body parts using rings is described. Two Types of TL ring dosemeters for measuring X, gamma and deta radiations are presented. Advantage and shortcomings of TL dosemeters are noted

  14. In vitro remineralizing effect of fluoride varnishes containing sodium trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarelli, M M; Delbem, A C B; Lima, T M T; Castilho, F C N; Pessan, J P

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of fluoride varnishes supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on the remineralization of caries-like lesions in vitro. Bovine enamel discs were selected through surface hardness (SH) and caries-like lesions were induced. SH was again determined and the blocks were divided into 7 experimental groups (n = 24/group): placebo (no fluoride or TMP), 5% TMP, 2.5% NaF, 2.5% NaF/5% TMP, 5% NaF, 5% NaF/5% TMP and commercial formulation (Duraphat™, 5% NaF), following a blind protocol. Discs were treated with the varnishes and kept in a remineralizing solution for 4 h and a demineralizing solution for 2 h. Varnishes were then removed and half of the discs were used for analysis of loosely (CaF2) and firmly bound fluoride. The remaining discs were submitted to a pH-cycling regimen for 6 days. The percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR), cross-sectional hardness (ΔKHN) and enamel CaF2 and fluoride were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and by Student-Newman-Keuls' test (p < 0.05). A dose-response relationship was observed between fluoride concentrations in the varnishes and %SHR. The 5% TMP varnish led to %SHR similar to that obtained for the placebo. When TMP was used in association with fluoride, however, significantly higher %SHR were observed in comparison with their counterparts without TMP. Moreover, ΔKHN obtained for the 5% NaF/5% TMP was significantly lower among all groups tested. Higher concentrations of CaF2 and fluoride were observed for Duraphat and 5% NaF, followed by 5% NaF/5% TMP, 2.5% NaF and 2.5% NaF/5% TMP (p < 0.05). It was concluded that the supplementation of fluoride varnishes with TMP leads to enhanced remineralizing effect of artificial caries lesions in vitro. PMID:24526110

  15. Dutch fluoride concentration in perspective; Nederlandse fluoridenconcentratie in perspectief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, B. [Tauw, Deventer (Netherlands); Van Dijk, C. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Doorn, W. [Royal Haskoning, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    Recent jurisprudence shows that in grant permitting the non legal aspects of air quality requirements for fluorides should be expressly taken into account. During the decision-making process careful considerations should be made about emissions, background concentrations and possible effects of fluorides [mk]. [Dutch] Uit recente jurisprudentie is gebleken dat bij vergunningverlening nadrukkelijk rekening moet worden gehouden met de niet-wettelijke luchtkwaliteitseisen voor fluoriden. Bij besluitvorming dient een zorgvuldige afweging en motivering plaats te vinden over emissies, achtergrondconcentraties en mogelijke effecten van fluoriden.

  16. Recovery of protactinium from molten fluoride nuclear fuel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Bamberger, C.; Ross, R.G.

    1973-12-25

    A method is provided for separating protactinium from a molten fluonlde salt composition consisting essentially of at least one alkali and alkaline earth metal fluoride and at least one soluble fluoride of uranium or thorium which comprises oxidizing the protactinium in said composition to the + 5 oxidation state and contacting said composition with an oxide selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal oxide, an alkaline earth oxide, thorium oxide, and uranium oxide, and thereafter isolating the resultant insoluble protactinium oxide product from said composition. (Official Gazette)

  17. Study by thermochromatography of fluorides of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochromatography was made suitable for fluoride study. So, an investigation of actinide tetrafluorides was accomplished from uranium to californium. Pentavalent and hexavalent fluorospecies of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and ruthenium were studied. Some new compounds have been identified in gaseous phase, whose: PuF5, PuOF3 and PaOF3. Furthermore, some presomptions as for the existence in gaseous phase of EsF4 and of an heptavalent fluorospecies of plutonium have been established. An important analogy between plutonium and ruthenium behaviour with fluorine have been shown, these results could explain the difficulties encountered in the fluoride-volatility processes

  18. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  19. Fluoride and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) release from fluoride varnishes supplemented with TMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarelli, Michele Mauricio; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Percinoto, Célio; Pessan, Juliano Pelim

    2016-05-20

    This study assessed fluoride (F) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) release into artificial saliva from varnishes containing 0%, 2.5%, and 5% NaF, supplemented or not with 5% TMP. The varnishes were applied on polyester sheets (n = 8/group), and F and TMP released into artificial saliva were measured for up to 24 hours. The amount of F and TMP released were directly related to NaF and TMP concentrations in the varnishes. The highest F release was seen for 5% NaF and 5% NaF + 5% TMP, whereas 5% TMP released the highest amount of TMP. However, the simultaneous addition of NaF and TMP to varnishes significantly reduced the amount of F and TMP released from the products. PMID:27223137

  20. Fluoride and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP release from fluoride varnishes supplemented with TMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mauricio MANARELLI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed fluoride (F and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP release into artificial saliva from varnishes containing 0%, 2.5%, and 5% NaF, supplemented or not with 5% TMP. The varnishes were applied on polyester sheets (n = 8/group, and F and TMP released into artificial saliva were measured for up to 24 hours. The amount of F and TMP released were directly related to NaF and TMP concentrations in the varnishes. The highest F release was seen for 5% NaF and 5% NaF + 5% TMP, whereas 5% TMP released the highest amount of TMP. However, the simultaneous addition of NaF and TMP to varnishes significantly reduced the amount of F and TMP released from the products.