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Sample records for calcium dietary

  1. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  2. Influence of dietary calcium on bone calcium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.; Roland, D.A. Sr.; Clark, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 microCi 45 Ca/day were administered to 125 hens for 10 days. Hens were then allocated to five treatments with calcium levels ranging from .08 to 3.75% of the diet. In Experiment 2, hens with morning oviposition times were randomly allocated to 11 treatments that were periods of time postoviposition ranging from 6 hr to 24 hr, in 2-hr increments (Experiment 2). At the end of each 2-hr period, eggs from 25 hens were removed from the uterus. The 18-, 20-, and 22-hr treatments were replicated three times. In Experiment 3, hens were fed either ad libitum or feed was withheld the last 5 or 6 hr before oviposition. In Experiment 4, hens were fed 10 microCi of 45 Ca for 15 days to label skeletal calcium. Hens were divided into two groups and fed a .08 or 3.75% calcium diet for 2 days. On the second day, 25 hens fed the 3.75% calcium diet were intubated with 7 g of the same diet containing .5 g calcium at 1700, 2100, 0100, 0500, and 0700 hr. The measurements used were egg weight, shell weight, and 45 Ca content of the egg shell. Results indicated a significant linear or quadratic regression of dietary calcium levels on 45 Ca accumulation in eggshells and eggshell weight (Experiment 1). As the calcium level of the diet increased, eggshell weight increased and 45 Ca recovery decreased. Utilization of skeletal calcium for shell formation ranged from 28 to 96%. In Experiment 2, the rate of shell calcification was not constant throughout the calcification process but varied significantly

  3. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  4. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribovich, M.L.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D 3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 ), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 , the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  5. Interactions of genotype, housing and dietary calcium in layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the interactions in performance, eggshell quality and tibia traits of two laying hen genotypes, namely a commercial hybrid, Lohmann (LSL), and a traditional breed, the Czech Hen (CH), housed in conventional cages and on litter, and fed two levels of dietary calcium (Ca) (3.5% vs. 3.0%).

  6. Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium, and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstelten, Jorrit L; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K

    2016-01-01

    , yogurt, and cheese) and dietary calcium was measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. Cases developing incident CD (n = 110) or UC (n = 244) during follow-up were matched with 4 controls. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence...

  7. Effect of Dietary Calcium and Phosphorus Levels on Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment involving 30 local and 30 Large White pigs was conducted to study the effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on rate and efficiency of gain, carcass and bone characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Rate and efficiency of gain and carcass quality were not significantly different among local pigs fed ...

  8. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  9. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

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    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population.A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity.The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05.Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  10. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

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    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  11. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case?control study in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease?s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on ...

  12. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of varying dietary calcium (Ca) levels and sources of oil on performance of broiler chickens. A total of 378 one-day-old birds were fed 6% palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) in combination with three levels of Ca, 1%, 1.25% and 1.5%, for six weeks in a 3 x 3 factorial ...

  13. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  14. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  15. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case-control study in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-10-04

    An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case-control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000-2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the

  16. Interactions of waterborne and dietary cadmium on the expression of calcium transporters in the gills of rainbow trout: Influence of dietary calcium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, Fernando; Franklin, Natasha M.; Tuttle, Ryan B.; Wood, Chris M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation strongly inhibits uptake of Ca 2+ and Cd at the fish gill. To better understand the influence of dietary Ca 2+ on branchial Ca 2+ transport, we examined the expression of two trout gill calcium transporters during waterborne and dietary Cd exposure, at two different levels of dietary Ca 2+ . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) and sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) mRNA levels following 7-28 days of exposure to these treatments. In brief, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to control, 3 μg/L waterborne Cd, 500 mg/kg dietary Cd, or a combined 3 μg/L waterborne plus 500 mg/kg dietary Cd exposure, supplemented with either 20 mg/g or 60 mg/g dietary calcium (Ca 2+ ). Two-way analysis of variance was used to discern the main effects of Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ supplementation on ECaC and NCX mRNA levels. We found that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation decreased significantly ECaC mRNA expression on days 14 and 21. In comparison, NCX mRNA levels were not influenced by dietary Ca 2+ supplementation, but rather were significantly inhibited in the combined waterborne and dietary Cd exposure on day 7 alone. Statistical analysis found no interactive effects between Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ exposure at any time point, except for day 28.This study provides evidence of the importance of nutritional status on the transcriptional regulation of ion transport at the fish gill. We discuss the importance of diet and nutritional status to the development of new regulatory approaches, such as the biotic ligand model, which currently do not account for the significance of diet on metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms

  17. [Association between dietary calcium/dairy intakes and overweight/obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanrong; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hongmei; Bao, Yuxin; Luo, Jiao; Tian, Guo; Cheng, Guo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the intakes of dietary calcium/dairy and the current prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-15 in Longquanyi District, Chengdu, and to explore the association of dietary calcium and dairy intake with overweight/obesity. 1738 children and adolescents were recruited in the cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method. Information on dietary calcium and dairy intakes was collected using 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI)/waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index standard deviation (BMI SDS). Overweight/obesity was defined based on the criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Participants were grouped into 3 categories indicating lower, moderate and higher intakes of dietary calcium and dairy, respectively. The association of dietary calcium and dairy consumption with (BMI SDS) /WHtR and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was analyzed after being stratified by gender and age. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in boys and girls were 11.92%/7.04% and 8.04%/6.30%, respectively. The intake of dietary calcium and dairy in girls were much higher than that in boys (P obesity in boys, however the associations were inconsistent among different age groups. Associations between consumption of calcium, dairy and overweight/obesity were not found among girls.

  18. Dietary calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sung Hye; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, A Ram; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chan Soo

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of dietary calcium intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and fracture is controversial. Most previous reports have evaluated populations with high calcium intake. Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether high dietary calcium intake was associated with the risk of CVD, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake. Design: In a prospective cohort study beginning in 2001 in Ansung-Ansan, Korea, 2158 men and 2153 women aged >50 y were evaluated for all-cause mortality, CVD, stroke, and fractures over a median 9-y follow-up. Results: During follow-up, 242 and 100 deaths, 149 and 150 CVD events, 58 and 82 stroke events, and 211 and 292 incident fractures occurred in men and women, respectively. The first quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake were 249 mg/d (IQR: 169 mg/d) in men and 209 mg/d (IQR: 161 mg/d) in women. Both men and women with higher dietary calcium intake tended to have higher fat, protein, sodium, phosphorus, fruit, and vegetable intakes. In men, outcomes were not significantly associated with dietary calcium intake with or without adjustments, and CVD risk tended to increase with increasing energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake, but this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.078 and P = 0.093 with and without adjustment, respectively). In women, CVD risk and dietary calcium intake showed a U-shaped association; the HRs (95% CIs) without adjustment relative to the first quartile were 0.71 (0.47, 1.07), 0.57 (0.36, 0.88), and 0.52 (0.33, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the values after adjustment were 0.70 (0.45, 1.07), 0.51 (0.31, 0.81), and 0.49 (0.29, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusion: In Korean women, increased dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased CVD risk, but it did not influence the risk of stroke or fracture. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  20. Dietary habits in women with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

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    Meschi Tiziana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition has been widely recognized to influence the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess: a whether usual diet of women with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN living in Parma (Northern-Italy is different compared to healthy controls, b how their diet differs from Italian National guidelines and c whether it is related to nephrolithiasis clinical course. Methods 143 women with recurrent ICN (mean age 43 ± 13 ys and 170 healthy women (mean age 42 ± 11 ys were enrolled. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire for the last 60-days and a 3-day dietary diary analysed with a dedicated software. Results Stone formers showed a higher consumption of sausages, ham, meat and sweets than healthy controls (43.1% vs 11.1%, 29.4% vs 13.9%, 21.6% vs 4.2%, 66.7% vs 18.1%, p 40 years, the differences described above were amplified in the class ≤30 years, where nephrolithiasis presented a more serious course (shorter recurrence interval, greater stone-rate. In this age group the intake of fruit and vegetables was notably lower than guideline recommendations. Conclusions We conclude that the usual diet of women with recurrent ICN is different from controls and characterized by low intake of fruits and vegetables and higher consumption of simple sugars and foods with high protein and salt content. This dietary imbalance could play a role in the ICN pathogenesis, especially in younger women. This work was financed by grants from Italian Ministry of University and Research as part of a larger project about the prevention of kidney stones (PRIN 2005063822 and by Fondazione per la Ricerca Scientifica Termale (FoRST. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this paper was reported.

  1. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (Pducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (Pstudy suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

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    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  3. Dietary Calcium Intake in Sample of School Age Children in City of Rabat, Morocco

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    Amina Bouziani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.

  4. Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplements: Statistical Comparison of Methods in the Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…

  5. Interactions of waterborne and dietary cadmium on the expression of calcium transporters in the gills of rainbow trout: Influence of dietary calcium supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, Fernando [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: galvezf@lsu.edu; Franklin, Natasha M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Tuttle, Ryan B. [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2007-08-30

    Recent studies have shown that dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation strongly inhibits uptake of Ca{sup 2+} and Cd at the fish gill. To better understand the influence of dietary Ca{sup 2+} on branchial Ca{sup 2+} transport, we examined the expression of two trout gill calcium transporters during waterborne and dietary Cd exposure, at two different levels of dietary Ca{sup 2+}. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) and sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) mRNA levels following 7-28 days of exposure to these treatments. In brief, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to control, 3 {mu}g/L waterborne Cd, 500 mg/kg dietary Cd, or a combined 3 {mu}g/L waterborne plus 500 mg/kg dietary Cd exposure, supplemented with either 20 mg/g or 60 mg/g dietary calcium (Ca{sup 2+}). Two-way analysis of variance was used to discern the main effects of Cd exposure and dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation on ECaC and NCX mRNA levels. We found that dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation decreased significantly ECaC mRNA expression on days 14 and 21. In comparison, NCX mRNA levels were not influenced by dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation, but rather were significantly inhibited in the combined waterborne and dietary Cd exposure on day 7 alone. Statistical analysis found no interactive effects between Cd exposure and dietary Ca{sup 2+} exposure at any time point, except for day 28.This study provides evidence of the importance of nutritional status on the transcriptional regulation of ion transport at the fish gill. We discuss the importance of diet and nutritional status to the development of new regulatory approaches, such as the biotic ligand model, which currently do not account for the significance of diet on metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms.

  6. Dietary calcium as a possible anti-promoter of colon carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lapre, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARY
    Colon cancer is the second-most common malignancy in both males and females and is strongly related to environmental factors of which diet seems to be the most important one. Dietary fat is positively correlated with the incidence of colon cancer whereas dietary fibre and dietary calcium seem to be negatively associated with the risk of colon cancer. The development of colon cancer can genetically and histologically ...

  7. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-12-16

    High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and August 2013. Information on dietary calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and locations of the colorectal cancers were classified as proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, and rectal cancer. Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 922 colorectal cancer cases and 2766 controls were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest calcium intake quartile, the highest quartile group showed a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer in both men and women. (Odds ratio (OR): 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.24 for men; OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29 for women). Among the highest calcium intake groups, decrease in cancer risk was observed across all sub-sites of colorectum in both men and women. In conclusion, calcium consumption was inversely related to colorectal cancer risk in Korean population where national average calcium intake level is relatively lower than Western countries. A decreased risk of colorectal cancer by calcium intake was observed in all sub-sites in men and women.

  8. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Low calcium intake may adversely affect bone health in adults. Recognizing the presence of low calcium intake is necessary to develop national strategies to optimize intake. To highlight regions where calcium intake should be improved, we systematically searched for the most representative ...

  9. The Effects of Dietary Calcium and/or Iron Deficiency upon Murine Intestinal Calcium Binding Protein Activity and Calcium Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine M.

    1980-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been shown to impair calcium absorption, leading to decreased bone mass. Vitamin D3-dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP) has been demonstrated to be necessary for the active transport of calcium in the intestine of numerous species. Iron deficiency might affect the activity of the calcium binding protein. Four experimental diets were formulated as follows: Diet 1, iron adequate, calcium adequate; Diet 2, iron deficient, calcium adequate; Diet 3, iron adequate, calci...

  10. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on intranephronic calculosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J C; Jee, W S

    1984-12-01

    The effects of varying dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on the incidence and severity of intranephronic calculosis were studied. Renal calculi were induced by feeding female rats the AIN-76TM semipurified diet for 4 weeks. During this time period, dietary levels of 350, 450 or 550 mg calcium per 100 g diet did not influence the occurrence of urolithiasis. Increasing dietary magnesium levels from 50 to 350 mg was beneficial in preventing the occurrence of calculi if the diet contained 400 mg or less phosphorus. The protective effects of dietary magnesium were counteracted when dietary phosphorus levels were increased from 400 mg to 550 or 700 mg. If the dietary content of phosphorus and magnesium permitted the formation of renal calculi, the severity of the condition was also influenced by the dietary level of calcium. Some animal groups fed semipurified diets did not have microscopic or radiographic evidence of renal calculi but were found to have significantly elevated renal calcium values. It was suggested that these animals might be in a precalculus-forming state.

  11. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence of dietary calcium and vitamin D inadequacies in a population of dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehowich, Daniel J; Pehowich, Enid D

    2016-12-01

    To determine the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake of a cohort of dental patients identified as being at risk of inadequacy based on a 24-hour food recall. A retrospective chart analysis was carried out on 5-day food record and nutrient analyses of 670 dental patients aged 18 to 82 years obtained over a 10-year period. All patients had scored poorly on a 24-hour food recall survey during their initial examination. The overall mean and median calcium and vitamin D intakes of the patients were significantly lower than the current estimated needs for the general population. Although calcium intake did not change over the 10-year period, vitamin D consumption decreased. The greatest dietary intake inadequacies for both calcium and vitamin D were seen in both male and female patients over age 50 years. A 24-Hour Food Recall Questionnaire may be an effective means for the oral health professional to screen patients for calcium and vitamin D and other nutrient inadequacies. Screening for potential dietary inadequacies of calcium and vitamin D may identify patients potentially at risk for poor bone health. Our results indicate that the dental health professional can obtain evidence necessary to change patient dietary behavior and thus contribute to successful treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phosphorus Balance in Adolescent Girls and the Effect of Supplemental Dietary Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, Colby J; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Gallant, Kathleen M Hill

    2018-03-01

    There are limited data on phosphorus balance and the effect of dietary calcium supplements on phosphorus balance in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine phosphorus balance and the effect of increasing dietary calcium intake with a supplement on net phosphorus absorption and balance in healthy adolescent girls. This study utilized stored urine, fecal, and diet samples from a previously conducted study that focused on calcium balance. Eleven healthy girls ages 11 to 14 years participated in a randomized crossover study, which consisted of two 3-week periods of a controlled diet with low (817 ± 19.5 mg/d) or high (1418 ± 11.1 mg/d) calcium, separated by a 1-week washout period. Phosphorus intake was controlled at the same level during both placebo and calcium supplementation (1435 ± 23.5 and 1453 ± 28.0 mg/d, respectively, p = 0.611). Mean phosphorus balance was positive by about 200 mg/d and was unaffected by the calcium supplement ( p = 0.826). Urinary phosphorus excretion was lower with the calcium supplement (535 ± 42 versus 649 ± 41 mg/d, p = 0.013), but fecal phosphorus and net phosphorus absorption were not significantly different between placebo and calcium supplement (553 ± 60 versus 678 ± 63 versus mg/d, p = 0.143; 876 ± 62 versus 774 ± 64 mg/d, p = 0.231, respectively). Dietary phosphorus underestimates using a nutrient database compared with the content measured chemically from meal composites by ~40%. These results show that phosphorus balance is positive in girls during adolescent growth and that a calcium dietary supplement to near the current recommended level does not affect phosphorus balance when phosphorus intake is at 1400 mg/d, a typical US intake level. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  15. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested 47 Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003], and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation

  16. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  17. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  18. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kesiena

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... nine dietary treatments. Each treatment combination had four replicate pens (10 birds per pen). .... Ambient temperature was 29°C on day 1, gradually decreased to 21°C and ..... Glu, blood glucose; Lac, blood lactose; HCo3.

  19. Dietary calcium levels and chemical treatments influencing radiostrontium uptake and release in mammalian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Moloukhia, M.K.; Abdel-Fattah, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Data obtained from in vivo studies on rats suggest that the rate of administered radiostrontium uptake and deposition in bones shows a negative correlation with the levels of dietary calcium in the following order: CR, CN, CP, CDP, where CR stands for calcium-rich diet (Ca% 1.728), CN for calcium-normal ( Ca% 1.442), CP for calcium-poor (Ca% 0.347(and CDP for both calcium-poor (Ca% 0.135) and vitamin D deficient. The uptake values for the administered radiostrontium were affected by the duration of the experimental feeding time in the following order: 10, 50 and 120 days. Administration of MgSO 4 or SrCl 2 experimentally fed animals showed a decrease in the magnitude of radiostrontium uptake, the effect being more pronounced with MgSO, whereas CaCl 2 showed an increase in the rate of uptake of the radionuclide. It has been also found that increasing the level of dietary calcium as well as administration of stable strontium or magnesium favoured more rapid elimination of the radiostrontium from the bones and helped the animals to discriminate more significantly against radiostrontium uptake. The data obtained were statistically evaluated and the results discussed in view of the relevant literature. (author)

  20. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  1. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have proved the possibility of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by zeolite A supplementation during the dry period, and a recent in vitro study has indicated a marked calcium (Ca) as well as phosphorus (P) binding effect of zeolite A in rumen fluid solutions. Because...... of the connection between the Ca and P homeostatic systems, the preventive effect against parturient hypocalcaemia may arise from zeolite induced decreased availability of dietary Ca as well as P. In the present study, the expected Ca and P binding capacity was challenged by feeding high and low levels of dietary...... Ca and/or P to zeolite A treated dry cows. Twenty-one pregnant dry cows were assigned to four experimental groups receiving a dry cow ration unsupplemented or supplemented with extra Ca and/or P. During the last 2 weeks of the dry period all cows additionally received 600 g of zeolite A per day...

  2. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  3. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. METHODS: A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet...... with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity advance online...

  4. Dietary pectin and calcium inhibit colonic proliferation in vivo by differing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, S; Morris, A P; Kourouma, F; Sellin, J H

    2003-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in promoting and/or preventing colon cancer; however, the effects of specific nutrients remain uncertain because of the difficulties in correlating epidemiological and basic observations. Transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) induced by Citrobacter rodentium, causes significant hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in the mouse distal colon and increases the risk of subsequent neoplasia. We have recently shown that TMCH is associated with an increased abundance of cellular beta-catenin and its nuclear translocation coupled with up-regulation of its downstream targets, c-myc and cyclin D1. In this study, we examined the effects of two putatively protective nutrients, calcium and soluble fibre pectin, on molecular events linked to proliferation in the colonic epithelium during TMCH. Dietary intervention incorporating changes in calcium [high (1.0%) and low (0.1%)] and alterations in fibre content (6% pectin and fibre-free) were compared with the standard AIN-93 diet (0.5% calcium, 5% cellulose), followed by histomorphometry and immunochemical assessment of potential oncogenes. Dietary interventions did not alter the time course of Citrobacter infection. Both 1.0% calcium and 6% pectin diet inhibited increases in proliferation and crypt length typically seen in TMCH. Neither the low calcium nor fibre-free diets had significant effect. Pectin diet blocked increases in cellular beta-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-myc levels associated with TMCH by 70%, whereas neither high nor low calcium diet had significant effect on these molecules. Diets supplemented with either calcium or pectin therefore, exert anti-proliferative effects in mouse distal colon involving different molecular pathways. TMCH is thus a diet-sensitive model for examining the effect of specific nutrients on molecular characteristics of the pre-neoplastic colonic epithelium.

  5. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  6. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  7. What aspect of dietary modification in broilers controls litter water-soluble phosphorus: dietary phosphorus, phytase, or calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytem, A B; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Kwanyuen, P; Brake, J

    2007-01-01

    Environmental concerns about phosphorus (P) losses from animal agriculture have led to interest in dietary strategies to reduce the concentration and solubility of P in manures and litters. To address the effects of dietary available phosphorus (AvP), calcium (Ca), and phytase on P excretion in broilers, 18 dietary treatments were applied in a randomized complete block design to each of four replicate pens of 28 broilers from 18 to 42 d of age. Treatments consisted of three levels of AvP (3.5, 3.0, and 2.5 g kg(-1)) combined with three levels of Ca (8.0, 6.9, and 5.7 g kg(-1)) and two levels of phytase (0 and 600 phytase units [FTU]). Phytase was added at the expense of 1.0 g kg(-1) P from dicalcium phosphate. Fresh litter was collected from pens when the broilers were 41 d of age and analyzed for total P, soluble P, and phytate P as well as P composition by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the inclusion of phytase at the expense of inorganic P or reductions in AvP decreased litter total P by 28 to 43%. Litter water-soluble P (WSP) decreased by up to 73% with an increasing dietary Ca/AvP ratio, irrespective of phytase addition. The ratio of WSP/total P in litter decreased as the dietary Ca/AvP ratio increased and was greater in the phytase-amended diets. This study indicated that while feeding reduced AvP diets with phytase decreased litter total P, the ratio of Ca/AvP in the diet was primarily responsible for effects on WSP. This is important from an environmental perspective as the amount of WSP in litter could be related to potential for off-site P losses following land application of litter.

  8. Red meat and colon cancer : dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    2001-01-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with increased colon cancer risk. We have shown earlier that this may be due to the high haem content of red meat, because dietary haem increased cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation. Dietary calcium inhibits diet-induced

  9. Calcium absorption in rat large intestine in vivo: availability of dietary calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, P.; Rizzoli, R.; Fleisch, H.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium absorption in the large intestine of the rat was investigated in vivo. After a single injection of 45 CaCl 2 into the cecum, 26.0 +/- 2.5% (mean +/- SE, n = 9) of the 45 CaCl 2 injected disappeared. This absorption was modulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, increased to 64.0 +/- 4.2% under a low-Ca diet, and increased under low-Pi diet. In contrast, when the difference of nonradioactive Ca in the cecal content and the feces was measured, only 4.1 +/- 4.6% (not significant) was absorbed. Secretion of intravenously injected 45 Ca into the lumen was small and not altered by any of the conditions tested. When cecum contents were placed into duodenal tied loops, 14 +/- 6.2% were absorbed in situ when 45 Ca was given orally, whereas when 45 Ca was directly added to the content 35.6 +/- 4.6% were absorbed (P less than 0.02). These results indicate that the large intestine has an important vitamin D-dependent Ca absorptive system detectable if 45 Ca is injected into the cecum. However, it is not effective in vivo because the Ca arriving in the large intestine appears to be no longer in an absorbable form

  10. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  11. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium

  12. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  13. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Bintaş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  14. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. © 2014 American

  15. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  16. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  17. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kıraç

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%, 43 (39.8%, and 38 (35.5% of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05. The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate—but not calcium—abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  18. The relation between dietary protein, calcium and bone health in women: results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Walter, Dietmar; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in bone health is controversial. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between protein intake, dietary calcium, and bone structure measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Our analysis includes 8,178 female study participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam Study. Ultrasound bone measurements were performed on the right os calcis, and BUA was determined. Dietary intake was assessed by a standardized food frequency questionnaire. We applied linear regression models to estimate the association between dietary protein and BUA. After multivariate adjustment, high intake of animal protein was associated with decreased BUA values (beta = -0.03; p = 0.010) whereas high vegetable protein intake was related to an increased BUA (beta = 0.11; p = 0.007). The effect of dietary animal protein on BUA was modified by calcium intake. High consumption of protein from animal origin may be unfavourable, whereas a higher vegetable protein intake may be beneficial for bone health. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that high calcium intake combined with adequate protein intake based on a high ratio of vegetable to animal protein may be protective against osteoporosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effect of excess dietary salt on calcium metabolism and bone mineral in a spaceflight rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Fung, Paul; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of salt promote urinary calcium (UCa) loss and have the potential to cause bone mineral deficits if intestinal Ca absorption does not compensate for these losses. To determine the effect of excess dietary salt on the osteopenia that follows skeletal unloading, we used a spaceflight model that unloads the hindlimbs of 200-g rats by tail suspension (S). Rats were studied for 2 wk on diets containing high salt (4 and 8%) and normal calcium (0.45%) and for 4 wk on diets containing 8% salt (HiNa) and 0.2% Ca (LoCa). Final body weights were 9-11% lower in S than in control rats (C) in both experiments, reflecting lower growth rates in S than in C during pair feeding. UCa represented 12% of dietary Ca on HiNA diets and was twofold higher in S than in C transiently during unloading. Net intestinal Ca absorption was consistently 11-18% lower in S than in C. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was unaffected by either LoCa or HiNa diets in S but was increased by LoCa and HiNa diets in C. Despite depressed intestinal Ca absoption in S and a sluggish response of the Ca endocrine system to HiNa diets, UCa loss did not appear to affect the osteopenia induced by unloading. Although any deficit in bone mineral content from HiNa diets may have been too small to detect or the duration of the study too short to manifest, there were clear differences in Ca metabolism from control levels in the response of the spaceflight model to HiNa diets, indicated by depression of intestinal Ca absorption and its regulatory hormone.

  20. Vitamin D/dietary calcium deficiency rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Francis H; Pettifor, John M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and biochemical perturbations found in privational (nutritional) rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR), an autosomal recessive condition with loss of function mutations in CYP27B1. It may seem strange to combine a discussion on privational rickets and PDDR as a single topic, but privational rickets and PDDR present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and with similar perturbations in bone and mineral metabolism. Of interest is the characteristic lack of features of rickets at birth in infants with PDDR, a finding which has also been reported in infants born to vitamin D-deficient mothers. This highlights the independence of the fetus and neonate from the need for vitamin D to maintain calcium homeostasis during this period. The variable roles of vitamin D deficiency and dietary calcium deficiency in the pathogenesis of privational rickets are discussed and the associated alterations in vitamin D metabolism highlighted. Although PDDR is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, results of long-term follow-up are now available on the effect of treatment with calcitriol, and these are discussed. Areas of uncertainty, such as should affected mothers breastfeed their infants, are emphasized. PMID:24818008

  1. Optimal dietary calcium intake in HIV treated patients: no femoral osteoporosis but higher cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Laura; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Deborah; Salpietro, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gianotti, Nicola; Bigoloni, Alba; Vinci, Concetta; Mignogna, Giovanna; Sirtori, Marcella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2014-04-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk score. 200 HIV-infected patients evaluated: 171 (86%) males with a median age of 48.1 (42.3-53.8) years and 10.6 (4.3-13.6) years of HAART exposure. DCI was 889 (589-1308) mg/day and 79 (40%) patients had an optimal DCI. Framingham risk>20% was found in 13 (6.7%) patients and femoral OP was diagnosed in 12 (6%) pts. By multivariate analysis, optimal DCI was more likely in patients with a Framingham risk>20% [OR = 5.547, 95% CI:1.337, p = 0.025] and less likely in patients with femoral osteoporosis [OR = 0.159, 95% CI: 0.018-0.790, p = 0.047]. We found that an optimal dietary calcium intake was more likely in patients with high cardiovascular risk and no femoral osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A protective effect of dietary calcium against acute waterborne cadmium uptake in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldisserotto, B.; Kamunde, C.; Matsuo, A.; Wood, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the interactions between elevated dietary calcium (as ionic Ca 2+ in the form of CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O) and acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 μg/l as CdNO 3 for 3 h) on whole body uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated Cd, Ca 2+ , and Na + in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed with three diets 20 (control), 30 and 60 mg Ca 2+ /g food: for 7 days before fluxes were measured with radiotracers over a 3 h period. The two elevated Ca 2+ diets reduced the whole body uptake of both Ca 2+ and Cd by >50% and similarly reduced the internalization of both newly accumulated metals in most tissues, effects which reflect the shared branchial uptake route for Ca 2+ and Cd. As the Ca 2+ concentrations of the fluid phases of the stomach and intestinal contents were greatly elevated by the experimental diets, increased gastrointestinal Ca 2+ uptake likely caused the down-regulation of the branchial Ca 2+ (and Cd) uptake pathway. Waterborne Na + uptake and internal distribution were not affected. While plasma Ca 2+ surged after the first two feedings of the 60 mg Ca 2+ /g diet, internal homeostasis was quickly restored. Total Ca 2+ , Na + , and Cl - levels in tissues were not affected by diets. While dietary Ca 2+ protected against waterborne Cd uptake, it did not protect against the relative inhibition of waterborne Ca 2+ uptake caused by waterborne Cd. Acute exposure to 50 μg/l Cd reduced the uptake and internalization of newly accumulated Ca 2+ (but not Na + ) by 70% or more, regardless of diet. Since elevated dietary Ca 2+ reduces waterborne Cd uptake, fish eating a Ca 2+ -rich invertebrate diet may be more protected against waterborne Cd toxicity in a field situation

  4. Effects of dietary calcium levels and limestone particicle size on the performance, tibia and blood of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 405 23-week-old ISA® Brown layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement with nine treatments consisting of three dietary calcium levels (3.5, 3.75, and 4.5% and three limestone particle sizes (100% fine limestone (FL, 70% FL + 30% coarse limestone (CL and 50% (FL + 50% (CL, with nine replicates of five birds per cage. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of lay, defective eggs, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and per dozen eggs, and mortality. Dietary Ca levels significantly affected lay, with birds fed diets containing 4.5% calcium producing less eggs as compared to those fed 3.0 and 3.75% Ca. Egg production linearly decreased as dietary Ca levels increased, but blood Ca levels (mg/L increased in 28-week-old birds. The interaction of dietary Ca levels and limestone particle sizes resulted in a reduction in tibial ash Ca content as dietary Ca levels increased and as fine limestone was replaced by coarse limestone. It is concluded that a dietary Ca level of 3.75% and 100% fine particle limestone are required to maintain adequate egg production and available Ca blood level.

  5. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get decent amounts of calcium from baked beans, navy beans, white beans, and others. Canned fish. You're in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. Working Calcium Into Your ...

  6. An evaluation of the importance of gastric acid secretion in the absorption of dietary calcium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Linn, G W; Davis, G R; Buddrus, D J; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C; Fordtran, J S

    1984-01-01

    Since calcium solubility is a prerequisite to calcium absorption, and since solubility of calcium is highly pH-dependent, it has been generally assumed that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity play an important role in the intestinal absorption of calcium from ingested food or calcium salts such as CaCO3. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a method wherein net gastrointestinal absorption of calcium can be measured after ingestion of a single meal. A large dose of cimetidine, whi...

  7. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m 2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively ( P < 0.01. After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

  8. A protective effect of dietary calcium against acute waterborne cadmium uptake in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserotto, B.; Kamunde, C.; Matsuo, A.; Wood, C.M

    2004-03-30

    The present study examined the interactions between elevated dietary calcium (as ionic Ca{sup 2+} in the form of CaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) and acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 {mu}g/l as CdNO{sub 3} for 3 h) on whole body uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated Cd, Ca{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +} in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed with three diets 20 (control), 30 and 60 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g food: for 7 days before fluxes were measured with radiotracers over a 3 h period. The two elevated Ca{sup 2+} diets reduced the whole body uptake of both Ca{sup 2+} and Cd by >50% and similarly reduced the internalization of both newly accumulated metals in most tissues, effects which reflect the shared branchial uptake route for Ca{sup 2+} and Cd. As the Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of the fluid phases of the stomach and intestinal contents were greatly elevated by the experimental diets, increased gastrointestinal Ca{sup 2+} uptake likely caused the down-regulation of the branchial Ca{sup 2+} (and Cd) uptake pathway. Waterborne Na{sup +} uptake and internal distribution were not affected. While plasma Ca{sup 2+} surged after the first two feedings of the 60 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g diet, internal homeostasis was quickly restored. Total Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, and Cl{sup -} levels in tissues were not affected by diets. While dietary Ca{sup 2+} protected against waterborne Cd uptake, it did not protect against the relative inhibition of waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake caused by waterborne Cd. Acute exposure to 50 {mu}g/l Cd reduced the uptake and internalization of newly accumulated Ca{sup 2+} (but not Na{sup +}) by 70% or more, regardless of diet. Since elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} reduces waterborne Cd uptake, fish eating a Ca{sup 2+}-rich invertebrate diet may be more protected against waterborne Cd toxicity in a field situation.

  9. Effect of immobilized fungal phytase on growth performance and bone traits of broilers fed with low dietary calcium and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Ajith

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phytase which was laboratory produced by Aspergillus foetidus on the growth performance, mineral retention, and bone traits of broilers fed with low dietary calcium and phosphorus. Materials and Methods: The extracellular phytase enzyme secreted into the crude filtrate was concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation to obtain an activity of 500 phytase units (FTU. A total of 90 1-day-old chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three treatment groups with five replicates having six birds each. Dietary treatment, T1, was with 0.45% non-phytate P (NPP during starter and 0.40% during finisher phase with 1% Ca. Dietary treatment, T2, had 0.37% NPP during starter and 0.32% in finisher phase with 1% Ca and supplemental lab phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Dietary treatment, T3, was similar to T2 with a lower Ca of 0.8%. Results: There was no significant difference among the dietary treatments with regard to body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and Ca retention (p>0.05. However, a significant improvement in retention of P by birds was observed in phytase supplemental groups T2 and T3 (p<0.05. Dry weight of tibia (2.58-2.78 g/kg live weight and ash content (39.7- 41.8% was comparable among treatments. A similar trend was observed for bone Ca, P, and Mn content. Conclusion: The study indicated that 500 FTU/kg phytase can be effectively supplemented in a broiler diet with low phosphorus (0.37% in starter and 0.32% NPP in finisher diet and low calcium (0.8% in diet for better growth performance and with successful replacement of dietary P by 0.08 % and reduced P excretion into the environment in broiler chicken.

  10. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  11. High-Phosphorus, Low-Calcium Dietary Intakes and Bone Effects of Physical Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerath, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... Diet inquiries showed changes in calcium and phosphorus intakes. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of physical activity on bone tissue in the context of high-phosphorus and low-calcium intakes. Sedentary (SED) and trained (TR...

  12. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within the ranges used in this experiment, does not negatively

  13. No influence of supplemental dietary calcium intake on the bioavailability of spinach carotenoids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Joana; Guignard, Cédric; Gantenbein, Manon; Weber, Bernard; Burgard, Kim; Hoffmann, Lucien; Richling, Elke; Bohn, Torsten

    2017-06-01

    Dietary carotenoid intake, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. However, its bioavailability can vary, depending on the food matrix and host factors. Recently, it has been suggested that divalent minerals negatively impinge on carotenoid bioavailability by reducing bile-salt and non-esterified fatty-acid levels in the gut, which normally aid in emulsifying carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplemental Ca would negatively influence carotenoid absorption in humans. A total of twenty-five healthy, non-obese men (age: 20-46 years, BMIcarotenoids/100 g fresh weight), supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg of Ca (as calcium carbonate), with each participant acting as his or her own control. Blood samples were collected at regular postprandial intervals for up to 10 h following test meal intake, and standardised lunches were served. TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions were separated and carotenoid concentrations determined. AUC for meals without supplemented Ca were 22·72 (sem 2·78) nmol×h/l (lutein), 0·19 (sem 3·90) nmol×h/l (β-carotene) and 2·80 (sem 1·75) nmol×h/l (β-cryptoxanthin). No significant influence of supplementation with either 500 or 1000 mg of supplemental Ca was found. In conclusion, Ca - the most abundant divalent mineral in the diet - given at high but physiological concentrations, does not appear to have repercussions on the bioavailability of carotenoids from a spinach-based meal.

  14. Assessing the effect of dietary calcium intake and 25 OHD status on bone turnover in women in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Naureen, Ghazala; Iqbal, Romaina; Dar, Farhan Javed

    2013-01-01

    Bone health assessed in three towns of Karachi, Pakistan in females showed poor calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age from low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. To assess bone health and association of dietary calcium and 25 hydroxy vitamin D with bone turnover in the community-dwelling females of Karachi. Bone health was assessed in three randomly selected towns of Karachi, Pakistan. One premenopausal female fulfilling the inclusion criteria from each household was included in the study. Dietary calcium was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and biochemical markers including calcium, phosphates, albumin, magnesium, creatinine, and SGPT, intact parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen were measured to assess the bone health. Three hundred and five females were included from three towns. Overall, 90.5% of females had vitamin D deficiency with 42.6 and 23.3% having secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turn over respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover was significantly different among towns. Mean vitamin D levels were significantly low and iPTH levels significantly high in females with high bone turnover. Calcium intake was not significantly different among females with normal, high, and low bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age belonging to low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Compromised bone health is seen in community-dwelling females of Karachi. There is a need to perform large-scale community-based studies in all age groups to understand the interplay of markers in our population to understand the impact of these variables

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex on absorption and metabolism of calcium of laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim Sahin

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex (ASI; 49.5-8.2-25 g/kg, respectively to laying hens were investigated with respect to eggshell quality, calcium (Ca balance, and expression of duodenal proteins related to Ca metabolism (calbindin and tight junction proteins. A total of 360 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate of cages, 20 birds per cage. The groups were fed a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with 500 or 1000 mg ASI complex per kilogram for 90 days. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using data during the first week of the adaptation period as covariates. As the ASI complex supplementation level increased, there were increases in feed intake (P < 0.0001, egg production (P < 0.001, egg weight (P < 0.0001 and eggshell weight (P < 0.001 weight, and shell thickness (P < 0.001 and decreases in feed conversion ratio and cracked egg percentage (P < 0.0001 for both. Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (P < 0.0001, vitamin D (P < 0.0001, calcium (P < 0.001, phosphorus (P < 0.001, and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.008 as well as amounts of calcium retention (P < 0.0001 and eggshell calcium deposition (P < 0.001, and Ca balance (P < 0.0001 increased, whereas amount of calcium excretion (P < 0.001 decreased linearly in a dose-dependent manner. The ASI complex supplementation increased expressions of calcium transporters (calbindin-D28k, N sodium-calcium exchanger, plasma membrane calcium ATPase, and vitamin D receptor and tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin in the duodenum in a linear fashion (P < 0.0001 for all. In conclusion, provision of dietary ASI complex to laying hens during the peak laying period improved eggshell quality through improving calcium utilization as reflected by upregulation of genes related to the calcium metabolism. Further studies are needed to elucidate the contribution of each of the ASI complex ingredients.

  16. Education and exercise program improves osteoporosis knowledge and changes calcium and vitamin D dietary intake in community dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Il; Kim, Ha-Young; Jang, Sunmee; Park, Yongsoon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2017-12-19

    Several educational intervention programs have been designed and developed to improve osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment. However, most of the prior studies focused on how educational intervention programs affected diagnosis and treatment of condition of osteoporosis. The purpose of this prospective and educational intervention study was to evaluate the changes in osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, fall self-efficacy, physical exercise and changes in dietary pattern of calcium and vitamin D intake after osteoporosis education. From November 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016, 271 eligible candidates (who were over 50 years old and from 23 different community centers) were recruited through an announcement made by the public office, by two health care providers. The intervention involved an individualized education program to allow for differences in antecedent educational levels regarding several aspects of osteoporosis, including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, awareness of self-efficacy risk factors relating to an accidental fall and nutritional education (including the importance of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake). The researchers revisited the community centers three months after the initial visit. Of the 271 potential participants, 199 (73.4%; 43 men and 156 women) completed the education program and the second questionnaire. After education intervention, parameters including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy and fall self-efficacy were improved (P vitamin D intake below recommended cut-offs, inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were decreased (P vitamin D intake.

  17. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  18. Effects of Different Dietary Interventions on Calcitriol, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Phosphorus: Results from the DASH Trial

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    Ahmed Hassoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension” (DASH diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH’s effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of dietary patterns on blood concentrations of calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH, ionized calcium, and urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Outcomes were available in 334 participants in the trial. After a 3-week run-in on the control diet, participants were randomized to control, fruits and vegetables (F&V, or DASH diets. Outcomes were assessed at the end of run-in, and during the last week of the intervention period. Mean age of participants was 45.7 ± 10.7 years, 46% female, and 57% African-American. Mean ± Standard Deviation(SD baseline serum concentrations of calcitriol, PTH, and ionized calcium were 37.8 ± 9.2 pg/mL, 46.1 ± 18.5 pg/mL and 5.2 ± 0.23 mg/dL, respectively. Mean (±SD urinary calcium and phosphorus excretions were 150.1 ± 77.8 and 708.0 ± 251.8 mg/24 h, respectively. Compared with control, DASH reduced calcitriol −3.32 pg/mL (p = 0.004. Otherwise, there was no significant effect on other biomarkers. DASH lowered serum calcitriol perhaps more among African-Americans. These results raise important questions about the interpretation and clinical significance of low calcitriol concentrations in the setting of recommended diets.

  19. Influence of nutritional status, laboratory parameters and dietary patterns upon urinary acid excretion in calcium stone formers.

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    Carolini Zanette Warmling Tessaro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MS are associated with low urinary pH and represent risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially composed by uric acid. Acidogenic diets may also contribute to a reduction of urinary pH. Propensity for calcium oxalate precipitation has been shown to be higher with increasing features of the MS. Objective: A retrospective evaluation of anthropometric and body composition parameters, MS criteria and the dietary patterns of overweight and obese calcium stone formers and their impact upon urinary pH and other lithogenic parameters was performed. Methods: Data regarding anthropometry, body composition, serum and urinary parameters and 3-days dietary records were obtained from medical records of 102(34M/68F calcium stone formers. Results: A negative correlation was found between urinary pH, waist circumference and serum uric acid levels (males. The endogenous production of organic acids (OA was positively correlated with triglycerides levels and number of features of MS (males, and with glucose, uric acid and triglycerides serum levels, and number of features of MS (females. No significant correlations were detected between Net Acid Excretion (NAE or Potential Renal Acid Load of the diet with any of the assessed parameters. A multivariate analysis showed a negative association between OA and urinary pH. Conclusion: The endogenous production of OA and not an acidogenic diet were found to be independently predictive factors for lower urinary pH levels in calcium stone formers. Hypercalciuric and/or hyperuricosuric patients presented higher OA levels and lower levels of urinary pH.

  20. Dietary Calcium Intake May Contribute to the HOMA-IR Score in Korean Females with Vitamin D Deficiency (2008–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Jin-Ho Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitamin D and calcium are important factors involved in the regulation of blood glucose and insulin secretion. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR score is a useful variable for evaluating insulin resistance, and therefore we cross-sectionally compared HOMA-IR scores according to serum vitamin D levels and dietary calcium intake. Methods : We selected data from healthy males (n=5,163 and females (n=7,506 analyzed over 5 years (2008–2012 via the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. We calculated HOMA-IR scores and compared them according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration classification (30 ng/mL and dietary calcium quintile after adjustment for relevant variables using complex sample analysis. Comparisons were done after data weighting. Results : The mean dietary calcium intake in males and females was 558.1 mg/day and 445.9 mg/day, respectively. The mean serum 25(OHD concentration in males and females was 19.4 ng/mL and 16.8 ng/mL, respectively. After adjustment for relevant variables, HOMA-IR score was significantly correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake in females, whereas it was only correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration in males. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in the top quintile of dietary calcium intake (mean, 866 mg/day within females with vitamin D deficiency (P=0.047. Conclusion : Adequate dietary calcium intake may be important for normal HOMA-IR in females with vitamin D deficiency.

  1. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li Li; Ming, Dong Xu; Dong, Shu Ren; Yang, Zhong Yue; Wang, Wen Hui; Zhang, Shuai; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg) were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i) Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%), ii) Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%), iii) Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%), iv) Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%), v) High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%), and vi) High Ca+maifanite (0.64%). Feces were collected by the total collection (TC) and indicator method (IM). At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01) in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (pdigestibility values than the TC method. PMID:28728391

  2. Assessment of dietary calcium intake of university students: a pilot study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz-Varlı, Semra; Köse, Süleyman; Tatar, Tuğba; Arslan, Sabriye; Köksal, Eda

    2018-03-30

    The aim of this study was to adapt the rapid assessment method (RAM) and International Osteoporosis Foundation Food Frequency Questionnaire (IOF FFQ) tools, used for the assessment of daily calcium intake in university students, and to compare the data obtained using 24-h recall (24-HR) data. There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays vital roles in metabolism and it is very important to accurately assess the amount of calcium intake on the diet. It was aimed to assess the daily calcium intake of university students by two different food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed specifically for evaluating calcium intake, and 24-h recall method. The study was conducted with a total of 183 female university students aged 18-31. In the study, a questionnaire including sociodemographic information, a calcium calculator, IOF FFQ, prepared in seven different languages, and RAM was applied. In addition, 1-day food consumption records were obtained using 24-HR method. The daily average calcium intakes of individuals according to two different food frequency questionnaires (RAM FFQ and IOF FFQ) and 24-h food consumption records are respectively 1594.2 ± 810.9, 897.9 ± 368.4, and 605.6 ± 278.3 mg. When the daily average calcium intake was compared with the other two methods, RAM was found to be statistically higher (p fast and short tools to ensure adequate calcium intake from young age. It is thought that FFQs are the most appropriate methods in assessing daily calcium intake for this study group because it is observed that the list of foods and the amount of portions in FFQs reduce the problem of remembering at 24-h method to a great extent.

  3. Osteoporosis education improves osteoporosis knowledge and dietary calcium: comparison of a 4 week and a one-session education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, Laura L; Lynch, Joan; Sullivan, Thomas R; McNeil, Julian D

    2011-08-01

    Education is ideal for osteoporosis because many risk factors are modifiable. However, the efficacy of shortened education courses compared to a standard 4 week course for improving osteoporosis knowledge and healthy behaviours is not known. This study aimed to assess whether education changed knowledge and healthy behaviours over 3 months of follow-up; and whether changes in these outcomes were different between participants receiving the different education courses. Adults aged ≥ 50 years presenting to Emergency with mild to moderate trauma fractures received either the Osteoporosis Prevention and Self-Management Course (OPSMC) (4 × 2.5 h) (n = 75) or a one-session course (1 × 2.5 h) (n = 71) in a non-randomised prospective study with single-blinded allocation. Participants completed questionnaires measuring osteoporosis knowledge, dietary calcium, physical activity, calcium and exercise self-efficacy, and osteoporosis medications at baseline and 3 months. Data were analysed using mixed models and GEE regression models. Osteoporosis knowledge and calcium from food (% of RDI) increased from baseline to 3 months in both groups (P osteoporosis medications increased between baseline and 3 months in the OPSMC group while decreasing in the one-session group (P = 0.039). There were no differences between the groups or over time in physical activity, calcium or exercise self-efficacy. Osteoporosis education (either the OPSMC or the one-session course) improved osteoporosis knowledge and calcium intake after 3 months. Participants attending the OPSMC maintained medication compliance. We were unable to determine other differences between the courses. This study confirms the value of osteoporosis education for improving osteoporosis knowledge. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO 3 . Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85 Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  5. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S

    2000-12-01

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO{sub 3}. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of {sup 85}Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%.

  6. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  7. Influence of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) on phosphorus retention in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheideler, S.E.; Sell, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiment 1 was a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 3 levels of dietary Ca (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0%) and 3 P feeding programs fed to laying hens for 336 days. The P programs tested were: .64% P fed continuously for 48 weeks; .64, .54, and .44% P; and .56, .49, and .39% P fed when hens were 24 to 36, 36 to 52, and 52 to 72 weeks of age, respectively. In addition to production traits, measurements of P retention were made at 34, 42, 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age. None of the production traits measured showed any dietary effects. Dietary Ca affected P retention at 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age. None of the production traits measured showed any dietary effects. Dietary Ca affected P retention at 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age. Average P retention for the experiment was 104, 148, and 178 mg/day in hens fed 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0% Ca. Dietary P affected P retention at 42 and 72 weeks, with P retention being greater in hens fed .64% P. Ca x P interactions were measured at 42, 62, and 72 weeks of age. Experiment 2 involved 2 levels of dietary Ca (.8 and 1.2%) fed to one-week-old broiler chicks for 8 days during which time 50 uCi 33 P/chick were administered. Serum, femurs, and excreta were collected 48 hours following 33 P dosing. Serum inorganic P and excreted 33 P activity were greater in chicks fed .8% Ca; whereas femur 33 P activity was greater when chicks received the 1.2% Ca diet. These data indicate increased P retention and greater bone deposition of P in chicks fed 1.2% dietary Ca. These results support those of Experiment 1 in which P retention of hens increased as dietary Ca increased

  8. The influence of dietary microbial phytase and calcium on the accumulation of cadmium in different organs of pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, B.; Lantzsch, H.J.; Drochner, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Tierernaehrung

    2001-07-01

    A total of 72 barrows (initial body weight 16.7 kg) was used, to evaluate the influence of microbial phytase supplementation alone or in combination with calcium to barley soybean meal diets on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in kidney, liver, muscle, brain and bone. The control group received the basal diet with 6 g Ca and a low native Cd concentration of 0.03 mg/kg dry matter (DM). In the experimental groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 dietary cadmium concentration was elevated to 0.78 mg/kg DM. The diet of group 3 was supplemented with 800 U microbial phytase/kg, the diet of group 4 with 6 g Ca/kg. The diet of group 5 contained both supplements. The addition of microbial phytase caused an increase of Cd retention in kidney and liver at 30 and 50 kg body weight. This effect was counteracted by the contemporary addition of calcium. A supplementation of Ca alone showed no effect on the Cd accumulation in kidney and liver. In muscle, brain and bone no effects of phytase and calcium on the accumulation of Cd could be found. (orig.)

  9. Inhibition of 4NQO-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis by Dietary Oyster Shell Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Tang, Shengan; Yang, Qing; Sun, Lihua; Li, Yujie; Gao, Shuangrong; Xie, Zhongjian

    2016-03-01

    Oyster has gained much attention recently for its anticancer activity but it is unclear whether calcium, the major antitumor ingredient in oyster shell, is responsible for the anticarcinogenic role of the oyster. To address this issue, C57BL/6 mice were fed with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 50 µg/mL) and normal diet or a diet containing oyster powder, oyster calcium, or calcium depleted oyster powder. The tongue tissue specimens isolated from these mice were histologically evaluated for hyperplasia, dysplasia, and papillary lesions, and then analyzed for proliferation and differentiation markers by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that mice on the diet containing oyster calcium significantly reduced rates of tumors in the tongue and proliferation and enhanced differentiation in the oral epithelium compared with the diet containing calcium depleted oyster powder. These results suggest that calcium in oyster plays a critical role in suppressing formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation and promoting differentiation of the oral epithelium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

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    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  11. Effect of dietary boron on growth performance, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and bone mechanical properties in growing barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T A; Spears, J W

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary boron (B) on growth performance, bone mechanical properties, and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism in pigs. Thirty-six barrows were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly assigned to receive one of three dietary treatments. Treatments consisted of 1) low-B basal diet (control), 2) basal + 5 mg B/kg diet, and 3) basal + 15 mg B/kg diet. Boron was supplemented as sodium borate. Barrows remained on their respective experimental diets throughout the nursery (35 d) and growing (30 d) phases of production. Blood samples were obtained from each barrow at the end of each phase. Following the 30-d growing period, eight barrows per treatment were transferred to stainless steel metabolism crates. Barrows had an adjustment period of 7 d, followed by a 7-d total collection of urine and feces. All barrows were fed at 90% of the previous ad libitum grower intake of the control animals during the adjustment and collection periods. At the end of the 7-d collection period, barrows were killed and femurs and fibulas were harvested for the assessment of bone mechanical properties. During the nursery phase, ADG and ADFI were increased (P 0.05) by dietary B. These data indicate that B supplementation to pigs can increase growth and bone strength without greatly affecting Ca and P metabolism.

  12. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    design with both descriptive and analytic components. A total of 170 ... data were used to convert dietary intake into nutrient content. The mean (SD) ... urban centers or those wearing clothing that concealed most of the skin from sun exposure.

  13. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  14. Potassium Bicarbonate Attenuates the Urinary Nitrogen Excretion That Accompanies an Increase in Dietary Protein and May Promote Calcium Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S.; Abrams, Steven A.; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2009-01-01

    Context: Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. Objective: We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. Design: We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. Setting: The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Participants: Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54–82 yr participated. Intervention: KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. Main Outcome Measures: We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. Results: KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). Conclusions: In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content. PMID:19050051

  15. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hoefkens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body — as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU — do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed.

  16. Consequences of dietary calcium and phosphorus depletion and repletion feeding sequences on growth performance and body composition of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, E; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Bernier, J F; Pomar, C

    2018-06-01

    The effect of a calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) depletion and repletion strategy was studied in four consecutive feeding phases of 28 days each. In all, 60 castrated male pigs (14±1.6 kg initial BW) received 60% (low (L) diet; depletion) or 100% (control (C) diet; repletion) of their Ca and digestible P requirements according to six feeding sequences (CCCC, CCCL, CLCC, CCLC, LCLC and LLLL; subsequent letters indicate the diet received in phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Pigs bone mineral content in whole-body (BMCb) and lumbar vertebrae L2 to L4 (BMCv) was measured in every feeding phase by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Growth performance was slightly (depletion, however, dietary treatments did not affect overall growth. Compared with control pigs, depletion reduced BMCb (34%, 38%, 33% and 22%) and BMCv (46%, 54%, 38% and 26%) in phases 1 to 4, respectively. Depletion increased however digestible P retention efficiency from the second to the fourth phases allowing LLLL pigs to present no differences in BMCb and BMCv gain compared with CCCC pigs in phase 4. Growth performance in repleted compared with control pigs was lower in phase 2, was no different in phase 3 and was lower in CLCC pigs in phase 4. Repletion increased body P and Ca retention efficiency when compared with control pigs (respectively, 8% and 10% for LC v. CC, Pdepletion and repletion sequences than BMCb especially in the first phase probably due to a higher proportion of metabolically active trabecular bone in vertebrae than in the whole skeleton. Dietary Ca was, however, oversupply in L compared with C diets (3.1 v. 2.5 Ca:digestible P ratio, respectively) suggesting that P has probably driven the regulations. Phosphorus and Ca depletion and repletion increases dietary P utilization efficiency and can help to reduce dietary P supply, but the underlying mechanisms need elucidation before its practical application.

  17. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  18. Effects of varying the amounts of dietary calcium on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Fielding, A.S.; Etheridge, R.E.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of dietary Ca on Se metabolism was studied with 16 intact male Holstein calves averaging 86 kg. Calves were assigned randomly and fed one of four diets containing .17, .67, 1.31, and 2.35% Ca at 3% of their body weight for 4 wk. The diets contained .062 ppm Se and .34% P. Four days prior to the end of the experiment, calves were dosed orally with radioactive 75 Se. Dietary Ca had no significant effect on 75 Se absorption. There was a slight curvilinear relationship between apparent 75 Se absorption and dietary Ca intakes. Urinary excretion of 75 Se and stable Se tended to decrease with increasing dietary Ca, but differences were not significant. No significant differences were found in concentration of 75 Se in several tissues. Kidney and liver had the highest concentration with that in kidney being about four times that of liver. Apparent 75 Se absorption was decreased 10 to 6%, respectively, in calves fed extremely low and high amounts of Ca, compared with those receiving the requirement (.67% Ca). These small reductions along with a small R 2 suggest that dietary Ca probably is of little practical importance relative to Se metabolism in calves

  19. Effect of dietary calcium level and source on mineral utilisation by piglets fed diets containing exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, P; Gutzwiller, A

    2017-10-01

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO 3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration. The apparent total tract digestibility of minerals was also assessed in the two diets with 7 g Ca/kg, using 12 additional pigs. Regardless of Ca source, increasing dietary Ca impaired feed conversion ratio, increased urinary pH, increased serum and urinary Ca, decreased serum and urinary P, decreased serum Mg and increased urinary Mg, increased serum AP activity, decreased bone Mg increased bone Zn. Bone breaking strength was improved with 7 compared to 4 g Ca/kg. Compared to CaCO 3 , Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum increased serum Mg and with, 10 g Ca/kg, it limited body weight gain. The dose response of Ca in a diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg and including exogenous phytase indicated that: (i) a low dietary Ca was beneficial for piglet growth, but was limiting the metabolic use of P; (ii) a high dietary Ca level impaired P utilisation; (iii) the optimal P utilisation and bone breaking strength was obtained with a dietary Ca-to-digestible P ratio of 2.1 to 2.4:1; (iv). Increasing dietary Ca reduced Mg utilisation, but not Zn status, when fed at adequate level. Finally, Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum had similar effects on Ca and P metabolism as CaCO 3 , but impaired growth when fed at the highest inclusion level. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Building better bones in childhood: a randomized controlled study to test the efficacy of a dietary intervention program to increase calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D R; Stark, L J; Ittenbach, R F; Stallings, V A; Zemel, B S

    2017-06-01

    Many children do not consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. Inadequate calcium intake in childhood may limit bone accrual. The objective of this study was to determine if a behavioral modification and nutritional education (BM-NE) intervention improved dietary calcium intake and bone accrual in children. 139 (86 female) healthy children, 7-10 years of age, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial conducted over 36 months. Participants randomized to the BM-NE intervention attended five sessions over a 6-week period designed to increase calcium intake to 1500 mg/day. Participants randomized to the usual care (UC) group received a single nutritional counseling session. The Calcium Counts Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess calcium intake; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to assess for an effect of the intervention on calcium intake, BMC and aBMD. BM-NE participants had greater increases in calcium intake that persisted for 12 months following the intervention compared with UC. The intervention had no effect on BMC or aBMD accrual. Secondary analyses found a negative association between calcium intake and adiposity such that greater calcium intake was associated with lesser gains in body mass index and fat mass index. A family-centered BM-NE intervention program in healthy children was successful in increasing calcium intake for up to 12 months but had no effect on bone accrual. A beneficial relationship between calcium intake and adiposity was observed and warrants future study.

  1. Dietary calcium and phosphate in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Mechanism and nutrition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Maria Johanna Adriana Petronella

    1993-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (cancerof the large intestine) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors, and in particular dietary habits, play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. A positive association

  2. Dietary calcium as a possible anti-promoter of colon carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapre, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARY
    Colon cancer is the second-most common malignancy in both males and females and is strongly related to environmental factors of which diet seems to be the most important one. Dietary fat is positively correlated with the

  3. The skeletal deformity in response of dietary phosphorus and calcium level in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus larvae

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    Sohrab Ahmadivand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformities are a common problem in fish hatcheries and commercial farms that affect growth, development and survival as well as the market value of the final product. Among the nutritional components, phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca are of special interest as they are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the skeletal system. Hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary P and Ca on the skeletal deformity, growth and carcass composition the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus larvae. In this study, six semi-purified diets were formulated. The diets A, B, C, D and E were supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% available P supplied as a 1:1mixture of NaH2Po4/KH2Po4. These five diets were supplemented with 1% Ca, supplied as CaCo3. Diets F was Ca-free and supplemented with 0.8% available P served as control level of P. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish, and each group was stocked with 30 larvae and fed three times a day for 60 days. At the end experiment, there was no significant effect of dietary P (0 to 1.6% or Ca (0 or 1% supplementation on growth performance such as weight gain and FCR, carcass moisture, P and Ca. However, a significant difference found between treatments in carcass ash. Analysis of length, height and area of vertebrae in two regions of the vertebral column showed no significant difference between the dietary treatments. The skeletal abnormalities were highest incidence in the Caspian roach fed with a low P. Kyphosis placement of vertebrae was the most frequent abnormality.

  4. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

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    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE.The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%.Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  5. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

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    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  6. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Bonanome, A; Grundy, S M; Unger, R H; Breslau, N A; Pak, C Y

    1990-04-01

    Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

  7. Excessive dietary calcium in the disruption of structural and functional status of adult male reproductive system in rat with possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Chandra, Amar; Sengupta, Pallav; Goswami, Haimanti; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2012-05-01

    Calcium is essential for functioning of different systems including male reproduction. However, it has also been reported as chemo-castrative agent. The study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of excessive dietary calcium on male reproductive system in animals with possible action. Adult male healthy rats fed CaCl(2) at different doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g%) in diet for 13 and 26 days to investigate reproductive parameters as well as the markers of oxidative stress. Significant alteration was found (P male reproduction.

  8. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. The effects of dietary calcium iodate on productive performance, egg quality and iodine accumulation in eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Nassiri-Moghaddam, H; Zarghi, H

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of supplemental calcium iodate (CI) on productive performance, egg quality, blood indices and iodine (I) accumulation in the eggs in commercial laying hens. A total of 240 White Leghorn layers (Hy-line W36) were divided through a completely randomized design into six treatments with five replicates and eight hens per each at 32 weeks of age. This experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrations of I in the mash diets were 0.74, 3.13, 5.57, 8.11, 10.65 and 12.94 mg I/kg of feed in treatments 1-6 respectively. The added doses of CI were included 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/kg of diet for treatments 1-6 respectively. There were no significant differences in productive performance among the treatments. The highest eggshell strength was observed in group fed diet containing 3.13 mg I/kg (p = .014). The highest percentage of calcium and lowest percentage of phosphorus in eggshell were observed in group fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg (p = .0001). Feeding hens with diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg increased serum triiodothyronine-to-thyroxine ratio (p = .0001). Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in hens fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was significantly more than control (p = .041). Blood Serum triglycerides in hens fed diet containing 8.11 mg I/kg were significantly higher than control (p = .0001). Edible fraction of the eggs of birds fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was enriched by I almost 3 times more than those fed diet containing 0.74 mg I/kg. The results suggested that egg production, egg mass, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by dietary I levels. Iodine accumulation in the eggs were increased by increasing dietary I levels and the level of 10 mg/kg CI could supply I enrichment of the eggs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  11. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  12. Utilization of phosphorus in poultry as influenced by dietary calcium and phosphorus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheideler, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiment one was a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of calcium (Ca) (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0%) fed with three phosphorus (p) feeding programs to two strains of laying hens for 336 days. In addition to production traits, measurements of P retention were made at 34, 42, 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age and phytate P retention and % P associated with excreted phytate at 34, 50, and 72 weeks of age. The phase feeding P programs adequately supported production characteristics. Experiment two involved feeding two levels of Ca (.8 and 1.2%) to one-week-old chicks for 7 days during which time 33 P was administered to each chick. Serum P and excreta 33 P activity were greater in chicks fed .8% Ca, while femur 33 P was greater in checks fed 1.2% Ca. The % P associated with excreted phytate ranged from 5.6 to 7.0% and phytate P utilization ranged from 31 to 48%. P retention and bone P deposition were greater in chicks fed 1.2% Ca. The final experiments were conducted utilizing isotope-dilution ( 33 P) and comparative-balance methods to estimate urinary and fecal P excretions by laying hens fed 3.46 or 4.2% Ca

  13. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  15. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs: effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, A; Bjørnvad, C R

    2016-12-01

    In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet), flaxseed mucilage or flaxseed mucilage and calcium. Feces from the past 2 days of each period were collected for analysis. Owners recorded fecal score (1-7: 1=very hard/dry feces, 2-3=ideal and 7=diarrhea). Apparent digestibility of fat was lower in both flaxseed mucilage diet (94.5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Pdigestibility in flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet being significantly lower than the diet supplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, Pdigestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.

  16. The combined effect of lead exposure and high or low dietary calcium on health and immunocompetence in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeijs, Tinne; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Darras, Veerle M.; Arckens, Lutgarde; Eens, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    The widespread contamination by lead and the acidification of the environment ask for a better understanding of the effects of the interaction between lead and calcium on various aspects of health, including disease defense, in wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sublethal levels of lead, combined with high or low dietary calcium, on health and several components of immunity in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Thirty individuals of each sex were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a group exposed to lead with an additional calcium source (i.e. grit) and a group exposed to lead without access to an extra calcium source. Lead was administered as lead acetate via the drinking water (20 ppm) for 38 consecutive days. Exposure to lead increased significantly the concentrations of lead in kidney and bone in individuals of the experimental groups. Furthermore, the lack of a calcium supplement significantly enhanced the uptake of lead. Lead did not affect health indices such as hematocrit, spleen mass and body mass, nor the adrenal stress response. Cell-mediated immune responsiveness, assessed by a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to phytohaemagglutinin, was also not affected by lead exposure. On the other hand, lead exposure did significantly suppress the secondary humoral immune response towards sheep red blood cells in females, but only when the additional calcium source was not available. This effect was not found in males, suggesting sexual differences in susceptibility of humoral immunity to lead treatment in zebra finches. - Male and female finches may respond to lead differently

  17. Effects of dietary calcium and cadmium on cadmium accumulation, calcium and cadmium uptake from the water, and their interactions in juvenile rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserotto, B. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105.900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Chowdhury, M.J. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: woodcm@mcmaster.ca

    2005-03-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of chronically elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} (as CaCO{sub 3}), alone and in combination with elevated dietary Cd, on survival, growth, and Cd and Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in several internal compartments in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In addition, effects on short-term branchial uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated waterborne Ca{sup 2+} and Cd during acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 {mu}g/L as CdNO{sub 3} for 3 h) were monitored using radiotracers ({sup 45}Ca, {sup 65}Cd). Fish were fed with four diets: 20 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g food (control), 50 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g food, 300 {mu}g Cd/g food, and 50 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g + 300 {mu}g Cd/g food for 30 days. There were no significant effects on growth, mortality, or total body Ca{sup 2+} accumulation. The presence of elevated Ca{sup 2+}, Cd, or Ca{sup 2+} + Cd in the diet all reduced waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake in a short-term experiment (3 h), though the inhibitory mechanisms appeared to differ. The effects were marked after 15 days of feeding, but attenuated by 30 days, except when the diet was elevated in both Ca{sup 2+} and Cd. The presence of elevated Ca{sup 2+} in the diet had only modest influence on Cd uptake from the water during acute Cd challenges but greatly depressed Cd uptake from the diet and accumulation in most internal tissues. None of the treatment diets prevented the decreases in waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake and new Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in internal tissues caused by acute exposure to waterborne Cd. In conclusion, there are complex interactions between waterborne and dietary effects of Ca{sup 2+} and Cd. Elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} protects against both dietary and waterborne Cd uptake, whereas both waterborne and dietary Cd elevations cause reduced waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake.

  18. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  19. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  20. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children ( n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  1. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  2. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  3. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  4. The effect of dietary calcium and vitamin D3 on the duodenal cadmium transport in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Sachiko; Otawara, Yoko; Hosoya, Norimasa; Noda, Setsuko.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of dietary Ca and vitamin D 3 on the duodenal Cd transport was observed in the rat using everted gut sac technique in vitro, 1. Duodenal Cd transport was significantly increased in vitamin D deficient rat, however, it was not influenced by dietary Ca. The duodenal tissue binding and/or uptake of Cd from mucosal incubation medium was neither influenced by vitamin D 3 nor dietary Ca. 2. The transported Cd to serosal medium was very little compared to the Cd binding and/or uptake of duodenal tissue, suggesting two steps mechanism for intestinal Cd transport. The first step is the transfer from mucosal medium to duodenal mucosa and the second step is from duodenal mucosa to serosal medium. The second step was influenced by vitamin D. These results suggested that a significant increase in hepatic Cd accumulation of vitamin D deficient rat could be ascribed to the increase in the intestinal Cd absorption. (author)

  5. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  6. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    . For infants (7–11 months), an AI was derived by extrapolating the average amount of calcium absorbed by exclusively breast-fed infants (120 mg/day) using isometric scaling and assuming an absorption of 60 %, and was calculated as 280 mg/day. The AR for children was derived using the factorial approach...

  8. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  9. Dietary calcium phosphate content and oat β-glucan influence gastrointestinal microbiota, butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate fermentation in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oat β-glucan in combination with low- and high-dietary calcium phosphate (CaP) content on gastrointestinal bacterial microbiota, prevalence of butyrate-production pathway genes and fermentation end-products in 32 weaned pigs allocated to four diets: a cornstarch-casein-based diet with low [65% of the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) requirement] and high CaP content (125% and 115% of the Ca and P requirement, respectively); and low and high CaP diets supplemented with 8.95% of oat β-glucan concentrate. Pigs were slaughtered after 14 days, and digesta were collected for quantitative PCR analysis, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids and lactate. The high CaP content reduced gastric lactate and streptococci and propionate in the large intestine. Oat β-glucan distinctly raised gastric bacterial numbers, and colonic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Although not reflected by gene copies of butyrate-production pathway genes, oat β-glucan also increased gastric, caecal and colonic butyrate concentrations, which may be favourable for intestinal development in weaned pigs. Thus, a high CaP content negatively affected the intestinal abundance of certain fermentation end-products, whereas oat β-glucan generally enhanced bacterial numbers and activity. The results emphasize the importance of the stomach for bacterial metabolism of oat β-glucan in weaned pigs. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of citric acid as chemical modifier for lead determination in dietary calcium supplement samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cezar Paz de Mattos, Julio; Medeiros Nunes, Adriane; Figueiredo Martins, Ayrton; Luiz Dressler, Valderi; Marlon de Moraes Flores, Erico

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid was used as a chemical modifier for Pb determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in dietary supplement samples (calcium carbonate, dolomite and oyster shell samples) and its efficiency was compared to the use of palladium. Pyrolysis and atomization curves were established without use of chemical modifier, with the addition of 20, 100 and 200 μg of citric acid, and with 3 μg of palladium. The citric acid modifier made possible the interference-free Pb determination in the presence of high concentrations of Ca and Mg nitrates. Acid sample digestion involving closed vessels (microwave-assisted and conventional heating) and acid attack using polypropylene vessels at room temperature were compared. All digestion procedures presented similar results for calcium carbonate and dolomite samples. However, for oyster shell samples accurate results were obtained only with the use of closed vessel systems. Analyte addition and matrix-matched standards were used for calibration. The characteristic mass for Pb using citric acid and palladium were 16 and 25 pg, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was always less than 5% when citric acid was used. The relative and absolute limits of detection were 0.02 μg g -1 and 8 pg with citric acid and 0.1 μg g -1 and 44 pg with the Pd modifier, respectively (n = 10, 3σ). The recovery of Pb in spiked calcium supplement samples (10 μg l -1 ) was between 98% and 105%. With the use of 100 μg of citric acid as chemical modifier, problems such as high background absorption and high RSD values were minimized in comparison to the addition of 3 μg of palladium

  11. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  12. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Hester, P Y; Stroshine, R; Adeola, O

    2003-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), percentage ash (ash), and shear force as indicators for dietary Ca and P was compared in 3-wk-old broiler chicks. One hundred eight 7-d-old chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 3 cages each with 6 birds per cage. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The diets were low P, medium P, and adequate P and were formulated to contain 4.0, 5.1, and 7.8 g of total P/kg feed, respectively; and 5.1, 6.7, and 10.0 g of Ca/kg feed, respectively. The chicks were fed the experimental diets for 14 d. On d 22, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds/cage. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, BMC, BMD, shear force, and ash were determined. The BMC and BMD were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlations among the various bone status variables and dietary Ca and P were determined. Growth performance criteria and ash increased linearly, and BMC and BMD increased linearly and quadratically as dietary concentrations of Ca and P increased. The correlation coefficient between dietary Ca and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.89, 0.91, 0.50, or 0.89, respectively; and between dietary P and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.88, 0.91, 0.48, or 0.89, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ash and BMC, BMD, or shear force was 0.92, 0.93, or 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients for linear regression between shear force and BMC or BMD was 0.56. The regression model for predicting percentage ash using BMD was as follows: percentage ash = 24 + (240 x BMD) with an r2 of 86%. It is concluded that in broiler chicks, tibia ash, BMC, and BMD may be more sensitive than shear force as indicators of dietary Ca and P concentrations and that BMD as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used to predict percentage of tibia ash.

  13. Effects of dietary calcium on atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus in rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular calcification is implicated in myocardial infarction, instability and rigidity of the aortic wall, and bioprosthetic failures. Although an increase in the calcium (Ca content in atherogenic diets has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis in rabbits, whether Ca supplementation and deficiency can affect atherosclerosis-related aortic calcification remains unknown. Results New Zealand White male rabbit littermates were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil. The Ca content of the diet, which normally contains 1%, was adjusted to 0.5 or 3%. Segments of thoracic aortas were dissected from rabbits for histological evaluations and Ca and Pi determinations. Rabbits with calcium supplementation were maintained for 4 months, whereas those with calcium deficiency were maintained for 2 1/2 months due to severe icterus beyond this stage. The ratios of intimal to medial areas and calcified to intimal areas were used to semi-quantify lesion accumulation and calcification, respectively. Icterus was estimated from the extent of yellowing of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes along with gross evidence of hepatic lipidosis and/or biliary obstructions. Statistical analysis of 16 matched littermates shows that Ca supplementation significantly decreased the lesions by 41% (p Conclusion Ca supplementation to an atherogenic diet inhibits atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus, whereas a Ca deficient-diet promotes them.

  14. Effects of dietary aluminium in combination with reduced calcium and phosphorous on the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, D.; Fischer, K.; Peakall, D.; Angehrn, P.

    1986-10-01

    Elevated levels of Al have been reported in surface waters and in certain aquatic organisms including aquatic insects in areas receiving acidic precipitation. It has been suggested that Al can affect avian reproduction. In this study, Ring doves were assigned to a control group fed a diet reduced in Ca and P and to a treated group fed the same diet supplemented with 0.1% Al. A four month dosing period did not result in any effect on egg production, fertility or hatchability. Eggshell permeability was decreased initially but subsequently recovered to a normal level. Dietary aluminium suLphate did not affect plasma Ca, P nor Mg levels of adults nor did it affect the pattern of growth nor the final weight of chicks fed on the same diet. There was a tendency for Al to accumulate in the sternum of growing doves fed levels up to 1500 ppm Al. Neither reproduction nor growth of this species were influenced by levels of Al equivalent to those occuring in areas receiving acid deposition. However, the results of a preliminary experiment suggest that decreasing the dietary levels of Ca and P below 0.9% and 0.5% respectively, in combination with excess Al (0.075%) caused significant impacts upon reproduction and growth. Similar experimental findings have been reported in the literature for domestic birds where levels of dietary Al exceeded those of Ca and P. 21 refs.

  15. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdiet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  16. Influence of dietary cholesterol on 26-hydroxycholesterol and the effect of 26-hydroxycholesterol on the intracellular free calcium level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing serum level of 26-hydroxycholesterol after long-term consumption of cholesterol by animals. It is also to examine the effect of this sterol on intracellular free calcium level. Purified 26-hydroxycholesterol was synthesized from kryptogenin by the Clemmemsen and Wolff-Kishner reduction method. 26-Hydroxycholesterol was also used for fatty acid esters syntheses, and to study its influence on membranes. Tritiated 26-hydroxycholesterol which was synthesized by an enzymatic method, was used to monitor the 26-hydroxycholesterol loss during the procedure. The ester form of 26-hydroxycholesterol was also synthesized, and used to investigate its effects on membranes. The HPLC method that was developed for the analysis of 26-hydroxycholesterol levels in animal tissues was accurate, efficient, and reproducible for the determination of 26-hydroxycholesterol in plasma. However, it was not suitable for the analysis of other tissues, due to the overlapping of peaks making quantitation difficult

  17. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  18. Dietary calcium, phosphorus, and phytase effects on bird performance, intestinal morphology, mineral digestibility, and bone ash during a natural necrotic enteritis episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Diego; Walk, Carrie; McElroy, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Ca, P, and phytase on performance, intestinal morphology, bone ash, and Ca and P digestibility during a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak. The 35-d trial was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial, which included 2 Ca levels (0.6 and 0.9%), 2 P levels (0.3 and 0.45%), and 2 levels of phytase [0 and 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg]. Birds were placed on litter from a previous flock that exhibited clinical signs of NE. Birds and feed were weighed on d 12, 19, and 35, and BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion were calculated. Mortality was recorded daily, and gastrointestinal pH was measured. Tibias and ileal digesta were also collected. Birds began exhibiting clinical signs of NE on d 9, and NE-associated mortality persisted until d 26. Dietary Ca supplemented at 0.9% or inclusion of 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase significantly increased mortality compared with 0.6% Ca or 0 FTU/kg of phytase, respectively. From d 0 to 12, birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P with phytase had greater BW gain compared with birds fed 0.6% Ca, 0.45% available P, and phytase. From d 0 to 19, birds fed diets with 0.9% Ca and 0.3% available P had decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion compared with birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P. Calcium at 0.9% increased gizzard (d 19) and jejunum (d 12) pH. Phytase supplementation significantly increased Ca digestibility regardless of Ca and P levels of the diets. In addition, diets containing 0.6% Ca and 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase resulted in a significant increase in P digestibility. The results suggest that dietary Ca level may influence NE-associated mortality. In addition, bird performance was affected by interactions of Ca, P, and phytase during the exposure to Clostridium perfringens and the subsequent NE outbreak. Results showed improvements in bird performance when birds were fed 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P in diets supplemented with phytase, which was likely consequent to the

  19. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Atek-Mebarki, Feriel; Bitam, Arezki; Sadou, Hassimi; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC), isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA), a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+)]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+) signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  20. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    Full Text Available Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC, isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA, a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+ concentrations, [Ca(2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+ (SOC channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  1. Effects of dietary calcium fructoborate supplementation on joint comfort and flexibility and serum inflammatory markers in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A K; de Godoy, M R C; Harper, T A; Knap, K E; Joslyn, S; Pietrzkowski, Z; Cross, B K; Detweiler, K B; Swanson, K S

    2017-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the short-term effects of calcium fructoborate (CFB) on gait, joint range of motion, serum inflammatory markers, and owner perception of pain in client-owned dogs. We used 59 osteoarthritic dogs with impairment, with dogs being randomly assigned to 4 treatments: placebo (60 mg fructose; = 15), low dose (69 mg CFB; = 14), high dose (127 mg CFB; = 14), or combination (69 mg CFB, 500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride and 200 mg chondroitin sulfate; = 16). Dogs up to 22.9 kg received 1 capsule/d, while dogs weighing 23 to 50 kg received 2 capsules/d. A physical examination, radiographs, goniometry measurements, gait analysis, blood sample collection, and a canine brief pain inventory questionnaire were performed on d 0 and 28. Change from baseline values were statistically analyzed among groups. After 28 d, dogs fed the low and high doses had an improved ( Dogs fed the high dose also had a greater ( = 0.05) increase in soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products concentration than dogs fed the placebo. Sub-analysis of only large dogs (> 23 kg) showed that dogs fed the low dose had decreased ( dogs fed the placebo. Large dogs fed the low dose also were shown to improve ( dogs fed the placebo. Overall, CFB supplementation was well-tolerated and may aid in mitigating joint discomfort in dogs.

  2. Does calcium constrain reproductive activity in insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insects are a poor source of dietary calcium and since they are seasonally abundant, it has been suggested that calcium availability may play a significant role in controlling the timing of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in ...

  3. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate degradation and inositol phosphate release in different segments of digestive tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Brady, K; Yu, S; Plumstead, P W

    2017-10-01

    A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3-6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block. Concentrations of IP3-6 in the crop, proventriculus (Prov) plus (+) gizzard (Giz), and distal ileum, as well as the ileal IP6 and P disappearance were determined at 13 d of age. The detrimental impact of Ca on IP6 and P disappearance was observed only in the ileum, where 11% reduction in both IP6 and P disappearance was seen when Ca increased from 0.7 to 1.0% (P phytase (P  0.05). Inclusion of phytase, at both 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg, resulted in lower IP6 and the accumulation of lower IP ester (IP3-5) concentrations in all GI segments (P phytase inclusion, despite the degree of improvement affected by PP (P phytase/kg inclusion, respectively, resulting in 41 and 64% greater P digestibility, respectively. In conclusion, phytase can effectively degrade IP6 to lower esters and increase P utilization. However, the efficacy of phytase can be affected by diet Ca and PP concentrations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  4. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate degradation and inositol phosphate release in different segments of digestive tract of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Angel, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Brady, K.; Yu, S.; Plumstead, P. W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3–6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block. Concentrations of IP3–6 in the crop, proventriculus (Prov) plus (+) gizzard (Giz), and distal ileum, as well as the ileal IP6 and P disappearance were determined at 13 d of age. The detrimental impact of Ca on IP6 and P disappearance was observed only in the ileum, where 11% reduction in both IP6 and P disappearance was seen when Ca increased from 0.7 to 1.0% (P phytase (P  0.05). Inclusion of phytase, at both 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg, resulted in lower IP6 and the accumulation of lower IP ester (IP3–5) concentrations in all GI segments (P phytase inclusion, despite the degree of improvement affected by PP (P phytase/kg inclusion, respectively, resulting in 41 and 64% greater P digestibility, respectively. In conclusion, phytase can effectively degrade IP6 to lower esters and increase P utilization. However, the efficacy of phytase can be affected by diet Ca and PP concentrations. PMID:28938789

  5. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  6. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josune Olza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Mean ± SEM (range total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day, 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day, 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day, and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day, respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  8. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  9. Calcium, essential for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  10. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  11. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  12. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  13. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  14. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Wijlen, ter H.; Laar, van H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in

  15. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  16. Influence of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Low Dietary Calcium, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Renal Failure on Circulating Rat PTH Molecular Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Rousseau, Louise; Hornyak, Stephen; Yang, Zan; Cantor, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Rats(r) with secondary hyperparathyroidism were studied to define the relationship between vitamin D metabolites and rPTH levels measured by 3 different rat ELISAs. Controls and renal failure (RF) rats were on a normal diet, while 2 groups on a low-calcium (-Ca) or a vitamin D-deficient (-D) diet. RF was induced surgically. Mild RF rats had normal calcium and 25(OH)D but reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D levels (P < .001) with a 2.5-fold increased in rPTH (P < .001). Severe RF rats and those on a -Ca or -D diet had reduced calcium (P < .01) and 25(OH)D levels (P < .05), with rPTH increased by 2 (-Ca diet; P < .05), 4 (-D diet; P < .001), and 20-folds (RF; P < .001) while 1,25(OH)(2)D was high (-Ca diet: P < .001) or low (-D diet, RF: P < .001). 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were positively and negatively related on the -Ca and -D diets, respectively. rPTH molecular forms behaved as expected in RF and on -Ca diet, but not on -D diet with more C-rPTH fragments when less were expected. This may be related to the short-time course of this study compared to prior studies.

  17. The Comparative Kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra within the Yellow-Bellied Turtle. Trachemys scripta, as influenced by Dietary Calcium, Season, Age and Sex of the Animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Pinder, J.E.; Hinton, T.G.; Whicker, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the data on assimilation and retention of radionuclides by animals is from homeothermic mammals. The assimilation and retention of radionuclides have only recently been investigated in reptiles. In both groups, interesting conjectures can be made concerning the kinetics of radionuclides in relation to temperature and to the abundance of the radioisotope chemical analogue. Temperature plays an important role in the metabolism and behavior of ectotherms and can thus affect radionuclide kinetics. The abundance of chemical analogues has been shown to decrease the assimilation and retention of radionuclides in homeotherms but such relationships have not been well documented in vertebrate ectotherms. The kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta is studied. It is ectothermic and 40% of its wet mass is comprised of a calcareous shell. What role does the shell play in calcium homeostasis, and how do the kinetics of analogous radioisotopes behave in such a calcium-rich system. T. scripta have a long life span of 20-30 years. They demonstrate reserved sexual dimorphism with females being larger, and they grow continuously, which results in large ranges in adult body size. Much of the winter is spent in hibernation. The spring is an active period related to mating, yet one in which little food is consumed. How do such oscillating changes in metabolic rate, as well as differences in body size, affect radionuclide elimination. To address such questions, radionuclide assimilation and retention as influenced by the amount of stable calcium in the turtle diet, season of the year and age and sex of the animal, are examined. The results demonstrate the complex nature of radionuclide kinetics within ectotherms and give insights into the basic biology of turtles

  18. Corn silage versus corn silage:alfalfa hay mixtures for dairy cows: effects of dietary potassium, calcium, and cation-anion difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, R A; Piperova, L S; Kohn, R A

    2011-10-01

    Corn silage (CS) has replaced alfalfa hay (AH) and haylage as the major forage fed to lactating dairy cows, yet many dairy producers believe that inclusion of small amounts of alfalfa hay or haylage improves feed intake and milk production. Alfalfa contains greater concentrations of K and Ca than corn silage and has an inherently higher dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). Supplemental dietary buffers such as NaHCO(3) and K(2)CO(3) increase DCAD and summaries of studies with these buffers showed improved performance in CS-based diets but not in AH-based diets. We speculated that improvements in performance with AH addition to CS-based diets could be due to differences in mineral and DCAD concentrations between the 2 forages. The objective of this experiment was to test the effects of forage (CS vs. AH) and mineral supplementation on production responses using 45 lactating Holstein cows during the first 20 wk postpartum. Dietary treatments included (1) 50:50 mixture of AH and CS as the forage (AHCS); (2) CS as the sole forage; and (3) CS fortified with mineral supplements (CaCO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) to match the Ca and K content of the AHCS diet (CS-DCAD). Feed intake and milk production were equivalent or greater for cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with those fed the AHCS diet. Fat percentage was greater in cows fed the CS compared with the AHCS diet. Fat-corrected milk (FCM; 3.5%) tended to be greater in cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with the AHCS diet. Feed efficiencies measured as FCM/dry matter intake were 1.76, 1.80, and 1.94 for the AHCS, CS, and CS-DCAD diets, respectively. The combined effects of reduced feed intake and increased FCM contributed to increased feed efficiency with the CS-DCAD diet, which contained 1.41% K compared with 1.18% K in the CS diet, and we speculate that this might be the result of added dietary K and DCAD effects on digestive efficiency. These results indicate no advantage to including AH in CS-based diets

  19. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  20. Calcium - ionized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  1. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  2. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and nonphytate phosphorus concentrations in the presence or absence of phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) degradation in different segments of broilers digestive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Angel, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Brady, K.; Yu, S.; Plumstead, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,440 straight-run Heritage 56M × fast-feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), nonphytate P (nPP) and phytase concentrations on the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) flow through the different parts of gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The experiment was a 2×2×2×3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%), 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%), 2 nPP (0.28 and 0.45%) and 3 phytase (0-, 500-, and 1,000-phytase unit (FTU)/kg) concentrations. The experiment was replicated twice (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block. Concentration of IP6 in crop, proventriculus (Prov) plus (+) gizzard (Giz) and distal ileum digesta as well as the ileal IP6 disappearance was determined at 13 d of age. In crop, higher IP6 concentration was seen with increased Ca (P phytase, higher dietary PP led to greater IP6 concentration (P phytase were also seen in Prov+Giz and ileum (P phytase improved IP6 degradation but the degree of impact was dependent on nPP and PP (P phytase inclusion significantly reduced IP6 concentration and IP6 disappearance in distal ileum regardless of GIT segments or diet composition, but impacts of dietary Ca, nPP, and PP differed depending on GIT segment examined. PMID:26740131

  3. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  4. Calcium Supplementation as Prophylaxis against Colon Cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, JH; Cats, A; van der Meer, R; Lapré, JA; de Vries, EGE

    1994-01-01

    Dietary factors are major determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Especially a diet high in fat and low in fiber is recognized to be a risk factor. Dietary calcium has been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer through the binding of intraluminal fatty acids and bile acids. Because of

  5. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-01-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  6. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  7. The interplay of dietary nutrient specification and varying calcium to total phosphorus ratio on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 1. Growth performance and tibia mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d experiment was conducted to study the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a 6-phytase from Citrobacter braakii on broiler growth performance and tibia mineralization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values for phytase as negative or positive control (NC or PC, respectively) and with 2 Ca:total P (tP; 2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds and feed were weighed on d 7 and 21, and tibia bones were collected from all the birds on d 21. The main effects of nutrient matrix, Ca:tP, and phytase supplementation were significant (P phytase and matrix × phytase interactions were significant (P phytase increased weight gain (P phytase increased (P Phytase supplementation of diets with 2:1 Ca:tP increased (P phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation (1,000 FYT/kg) was in NC diets with narrow Ca:tP, whereas the best response to higher level of phytase supplementation (2,000 FYT/kg) was achieved in diets in PC diets with wide Ca:tP. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P phytase interaction (P phytase increased (P phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o papel nutricional do cálcio e da vitamina D no processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento infanto-juvenil, visando, em especial, a prevenção e o tratamento do atraso de crescimento causado por deficiência nutricional. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos publicados nas 2 últimas décadas, pesquisados nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e MEDLINE, livros técnicos e publicações de organizações internacionais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O crescimento sofre influência de fatores intrínsecos (genéticos e metabólicos e extrínsecos (fatores ambientais, como alimentação, saúde, higiene, habitação, e o acesso aos serviços de saúde. Entre os fatores nutricionais, destacam-se as deficiências de vitaminas e oligoelementos que podem se associar à desnutrição ou depender da absorção insuficiente dos mesmos. Sendo o cálcio um dos principais componentes do tecido mineral ósseo, este é essencial para uma adequada formação óssea e, considerando que a vitamina D desempenha papel importante no metabolismo do cálcio, uma dieta insuficiente nesses nutrientes pode influenciar a formação do esqueleto e o processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento. CONCLUSÕES: A baixa ingestão ou baixa absorção de cálcio e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes pode limitar seu desenvolvimento estatural, sendo necessário fornecer quantidades suficientes de ambos na fase crítica do crescimento.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of dietary calcium and vitamin D in the process of growth and development of children and adolescents, focusing in particular on the prevention and treatment of delayed growth caused by nutritional deficiency. SOURCES: Information was gathered from articles published in the last 2 decades, from searches on the databases SciELO, PubMed and Medline, technical books and publications of international organizations. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Growth is influenced by intrinsic

  10. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M.; Martin, Berdine R.; Wastney, Meryl; McCabe, George P.; Moe, Sharon M.; Weaver, Connie M.; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus and reduce phosphorus retention, and to prevent negative calcium balance. Data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance in CKD to support this. The aim of this study was to determine calcium and phosphorus balance and calcium kinetics with and without calcium carbonate in CKD patients. Eight stage 3/4 CKD patients, eGFR 36 mL/min, participated in two 3-week balances in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of calcium carbonate (1500 mg/d calcium). Calcium and phosphorus balance were determined on a controlled diet. Oral and intravenous 45calcium with blood sampling and urine and fecal collections were used for calcium kinetics. Fasting blood and urine were collected at baseline and end of each week of each balance period for biochemical analyses. Results showed that patients were in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on placebo. Calcium carbonate produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance suggesting tissue deposition. Fasting biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. If they can be extrapolated to effects of chronic therapy, these data caution against the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder. PMID:23254903

  11. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  12. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH) D c...

  13. Calcium isotope fractionation between soft and mineralized tissues as a monitor of calcium use in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, Joseph; DePaolo, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium from bone and shell is isotopically lighter than calcium of soft tissue from the same organism and isotopically lighter than source (dietary) calcium. When measured as the 44Ca/40Ca isotopic ratio, the total range of variation observed is 5.5‰, and as much as 4‰ variation is found in a single organism. The observed intraorganismal calcium isotopic variations and the isotopic differences between tissues and diet indicate that isotopic fractionation occurs mainly as a result of mineralization. Soft tissue calcium becomes heavier or lighter than source calcium during periods when there is net gain or loss of mineral mass, respectively. These results suggest that variations of natural calcium isotope ratios in tissues may be useful for assessing the calcium and mineral balance of organisms without introducing isotopic tracers. PMID:10570137

  14. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  15. Bioavailability of enteric-coated microencapsulated calcium during pregnancy: A randomized crossover trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal calcium and iron supplements are recommended in settings of low dietary calcium intake and high prevalence of anemia. However, calcium administration may inhibit iron absorption. To overcome calcium-iron interactions, we developed a multi-micronutrient powder containing iron (60 mg), folic ...

  16. No difference in acute effects of supplemental v. dietary calcium on blood pressure and microvascular function in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal: a cross-over randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Leal, Priscila Mansur; Antunes, Vanessa Parada; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that supplemental Ca (SC) increases the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas dietary Ca (DC) decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Although frequently consumed with meals, it remains unclear whether Ca can mitigate or aggravate the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal on cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SC or DC on blood pressure (BP) and microvascular function (MVF) in the postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (2908 kJ (695 kcal); 48 % fat): high DC (HDCM; 547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (LCM; 42 mg DC). BP was continuously evaluated from 15 min before to 120 min after meals by digital photoplethysmography. Before and 120 min after meals, participants underwent evaluation of serum Ca and microvascular flow after postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) by laser speckle contrast imaging. Ionised serum Ca rose significantly only after HSCM. Systolic BP increased after the three meals, whereas diastolic BP increased after LCM and HDCM. Hyperaemia peak, hyperaemia amplitude and AUC evaluated after PORH decreased with LCM. After HDCM, there was a reduction in hyperaemia peak and hyperaemia amplitude, whereas HSCM decreased only hyperaemia peak. However, comparative analyses of the effects of three test meals on serum Ca, BP and MVF revealed no significant meal×time interaction. This study suggests that in obese women SC and DC do not interfere with the effects of a high-fat meal on BP and MVF.

  17. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-09-29

    To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials or cohort studies of dietary calcium, milk or dairy intake, or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) with fracture as an outcome and participants aged >50. There were only two eligible randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium (n=262), but 50 reports from 44 cohort studies of relations between dietary calcium (n=37), milk (n=14), or dairy intake (n=8) and fracture outcomes. For dietary calcium, most studies reported no association between calcium intake and fracture (14/22 for total, 17/21 for hip, 7/8 for vertebral, and 5/7 for forearm fracture). For milk (25/28) and dairy intake (11/13), most studies also reported no associations. In 26 randomised controlled trials, calcium supplements reduced the risk of total fracture (20 studies, n=58,573; relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96) and vertebral fracture (12 studies, n=48,967. 0.86, 0.74 to 1.00) but not hip (13 studies, n=56,648; 0.95, 0.76 to 1.18) or forearm fracture (eight studies, n=51,775; 0.96, 0.85 to 1.09). Funnel plot inspection and Egger's regression suggested bias toward calcium supplements in the published data. In randomised controlled trials at lowest risk of bias (four studies, n=44,505), there was no effect on risk of fracture at any site. Results were similar for trials of calcium monotherapy and co-administered calcium and vitamin D. Only one trial in frail elderly women in residential care with low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D

  18. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  19. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  20. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  1. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  2. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  3. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  4. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenganayil, Muth M.; Decho, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya’s agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries. PMID:29023506

  5. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer

    Full Text Available Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  6. Calcium supplementation and cardiovascular risk: A rising concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankeu, Aurel T; Ndip Agbor, Valirie; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, the number of individuals taking calcium supplementation worldwide has been on the rise, especially with the emergence of new pharmaceutical companies specialized in the marketing of dietary supplements; with calcium supplementation being their main business axis. This is mostly because of the established role of calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and, to a lesser extent, its role in the prevention of fractures. Recently, a rising body of evidence on the adverse effect of calcium supplementation on nonskeletal, especially cardiovascular, health has been a cause for concern. In fact, a significant number of studies have reported an association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events, even though high dietary calcium intake was shown to have a protective effect. The mechanism by which calcium supplementation could cause a cardiovascular event was still unclear until a recent study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Combining this recent finding with available data associating calcium supplementation with cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality, we call on the need for an evidence-based approach to calcium supplementation, while stressing on the safety of dietary calcium intake over the former on cardiovascular health. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  8. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  9. Plasma Calcium and Phosphorus In Weanling Pigs as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty Yorkshire piglets, weaned at approximately 4 weeks of age, were used in this study to investigate the variations in plasma calcium and phosphorus as influenced by dietary calcium and phosphorus and 3 Cestrum diurnam. In the CCD and TCD pigs, hypercalcemia developed rapidly and persisted following the ...

  10. Influência da diferença cátion-aniônica da dieta sobre o balanço de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio em ovinos Influence of the dietary cation-anion difference on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Gomide

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do balanço cátion-aniônico da dieta (BCAD no balanço macromineral (cálcio, fósforo e magnésio, no pH urinário e fecal, na concentração sérica de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio foi estudado utilizando-se 16 carneiros machos, da raça Santa Inês, por um período de 26 dias, sendo sete de adaptação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos. Para a manipulação do BCAD foram adicionados cloreto de cálcio e bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: -12; +30; +76 e +133mEq/kg MS da ração. Não foram encontradas diferenças (P>0,10 no pH fecal, pH urinário, balanço de fósforo e magnésio. Com o aumento do BCAD houve decréscimo da absorção e retenção de cálcio, e aumento da excreção fecal. A manipulação do BCAD interferiu no metabolismo de macrominerais, principalmente no de cálcio.The dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB effect on the macromineral (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balance, urinary and faecal pH, serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium was studied in 16 Santa Inês adult sheep, during 26 days, being a seven-day-period of adaptation. The experiment consisted in a completely randomized block design with four treatments. Calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate were added to DCAB manipulations to achieve the values: -12; + 30; +76 and +133mEq/kg DM. There was no effect of DCAB (P>0.10 on fecal and urinary pH, and on phosphorus and magnesium balance. The increase in the DCAB corresponded to a decrease in calcium absorption and calcium retention, and an increase in calcium fecal excretion values. The manipulation of the DCAB affected the macromineral metabolism, mainly the calcium metabolism.

  11. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and upd...

  12. CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION AS PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST COLON-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; CATS, A; VANDERMEER, R; LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, EGE

    1994-01-01

    Dietary factors are major determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Especially a diet high in fat and low in fiber is recognized to be a risk factor. Dietary calcium has been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer through the binding of intraluminal fatty acids and bile acids. Because of

  13. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L.; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; Whiting, Susan J.; Jung, Mary E.; Buchholz, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young…

  14. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria, and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  16. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  17. Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on blood chemistry, milk ... Increased blood pH and serum HCO3 were noticed in buffaloes fed with LC ... Serum calcium and chloride increased with decreased DCAD level while ...

  18. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  19. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  20. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  1. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  2. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  3. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  4. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  5. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  6. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake

  7. Efeitos de diferentes níveis de cálcio dietético na cinética de cálcio e fósforo em eqüinos Effects of different levels of dietary calcium on calcium and phosphorus kinetics in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt Vitti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o metabolismo de cálcio (Ca e fósforo (P nos eqüinos em crescimento que receberam diferentes níveis de suplementação de Ca: 0,15; 0,45 e 0,75% na dieta, utilizando-se o modelo determinístico e compartimental. Foram utilizadas informações sobre o estudo de metabolismo e cinética de Ca e P em tecidos, obtidas pela técnica da diluição isotópica. Constatou-se que os níveis dietéticos de Ca tiveram influência na absorção real do Ca, sendo menor para o nível 0,15% (4,97 g Ca/dia. As trocas de Ca entre o sangue e o trato digestivo foram menores para o nível 0,15%. A mobilização entre o sangue e os ossos e sangue e tecidos moles não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos, mas o balanço nos ossos e tecidos foi menor para o nível 0,15%. Os níveis de Ca dietéticos tiveram influência no P eliminado através da urina, sendo este valor maior para o tratamento 0,15% (2,49 g/animal/dia. A absorção real média do P foi de 83%, não havendo diferenças para os tratamentos. Verificou-se deposição óssea média de 9,69 g P/animal/dia, indicando que a quantidade de P fornecida foi adequada em relação à tolerância permissível à amplitude na relação Ca:P para a espécie na categoria animal estudada. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os fluxos de P nos diversos compartimentos, por intermédio do modelo de metabolismo. A ingestão de níveis crescentes de Ca afetou o metabolismo e a cinética deste elemento, entretanto, a proporção Ca:P é o fator predominante para determinar a excreção, retenção e absorção de Ca. A deposição de Ca no osso foi influenciada pela quantidade ingerida deste mineral. O metabolismo de P em eqüinos em crescimento não foi afetado pelos teores de Ca. O fornecimento de 13,4 g P/animal/dia foi suficiente para manter o metabolismo de P nos padrões considerados normais.This experiment was carried out to study calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P kinetics of growing horses fed

  8. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Results Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05 for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01 with increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. Litter pH, moisture, and N contents were not affected by increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. However, a tendency (quadratic, p = 0.10 for increased FPD incidence with increasing dietary Ca concentrations was observed. Conclusion Dietary Ca concentrations from 4.0 to 9.0 g/kg in low NPP diets containing phytase have little effects on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

  9. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, pLitter pH, moisture, and N contents were not affected by increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. However, a tendency (quadratic, p = 0.10) for increased FPD incidence with increasing dietary Ca concentrations was observed. Dietary Ca concentrations from 4.0 to 9.0 g/kg in low NPP diets containing phytase have little effects on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

  10. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  11. Transcellular transport of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terepka, A R; Coleman, J R; Armbrecht, H J; Gunter, T E

    1976-01-01

    Studies of two calcium transporting epithelia, embryonic chick chorioallantoic membrane and the small intestine of rat and chick, have strongly suggested that the transfer of calcium across a cell involves processes distinctly different from intracellular calcium ion regulation. In the proposed model, transcellular calcium transport is considered as a specialized process developed only by certain cells in those tissues charged with bulk transfer of calcium. The overall effect of the endocytotic mechanism is bulk calcium movement across a cell, protection of mitochondria from exposure to high concentrations of calcium, and the avoidance of wide and potentially toxic fluctuations in cytosol ionic calcium levels. (MFB)

  12. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  13. Calcium and bone health in children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, V A

    1997-01-01

    The recent national survey shows that dietary calcium intake is variable in children and adolescents, with about half consuming less than the intake recommended by the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel on Optimal Calcium Intake. Osteoporosis is a major disease in adults, resulting in 1.5 million fractures and over $10 billion in medical expenditures annually. Osteoporosis is of growing interest in the research, public health, and health consumer-lay communities and to the many primary care and specialty physicians and other health care professionals who work directly with patients with osteoporosis. Treatment of osteoporosis to prevent fracture is improving with newly introduced medications and approaches, but it is not as effective as needed. Effective prevention strategies are critical to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Peak bone mass, obtained during childhood and adolescent growth, is one of the major determinants for the risk of developing osteoporosis and fracture. Genetic potential, gender, ethnic origins, nutritional factors such as calcium and vitamin D intake, growth patterns, and physical activity influence the accretion of bone mineral during childhood and determine the peak bone mass. Randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trials conducted in healthy children who are consuming amounts of dietary calcium in accordance with the US recommendations show that bone mass can be increased by calcium supplementation. Retrospective studies in adults suggest that childhood calcium intake is associated with risk of later osteoporosis and fracture. In addition, common childhood clinical conditions, such as low calcium intake related to lactose intolerance or the use of glucocorticoid medications for chronic illness, are risk factors for the development of osteoporosis in childhood, not just in adulthood. An approach for physicians and other pediatric care providers for screening children

  14. DIETARY HABITS OF A MEDITERRANEAN POPULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    The nutrient intake of the studied population is not in line with that ... habitual cooking methods, to estimate the usual diet of individuals during the previous year. ... However, the mean intakes were below the RDA for dietary calcium, ... As shown in table 6, the population was also stratified by education level, and the intakes.

  15. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  16. Calcium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.W.; Nestor, O.H.

    1989-01-01

    A new process for producing large, single, oriented crystals of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) has been developed which overcomes the limitations of current growing methods. This process has been reduced to practice and has yielded oriented crystals 17.5 x 17.5 x 5 cm 3 . Currently nearing completion is a system for producing 35 x 35 x 7.5 cm 3 single crystals. A scale up to one-meter-square is considered feasible. This crystal growing process makes possible the fabrication of very large CaF 2 windows. Suitability for very high power lasers, however, requires attention to properties beyond mere size. A process to generate higher purity growth stock (starting material) was also developed. The additional purification of the growth stock contributes to lower bulk absorption, the absence of color centers and increased radiation hardness. Also identified were several specific impurities which correlate with radiation hardness. A correlation was found between color centers induced by laser radiation and ionizing radiation. Other CaF 2 crystal properties such as tensile strength, absorption and laser damage thresholds were studied and are discussed

  17. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Prickets, significant negative correlations were seen between dietary calcium intake and radiological score (r=-0.28; P=0.03) and PTH (r=-0.26; P=0.02). No correlation was found between serum 25OHD level and radiological score or biochemical parameters of rickets. Rickets develops when low dietary calcium intake coexists with a low or borderline vitamin D nutrition status.

  18. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingxing; Li, Zongyao; Ji, Xinqiang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-06-30

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65-1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.99) and among case-control studies ( RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium ( RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  20. Calcium and magnesium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of calcium and magnesium in human health and disease have been extensively studied. Calcium and magnesium have been determined in biological specimens by atomic absorption spectroscopy using stiochiometric nitrous oxide-acetylene flame

  1. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  2. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  3. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  4. Ingestion of guar gum hydrolysate, a soluble fiber, increases calcium absorption in totally gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Suzuki, T; Kasai, T; Aoyama, Y; Ohta, A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrectomy induces osteopenia. We examined the effects of feeding a diet containing soluble dietary fiber, guar gum hydrolysate (GGH, 50 g/kg diet), on intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineralization in totally gastrectomized (Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy) rats by comparing them with those in two control groups (laparotomized and bypassed rats). In the bypassed rats, chyme bypassed the duodenum and upper jejunum without gastrectomy. In a second separate experiment, we compared calcium absorption and bone mineralization in the gastrectomized rats fed diets containing soluble and insoluble calcium salts and in bypassed rats fed insoluble calcium. In Experiment 1, apparent absorption of calcium supplied as a water-insoluble salt was more than 50% lower in gastrectomized rats than in the intact (laparotomized) or bypassed rats 3 wk after the start of feeding the test diets (P Calcium absorption was higher (P Experiment 2, absorption of soluble calcium in the gastrectomized rats did not differ from the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate by bypassed rats. The soluble calcium pool in the cecal contents was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1) than in intact or bypassed control rats, and was higher (P calcium absorption correlated most closely (r = 0.787, P calcium content was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats fed insoluble calcium than in bypassed rats fed the same diet, but was partially restored in the rats fed soluble calcium (Experiment 2). Bone calcium was not increased by feeding GGH in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1). We conclude that the severely diminished calcium absorption following total gastrectomy is totally due to a decrease in calcium solubilization, and feeding GGH partially restores calcium absorption. The decrease in bone calcium that occurs as a result of gastrectomy is mainly due to diminished intestinal calcium absorption.

  5. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  7. CALCIUM AND VITAMIN-D - POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE AGENTS AGAINST COLORECTAL-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional factors are important determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Diets high in fat and/or low in fibre are especially recognised to increase risk. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer. With respect to calcium, its possible effect is

  8. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  9. Prevention of Fractures in Older People with Calcium and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl A. Nowson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The greatest cause of fracture in older people is osteoporosis which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older people. A number of meta-analyses have been performed assessing the effectiveness of calcium supplementation alone, vitamin D supplementation alone and the combined therapy on bone loss and fracture reduction in older people. The results of these meta-analyses indicate that vitamin D supplementation alone is unlikely to reduce fracture risk, calcium supplementation alone has a modest effect in reducing total fracture risk, but compliance with calcium supplements is poor in the long term. The combination of calcium supplementation with vitamin D supplementation, particularly in those at risk of marginal and low vitamin D status reduces total fractures, including hip fractures. Therefore older people would be recommended to consume adequate dietary calcium (>1100 mg/day together with maintaining adequate vitamin D status (>60 nmol/L 25(OHD to reduce risk of fracture. It is a challenge to consume sufficient dietary calcium from dietary sources, but the increasing range of calcium fortified foods could assist in increasing the dietary calcium intake of older people. In addition to the usual dairy based food sources, vitamin D supplements are likely to be required for older people with reduced mobility and access to sunlight.

  10. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  11. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, S.J.; Thomsen, A.R.B.; Pang, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    , however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)D] despite no change in FGF23...... correlation between calcium and phosphorus and serum FGF23 was found between FGF23 and the calcium × phosphorus product. Since calcium stimulated FGF23 production in the PTH-CaSR DKO mice, this effect cannot be mediated by the full-length CaSR. Thus the regulation of FGF23 by both calcium and phosphorus...

  12. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  13. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses...

  14. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  15. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  16. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  17. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  18. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  19. Addition of calcium compounds to reduce soluble oxalate in a high oxalate food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Wen-Chun; Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach. Calcium chloride was the most effective additive while calcium carbonate was the least effective. The formation of insoluble oxalate after incubation at 25°C for 30min is a simple practical step that can be incorporated into the juicing process. This would make the juice considerably safer to consume on a regular basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives.

  1. Solubility and bioavailability of stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oren E; Bar-David, Elad; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Shechter, Assaf; Stepensky, David; Berman, Amir; Sagi, Amir

    2011-02-01

    Since its role in the prevention of osteoporosis in humans was proven some 30 years ago, calcium bioavailability has been the subject of numerous scientific studies. Recent technology allowing the production of a stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) now enables a bioavailability analysis of this unique form of calcium. This study thus compares the solubility and fractional absorption of ACC, ACC with chitosan (ACC-C), and crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC). Solubility was evaluated by dissolving these preparations in dilute phosphoric acid. The results demonstrated that both ACC and ACC-C are more soluble than CCC. Fractional absorption was evaluated by intrinsically labeling calcium carbonate preparations with (45)Ca, orally administrated to rats using gelatin capsules. Fractional absorption was determined by evaluating the percentage of the administrated radioactive dose per milliliter that was measured in the serum, calcium absorption in the femur, and whole-body retention over a 34-hour period. Calcium serum analysis revealed that calcium absorption from ACC and ACC-C preparations was up to 40% higher than from CCC, whereas retention of ACC and ACC-C was up to 26.5% higher than CCC. Absorbed calcium in the femurs of ACC-administrated rats was 30% higher than in CCC-treated animals, whereas 15% more calcium was absorbed following ACC-C treatment than following CCC treatment. This study demonstrates the enhanced solubility and bioavailability of ACC over CCC. The use of stable ACC as a highly bioavailable dietary source for calcium is proposed based on the findings of this study. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

  3. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The sub...

  4. Calcium Biofortification: Three Pronged Molecular Approaches for Dissecting Complex Trait of Calcium Nutrition in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Devising Strategies of Enrichment of Food Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Jamra, Gautam; Singh, Uma M; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an essential macronutrient for plants and animals and plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling. Low dietary intake of calcium in humans has been epidemiologically linked to various diseases which can have serious health consequences over time. Major staple food-grains are poor source of calcium, however, finger millet [ Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], an orphan crop has an immense potential as a nutritional security crop due to its exceptionally high calcium content. Understanding the existing genetic variation as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport, accumulation of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) in grains is of utmost importance for development of calcium bio-fortified crops. In this review, we have discussed molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation and transport thoroughly, emphasized the role of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic approaches to understand the intricate mechanism of calcium nutrition in finger millet. The objective is to provide a comprehensive up to date account of molecular mechanisms regulating calcium nutrition and highlight the significance of bio-fortification through identification of potential candidate genes and regulatory elements from finger millet to alleviate calcium malnutrition. Hence, finger millet could be used as a model system for explaining the mechanism of elevated calcium (Ca 2+ ) accumulation in its grains and could pave way for development of nutraceuticals or designer crops.

  5. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  6. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  7. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  8. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  9. Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, MJAP; Termont, DSML; Lapre, JA; Kleibeuker, JH; Vonk, RJ; VanderMeer, R

    1996-01-01

    Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats, We non

  10. High calcium diet improves the liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis in adult obese rats that were overfed during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E P S; Moura, E G; Soares, P N; Ai, X X; Figueiredo, M S; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is related to diabetes, higher oxidative stress and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and dietetic therapies, for instance calcium-rich diet, can improve these dysfunctions. Rats raised in small litters (SL) had increased fat depots and insulin resistance at adulthood associated with higher liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis. Thus, we evaluated if dietary calcium can improve these changes. In PN3, litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (SL group) to induce overfeeding, while controls had 10 pups until weaning. At PN120, SL group was randomly divided into: rats fed with standard chow or fed with calcium supplementation (SL-Ca group, 10 g/kg chow) for 60 days. At PN180, dietary calcium normalized food consumption, visceral fat, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glycaemia. Concerning oxidative balance, calcium restored both higher hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation as well as higher plasma lipid peroxidation. Higher fatty acid synthase (FAS) content, steatosis and lower protein kinase B (Akt) in SL group were normalized by dietary calcium and SL-Ca rats had lower hepatic cholesterol. Thus, calcium supplementation improved the insulin sensitivity, redox balance and steatosis in the liver. Therefore, dietary calcium can be a promising therapy for liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  12. Estimation of Total Usual Calcium and Vitamin D Intakes in the United States1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Goldman, Joseph A.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged ≥1 y using NHANES 2003–2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005–2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estim...

  13. Dietary Patterns in Urbanised Blacks: A study in Guguletu, Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riboflavin intake fell short of the National Research Council's recommended daily allowances as did niacin, tryptophan and calcium. The dietary pattern developing in an urban Black township clearly needs modification to ensure adequate nutrient intake and to prevent destruction of nutrients by faulty cooking methods.

  14. Effect of Microgravity on Bone Tissue and Calcium Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Human Bone Tissue Changes after Long-Term Space Flight: Phenomenology and Possible Mechanics; (2) Prediction of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Change in Space; (3) Dietary Calcium in Space; (4) Calcium Metabolism During Extended-Duration Space Flight; (5) External Impact Loads on the Lower Extremity During Jumping in Simulated Microgravity and the Relationship to Internal Bone Strain; and (6) Bone Loss During Long Term Space Flight is Prevented by the Application of a Short Term Impulsive Mechanical Stimulus.

  15. DIHYDROPYRIDINE CALCIUM- CHANNELBLOCKERSFOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the controversy over the role of calci~-channel blockers as first-line ..... group trials while fully accounting for placebo effects as well as interindividual ..... Reducing calcium overload in the ischemic brain. N Engl JMed. 1999; 341 ...

  16. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium-set tofu edamame (soybeans) broccoli, collard greens, kale, chard, Chinese cabbage, and other leafy greens almonds ... more dark green, leafy vegetables (such as broccoli, kale, collard greens, or Chinese cabbage) with meals. Kids ...

  17. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  18. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  19. A model of propagating calcium-induced calcium release mediated by calcium diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, P. H.; de Tombe, P. P.; van Deen, J. H.; Mulder, B. J.; ter Keurs, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sudden local fluctuations of the free sarcoplasmic [Ca++]i in cardiac cells on calcium release and calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was calculated with the aid of a simplified model of SR calcium handling. The model was used to evaluate whether propagation of calcium

  20. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  1. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Stewart

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... Regardless of oil source, the chickens fed diets containing 1.5% Ca had a ... mineral content, muscle function and other body mineral functions (Peters & .... tip of the villi to the villi crypt junction) were measured with an image analyser. ...... Asian. Austral. J. Anim. 26, 700-704. Courtney, E., Matthews, S., ...

  2. The influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus on bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of this study it was attempted to obtain a better insight into the possible influence of the diet on the development of human osteoporosis. This disease, which is a consequence of decalcification of the bones, occurs frequently in elderly people, particularly in postmenopausal

  3. Interactions of genotype, housing and dietary calcium in layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... The study was designed to evaluate the interactions in performance, ... On the other hand, traditional breeds have adapted to environmental conditions of .... Table 1 Composition of experimental diets and nutrient content on ...

  4. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of three levels of crude protein (CP) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) and three levels of Ca and available P (Av. P) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) on performance of broilers from hatching until 21 days of age. The experimental ...

  5. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  6. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  7. Calcium intake and 28-year cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality in Dutch civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vijver, L P; van der Waal, M A; Weterings, K G; Dekker, J M; Schouten, E G; Kok, F J

    1992-02-01

    Data obtained from a general health examination in 1953-1954 of 2605 middle-aged Dutch civil servants were analysed to investigate the relation between dietary calcium and cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Calcium intake was assessed at baseline by a 1-week food frequency recall. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using the highest quintile of calcium intake as the reference. No statistically significant associations were observed for low calcium intake in 15 and 28 years of follow-up in both men and women. For men, multivariate adjusted OR for the lowest quintile of calcium intake were 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-1.9) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.6-1.6) for 28-year CVD and CHD mortality, respectively. For women, corresponding OR were 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.0) and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.5-2.5). Although an inverse association between calcium intake and CVD and CHD mortality, possibly mediated by blood pressure, might be hypothesized, no clear association was observed. Because dietary patterns in the 1950s were quite stable, and major calcium sources were addressed, misclassification of calcium intake may not be fully responsible for this finding.

  8. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  9. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  10. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriawati, A A; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-10-24

    Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Cross-sectional. Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (-2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  11. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Suriawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs. Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  12. Socioeconomic status and intake of energy and sodium are associated with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Mun, Chan Yoke; Tajik, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Calcium intake in developing countries is lower than that in developed countries. In Iran, inadequate calcium intake in the general population, especially among women, is a public health concern. This cross-sectional study examined the correlation between sociodemographic, obstetrical and lifestyle factors with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, southeast Iran. A sample of 308 healthy pregnant women aged 18-35 years from seven urban health-care centers participated in the study. All women were measured for height and weight and interviewed for demographic and socioeconomic, obstetrical, lifestyle and dietary intake information while pre-pregnancy weight was obtained from prenatal record. Stepwise multiple regression was used to assess factors associated with calcium intake. The mean daily calcium intake of women was 968.51±363.05mg/day and only 46.4% of the pregnant women met the dietary reference intakes of 1000 mg for calcium. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to calcium intake (75.11%). Energy-adjusted calcium intake was positively associated with years of schooling (Psodium (P<0.01) intakes. This information would be useful in planning and developing appropriate strategies to improve calcium intake in pregnant women. Efforts to increase calcium intake in pregnant women should focus on promoting nutrient-dense food and making these foods available and accessible, particularly to socioeconomically deprived women. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Calcium or resistant starch does not affect colonic epithelial cell proliferation throughout the colon in adenoma patients : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Britta A P; Karrenbeld, Arend; van der Sluis, Tineke; Zwart, Nynke; van der Meer, Roelof; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Kleibeuker, Jan H

    2002-01-01

    Patients with a history of sporadic adenomas have increased epithelial cell proliferative activity, an intermediate risk marker for colorectal cancer. Reduction of proliferation by dietary intervention may reflect a decreased colorectal cancer risk. To evaluate whether calcium or resistant starch

  14. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Trautvetter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day. The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

  15. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-12-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  16. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Serotonin and the regulation of calcium transport in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L L

    2017-12-01

    The mammary gland regulates maternal metabolism during lactation. Numerous factors within the tissue send signals to shift nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Serotonin is a monoamine that has been well documented to regulate several aspects of lactation among species. Maintenance of maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation is a highly evolved process that is elegantly regulated by the interaction of the mammary gland with the bone, gut, and kidney tissues. It is well documented that dietary calcium is insufficient to maintain maternal calcium concentrations during lactation, and mammals must rely on bone resorption to maintain normocalcemia. Our recent work focused on the ability of the mammary gland to function as an accessory parathyroid gland during lactation. It was demonstrated that serotonin acts to stimulate parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the mammary gland during lactation. The main role of mammary-derived PTHrP during mammalian lactation is to stimulate bone resorption to maintain maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation. In addition to regulating PTHrP, it was shown that serotonin appears to directly affect calcium transporters and pumps in the mammary gland. Our current working hypothesis regarding the control of calcium during lactation is as follows: serotonin directly stimulates PTHrP production in the mammary gland through interaction with the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Simultaneously, serotonin directly increases calcium movement into the mammary gland and, subsequently, milk. These 2 direct actions of serotonin combine to induce a transient maternal hypocalcemia required to further stimulate PTHrP production and calcium mobilization from bone. Through these 2 routes, serotonin is able to improve maternal calcium concentrations. Furthermore, we have shown that Holstein and Jersey cows appear to regulate calcium in different manners and also respond differently to serotonergic stimulation of the calcium

  17. Impact on Dietary Intake of Removable Partial Dentures Replacing a Small Number of Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Chisato; Ikebe, Kazunori; Okada, Tadashi; Takeshita, Hajime; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) replacing a small number of teeth on dietary intake. Participants had at least 20 teeth and were classified as Eichner B1 or B2. The participants underwent dental and oral examinations, and their dietary intake was assessed. Analysis of covariance showed that RPD wearers consumed more vegetables, n-3 fatty acids, calcium, vitamin A, and dietary fiber than nonwearers after adjusting for possible confounding factors. It is concluded that RPDs are effective for improving dietary intake even in participants who have lost a small number of teeth.

  18. Expression profiling of colorectal cancer cells reveals inhibition of DNA replication licensing by extracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Abhishek; Schulz, Herbert; Manhardt, Teresa; Bilban, Martin; Thakker, Rajesh V; Kallay, Enikö

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in industrialised societies. Epidemiological studies, animal experiments, and randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary factors can influence all stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, from initiation through promotion to progression. Calcium is one of the factors with a chemoprophylactic effect in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of the anti-tumorigenic effects of extracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] o ) in colon cancer cells. Gene expression microarray analysis of colon cancer cells treated for 1, 4, and 24h with 2mM [Ca 2+ ] o identified significant changes in expression of 1571 probe sets (ANOVA, pcalcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G protein-coupled receptor is a mediator involved in this process. To test whether these results were physiologically relevant, we fed mice with a standard diet containing low (0.04%), intermediate (0.1%), or high (0.9%) levels of dietary calcium. The main molecules regulating replication licensing were inhibited also in vivo, in the colon of mice fed high calcium diet. We show that among the mechanisms behind the chemopreventive effect of [Ca 2+ ] o is inhibition of replication licensing, a process often deregulated in neoplastic transformation. Our data suggest that dietary calcium is effective in preventing replicative stress, one of the main drivers of cancer and this process is mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium-deficiency assessment and biomarker identification by an integrated urinary metabonomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium deficiency is a global public-health problem. Although the initial stage of calcium deficiency can lead to metabolic alterations or potential pathological changes, calcium deficiency is difficult to diagnose accurately. Moreover, the details of the molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency remain somewhat elusive. To accurately assess and provide appropriate nutritional intervention, we carried out a global analysis of metabolic alterations in response to calcium deficiency. Methods The metabolic alterations associated with calcium deficiency were first investigated in a rat model, using urinary metabonomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. Correlations between dietary calcium intake and the biomarkers identified from the rat model were further analyzed to confirm the potential application of these biomarkers in humans. Results Urinary metabolic-profiling analysis could preliminarily distinguish between calcium-deficient and non-deficient rats after a 2-week low-calcium diet. We established an integrated metabonomics strategy for identifying reliable biomarkers of calcium deficiency using a time-course analysis of discriminating metabolites in a low-calcium diet experiment, repeating the low-calcium diet experiment and performing a calcium-supplement experiment. In total, 27 biomarkers were identified, including glycine, oxoglutaric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, sebacic acid, pseudouridine, indoxyl sulfate, taurine, and phenylacetylglycine. The integrated urinary metabonomics analysis, which combined biomarkers with regular trends of change (types A, B, and C), could accurately assess calcium-deficient rats at different stages and clarify the dynamic pathophysiological changes and molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency in detail. Significant correlations between calcium intake and two biomarkers, pseudouridine (Pearson

  20. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to ...

  1. A sensor for calcium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified. PMID:20844529

  2. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties. 1. History of calcium ... cellular roles of calcium has established the importance of this ion ..... Ca2+ ion, for example in regulating enzyme activity (Price. 1975 ...

  3. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P -trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P -trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  4. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  5. Effect of Calcium Ions on the Disintegration of Enteric-Coated Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of calcium ions on the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms, disintegration testing was performed on enteric-coated aspirin tablets in the presence and absence of calcium in the test media. The results show that the presence of calcium ions retards the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms. This finding, which has not been reported in scientific literature, sheds light on the importance of conducting well-designed detailed investigations into the potential of calcium from dietary sources, calcium supplements, antacids, and/or phosphate binders affecting the absorption of drugs formulated into enteric-coated dosage forms. Moreover, it shows the necessity to investigate the potential of the occurrence of additional nutrient-excipient interactions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  7. Is bone equally responsive to calcium and vitamins D intake from food vs. supplements? Use of 41Ca tracer kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few interventions directly compare equivalent calcium and vitamin D from dairy vs. supplements on the same bone outcomes. The radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) holds promise as a tracer method to directly measure changes in bone resorption with differing dietary interventions. Objective: U...

  8. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  9. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  10. Calcium intake in winter pregnancy attenuates impact of vitamin D inadequacy on urine NTX, a marker of bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eileen C; Kilbane, Mark T; McKenna, Malachi J; Segurado, Ricardo; Geraghty, Aisling A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2018-04-01

    Pregnancy is characterised by increased bone turnover, but high bone turnover with resorption exceeding formation may lead to negative maternal bone remodelling. Recent studies are conflicting regarding the effect of calcium on skeletal health in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and dietary calcium on a marker of bone resorption. This was prospective study of 205 pregnant women [two cohorts; early pregnancy at 13 weeks (n = 96), and late pregnancy at 28 weeks (n = 109)]. Serum 25OHD and urine cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX) were measured at both time points. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium were recorded using 3-day food diaries at each trimester. Compared to summer pregnancies, winter pregnancies had significantly lower 25OHD and significantly higher uNTX. Higher calcium intakes were negatively correlated with uNTX in winter, but not summer. In late pregnancy, compared to those reporting calcium intakes ≥1000 mg/day, intakes of <1000 mg/day were associated with a greater increase in uNTX in winter pregnancies than in summer (41.8 vs. 0.9%). Increasing calcium intake in winter by 200 mg/day predicted a 13.3% reduction in late pregnancy uNTX. In late pregnancy, during winter months when 25OHD is inadequate, intakes of dietary calcium <1000 mg/day were associated with significantly increased bone resorption (uNTX). Additional dietary calcium is associated with reduced bone resorption in late pregnancy, with greater effect observed in winter. Further research regarding optimal dietary calcium and 25OHD in pregnancy is required, particularly for women gestating through winter.

  11. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium,

  12. Role of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose in the absorption of calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Weidauer, T.

    1999-01-01

    The current trends in healthy eating will increase levels of bulk- forming material in the diet, such as dietary fibre and other plant foods. Depending on the complex forming of such material the availability of absorbable calcium and other minerals may be impaired. It seems that non- digestible

  13. Calcium and vitamin D requirements for optimal bone mass during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    There remains very strong interest in the calcium and vitamin D requirements of adolescents related to bone health. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released new dietary guidelines in late 2010 for these nutrients. These guidelines were primarily based on literature published in 2009 and earlier and ...

  14. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  15. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, A; Sharma, B D; Ahmed, S R; Talukder, S; Malav, O P; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate) with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML). Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g), water activity (aw), Lovibond(®) tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA), and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%), product pH, moisture (%), protein (%), fat (%), and water activity (aw) decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  16. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Irshad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML. Materials and Methods: Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g, water activity (aw, Lovibond® tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA, and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Results: Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%, product pH, moisture (%, protein (%, fat (%, and water activity (aw decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. Conclusions: The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  17. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  18. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  19. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  20. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  1. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  2. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Stephen J.; Thomsen, Alex R. B.; Pang, Jian L.; Kantham, Lakshmi; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Pollak, Martin; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis are highly interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including FGF23. However, little is known about calcium's role in the regulation of FGF23. We sought to investigate the regulatory roles of calcium and phosphorus in FGF23 production using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; PTH-CaSR DKO). In wild-type, PTH KO, and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, elevation of either serum calcium or phosphorus by intraperitoneal injection increased serum FGF23 levels. In PTH KO and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] despite no change in FGF23, suggesting direct regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis by serum phosphorus. Calcium-mediated increases in serum FGF23 required a threshold level of serum phosphorus of about 5 mg/dl. Analogously, phosphorus-elicited increases in FGF23 were markedly blunted if serum calcium was less than 8 mg/dl. The best correlation between calcium and phosphorus and serum FGF23 was found between FGF23 and the calcium × phosphorus product. Since calcium stimulated FGF23 production in the PTH-CaSR DKO mice, this effect cannot be mediated by the full-length CaSR. Thus the regulation of FGF23 by both calcium and phosphorus appears to be fundamentally important in coordinating the serum levels of both mineral ions and ensuring that the calcium × phosphorus product remains within a physiological range. PMID:23233539

  3. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  4. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  5. Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoun, M M; Kizirian, A S; Tannous, R I; Nabulsi, M M; Choucair, M K; Deeb, M E; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G A

    2005-02-01

    Optimal dietary calcium and possibly vitamin D intake throughout childhood and adolescence may enhance bone mineral accrual. Little data on the intake of these nutrients in Mediterranean countries exist, and predictors of their suboptimal intake are not well defined. To evaluate systematically the effect of gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status on mean calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy school children and adolescents from Lebanon. A total of 385 students aged 10-16 y were selected from four public and four private schools between Fall 1999 and Spring 2000. Information on calcium and vitamin D intake, through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that was validated against a 7-day daily record, and on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were obtained. Only 12% of the students met the adequate intake (AI) recommendation of 1300 mg of calcium/day, and only 16% met the AI recommendation of 200 IU of vitamin D/day. Boys had a significantly higher mean daily calcium intake than girls. Socioeconomic status as assessed by children's pocket money was a predictor of higher calcium and vitamin D intake. Eating breakfast and physical activity were other correlates of daily calcium and vitamin D intake. Only a minority of students in our study met the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors of calcium and vitamin D intake. Our findings have important implications regarding the institution of dietary public health strategies to promote skeletal health in Mediterranean countries during a critical time for bone mass accrual.

  6. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  7. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  8. The uptake of uranium and radium from food and water in relation to calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observed ratios for dietary radium and calcium suggest that at least a 20 to 70 fold discrimination exists against radium uptake in the skeleton relative to calcium. It has been widely shown in many countries around the world that the relative radium to calcium ratio in the human skeleton varies from country to country, but within geographic areas, it appears to be relatively invariant with age. The ratio of radium-226 to calcium in intake, relative to the radium-226 to calcium value in the skeleton, is called the observed ratio, and varies over the world from a value of 0.013 to 0.039, with a mean of 0.024. In 1975, I inferred a mean observed ratio for uranium of 0.057 for the US. These findings suggest that man is in equilibrium with radium-226 with respect to the calcium in food and water. Most of the calcium would be ingested in diet, as would a significant amount, but not necessarily all, of the radium. The role of calcium for intake in water has not been examined

  9. Calcium Deficiency in Bangladesh: Burden and Proposed Solutions for the First 1000 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Sabri; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bangladesh incurs among the highest prevalence of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in the world, despite efforts against diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and protein energy malnutrition which have led to substantial and continuous reductions in child mortality over the past 35 years. Although programs have generally paid more attention to other micronutrients, the local importance of calcium to health has been less recognized. Objective To synthesize available information on calcium deficiency in Bangladesh in order to inform the design of an effective national calcium program. Methods We searched 3 online databases and a multitude of survey reports to conduct a narrative review of calcium epidemiology in Bangladesh, including population intake, determinants and consequences of deficiency, and tested interventions, with particular reference to young children and women of childbearing age. This was supplemented with secondary analysis of a national household survey in order to map the relative extent of calcium adequacy among different demographics. Results Intake of calcium is low in the general population of Bangladesh, with potentially serious and persistent effects on public health. These effects are especially pertinent to young children and reproductive-age women, by virtue of increased physiologic needs, disproportionately poor access to dietary calcium sources, and a confluence of other local determinants of calcium status in these groups. Conclusion A tablet supplementation program for pregnant women is an appealing approach for the reduction in preeclampsia and preterm birth. Further research is warranted to address the comparative benefit of different promising approaches in children for the prevention of rickets. PMID:27307152

  10. Growth Response of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Reared in Low Salinity Medium, Fed Different Protein and Calcium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kaligis, Erly

    2015-01-01

    The white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been an important commercial shrimp species in Indonesia. This species is tolerance to low salinity therefore, it is important to develop its aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of protein and calcium levels in diet on growth performance of the white shrimp post larvae. A factorial experiment at three levels of dietary protein (25, 35, 45%) and three levels of calcium (0, 2, 4%) with three replicates were used in this expe...

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  12. Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

  13. SR calcium handling and calcium after-transients in a rabbit model of heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartscheer, Antonius; Schumacher, Cees A.; Belterman, Charly N. W.; Coronel, Ruben; Fiolet, Jan W. T.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: After-depolarization associated arrhythmias are frequently observed in heart failure and associated with spontaneous calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), calcium after-transients. We hypothesize that disturbed SR calcium handling underlies calcium after-transients in heart

  14. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in...

  15. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does not...

  16. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  17. Determining attitudinal and behavioral factors concerning milk and dairy intake and their association with calcium intake in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Rengers, Brooke; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-04-01

    Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign. The online survey assessed attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy intake, and calcium intake. Questions about milk- and dairy-related attitudes and behaviors were grouped into 14 factors using factor analysis. Predictors of calcium intake were then evaluated. Median calcium intake across all participants was 928.6 mg/day, with males consuming higher calcium intakes than females ( P negative-parent rules concerning milk ( P = 0.031) and viewing milk in dining halls negatively ( P = 0.05). Calcium intakes among college students enrolled in the current study was below the recommended dietary allowance of 1,000 mg/day, reinforcing the need for dietary interventions in this target population, especially females. Practitioners and researchers should consider the factors found here to impact calcium intake, particularly associating milk with specific eating occasions (e.g., milk with breakfast) and having calcium-rich foods available in the dorm room or apartment, as intervention strategies in future efforts aimed at promoting milk and dairy foods and beverages for improved calcium intake in college students.

  18. Mechanisms of calcium transport in small intestine. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    The vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , was demonstrated to be the prime hormonal agent regulating intestinal absorption of divalent cations. Production of the vitamin D hormone is, in turn, regulated by parathyroid hormone, low dietary calcium, low plasma phosphorus, and is suppressed by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , by high plasma phosphorus, high plasma calcium, and the absence of parathyroid hormone. A variety of analogs of the vitamin D hormone were prepared. In addition, the preparation of radiolabeled vitamin D hormone was accomplished using chemical synthesis, and this highly radioactive substance was found to localize in the nuclei of the intestinal villus cells that promote intestinal absorption of calcium. A receptor for the vitamin D hormone was also located, and the general mechanism of response to the vitamin D hormone included the binding to a receptor molecule, transfer to the nucleus, transcription of specific genes followed by translation to transport proteins. Methods were developed for the discovery of the appropriate gene products that play a role in calcium transport

  19. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sung; Kim, Young-Youn; Oh, Jeong-Kyu; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97), but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20) nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21) was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  20. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  2. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  3. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  4. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  5. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  6. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  7. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional 45 Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J net Ca ) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J net Ca to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J net Ca was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J net Ca decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J net Ca was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45 Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca 2+ -ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na + -K + -ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  8. Calcium chromate process related investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    A pilot plant for production of calcium chromate has been scaled up to a small production facility at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department. In preparation for this scale-up, the process and final product were studied in order to evaluate problems not considered previously. The variables and processes studied included: (1) the determination of optimum drying temperature and time for product analysis; (2) the effect of the grade of lime used as the precipitating agent on the purity of the calcium chromate; (3) product purity when calcium chromate is precipitated by the addition of ammonium chromate to slaked lime; (4) the reagents best suited for cleaning calcium chromate spills; and (5) methods for determining hydroxide ion concentration in calcium chromate. The optimum drying time for the product before analysis is four hours at 600 0 C. Gases evolved at various temperatures during the drying process were carbon dioxide and water vapor. Technical grade lime produced calcium chromate of the highest purity. Both nitric and acetic acids were efficient dissolvers of calcium chromate spills. Direct titration of hydroxide ion with sulfuric acid gave an average recovery of 93% for samples spiked with calcium hydroxide. 1 figure, 17 tables

  9. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L’Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  10. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  11. Dyslipidemia patterns are differentially associated with dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee Young; Park, Minseon; Song, YoonJu

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia, a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases, is prevalent among Korean adults, but little is known about the associations between overall lipid profiles and dietary factors. We identified dyslipidemia patterns among lipid indicators and examined dietary factors associated with dyslipidemia patterns in Korean adults. Subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from the Family Medicine Division or the Health Examination Center of the general hospital in Seoul between 2010 and 2012. Measurements of biochemical and dietary variables repeated three times were collected from a total of 138 subjects at 3- to 4-month intervals when the subjects visited the hospital. Dietary intake data were obtained using 24-h recalls. In order to estimate typical values for biochemical and dietary variables, the averages of repeated measures for each subject were calculated. To identify dyslipidemia patterns, factor analysis was used based on total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two dyslipidemia patterns, (1) TC & LDLC and (2) TG & HDLC, were identified. Dietary fat and cholesterol intakes were positively associated with the TC & LDLC pattern score, but not associated with the TG & HDLC pattern score. The TG & HDLC pattern was significantly associated with low intakes of calcium, potassium, milk and dairy products. Two dyslipidemia patterns were associated with dietary factors in Korean adults. Further studies should investigate specific dietary recommendations according to lipid profiles in the prevention and management of dyslipidemia in Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  14. Impact of source and level of calcium fortification on the heat stability of reconstituted skim milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, H K; Tong, P S

    2004-05-01

    Calcium enrichment of food and dairy products has gained interest with the increased awareness about the importance of higher calcium intake. Calcium plays many important roles in the human body. Dairy products are an excellent source of dietary calcium, which can be further fortified with calcium salts to achieve higher calcium intake per serving. However, the addition of calcium salts can destabilize food systems unless conditions are carefully controlled. The effect of calcium fortification on the heat stability of reconstituted skim milk was evaluated, using reconstituted skim milks with 2 protein levels: 1.75 and 3.5% (wt/wt) prepared using low and high heat powders. Calcium carbonate, phosphate, lactate, and citrate were used for fortification at 0.15, 0.18, and 0.24% (wt/wt). Each sample was analyzed for solubility, heat stability, and pH. The addition of phosphate and lactate salts lowered the pH of milk, citrate did not have any major effect, and carbonate for the 1.75% protein samples increased the pH. In general, changes in solubility and heat stability were associated with changes in pH. Calcium addition decreased the solubility and heat stability. However, interestingly, the presence of carbonate salt greatly increased the heat stability for 1.75% protein samples. This is due to the neutralizing effect of calcium carbonate when it goes into solution. The results suggested that the heat stability of milk can be affected by the type of calcium salt used. This may be applied to the development of milk-based calcium enriched beverages.

  15. Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A

    1996-06-01

    Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.

  16. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  17. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  18. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  19. Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R; Rice, Barbara L; Dlouhy, Holly; Shackelford, Linda C; Heer, Martina; Koslovsky, Matthew D; Smith, Scott M

    2018-05-01

    Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption. We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight. Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake. At the end of each session, blood and urine samples were collected. Calcium, total protein, energy, and sodium were maintained in each crew member's preflight and in-flight controlled diets. Relative to preflight values, N-telopeptide (NTX) and urinary calcium were higher during flight, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was higher toward the end of flight. The High and Low diets did not affect NTX, BSAP, or urinary calcium. Dietary sulfur and age were significantly associated with changes in NTX. Dietary sodium and flight day were significantly associated with urinary calcium during flight. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) estimated from the typical dietary intake at FD30 was associated with loss of bone mineral content in the lumbar spine after the mission. The results were compared with data from a 70-d bed rest study, in which control (but not exercising) subjects' APro:K was associated with higher NTX during bed rest. Long-term lowering of NEAP by increasing vegetable and fruit intake may protect against changes in loss of bone mineral content during spaceflight when adequate calcium is consumed, particularly if resistive exercise is not being performed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01713634.

  20. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  1. [An investigation of dietary nutrition in kindergartens of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Fan, Xin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the status of dietary nutrition in kindergartens of Chongqing, China. A total of 295 kindergartens (47 first-class ones, 88 second-class ones, and 160 third-class ones) from the 11 districts or counties of Chongqing by stratified cluster random sampling were investigated. The dietary nutrition in each kindergarten was evaluated by weighing. The dietary qualification rates were compared between the three classes of kindergartens. The qualification rates of energy, proteins, most vitamins, minerals, and quality proteins supply were over 60% in all three classes of kindergartens, while the qualification rates of vitamin A, ascorbic acid, calcium, and zinc supply were less than 60%. The energy supply rates at breakfast, lunch, supper and snack met the standards in less than 40% in all kindergartens. There were significant differences in the qualification rates of some nutrient parameters between different classes of kindergartens, highest in the first-class kindergartens. The dietary nutrition is good in the first-, second-, and third-class kindergartens of Chongqing, but there is still nutrient imbalance. It is necessary to strengthen the dietary guidance in kindergartens, especially second-, and third-class kindergartens.

  2. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Krupa-Kozak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In coeliac disease (CD, the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD, the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca, especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant (p < 0.05 luminal acidification, decrease in ammonia concentration and stimulation of short chain fatty acids formation indicated inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption.

  3. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Markiewicz, Lidia H; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2017-07-06

    In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant ( p < 0.05) luminal acidification, decrease in ammonia concentration and stimulation of short chain fatty acids formation indicated inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption.

  4. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  5. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have on heart attack risk. A similar controversy surrounds calcium and prostate cancer. Some studies have ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  6. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  7. Why Calcium? How Calcium Became the Best Communicator*

    OpenAIRE

    Carafoli, Ernesto; Krebs, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carries messages to virtually all important functions of cells. Although it was already active in unicellular organisms, its role became universally important after the transition to multicellular life. In this Minireview, we explore how calcium ended up in this privileged position. Most likely its unique coordination chemistry was a decisive factor as it makes its binding by complex molecules particularly easy even in the presence of large excesses of other cations,...

  8. Isomorfic Substitutions of Calcium by Strontium in Calcium Hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Hilbert

    1962-12-01

    By means of homogeneous precipitation it has been possible to synthesize crystalline solid solutions of calcium strontium hydroxyapatite from aqueous solutions. The lattice constants for the solid solutions were measured in the range Ca 9 Sr(PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 - CaSr 9 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 . The investigations show that the discrimination of strontium against calcium is considerably smaller than reported elsewhere (1). Strontium is preferentially built into the c-axis direction of the apatite lattice

  9. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  10. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  11. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. The relation between calcium intake and body composition in a Dutch population: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, N.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Saris, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary calcium intake is related to body mass index and the sum of four skinfolds among subjects in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (the Netherlands), the authors followed a cohort of men and women from age 13 years in 1977 to age 36 years in 2000.

  13. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  14. Assessing the effects of severe heat treatment of milk on calcium bioavailability: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, I; Delgado-Andrade, C; Haro, A; Navarro, M P

    2010-12-01

    Thermal processing of milk is a common practice. As milk is the main source of dietary calcium, this study aimed to assess the effects of overheating milk on calcium availability. Thus, thermally damaged milk (overheated, OH, milk; 3 cycles of sterilization at 116 °C, 16 min) was compared with UHT milk (150 °C, 6s) in 2 types of assays: in vitro and in vivo (rats). In addition, the greater Maillard reaction rate associated with thermal treatment in OH milk was confirmed by determining specific (furosine) and unspecific markers (CieLab color). A negative effect on calcium solubility was observed after in vitro digestion of OH milk compared with UHT milk. Feeding rats the diet containing OH milk as the protein source led to significantly lower values of apparent calcium absorption and retention than those found among animals fed the UHT milk diet. Whereas reducing the absorption appears to result mainly from the decreased food intake, the negative effect on retention seems to be due to factors derived from milk thermal damage, such as the formation of Maillard reaction products. It was concluded that milk-processing conditions warrant special attention to prevent impaired dietary calcium utilization. This may be especially important in situations where milk and dairy products are the main dietary components, such as in early infancy. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in hip bone mineral density among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T S; Harrison, S; Judd, S; Orwoll, E S; Marshall, L M; Shannon, J; Langsetmo, L; Lane, N E; Shikany, J M

    2018-05-01

    Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time. Participants (n = 4379; mean age 72.9 ± 5.5 years) were from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study and had dietary data collected at baseline (March 2000-April 2002) and BMD measured at baseline and Visit 2 (March 2005-May 2006). Dietary intake was assessed with a brief Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); %ΔBMD was calculated from baseline to Visit 2. We used generalized linear regression to estimate least square (LS) means of %ΔBMD in quartiles of the dietary pattern scores adjusted for potential confounding factors. Two major dietary patterns were derived: Prudent (abundant in vegetables, salad, and non-fried fish) and Western (rich in hamburger, fries, processed meats, cheese, and sweets/desserts). There was an inverse association between adherence to the Prudent pattern and total hip %ΔBMD (p-trend = 0.028 after adjusting for age and clinical site; p-trend = 0.033 after further adjustment for smoking, calcium supplement use, diabetes, hypertension, and total energy intake). No other consistent associations between dietary patterns and %ΔBMD were observed. Greater adherence to a Prudent dietary pattern may attenuate total hip BMD loss (%ΔBMD) in older men.

  16. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  17. A Crash Course in Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2017-12-20

    Much progress has been made in understanding the molecular physiology and pharmacology of calcium channels. Recently, there have been tremendous advances in learning about calcium channel structure and function through crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy studies. Here, I will give an overview of our knowledge about calcium channels, and highlight two recent studies that give important insights into calcium channel structure.

  18. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  19. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  20. Functions of vitamin D / Calcium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Excitation-contraction coupling,. Cardiac functions. Hormonal secretion. Control of enzymatic reactions. Mitotic division. Maintenance of cell integrity. Ciliary motility. Notes: Calcium is a vital second messenger.

  1. Calcium signals in planetary embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The calcium-isotope composition of planetary bodies in the inner Solar System correlates with the masses of such objects. This finding could have implications for our understanding of how the Solar System formed.

  2. Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Ji-Houn; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-09-30

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research. There are consistent results supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to reduce the risk of DM. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids, and some meta-analyses support an increase in insulin sensitivity, following vitamin D supplementation. This review provides an overview of the calcium and vitamin D disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. Such elucidation will help indicate potential pathophysiology-based precautionary and therapeutic approaches and contribute to lowering the incidence of DM.

  3. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  4. Calcium signaling in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  5. Effects of diphosphonate on kidney calcium content and duodenal absorption of 45calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.; Cameron, V.

    1978-01-01

    In rats the relationships between EHDP-induced changes in serum calcium concentration, kidney calcium content and duodenal transport of 45 calcium were studied. Body weights and kidney weights were similar in all groups. EHDP administration was associated with an increase in serum calcium concentration and kidney calcium content, and a decrease in duodenal 45 calcium transport. In the EHDP-treated rats, there was a significant negative correlation between kidney calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport but no correlation between either kidney calcium content and serum calcium concentration (r = 0.116) or between serum calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport (r = 0.02). Further experiments will be needed to determine whether the demonstrated increase in kidney calcium content induced by EHDP administration was the cause of, or was secondary to, inhibition of 1, 25(OH) 2 D 3 synthesis. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. Research of calcium oxide hydration in calcium nitrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oliynyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizers are one of the important factors of agriculture intensification and increasing of food products quantity. The volume of fertilizers production and its domestic consumption in Ukraine indicate that nitrogen fertilizer using only comes nearer to the required number of science-based. One of the most widespread artificial fertilizers is the calcium nitrate. Aim: The aim is to study and theoretically substantiate the processes occurring in the preparation of suspensions of calcium hydroxide Са(ОН2 in solution of calcium nitrate Ca(NО32. Materials and Methods: The technical calcium oxide (quicklime DSTU BV.2.7-90-99, solutions of calcium nitrate of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% Ca(NО32 concentrations were used in the work. The content of lime in the preparation of a suspension in the solution changed (in terms of calcium oxide CaO from 150 g/dm3 to the maximum possible. Each of these solutions saturated at 40°С in lime to maximum concentration. Suitable for use in these experiments and in the technology of calcium nitrate obtaining are considered the solutions (suspensions that within 12 hours did not lose their mobility (transportability. Results: The experimental results show that increasing of the concentration of calcium nitrate in solution within the range 15...40%, the amount of lime that you can put into the solution without loss of transportability decreases. Further increasing of lime quantity in solutions concentrations causes to its solidifying, loss of mobility (transportability. Calculations showed that in the presence of calcium nitrate the solubility of Са(ОН2 is reduced nearly by order that can lead to the formation of calcium oxide CaO the solid phase Са(ОН2 on the surface, which also can form hydrogen bonds with the components of the solution. As the probability of formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions is high, there is a possibility of formation of clusters.

  7. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  8. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  9. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone, calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many other compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements and concretes, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.

  10. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  11. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any... calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  13. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  14. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  15. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  16. Certain dietary patterns are beneficial for the metabolic syndrome: reviewing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calton, Emily K; James, Anthony P; Pannu, Poonam K; Soares, Mario J

    2014-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global public health issue of increasing magnitude. The Asia-Pacific region is expected to be hardest hit due to large population numbers, rising obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). This review assessed the protective effects of dietary patterns and their components on MetS. A literature search was conducted using prominent electronic databases and search terms that included in combination: diet, dietary components, dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome. Articles were restricted to prospective studies and high quality randomized controlled trials that were conducted on humans, reported in the English language, and within the time period of 2000 to 2012. Traditional factors such as age, gender, physical activity, and obesity were associated with risk of MetS; however, these potential confounders were not always accounted for in study outcomes. Three dietary patterns emerged from the review; a Mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet. Potential contributors to their beneficial effects on prevalence of MetS or reduction in MetS components included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy and dairy components, calcium, vitamin D, and whey protein, as well as monounsaturated fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids. Additional prospective and high quality randomized controlled trial studies that investigate Mediterranean dietary pattern, the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet would cement the protective benefits of these diets against the MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Why Calcium? How Calcium Became the Best Communicator*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafoli, Ernesto; Krebs, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carries messages to virtually all important functions of cells. Although it was already active in unicellular organisms, its role became universally important after the transition to multicellular life. In this Minireview, we explore how calcium ended up in this privileged position. Most likely its unique coordination chemistry was a decisive factor as it makes its binding by complex molecules particularly easy even in the presence of large excesses of other cations, e.g. magnesium. Its free concentration within cells can thus be maintained at the very low levels demanded by the signaling function. A large cadre of proteins has evolved to bind or transport calcium. They all contribute to buffer it within cells, but a number of them also decode its message for the benefit of the target. The most important of these “calcium sensors” are the EF-hand proteins. Calcium is an ambivalent messenger. Although essential to the correct functioning of cell processes, if not carefully controlled spatially and temporally within cells, it generates variously severe cell dysfunctions, and even cell death. PMID:27462077

  18. Why Calcium? How Calcium Became the Best Communicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafoli, Ernesto; Krebs, Joachim

    2016-09-30

    Calcium carries messages to virtually all important functions of cells. Although it was already active in unicellular organisms, its role became universally important after the transition to multicellular life. In this Minireview, we explore how calcium ended up in this privileged position. Most likely its unique coordination chemistry was a decisive factor as it makes its binding by complex molecules particularly easy even in the presence of large excesses of other cations, e.g. magnesium. Its free concentration within cells can thus be maintained at the very low levels demanded by the signaling function. A large cadre of proteins has evolved to bind or transport calcium. They all contribute to buffer it within cells, but a number of them also decode its message for the benefit of the target. The most important of these "calcium sensors" are the EF-hand proteins. Calcium is an ambivalent messenger. Although essential to the correct functioning of cell processes, if not carefully controlled spatially and temporally within cells, it generates variously severe cell dysfunctions, and even cell death. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had

  20. Calcium: the molecular basis of calcium action in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pochet, Roland; Donato, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    ... of Calcium Calcium Signalling in Excitable Cells Ca2+ Release in Muscle Cells by N. Macrez and J. Mironneau Calcium Signalling in Neurons Exemplified by Rat Sympathetic Ganglion Cells by S.J. M...

  1. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xixi; Yang, Qian; Lin, Jiaping; Fu, Nanyan; Wang, Shaoyun

    2017-03-29

    Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  2. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  3. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  4. Calcium availability influences litter size and sex ratio in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available The production of offspring typically requires investment of resources derived from both the environment and maternal somatic reserves. As such, the availability of either of these types of resources has the potential to limit the degree to which resources are allocated to reproduction. Theory and empirical studies have argued that mothers modify reproductive performance relative to exogenous resource availability and maternal condition by adjusting size, number or sex of offspring produced. These relationships have classically been defined relative to availability of energy sources; however, in vertebrates, calcium also plays a critical role in offspring production, as a considerable amount of calcium is required to support the development of offspring skeleton(s. We tested whether the availability of calcium influences reproductive output by providing female white-footed mice with a low-calcium or standard diet from reproductive maturity to senescence. We then compared maternal skeletal condition and reproductive output, based on offspring mass, offspring number and litter sex ratio, between dietary treatments. Mothers on the low-calcium diet exhibited diminished skeletal condition at senescence and produced smaller and strongly female-biased litters. We show that skeletal condition and calcium intake can influence sex ratio and reproductive output following general theoretical models of resource partitioning during reproduction.

  5. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-03-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  6. Safety assessment of the calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, expressed by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel L; Tetteh, Afua O; Goodman, Richard E; Underwood, Mark Y

    2014-07-01

    Calcium-binding proteins are ubiquitous modulators of cellular activity and function. Cells possess numerous calcium-binding proteins that regulate calcium concentration in the cytosol by buffering excess free calcium ion. Disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis are at the heart of many age-related conditions making these proteins targets for therapeutic intervention. A calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, has shown potential utility in a broad spectrum of applications for human health and well-being. Large-scale recombinant production of the protein has been successful; enabling further research and development and commercialization efforts. Previous work reported a 90-day subchronic toxicity test that demonstrated this protein has no toxicity by oral exposure in Sprague-Dawley rodents. The current study assesses the allergenic potential of the purified protein using bioinformatic analysis and simulated gastric digestion. The results from the bioinformatics searches with the apoaequorin sequence show the protein is not a known allergen and not likely to cross-react with known allergens. Apoaequorin is easily digested by pepsin, a characteristic commonly exhibited by many non-allergenic dietary proteins. From these data, there is no added concern of safety due to unusual stability of the protein by ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Ward

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376 attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05 number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05 females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05 calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years had the highest (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05 in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. RESULTS: The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher...... selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e......BACKGROUND: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider...

  9. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  10. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  11. Dietary influence on MAPK-signaling pathways and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Associations between genes in the DUSP, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways and dietary factors associated with growth factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress and risk of colon and rectal cancer were evaluated. Data include colon cases (n = 1555) and controls (n = 1956) and rectal cases (n = 754) and controls (n = 959). Statistically significant interactions were observed for the MAPK-signaling pathways after adjustment for multiple comparisons. DUSP genes interacted with carbohydrates, mutagen index, calories, calcium, vitamin D, lycopene, dietary fats, folic acid, and selenium. MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK1, and RAF1 within the ERK1/2 MAPK-signaling pathway interacted with dietary fats and cruciferous vegetables. Within the JNK MAPK-signaling pathway, interactions between MAP3K7 and protein, vitamin C, iron, folic acid, carbohydrates, and cruciferous vegetables; MAP3K10 and folic acid; MAP3K9 and lutein/zeaxanthin; MAPK8 and calcium; MAP3K3 and calcium and lutein; MAP3K1 and cruciferous vegetables. Interaction within the p38-signaling pathway included MAPK14 with calories, carbohydrates saturated fat, selenium, vitamin C; MAP3K2 and carbohydrates, and folic acid. These data suggest that dietary factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress interact with MAPK-signaling genes to alter risk of colorectal cancer.

  12. Stochastic Simulation of Cardiac Ventricular Myocyte Calcium Dynamics and Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Hoang-Trong Minh; Williams, George S. B.; Chikando, Aristide C.; Sobie, Eric A.; Lederer, W. Jonathan; Jafri, M. Saleet

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional model of calcium dynamics in the rat ventricular myocyte was developed to study the mechanism of calcium homeostasis and pathological calcium dynamics during calcium overload. The model contains 20,000 calcium release units (CRUs) each containing 49 ryanodine receptors. The model simulates calcium sparks with a realistic spontaneous calcium spark rate. It suggests that in addition to the calcium spark-based leak, there is an invisible calcium leak caused by the stochastic ...

  13. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (PBerber women (PBerber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  14. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  15. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  16. Isomorfic Substitutions of Calcium by Strontium in Calcium Hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Hilbert

    1962-12-15

    By means of homogeneous precipitation it has been possible to synthesize crystalline solid solutions of calcium strontium hydroxyapatite from aqueous solutions. The lattice constants for the solid solutions were measured in the range Ca{sub 9}Sr(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} - CaSr{sub 9}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}. The investigations show that the discrimination of strontium against calcium is considerably smaller than reported elsewhere (1). Strontium is preferentially built into the c-axis direction of the apatite lattice.

  17. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  18. Calcium-41 as a long-term biological tracer for bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, David; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.; Sacco-Gibson, Nancy; Peterson, David P.

    1990-12-01

    The use of 41Ca (half-life 1 × 10 5 yr) as a tracer for studying calcium metabolism in living systems is compared to the shorter-lived radionuclides 45Ca (165 d) and 47Ca (45 d) and the stable isotopes 42Ca and 44Ca. The feasibility of using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 41Ca for studying multi-year calcium resorption in humans was tested as part of a companion study that used 45Ca to measure the effects of dietary cadmium on calcium metabolism in dogs. It was shown that Ca resorbed from prelabeled bones correlates well with 45Ca for a period of 28 weeks. The advantage of 41Ca is that, even with a negligible radiation dose, it can be measured by AMS long after the 45Ca becomes unmeasurable.

  19. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  20. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  1. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  2. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  3. Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Johnson, Clifford L

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on dietary intake and dietary supplement use among the U.S. population age 1-74 based on four National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000. Secular trends in intake of energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, sodium, calcium, iron, folate, zinc, vitamins A and C, fruits, vegetables, and grain products are summarized. During the 30-year period, mean energy intake increased among adults, and changed little among children age 1-19, except for an increase among adolescent females. Factors contributing to increases in energy intake include increases in the percentage of the population eating away from home (particularly at fast-food restaurants), larger portion sizes of foods and beverages, increased consumption of sweetened beverages, changes in snacking habits, and improved dietary methodology. Dietary supplement use increased among adult men and women, decreased among children age 1-5, and was stable for children age 6-11 and adolescents.

  4. Electrophysical properties of calcium vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnenko, T.I.; Fotiev, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrophysical properties of calcium vanadates are studied for the case of alteration of external parameters of the medium (PO 2 , T). It is lshown that structural transformations bring about changes in the nature of electrophysical properties of Ca 2 V 2 O 7 , Ca 3 (VO 4 ) 2 , this being the reason for charge redistribution in anion groupings. It is obvious, that the general conductivity of calcium methavanadate is mainly caused by ion transport. Ca(VO 3 ) 2 possesses amphoteric character of semiconducting properties: the type of conductivity changes from ''p'' to ''n'' with temperature increase. Polytherms of conductivity and sums of ion numbers of Ca 2 V 2 O 7 transition are given. It is established that calcium pyrovanadate has a mixed electron-ion conductivity

  5. Preparation of calcium phosphate paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Norzita Yaacob; Idris Besar; Che Seman Mahmood; Rusnah Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate paste were prepared by mixing between calcium sodium potassium phosphate, Ca 2 NaK (PO 4 ) 2 (CSPP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (MCPM). CSPP were obtained by reaction between calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO 4 ), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ) and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in solid state sintering process followed by quenching in air at 1000 degree Celsius. The paste was aging in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hrs, 3, 7 and 14 days. The morphological investigation indicated the formation of apatite crystal were first growth after 24 hours. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown at 3 days. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown in 7 and 14 days indicated the prediction of paste would have rapid reaction with bone after implantation. (author)

  6. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  7. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  8. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  9. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  10. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  11. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Moen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and lactation. We used data on dietary digestibility, protein, calcium and phosphorus content, and seasonal patterns in body mass to predict the energy, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances of a "generic" male and female caribou. Antler growth in males increased energy requirements during antler growth by 8 to 16%, depending on the efficiency with which energy was used for antler growth. Female energy requirements for antler growth were proportionately much smaller because of the smaller size of female antlers. Protein requirements for antler growth in both males and females were met by forage intake. Calcium and phosphorus must be resorbed from bone during peak antler growth in males, when > 25 g/day of calcium and > 12 g/day of phosphorus are being deposited in antlers. Females are capable of meeting calcium needs during antler growth without bone resorption, but phosphorus was resorbed from bone during the final stages of antler mineralization. After energy, phosphorus was most likely to limit growth of antlers for both males and females in our simulations. Input parameters can be easily changed to represent caribou from specific geographic regions in which dietary nutrient content or body mass patterns differ from those in our "generic" caribou. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the evolutionary basis for development of antlers in female caribou, and the relationship between body mass and antler size in the Cervidae.

  13. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. ) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, S; Krishnamoorthy, K K [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry

    1977-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium.

  14. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loganathan, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium

  15. The effect of habitat geology on calcium intake and calcium status of wild rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R F; Balment, R J; Yalden, D W

    1991-12-01

    Calcium is essential for normal physiological function, reproduction and growth in mammals but its distribution in the natural environment is heterogeneous. Spatial variation in calcium soil content is especially marked in the Peak District, United Kingdom, where both calcium-rich limestone and calcium-poor gritstone rock types occur. Wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus (L) and bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber 1780) from limestone areas had significantly higher calcium concentrations in stomach contents and in faeces compared with their counterparts from gritstone areas. Calcium status was assessed from serum calcium concentration, femur weight, ash content of the body, calcium concentration in the femur and body ash. There was no significant difference in serum calcium concentration, femur calcium concentration and body ash calcium concentration between animals from the limestone and the gritstone. However, on the limestone, bank voles, but not wood mice, had significantly heavier femora and a greater proportion of ash in the body compared with their gritstone counterparts.

  16. The influence of calcium and phosphorus levels on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32P retention of layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, Y.S.; Hendratno, C.; Yuyu Wahyu

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of three levels of calcium and three levels of dietary phosphorus on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32 P retention of layers. Calcium levels of 3.0; 3.5 and 4.0 percent were used and phosphorus contest of the diet fed were either 0.6; 0.9 or 1.2 percent.Egg production was highest with rations containing 3.5% calcium and 0.9% phosphorus. A significant increase in egg production was found at 0.9% levels of phosphorus compared to levels of 0.6 and 1.2%. Egg quality was increased significantly (p 32 P retention was low at the highest calcium level. (author)

  17. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  18. Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic

  19. Magnetically responsive calcium carbonate microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Bikmullin, Aidar G; Nurgaliev, Danis K

    2009-09-01

    Here we report the fabrication of magnetically responsive calcium carbonate microcrystals produced by coprecipitation of calcium carbonate in the presence of citrate-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the calcite microcrystals obtained possess superparamagnetic properties due to incorporated magnetite nanoparticles and can be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The microcrystals doped with magnetic nanoparticles were utilized as templates for the fabrication of hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules, which retain the magnetic properties of the sacrificial cores and might be spatially manipulated using a permanent magnet, thus providing the magnetic-field-facilitated delivery and separation of materials templated on magnetically responsive calcite microcrystals.

  20. Use of two calcium concentrations in hemodialysis--report of a 20-year clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffart, G; Schulz, T; Stiller, S

    2009-03-01

    Over the past almost 50 years several calcium concentrations in the dialysate (CaD) have been used to balance calcium in hemodialysis (HD) patients but a consensus as to which is most appropriate has not been established. Moreover, since the late 1980s, further confusion has been caused following the use of calcium salts as intestinal phosphate binders. This paper reports results of 387 chronic HD patients with respect to secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) and renal osteodystrophy (ROD) of a single center over 20 years. The most important therapeutic measures applied were use of only 2 CaD, 1.5 and 1.75 mmol/l, with very few exceptions, administration of either calcium-containing or calcium-magnesium-containing and/or calcium-free phosphate binders, no dietary restrictions and continuous compensation of uremic acidosis via dialysate and oral supplements of bicarbonate. Using one of the two CaD and selective administration of different phosphate binders for fine adjustment of serum calcium through this combination, we were able to maintain in the long term almost physiological conditions. With exception of the phosphate metabolism, most physiological functions with regard to sHPT and ROD returned close to normal. As a result, the incidence of hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, extraosseous, extravascular calcification, bone pain and spontaneous bone fractures was extremely low. We conclude that the clinical advantages of the therapeutic measures, above all precise balance of calcium homeostasis, in our investigation were demonstrated by high survival rates (92% after the first year on HD, 82% after 2, and 55% after 5 years), low incidence of cardiovascular fatalities (about 25%), and very low incidence of sHPT (mostly normal parathyroid hormone levels, 1 parathyrdoidectomy within 20 years).

  1. Correlates of Dietary Intake in Youth with Diabetes: Results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortsov, Andrey; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore demographic, socioeconomic, diabetes-related, and behavioral correlates of dietary intake of dairy, fruit, vegetables, sweetened soda, fiber, calcium, and saturated fat in youth with diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of youth 10-22 years old with type 1 (T1DM, n = 2,176) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, n = 365). Association…

  2. Serotonin and calcium homeostasis during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S R; Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Hernandez, L L

    2016-07-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation puts significant, sudden demands on maternal energy and calcium reserves. Although most mammals are able to effectively manage these metabolic adaptations, the lactating dairy cow is acutely susceptible to transition-related disorders because of the high amounts of milk being produced. Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic disorder that occurs at the onset of lactation. Hypocalcemia is also known to result in poor animal welfare conditions. In addition, cows that develop hypocalcemia are more susceptible to a host of other negative health outcomes. Different feeding tactics, including manipulating the dietary cation-anion difference and administering low-calcium diets, are commonly used preventative strategies. Despite these interventions, the incidence of hypocalcemia in the subclinical form is still as high as 25% to 30% in the United States dairy cow population, with a 5% to 10% incidence of clinical hypocalcemia. In addition, although there are various effective treatments in place, they are administered only after the cow has become noticeably ill, at which point there is already significant metabolic damage. This emphasizes the need for developing alternative prevention strategies, with the monoamine serotonin implicated as a potential therapeutic target. Our research in rodents has shown that serotonin is critical for the induction of mammary parathyroid hormone-related protein, which is necessary for the mobilization of bone tissue and subsequent restoration of maternal calcium stores during lactation. We have shown that circulating serotonin concentrations are positively correlated with serum total calcium on the first day of lactation in dairy cattle. Administration of serotonin's immediate precursor through feeding, injection, or infusion to various mammalian species has been shown to increase circulating serotonin concentrations, with positive effects on other components of maternal metabolism. Most recently

  3. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co-product. Regardless of Ca source, inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.001) the ATTD of P. In conclusion, MCP has the greatest ATTD and STTD of Ca among the calcium supplements used in this experiment, followed by DCP. Basal, MCP, and DCP diets had greater ATTD of P than the other diets, and inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the diets.

  4. Dietary acculturation and body composition predict American Hmong children's blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chery; Franzen-Castle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Determine how dietary acculturation, anthropometric measures (height, weight, circumferences, and skinfolds), body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratios (WHRs) are associated with blood pressure (BP) measures in Hmong children living in Minnesota. Acculturation was measured using responses to questions regarding language usage, social connections, and diet. Dietary assessment was completed using the multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall method on two different days. Anthropometric and BP measurement were taken using standard procedures, and BMI and WHR were calculated. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and stepwise regression analyses. Using stepwise regression analysis, hip circumference (HC) predicted boys' systolic (S)BP (R(2) = 0.55). For girls' SBP, mid-upper arm circumference, WHR, low calcium consumption, and height percentile jointly explained 41% of the total variation. Mid upper arm circumference (MAC) and carbohydrate consumption predicted 35% of the variance for boys' diastolic (D)BP, and HC, dairy consumption, and calcium intake predicted 31% of the total variance for girls' DBP. Responses to dietary acculturation questions revealed between group differences for breakfast with half of the younger Born-Thailand/Laos (Born-T/L) consuming mostly Hmong food, while at dinner Born-US consumed a mixed diet and Born-T/L were more likely to consume Hmong food. Dietary acculturation and body composition predict Hmong children's BP. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2014-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers-which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal-has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca(2+) currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 pA and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 μM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  6. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  7. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium...

  8. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  9. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  10. Complex formation ions calcium with macromolecules pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikova, M.D.; Avloev, Kh.Kh.; Muhiddinov, Z.K.

    2005-01-01

    In clause the mechanism of sorption of ions of calcium by macromolecules of pectin is opened. Is shown, that the linkage of ions of calcium descends on acid bunches of pectin, and process carries cooperative character

  11. Atomic layer deposition of calcium oxide and calcium hafnium oxide films using calcium cyclopentadienyl precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukli, Kaupo; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Haenninen, Timo; Leskelae, Markku

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxide and calcium hafnium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on borosilicate glass and silicon substrates in the temperature range of 205-300 o C. The calcium oxide films were grown from novel calcium cyclopentadienyl precursor and water. Calcium oxide films possessed refractive index 1.75-1.80. Calcium oxide films grown without Al 2 O 3 capping layer occurred hygroscopic and converted to Ca(OH) 2 after exposure to air. As-deposited CaO films were (200)-oriented. CaO covered with Al 2 O 3 capping layers contained relatively low amounts of hydrogen and re-oriented into (111) direction upon annealing at 900 o C. In order to examine the application of CaO in high-permittivity dielectric layers, mixtures of Ca and Hf oxides were grown by alternate CaO and HfO 2 growth cycles at 230 and 300 o C. HfCl 4 was used as a hafnium precursor. When grown at 230 o C, the films were amorphous with equal amounts of Ca and Hf constituents (15 at.%). These films crystallized upon annealing at 750 o C, showing X-ray diffraction peaks characteristic of hafnium-rich phases such as Ca 2 Hf 7 O 16 or Ca 6 Hf 19 O 44 . At 300 o C, the relative Ca content remained below 8 at.%. The crystallized phase well matched with rhombohedral Ca 2 Hf 7 O 16 . The dielectric films grown on Si(100) substrates possessed effective permittivity values in the range of 12.8-14.2

  12. Kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate formation from tricalcium aluminate, calcium sulfate and calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuerun; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Xiaodong; Wang, Qianqian; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    The formation kinetics of tricalcium aluminate (C 3 A) and calcium sulfate yielding calcium sulfoaluminate (C 4 A 3 $) and the decomposition kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate were investigated by sintering a mixture of synthetic C 3 A and gypsum. The quantitative analysis of the phase composition was performed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis using the Rietveld method. The results showed that the formation reaction 3Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 + CaSO 4 → Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 (SO 4 ) + 6CaO was the primary reaction 4 Al 6 O 12 (SO 4 ) + 10CaO → 6Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 + 2SO 2 ↑ + O 2 ↑ primarily occurred beyond 1350 °C with an activation energy of 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. The optimal formation region for C 4 A 3 $ was from 1150 °C to 1350 °C and from 6 h to 1 h, which could provide useful information on the formation of C 4 A 3 $ containing clinkers. The Jander diffusion model was feasible for the formation and decomposition of calcium sulfoaluminate. Ca 2+ and SO 4 2− were the diffusive species in both the formation and decomposition reactions. -- Highlights: •Formation and decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate were studied. •Decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate combined CaO and yielded C 3 A. •Activation energy for formation was 231 ± 42 kJ/mol. •Activation energy for decomposition was 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. •Both the formation and decomposition were controlled by diffusion

  13. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  14. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  15. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  16. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers involved in Alzheimer's disease therapy. PMID:25767489

  17. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium oxide. 184.1210 Section 184.1210 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8) is also known as lime, quick lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone, or...

  18. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45 Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO 3 and CaCl 2 than from CaC 2 O 4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach

  19. Calcium and Nuclear Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan V. Maly; Wilma A. Hofmann

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the un...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095) is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  4. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  5. The impact of calcium assay change on a local adjusted calcium equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah L; Hill, Charlotte; Bailey, Lisa M; Davison, Andrew S; Milan, Anna M

    2016-03-01

    Deriving and validating local adjusted calcium equations is important for ensuring appropriate calcium status classification. We investigated the impact on our local adjusted calcium equation of a change in calcium method by the manufacturer from cresolphthalein complexone to NM-BAPTA. Calcium and albumin results from general practice requests were extracted from the Laboratory Information Management system for a three-month period. Results for which there was evidence of disturbance in calcium homeostasis were excluded leaving 13,482 sets of results for analysis. The adjusted calcium equation was derived following least squares regression analysis of total calcium on albumin and normalized to the mean calcium concentration of the data-set. The revised equation (NM-BAPTA calcium method) was compared with the previous equation (cresolphthalein complexone calcium method). The switch in calcium assay resulted in a small change in the adjusted calcium equation but was not considered to be clinically significant. The calcium reference interval differed from that proposed by Pathology Harmony in the UK. Local adjusted calcium equations should be re-assessed following changes in the calcium method. A locally derived reference interval may differ from the consensus harmonized reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Absorbability of calcium from calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides in comparison with that from various calcium compounds in the rat ligated jejunum loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-o, Kenji; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takahisa; Kuriki, Takashi; Saeki, Shigeru; Nakabou, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    Calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs-Ca) were prepared from potato starch. Their solubility and in situ absorbability as a calcium source were investigated by comparing with the soluble calcium compounds, calcium chloride and calcium lactate, or insoluble calcium compounds, calcium carbonate and dibasic calcium phosphate. The solubility of POs-Ca was as high as that of calcium chloride and about 3-fold higher than that of calcium lactate. An in situ experiment showed that the intestinal calcium absorption rate of POs-Ca was almost comparable with that of the soluble calcium compounds, and was significantly higher (pcalcium groups. Moreover, the total absorption rate of a 1:1 mixture of the calcium from POs-Ca and a whey mineral complex (WMC) was significantly higher (psoluble calcium source with relatively high absorption in the intestinal tract.

  7. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.1210 Section 582.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve

  11. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sorbate. 182.3225 Section 182.3225 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sorbate. 582.3225 Section 582.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6219 - Calcium phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phytate. 582.6219 Section 582.6219 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium phytate. (a) Product. Calcium phytate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  3. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  4. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  5. Preparation and properties of calcium zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, M.; Bucko, M.; Rog, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dense samples of calcium zirconate were prepared. Electrical conductivity of the samples were measured in the temperature range 873 - 1273 K by both the d.c. four probe and the impedance spectroscopy methods. Calcium zirconate with small excess of calcium oxide appeared to be oxygen ion conductor. It was applied as an electrolyte in solid-state galvanic cells. (author)

  6. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  10. Additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet for sheep fed ensiled king grass as a based-diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the effect of additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet, on the performance of sheep fed ensiled king grass as a basal diet, a trial was conducted using 28 growing sheep ( average body weight 17 _+ 1 .4 kg. Based on body weight, the animals were grouped and randomized into four dietary treatments in block randomized design . Dietary treatments were (i chopped king grass + 400 g of concentrate, (ii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 0 % of calcium carbonate, (iii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 5 % calcium carbonate and (iv ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 10 % calcium carbonate . Results showed that offering 5 % of calcium carbonate into concentrate diet increased (P 0 .05 for all groups . No differences in the apparent digestibility of the nutrient components were observed, but crude protein decreased significantly (P < 0 .05 . A significant relationship ( P < 0 .01 was found between nitrogen intake (NI and nitrogen retention (NR, and the equation was NR = - 0.1848 + 0.3788 NI ( r = 0.9 . Based on data found that feeding only ensiled king grass as a single diet could not meet the maintenance requirement of energy and protein, therefore, additional energy and crude protein sources is needed .

  11. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  12. Effect of anions or foods on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Zenei Taira, Zenei; Ueda,Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Yukari Ueda, Zenei TairaFaculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima, JapanAbstract: We studied the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium L-lactate in mice using pharmacokinetics, and reviewed the absolute bioavailability of calcium from three other calcium salts in mice previously studied: calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium ascorbate. The results showed that calcium metabolism is linear between intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg and 30 ...

  13. Chicken eggshell as suitable calcium source at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucas R; Lupo, Maela; Delorenzi, Damián A; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    Taken into consideration that the deficiency of calcium (Ca) in the diet is a common problem, the aim of this work was to study the chicken eggshell as Ca source at home. It was evaluated: (1) different mechanisms to process eggshells and find an easy way to determine the required amount of Ca at home and; (2) the flavor and the texture for eggshell fortified food. Chemical and mechanical methods of eggshell processing were evaluated. Changes in flavor and texture were evaluated in volunteers coordinated by a professional chef. A single eggshell contains 2.07 ± 0.18 g of Ca; therefore half an eggshell could provide the amount of Ca needed by adult human beings per day. The best way to use chicken eggshell as Ca dietary supplement is powdered to add to bread, pizza or spaghetti as there were small changes in texture and no changes in flavor.

  14. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  15. Radioisotope 45Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds and tracing calcium bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Niu Huisheng; Li Huaifen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To build up a new method of the radioisotope 45 Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds, observe and tracing bioavailability change of calcium labeled with radioisotope 45 Ca. Methods: The calcium gluconate (Ca-Glu), calcium citrate (Ca-Cit), calcium carbonate (Ca-Car) and calcium L-threonate (Ca-Thr)were labeled by radioisotope 45 Ca. Four calcium chemical compounds of 45 Ca labeling were used of calcium content 200 mg/kg in the rats and measure the absorption content and bioavailability of calcium in tissue of heart, lever spleen, stomach, kidney, brain, intestine, whole blood, urine, faeces. Results: 1) Radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compound has high radio intensity, more steady standard curve and recover rate. 2) The absorption of organic calcium chemical compounds is higher than the inorganic calcium chemical compound in the study of calcium bioavailability. Conclusion: The method of tracing with radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compounds has the characteristic of the sensitive, objective, accurate and steady in the study of calcium bioavailability

  16. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  17. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  18. Identification of a dietary pattern prospectively associated with bone mass in Australian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mountain, Jenny; Straker, Leon; Walsh, John P; Zhu, Kun; Oddy, Wendy H

    2015-11-01

    Relatively little is known about the relations between dietary patterns and bone health in adolescence, which is a period of substantial bone mass accrual. We derived dietary patterns that were hypothesized to be related to bone health on the basis of their protein, calcium, and potassium contents and investigated their prospective associations with bone mineral density (BMD), bone area, and bone mineral content (BMC) in a cohort of young adults. The study included 1024 young adults born to mothers who were participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Dietary information was obtained from food-frequency questionnaires at 14 and 17 y of age. Dietary patterns were characterized according to protein, calcium, and potassium intakes with the use of reduced-rank regression. BMD, bone area, and BMC were estimated with the use of a total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan at 20 y of age. We identified 2 major dietary patterns. The first pattern was positively correlated with intakes of protein, calcium, and potassium and had high factor loadings for low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and vegetables. The second pattern was positively correlated with protein intake but negatively correlated with intakes of calcium and potassium and had high factor loadings for meat, poultry, fish, and eggs. After adjustment for anthropometric, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors, a higher z score for the first pattern at 14 y of age was positively associated with BMD and BMC at 20 y of age [differences: 8.6 mg/cm(2) (95% CI: 3.0, 14.1 mg/cm(2)) and 21.9 g (95% CI: 6.5, 37.3 g), respectively, per SD increase in z score]. The z score for this same pattern at 17 y of age was not associated with bone outcomes at 20 y of age. The second pattern at 14 or 17 y of age was not associated with BMD, BMC, or bone area. A dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of protein, calcium, and potassium in midadolescence was associated with higher BMD and BMC at 20

  19. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  20. Calcium regulation and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Rapaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the neuron induces transient fluctuations in [Ca2+]i. This transient rise in [Ca2+]i is dependent on calcium entry via calcium channels and release of calcium from intracellular stores, finally resulting in increase in calcium levels, which activates calcium regulatory proteins to restore the resting calcium levels by binding to the calcium-binding proteins, sequestration into the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, and finally extrusion of calcium spike potential from the cell by adenosine triphosphate-driven Ca2+ pumps and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Improper regulation of calcium signaling, sequentially, likely contributes to synaptic dysfunction and excitotoxic and/or apoptotic death of the vulnerable neuronal populations. The cognitive decline associated with normal aging is not only due to neuronal loss, but is fairly the result of synaptic connectivity. Many evidences support that Ca2+ dyshomeostasis is implicated in normal brain aging. Thus the chief factor associated with Alzheimer’s disease was found to be increase in the levels of free intracellular calcium, demonstrating that the excessive levels might lead to cell death, which provides a key target for the calcium channel blockers might be used as the neuroprotective agents in Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX......)-sensitive fast Na(+) spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers....... Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon...

  2. Seasonal Variations in Mercury's Dayside Calcium Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer on the MESSENGER spacecraft has observed calcium emission in Mercury's exosphere on a near-daily basis since March 2011. During MESSENGER's primary and first extended missions (March 2011 - March 2013) the dayside calcium exosphere was measured over eight Mercury years. We have simulated these data with a Monte Carlo model of exospheric source processes to show that (a) there is a persistent source of energetic calcium located in the dawn equatorial region, (b) there is a seasonal dependence in the calcium source rate, and (c) there are no obvious year-to-year variations in the near-surface dayside calcium exosphere. Although the precise mechanism responsible for ejecting the calcium has not yet been determined, the most likely process is the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules produced in micrometeoroid impact plumes to form energetic, escaping calcium atoms.

  3. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  4. Java project on periodontal diseases: effect of vitamin C/calcium threonate/citrus flavonoids supplementation on periodontal pathogens, CRP and HbA1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Loos, B.G.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a periodontally diseased rural population deprived from regular dental care and having poor dietary conditions, the effect of vitamin C/calcium threonate/citrus flavonoids (VitC/Ca/Fl) supplementation on subgingival microbiota and plasma levels of vitamin C, HbA1c and hsCRP.

  5. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  6. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  7. Trafficking of neuronal calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Zamponi, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), č. článku NS20160003. ISSN 2059-6553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * neuron * trafficing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) http://www.neuronalsignaling.org/content/1/1/NS20160003

  8. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: A latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. Objective To identify patterns (or ‘classes’) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, “conscientious” food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. Design A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants/setting Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (n=1,201) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Fast food and soda consumption; meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Statistical analyses Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. Results An eight-class solution was identified: “traditional shopper (14.9%),” “fresh food and supermarket shopper (14.1%),” “convenience shopper (18.8%),” “conscientious convenience shopper (13.8%),” “conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper (11.8%),” “conscientious fresh food shopper (6.6%),” “conscientious non-shopper (10.2%)”, and “non-shopper (9.8%).” “Fresh food and supermarket shoppers” and “conscientious fresh food shopper” had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar) while “convenience shoppers” and “conscientious convenience shoppers,” and “non-shoppers” had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than “traditional shoppers.” Conclusions These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of

  9. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2015-07-01

    Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary acid load in early life and bone health in childhood: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Audry H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy; de Jonge, Ester A L; Gordillo, Noelia G; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-12-01

    Dietary contribution to acid-base balance in early life may influence subsequent bone mineralization. Previous studies reported inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary acid load and bone mass. We examined the associations of dietary acid load in early life with bone health in childhood. In a prospective, multiethnic, population-based cohort study of 2850 children, we estimated dietary acid load as dietary potential renal acid load (dPRAL), based on dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and protein, and as a protein intake to potassium intake ratio (Pro:K) at 1 y of age and in a subgroup at 2 y of age : Bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC, and bone area were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the median age of 6 y. Data were analyzed by using multivariable linear regression models. After adjusting for relevant maternal and child factors, dietary acid load estimated as either dPRAL or Pro:K ratio was not consistently associated with childhood bone health. Associations did not differ by sex, ethnicity, weight status, or vitamin D supplementation. Only in those children with high protein intake in our population (i.e., >42 g/d), a 1-unit increase in dPRAL (mEq/d) was inversely associated with BMC (difference: -0.32 g; 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01 g). Dietary acid load in early life was not consistently associated with bone health in childhood. Further research is needed to explore the extent to which dietary acid load in later childhood may affect current and future bone health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Constraining Calcium Production in Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pranjal; C. Fry, C. Wrede Team; A. Chen, J. Liang Collaboration; S. Bishop, T. Faestermann, D. Seiler Collaboration; R. Hertenberger, H. Wirth Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Calcium is an element that can be produced by thermonuclear reactions in the hottest classical novae. There are discrepancies between the abundance of Calcium observed in novae and expectations based on astrophysical models. Unbound states 1 MeV above the proton threshold affect the production of Calcium in nova models because they act as resonances in the 38 K(p , γ) 39 Ca reaction present. This work describes an experiment to measure the energies of the excited states of 39 Ca . We will bombard a thin target of 40 Ca with a beam of 22 MeV deuterons, resulting in tritons and 39Ca. We will use a Q3D magnetic spectrograph from the MLL in Garching, Germany to momenta analyze the tritons to observe the excitation energies of the resulting 39 Ca states. Simulations have been run to determine the optimal spectrograph settings. We decided to use a chemically stable target composed of CaF2 , doing so resulted in an extra contaminant, Fluorine, which is dealt with by measuring the background from a LiF target. These simulations have led to settings and targets that will result in the observation of the 39 Ca states of interest with minimal interference from contaminants. Preliminary results from this experiment will be presented. National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and U.S. National Science Foundation.

  12. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chen Hsing; Yang, Chweishiun; Patel, S.R.; Stevens, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied the effect of dietary vitamin D restriction on serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, measured by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Both WKY and SHR were fed a vitamin D-deficient or a vitamin D-supplemented diet beginning at 4 wk of age. In vitamin D-supplemented animals, the serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] concentration of WKY was similar to the level of SHR. Plasma calcium concentration was not different between WKY and SHR. In animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 of SHR was significantly lower than that of WKY. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level was markedly decreased in both WKY and SHR. The SHR, but not the WKY, developed hypocalcemia. Despite hypocalcemia, fasting urinary Ca 2+ excretion of SHR exceeded that of WKY. They conclude that the lower 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 level in SHR fed a vitamin D-deficient diet may be due to a defect in the synthesis of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . The low level of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is associated with renal wasting of calcium and hypocalcemia in SHR

  13. Influence of age and magnesium on calcium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, S.T.; Link, J.E.; Dowdy, R.P.; Zinn, K.R.; Ellersieck, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of dietary magnesium concentration on calcium metabolism in rats of differing ages. Young (3 wk) and old (18 mo) Fischer 344 rats were fed the AIN-76A diet modified to contain either low (218 mg/kg) or adequate (419 mg/kg) Mg for 4 wk. Some rats subsequently underwent a metabolic balance study (12 d duration). Other rats were gavaged with approximately 220 KBq (6 microCi) of 47 Ca; daily fecal and urine collections were made and periodic whole body radioactivity determined. Femurs were removed and analyzed. Calcium retention and balance were not affected by Mg in young rats. In old rats low Mg intake increased apparent Ca balance. Young rats retained about 3.25 times more of the original dose of 47 Ca than did old rats. Young rats retained more 47 Ca in the femur than did old rats; Mg intake had little effect. Aging accelerated Ca turnover rate, and whole body retention data suggest that adequate Mg does not significantly reduce Ca turnover

  14. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  15. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  16. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  17. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium ( 47 Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO 3 . In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the 47 Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison

  18. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn F. Madden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18 and female (n = 22 athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or Adequate Intake (AI for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes.

  19. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.