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Sample records for calcium dietary

  1. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  2. DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM CONTENT IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović-Balaban, Željka R.; Antunović, Vesna R.; Jelić, Dijana R.; Živković, Tanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a macro element that is very important for the human body: its content and circulation in the body is large, it serves as the electrolyte, it has a building role and participates in the process of metabolism. The European Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Food and Drug (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) gave the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances,) for this macro element. The absorption and bioavailability of the calcium may vary depending on a number...

  3. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  4. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  5. Validation of two food frequency questionnaires for dietary calcium assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea, Hacker-Thompson; Robertson, Trina P.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2009-01-01

    Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health and a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared to dietary calcium intake measured by a three-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home, returning it by mail. The ethnicity of the 140 study participants was 102 Caucasian, 12 African American, 16 Asian,...

  6. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  7. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  8. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  9. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  10. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case–control study in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease’s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on ...

  11. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  12. Consequences of hazardous dietary calcium deficiency for fattening bulls

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    Näkki Päivi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient mineral supplementation on a feedlot farm resulted in severe clinical manifestations in fattening bulls. Animals mistakenly received only 60–70% of the recommended calcium intake, while simultaneously receiving twice the amount of phosphorus recommended. Thus, the dietary Ca/P ratio was severely distorted. After approximately six months on such a diet, four fattening bulls were euthanized because of severe lameness and 15% of other animals on the farm were having clinical leg problems. Veterinary consultation revealed the mistake in mineral supplementation. Methods Fattening bulls were divided into three groups depending on the time of their arrival to the farm. This enabled the effect of mineral imbalance at different growth phases to be examined. After slaughtering, the bones of both front and hind limbs were macroscopically evaluated. Results Over 80% of the animals with a calcium-deficient diet had at least one severe osteoarthritic lesion. The economic impact of the calcium deficiency was statistically significant. Conclusion Calcium deficiency with distorted Ca/P ratio yielded a severe outbreak of osteoarthritis in fattening bulls. Calcium deficiency caused a more serious lesions in age group 5–12 months than age group 12–18 months. Besides causing obvious economic losses osteoarthritis is also a welfare issue for feedlot animals.

  13. MECHANISM OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY CALCIUM ON CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FECAL WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, HT; TERMONT, DSML; KLEIBEUKER, JH; DEVRIES, EGE; VANDERMEER, R

    1993-01-01

    Dietary calcium supplementation inhibits hyperproliferation of rectal epithelium, possibly by precipitating luminal surfactants and thus preventing their cell-damaging effects. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplemental dietary calcium (35.5 mmol/day) on composition and cytolytic activity of

  14. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  15. Effect of dietary calcium: Phosphorus ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal calcium absorption in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshihara, Moyuru; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal Ca absorption in ovariectomized (OVX) rat models of osteoporosis and sham-operated rats. Thirty 12-wk-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of OVX rats and three groups of sham rats. Thirty days after the adaptation period, OVX rats and sham rats were fed a diet formulated Ca:P, 1:0.5, 1:1 or 1:2 (each diet containing 0.5% Ca), respectively for 42 d. In both sham and OVX rats, serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, was increased by decreasing Ca:P ratio (1:2). In contrast, rats fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet (dietary P restriction) suppressed the increased serum parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline, and increased Ca absorption in both sham and OVX rats compared to the Ca:P = 1:1 and 1:2 diets. Especially, in OVX rats, the decreased bone mineral density of the fifth lumbar was also suppressed when rats were fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet. These results indicated that the elevation of dietary Ca:P ratio may inhibit bone loss and increase intestinal Ca absorption in OVX rats.

  16. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Roman-Smith, H; Sutton, R A

    1993-08-01

    Dietary restriction of oxalate intake has been used as therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Although urinary oxalate is derived predominantly from endogenous synthesis, it may also be affected by dietary intake of oxalate and calcium. The risk of increasing urinary oxalate excretion by excessive consumption of dietary oxalate is greatest in individuals with a high rate of oxalate absorption, both with and without overt intestinal disease. Although oxalate-rich foods enhanced excretion of urinary oxalate in normal volunteers, the increase was not proportional to the oxalate content of the food. Only eight foods--spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and strawberries--caused a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Restriction of dietary calcium enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, whereas an increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding more oxalate in the gut. This review of the literature indicates that initial dietary therapy for stone-forming individuals can be limited to the restriction of foods definitely shown to increase urinary oxalate. The effects of oxalate-restricted diets on urinary oxalate should be evaluated by means of laboratory analyses of urine composition. Subsequent long-term therapy can be recommended if beneficial results are obtained from oxalate restriction at an appropriate calcium intake. PMID:8335871

  17. Dietary calcium attenuates platelet aggregation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Watanabe, M.; Yue, Q.; McCarron, D. A.; Hatton, D.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are known to be blood pressure sensitive to dietary calcium. The effects of dietary calcium on platelet aggregation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization were assessed by turbidimetric methods and fura-2 methods, respectively, in washed platelets of SHR. Ca2+ ATPase activity was examined in aortic membrane fractions. Six weeks of dietary calcium supplementation attenuated the increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP 199 +/- 16 v 170 +/- 9 mm Hg, P ionomycin-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) peak in the absence of external Ca2+, which reflects [Ca2+]i storage size, and thrombin-evoked [Ca2+]i release from [Ca2+]i storage were decreased by 2.0% Ca diet (472 +/- 55 v 370 +/- 23 nmol/L, P ionomycin-induced [Ca2+]i (r = 0.591, P = .0415), respectively. However, there was no significant effect of dietary calcium on Ca2+-ATPase activity in aortic membranes. These results suggest that dietary calcium supplementation had a beneficial effect on platelets of SHR by attenuating [Ca2+]i mobilization from [Ca2+]i storage. The hypotensive effect of dietary calcium might be associated with attenuated [Ca2+]i mobilization in SHR.

  18. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood concentrations and bone quality of commercial layers

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    DA Berto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood profile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit. The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was significantly influenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels significantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not benefit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the first laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is sufficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.

  19. Dietary habits in women with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

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    Meschi Tiziana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition has been widely recognized to influence the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess: a whether usual diet of women with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN living in Parma (Northern-Italy is different compared to healthy controls, b how their diet differs from Italian National guidelines and c whether it is related to nephrolithiasis clinical course. Methods 143 women with recurrent ICN (mean age 43 ± 13 ys and 170 healthy women (mean age 42 ± 11 ys were enrolled. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire for the last 60-days and a 3-day dietary diary analysed with a dedicated software. Results Stone formers showed a higher consumption of sausages, ham, meat and sweets than healthy controls (43.1% vs 11.1%, 29.4% vs 13.9%, 21.6% vs 4.2%, 66.7% vs 18.1%, p 40 years, the differences described above were amplified in the class ≤30 years, where nephrolithiasis presented a more serious course (shorter recurrence interval, greater stone-rate. In this age group the intake of fruit and vegetables was notably lower than guideline recommendations. Conclusions We conclude that the usual diet of women with recurrent ICN is different from controls and characterized by low intake of fruits and vegetables and higher consumption of simple sugars and foods with high protein and salt content. This dietary imbalance could play a role in the ICN pathogenesis, especially in younger women. This work was financed by grants from Italian Ministry of University and Research as part of a larger project about the prevention of kidney stones (PRIN 2005063822 and by Fondazione per la Ricerca Scientifica Termale (FoRST. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this paper was reported.

  20. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  1. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    J Malekzadeh; SA Keshavarz; F Siassi; M Kadkhodaei; Eshraghian MR; AR Dorosti Motlagh; A Aliehpoor; M Chamari

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials ...

  2. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on intranephronic calculosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J C; Jee, W S

    1984-12-01

    The effects of varying dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on the incidence and severity of intranephronic calculosis were studied. Renal calculi were induced by feeding female rats the AIN-76TM semipurified diet for 4 weeks. During this time period, dietary levels of 350, 450 or 550 mg calcium per 100 g diet did not influence the occurrence of urolithiasis. Increasing dietary magnesium levels from 50 to 350 mg was beneficial in preventing the occurrence of calculi if the diet contained 400 mg or less phosphorus. The protective effects of dietary magnesium were counteracted when dietary phosphorus levels were increased from 400 mg to 550 or 700 mg. If the dietary content of phosphorus and magnesium permitted the formation of renal calculi, the severity of the condition was also influenced by the dietary level of calcium. Some animal groups fed semipurified diets did not have microscopic or radiographic evidence of renal calculi but were found to have significantly elevated renal calcium values. It was suggested that these animals might be in a precalculus-forming state. PMID:6502276

  3. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets.

  4. Dietary Fructose Inhibits Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Induces Vitamin D Insufficiency in CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Douard, Veronique; Asgerally, Abbas; Sabbagh, Yves; Sugiura, Shozo; SHAPSES, SUE A.; Casirola, Donatella; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2010-01-01

    Renal disease leads to perturbations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism. Dietary fructose aggravates chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether it also worsens CKD-induced derangements in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is unknown. Here, we fed rats diets containing 60% glucose or fructose for 1 mo beginning 6 wk after 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats had markedly greater kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen, and serum levels of creatinine, phos...

  5. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm;

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  6. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  7. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  8. Evaluation of dietary calcium requirements for laying Longyan shelducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, W G; Zhang, H X; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    To establish the dietary Ca requirements for laying ducks during their peak laying period, 5 Ca levels (2.8, 3.2, 3.6, 4.0, and 4.4%) were used, and laying performance, eggshell quality, serum variables, and bone quality were examined. A total of 1,620 Longyan shelducks with similar BW at 20 wk of age were fed for 13 wk in 5 treatment groups, each with 4 replicates of 81 birds. Dietary Ca increased egg production and egg mass (linear, Pdiet, Palkaline phosphatase activity; the highest values were in ducks fed the 3.6% Ca diet. Tibial fresh weight was affected by dietary Ca (linear and quadratic, Palkaline phosphatase activity and tibial fresh weight, respectively. The results showed that diets containing 3.2 to 3.6% Ca provide for superior productive performance and bone quality in laying Longyan shelducks during their peak laying period. PMID:26467016

  9. Dietary calcium inhibits colitis development in HLA-B27 transgenic rats [Rattus norvegicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    (Submitter supplied) Background and Aims: We have shown in several controlled rat and human infection studies that dietary calcium improves intestinal resistance and strengthens the mucosal barrier. Reinforcement of gut barrier function is also relevant for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefor

  10. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  11. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001. There was registered signifi cant correlation between intake of dietary calcium and mineral bone density in examination (p<0.01 and in control group (p<0.01.Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  12. Dietary habits in women with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Meschi Tiziana; Nouvenne Antonio; Ticinesi Andrea; Prati Beatrice; Guerra Angela; Allegri Franca; Pigna Federica; Soldati Laura; Vezzoli Giuseppe; Gambaro Giovanni; Lauretani Fulvio; Maggio Marcello; Borghi Loris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Nutrition has been widely recognized to influence the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess: a) whether usual diet of women with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN) living in Parma (Northern-Italy) is different compared to healthy controls, b) how their diet differs from Italian National guidelines and c) whether it is related to nephrolithiasis clinical course. Methods 143 women with recurrent ICN (mean age 43 ± 13 ys) and 170 h...

  13. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  14. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  15. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess;

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have proved the possibility of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by zeolite A supplementation during the dry period, and a recent in vitro study has indicated a marked calcium (Ca) as well as phosphorus (P) binding effect of zeolite A in rumen fluid solutions. Because...... of the connection between the Ca and P homeostatic systems, the preventive effect against parturient hypocalcaemia may arise from zeolite induced decreased availability of dietary Ca as well as P. In the present study, the expected Ca and P binding capacity was challenged by feeding high and low levels of dietary...... Ca and/or P to zeolite A treated dry cows. Twenty-one pregnant dry cows were assigned to four experimental groups receiving a dry cow ration unsupplemented or supplemented with extra Ca and/or P. During the last 2 weeks of the dry period all cows additionally received 600 g of zeolite A per day...

  16. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  17. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (psupplemental intake of 500 mg daily but supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  18. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    OpenAIRE

    Amila Kapetanović; Dijana Avdić

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of e...

  19. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (pConclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  20. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  1. The application status and advantages of calcium sulfate in dietary calcium%硫酸钙在膳食钙中的应用现状及优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘荆丽; 张杰; 黄明杰

    2014-01-01

    In the context of supplement of the calcium in China, nutritionists generally advice that people should sup-plement calcium through high calcium food, reduce supplement intake. In this paper, the substances relatively com-monly used in dietary were discussed. The four kinds of inorganic calcium salt discussed were calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcium phosphate. It was concluded that natural, non-toxic, and high cost-efficiency calcium sulfate was the best in the application in dietary calcium.%中国式补钙的背后,国内外营养学界普遍建议,通过高钙食物来补充钙,减少补充剂摄入量。通过探讨在膳食中较为常用的硫酸钙、碳酸钙、氯化钙和磷酸钙4种无机钙盐在食品中的应用及其优缺点,最终认为天然、无毒、高性价比的硫酸钙在膳食钙的应用中更胜一筹。

  2. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics.......5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Psupplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected...... with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity advance online...

  3. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  4. Food mixture or ingredient sources for dietary calcium: shifts in food group contributions using four grouping protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Annetta J; Friday, James E

    2003-11-01

    Identifying dietary sources of nutrients by assigning survey foods to food groups can under- or overestimate the contribution a group makes to the intake of specific nutrients. Using calcium and food intakes from USDA's 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, the authors determined the proportion of dietary calcium from the dairy, grains, meats, fruits, and vegetables groups using four grouping protocols. Calcium contributions from milk and cheese were higher as more ingredient sources and fewer survey food items were represented in the dairy group. Milk, cheese, and yogurt reported as separate survey food items contributed 42% of total calcium intake. An additional 21% of dietary calcium came from dairy ingredients in mixed foods such as macaroni and cheese, pizza, sandwiches, and desserts. The remaining dietary calcium sources were single grains (16%); vegetable (7%); meat, poultry, and fish (5%); fruit (3%); and miscellaneous foods (7%). Data quantifying the nutrient contributions from dairy ingredients could affect dietary guidance messages or research using dairy foods as variables. PMID:14576718

  5. Adequate dietary vitamin D and calcium are both required to reduce bone turnover and increased bone mineral volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice M C; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Moore, Alison J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Clinical studies indicate that the combination of vitamin D and dietary calcium supplementation is more effective for reducing fracture risk than either supplement alone. Our previous dietary studies demonstrated that an adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) of 80nmol/L or more reduces bone RANKL expression, osteoclastogenesis and maintains the optimal levels of trabecular bone volume (BV/TV%) in young rats. The important clinical question of the interaction between vitamin D status, dietary calcium intake and age remains unclear. Hence, 9 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5-6/group) were pair-fed a semi-synthetic diet containing varying levels of vitamin D (0, 2, 12 or 20IU/day) and dietary calcium (0.1% or 1%) for 6 months. At 15 months of age, animals were killed, for biochemical and skeletal analyses. While changes to serum 25D were determined by both dietary vitamin D and calcium levels, changes to serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) were consistently raised in animals fed 0.1% Ca regardless of dietary vitamin D or vitamin D status. Importantly, serum cross-laps levels were significantly increased in animals fed 0.1% Ca only when combined with 0 or 2 IUD/day of vitamin D, suggesting a contribution of both dietary calcium and vitamin D in determining bone resorption activity. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were positively correlated with both femoral mid-diaphyseal cortical bone volume (R(2)=0.24, PTV% (R(2)=0.23, Pnegative determinant of CBV (R(2)=0.24, PTV% levels. These data support clinical data that reduced bone resorption and increased bone volume can only be achieved with adequate 25D levels in combination with high dietary calcium and low serum 1,25D levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24309068

  6. Metabolomic changes in fatty liver can be modified by dietary protein and calcium during energy restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taru K Pilvi; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Helena Simolin; Piet Finckenberg; Anne Huotari; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Riitta Korpela; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Eero M Mervaala

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the effect of energy restriction (ER) on liver lipid and primary metabolite profile by using metabolomic approach. We also investigated whether the effect of energy restriction can be further enhanced by modification of dietary protein source and calcium.METHODS: Liver metabolomic profile of lean and obese C57BI/6] mice (n = 10/group) were compared with two groups of weight-reduced mice. ER was performed on control diet and whey protein-based high-calcium diet (whey + Ca). The metabolomic an alyses were performed using the UPLC/MS based lipidomic platform and the HPLC/MS/MS based primary metabolite platform.RESULTS: ER on both diets significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and lipid droplet size, while only whey + Ca diet significantly decreased blood glucose (P 0.05, vs lean). These changes were accompanied with up-regulated TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway metabolites.CONCLUSION: ER-induced changes on hepatic metabolomic profile can be significantly affected by dietary protein source. The therapeutic potential of whey protein and calcium should be further studied.

  7. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  8. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  9. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft and hard water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, J; Gatlin, D M

    1993-12-01

    1. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft ( 100 mg/l as CaCO3) water were determined by feeding purified egg-white diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% calcium from CaCO3 for 8 weeks. 2. Catfish fry fed the basal diet (0.03% Ca) in hard and soft water had lower whole-body ash and whole-body calcium concentrations but higher weight gain and survival than those fed calcium-supplemented diets. 3. Fry in soft water generally had lower whole-body ash, whole-body calcium, and survival, as well as a higher incidence of spinal deformities than fry in hard water. 4. Feeding higher levels of calcium to fry reared in soft water did not increase whole-body calcium levels or decrease spinal deformities to the levels observed for fry reared in hard water and fed supplemental calcium. 5. These data indicate that calcium derived solely from dietary or environmental sources was not sufficient for optimum health of channel catfish fry.

  10. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  11. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Bintaş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  12. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  13. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related factor

  14. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J. C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E. A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I. P.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related facto

  15. Dietary energy nutrient distribution, calcium, iron and zinc in young and old Asians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu-Tso, P.; Fuentes-Cano, M.; Tam, C.F. (California State Univ., Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The objective of this study is to examine whether ethnic eating patterns influence dietary nutrient intakes in young and old Asians. The authors experimental groups included young CSLA Asian students and their parents or close relatives. Most of them lived in the same households. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and zinc by the Nutritionist III computer program and statistically analyzed using Mustat. No statistical difference was observed in the KCAL distribution of protein, fat, and carbohydrate and both groups met the guidelines of 20%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. However, mean KCAL intakes of both groups were found to be about 79% of NRC-RDA. No statistical difference was found in % RDA for Ca and Zn between groups, except % RDA for Fe. With respect to RDA, the older Asians consumed more Fe than the younger Asians. It is noteworthy that they did not meet the RDA requirements for Ca and Zn. Since recent Asian immigrants and refugees often suffer from a high incidence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis, these observations of low intakes of KCAL, Ca, and Zn, may, at least in part, contribute to disease.

  16. Association of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake with caries status among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Shan; Lin, Jia-Rong; Hu, Suh-Woan; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between caries experience and daily intake of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and Ca/P ratio. A total of 2248 schoolchildren were recruited based on a population-based survey. Each participant received a dental examination and questionnaire interviews about the 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency. The daily intake of Ca, P, Mg, and Ca/P ratio were inversely associated with primary caries index, but only the Ca/P ratio remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. According to the Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes, the Ca/P ratio was related to both caries in primary teeth (odds ratio = 0.52, p = 0.02) and in permanent teeth (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.02). The daily intakes of Ca/P ratio remained an important factor for caries after considering potential confounding factors.

  17. Dietary toxicity of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate (CaHMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, J H; Carlos, J L; Thurmond, J; Rehani, R N; Bultman, J; Frost, D

    2005-12-01

    HMB, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl butyrate, is of interest as a dietary supplement and a possible component of functional and medical foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the calcium salt of HMB, calcium 3-hydroxy-3-methyl butyrate (CaHMB, monohydrate, food grade), when administered daily in the diet of rats for at least 90 days. Male and female Crl:CD (SD)IGS BR animals were assigned to four groups. Each group received diets containing the carrier or 1%, 2%, or 5% of CaHMB mixed with diet. Assessment of toxicity was based on mortality, clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, and clinical and anatomic pathology evaluations. Administration of CaHMB in basal diet for 91 days was tolerated well. There were no unscheduled sacrifices or deaths. There were no CaHMB-related adverse effects on clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, absolute or relative organ weights, or macroscopic or microscopic observations. A statistically significant increase in inorganic phosphorous was observed in male animals in the 5% feeding group; however, this effect was not considered adverse. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was considered to be 5% of CaHMB mixed with diet (3.49 g/kg BW for males and 4.16 g/kg BW for females). PMID:16006030

  18. Vitamin D/dietary calcium deficiency rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Francis H; Pettifor, John M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and biochemical perturbations found in privational (nutritional) rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR), an autosomal recessive condition with loss of function mutations in CYP27B1. It may seem strange to combine a discussion on privational rickets and PDDR as a single topic, but privational rickets and PDDR present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and with similar perturbations in bone and mineral metabolism. Of interest is the characteristic lack of features of rickets at birth in infants with PDDR, a finding which has also been reported in infants born to vitamin D-deficient mothers. This highlights the independence of the fetus and neonate from the need for vitamin D to maintain calcium homeostasis during this period. The variable roles of vitamin D deficiency and dietary calcium deficiency in the pathogenesis of privational rickets are discussed and the associated alterations in vitamin D metabolism highlighted. Although PDDR is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, results of long-term follow-up are now available on the effect of treatment with calcitriol, and these are discussed. Areas of uncertainty, such as should affected mothers breastfeed their infants, are emphasized.

  19. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium wa

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values for calcium. These include Average Requirement (AR), Population Reference Intake (PRI) and Adequate Intake (AI). For adults, data were analysed from a number...... in bones, is 1 000 mg/day. This is the intermediate value between children aged 11–17 years and adults. Taking into consideration adaptive changes in calcium metabolism that occur during pregnancy and lactation, the PRI for non-pregnant women also applies to pregnant and lactating women of the same age...

  1. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium water acclimated fish, ambient cadmium induced significant hypocalcemia, while the structure and morphometry of type-1 and type-2 cells of corpuscles of Stannius were not affected on day 2 and 4. Sub...

  2. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m 2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively ( P < 0.01. After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

  3. Effect of dietary calcium and 1,25-(OH)2D3 on the expression of calcium transport genes in calbindin-D9k and -D28k double knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Goo Taeg; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2009-02-01

    The phenotypes of calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and -28k (CaBP-28k) single knockout (KO) mice are similar to wild-type (WT) mice due to the compensatory action of other calcium transport proteins. In this study, we generated CaBP-9k/CaBP-28k double knockout (DKO) mice in order to investigate the importance of CaBP-9k and CaBP-28k in active calcium processing. Under normal dietary conditions, DKO mice did not exhibit any changes in phenotype or the expression of active calcium transport genes as compared to WT or CaBP-28k KO mice. Under calcium-deficient dietary conditions, the phenotype and expression of calcium transport genes in CaBP-28k KO mice were similar to WT, whereas in DKO mice, serum calcium levels and bone length were decreased. The intestinal and renal expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid member 6 (TRPV6) mRNA was significantly decreased in DKO mice fed a calcium-deficient diet as compared to CaBP-28k KO or WT mice, and DKO mice died after 4 weeks on a calcium-deficient diet. Body weight, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone length were significantly reduced in all mice fed a calcium and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-deficient diet, as compared to a normal diet, and none of the mice survived more than 4 weeks. These results indicate that deletion of CaBP-28k alone does not affect body calcium homeostasis, but that deletion of CaBP-9k and CaBP-28k has a significant effect on calcium processing under calcium-deficient conditions, confirming the importance of dietary calcium and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) during growth and development.

  4. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilization by growing pigs: effect of dietary phosphorus, calcium and exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Jondreville, C; Sauvant, D; Narcy, A

    2012-10-01

    Optimizing phosphorus (P) utilization in pigs requires improving our capacity to predict the amount of P absorbed and retained, with the main modulating factors taken into account, as well as precisely determining the P requirements of the animals. Given the large amount of published data on P utilization in pigs, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the impact of the different dietary P forms, calcium (Ca) and exogenous phytases on the digestive and metabolic utilization criteria for dietary P in growing pigs. Accordingly, the amount of phytate P (PP) leading to digestible P (g/kg) was estimated to be 21%, compared with 73% for non-phytate P (NPP) from plant ingredients and 80% for NPP from mineral and animal ingredients (P meta-analysis improves our understanding of P utilization, with major modulating factors taken into account. The information generated will be useful for the development of robust models to formulate environmentally friendly diets for growing pigs.

  5. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Dietary Calcium:Phosphorus Ratio on Performance and Mineral Metabolism of Weanling Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Gutzwiller, A.; Schlegel, P.; Guggisberg, D; Stoll, P.

    2014-01-01

    In a 2×2 factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0....

  6. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5 g of CC containing 500 mg of elemental calcium and 200 IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500 mg of calcium and 200 IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  7. Dietary calcium as a possible anti-promoter of colon carcinogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapré, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARYColon cancer is the second-most common malignancy in both males and females and is strongly related to environmental factors of which diet seems to be the most important one. Dietary fat is positively correlated with the incidence of colon cancer whereas dietary fibre and die

  8. Women's zinc absorption is unaffected by dietary calcium, with or without high-phytate foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    While some have hypothesized that calcium increases the inhibitory effect of phytic acid on zinc absorption by forming insoluble Ca-Zn-phytate complexes, others have suggested that calcium may competitively bind phytic acid, reducing the phytic acid inhibition of zinc absorption. We tested the influ...

  9. The 2011 Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What Clinicians Need to Know

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, A. Catharine; JoAnn E Manson; Abrams, Steven A; Aloia, John F; Brannon, Patsy M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Gallagher, J. Christopher; Gallo, Richard L; Jones, Glenville; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Mayne, Susan T.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Shapses, Sue A

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that available scientific evidence supports a key role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health, consistent with a cause-and-effect relationshi...

  10. The influence of dietary microbial phytase and calcium on the accumulation of cadmium in different organs of pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, B.; Lantzsch, H.J.; Drochner, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Tierernaehrung

    2001-07-01

    A total of 72 barrows (initial body weight 16.7 kg) was used, to evaluate the influence of microbial phytase supplementation alone or in combination with calcium to barley soybean meal diets on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in kidney, liver, muscle, brain and bone. The control group received the basal diet with 6 g Ca and a low native Cd concentration of 0.03 mg/kg dry matter (DM). In the experimental groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 dietary cadmium concentration was elevated to 0.78 mg/kg DM. The diet of group 3 was supplemented with 800 U microbial phytase/kg, the diet of group 4 with 6 g Ca/kg. The diet of group 5 contained both supplements. The addition of microbial phytase caused an increase of Cd retention in kidney and liver at 30 and 50 kg body weight. This effect was counteracted by the contemporary addition of calcium. A supplementation of Ca alone showed no effect on the Cd accumulation in kidney and liver. In muscle, brain and bone no effects of phytase and calcium on the accumulation of Cd could be found. (orig.)

  11. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  12. Mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned pigs and dynamics linked to dietary calcium-phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Mann

    Full Text Available Dietary composition largely influences pig's gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P = 0.035. Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs.

  13. The variability and dietary dependence of urinary oxalate excretion in recurrent calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J M; Stratmann, G; Cowley, D M; Mottram, B M; Chalmers, A H

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-two recurrent calcium stone formers had 24-h urinary oxalate excretions on their home diets which were significantly greater than those of 30 normal subjects (0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d; mean +/- SD compared with 0.31 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01). The stone formers also demonstrated marked day to day variability in oxalate excretion indicating that a single normal urinary oxalate measurement did not exclude significant hyperoxaluria at other times. On a hospital diet containing 1000 mg calcium per day, urinary oxalate excretion fell significantly from 0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d to 0.32 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.01. As the urinary calcium excretion in and out of hospital was similar, it seems unlikely that low calcium intake at home was responsible for the hyperoxaluria. All patients had recurrent symptomatic stone disease and had been advised to avoid foods rich in oxalate. Whilst poor compliance is a possible explanation for the variability in oxalate excretion, we believe it is more likely that there is an inadvertent intake of oxalogenic precursors in their diet. As normal subjects do not demonstrate hyperoxaluria on similar home diets, stone formers may have a metabolic defect in the handling of these precursors. PMID:3662388

  14. The effect of 6'-galactooligosaccharides on bone mineralization of rats adapted to different levels of dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Watanuki, M

    1996-01-01

    6'-galactooligosaccharides (6'-GOS), a mixture of galactosyl oligosaccharides formed from lactose by the transgalactosyl reaction with beta-D-galactosidase derived from Aspergillus oryzae and Streptococcus thermophillus, are unhydrolyzed in the small intestine and are fermented by the intestinal bacteria. The effects of 6'-GOS on calcium (Ca) absorption and bone mineralization were examined in male Wistar rats adapted to different levels of dietary Ca for 30 days. Dietary 6'-GOS (5 g/100 g of diet) were more potent than control in stimulating Ca absorption in rats fed the Normal-Ca diet (0.5 g of Ca/100 g of diet) after 8-10 days and 18-20 days, and the bone (femur and tibia) Ca content of rats fed the Normal-Ca diet with 6'-GOS were significantly higher than those of the control animals. However, in rats fed the Low-Ca diet (0.05 g of Ca/100 g of diet), 6'-GOS feeding did not affect both the absorption of Ca and the bone mineralization. Ca content in the liquid phase of the cecal digesta was significantly elevated by 6'-GOS feeding in the rats fed the Normal-Ca diet, however, this was unchanged in the rats fed the Low-Ca diet. We conclude that the effect of 6'-GOS on the bone mineralization is affected by dietary Ca concentration used in the experiment, and the stimulatory effect of 6'-GOS on Ca absorption may be partly associated with increased solubility of Ca in the intestinal digesta.

  15. The skeletal deformity in response of dietary phosphorus and calcium level in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Ahmadivand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformities are a common problem in fish hatcheries and commercial farms that affect growth, development and survival as well as the market value of the final product. Among the nutritional components, phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca are of special interest as they are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the skeletal system. Hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary P and Ca on the skeletal deformity, growth and carcass composition the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus larvae. In this study, six semi-purified diets were formulated. The diets A, B, C, D and E were supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% available P supplied as a 1:1mixture of NaH2Po4/KH2Po4. These five diets were supplemented with 1% Ca, supplied as CaCo3. Diets F was Ca-free and supplemented with 0.8% available P served as control level of P. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish, and each group was stocked with 30 larvae and fed three times a day for 60 days. At the end experiment, there was no significant effect of dietary P (0 to 1.6% or Ca (0 or 1% supplementation on growth performance such as weight gain and FCR, carcass moisture, P and Ca. However, a significant difference found between treatments in carcass ash. Analysis of length, height and area of vertebrae in two regions of the vertebral column showed no significant difference between the dietary treatments. The skeletal abnormalities were highest incidence in the Caspian roach fed with a low P. Kyphosis placement of vertebrae was the most frequent abnormality.

  16. Effects of beta 1-->4 linked galactooligosaccharides on use of magnesium and calcification of the kidney and heart in rats fed excess dietary phosphorous and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1996-10-01

    Magnesium deficiency was induced in male Wistar rats by adding an excess of phosphorous and calcium to the diet (1.195 g of phosphorous and 1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet). Feeding of these animals with a diet containing beta 1-->4 linked galactooligosaccharides (4'-GOS) (5 g of 4'-GOS/100 g of diet) increased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur, and reduced accumulation of calcium in the kidney and heart. We speculate that the use of magnesium increased by feeding 4'-GOS to a limited extent prevented the lower magnesium status and the severity of calcification of the kidney and heart caused by excess dietary phosphorous and calcium.

  17. Manipulation of dietary calcium concentration to potentiate changes in tenderness of beef from heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Drouillard, J S

    2015-04-01

    Dietary Ca concentrations were manipulated during supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to evaluate impact on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness using 96 heifers (BW 392 kg ± 3.2). We hypothesized that temporary depletion followed by repletion of dietary Ca before harvest would increase intracellular Ca concentrations, thus stimulating postmortem activity of Ca-dependent proteases to effect changes in tenderness. Heifers were stratified by initial BW and randomly assigned, within strata (block), to treatments consisting of a finishing diet in which Ca was added in the form of limestone (+Ca) or removed (-Ca) during ZH supplementation. Cattle were fed a common diet, including limestone, before ZH supplementation, and 28 d before slaughter, ZH was added to the diet with and without supplemental Ca. Calcium content of the diets during ZH supplementation was 0.74% or 0.19% (diet DM) for +Ca and -Ca, respectively. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was fed for 25 d then removed from the diet 3 d before harvest. The final 3 d before harvest, all cattle were fed Ca at 0.74% of diet DM. Heifers were housed in concrete-surfaced pens with 8 animals/pen (6 pens/treatment). At the end of the finishing phase, animals were weighed and transported to an abattoir in Holcomb, KS. Severity of liver abscesses and HCW were collected the day of harvest, and after 48 h of refrigeration, USDA yield and quality grades, KPH, LM area, and 12th-rib subcutaneous fat thickness were determined. Boneless loin sections were also collected for Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Removal of Ca did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P = 0.64). In addition, ADG, DMI, final BW, and feed efficiency were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05). Carcass measurements also were unaffected by the temporary decrease in dietary Ca (P > 0.05). In conclusion, temporary depletion of dietary Ca during ZH supplementation did not alter beef tenderness, live animal

  18. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  19. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  20. Effects of benzoic Acid and dietary calcium:phosphorus ratio on performance and mineral metabolism of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, A; Schlegel, P; Guggisberg, D; Stoll, P

    2014-04-01

    In a 2×2 factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0.77% Ca or 0.57% Ca. The 68 four-week-old Large White pigs were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for six weeks and were then slaughtered. Benzoic acid increased feed intake (p = 0.009) and growth rate (p = 0.051), but did not influence the feed conversion ratio (p>0.10). Benzoic acid decreased the pH of the urine (p = 0.031), but did not affect breaking strength and mineralization of the tibia (p>0.10). The wide Ca:P ratio decreased feed intake (p = 0.034) and growth rate (p = 0.007) and impaired feed the conversion ratio (p = 0.027), but increased the mineral concentration in the fat-free DM of the tibia (p = 0.013) without influencing its breaking strength (p>0.10). The observed positive effect of the wide Ca:P ratio on bone mineralization may be attributed, at least in part, to the impaired feed conversion ratio, i.e. to the higher feed intake and consequently to the higher mineral intake per kg BW gain. The negative impact on animal performance of the wide dietary Ca:P ratio outweighs its potentially positive effect on bone mineralization, precluding its implementation under practical feeding conditions.

  1. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P meat and in plasma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered (P meat or in plasma. Calpastatin activity was affected by treatments only in the gracilus and vastus intermedius muscles (P

  2. Efficacy of a Brazilian calcium montmorillonite against toxic effects of dietary aflatoxins on broilers reared to market weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, J C; Santurio, J M; Zanette, R A; Rosa, A P; Scher, A; Dal Pozzo, M; Alves, S H; Ferreiro, L

    2014-01-01

    1. The protective effect of a natural Brazilian calcium montmorillonite (CaMont) against aflatoxins was studied in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 1056-d-old Cobb male broilers were housed in experimental pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. Three levels of CaMont (0, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and two levels of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg) were assayed. Each treatment had 8 replicate pens of 22 broiler chickens each. 3. Of all the chickens tested in the experiment, the ones treated with aflatoxins were the most adversely affected. CaMont treatment at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 g/kg improved body weight of chickens at 42 d of age by 13.3% and 22.7%, increased daily feed intake by 9.7% and 24.7%, and improved the productive efficiency index of chickens by 53% and 66.5%, respectively. 4. Dietary CaMont positively affected parameters such as weight of liver, heart and gizzard; however, serum potassium concentration decreased by 15.3% compared with that of chickens given only the aflatoxin-contaminated diet. 5. CaMont did not cause adverse effects in chickens that did not receive aflatoxins. 6. CaMont at pH 8.5 partially reduced the toxic effects of aflatoxins in broilers when included at levels of 2.5 and 5 g/kg in the diet.

  3. Dietary calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulate transcription of calcium transporter genes in calbindin-D9k knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Geun-Shik; Vo, Thuy T B; Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Cheung, Ki-Wha; Kim, Jae Wha; Park, Jong-Gil; Oh, Goo Taeg; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2009-04-01

    The effect(s) of oral calcium and vitamin D(3) were examined on the expression of duodenal and renal active calcium transport genes, i.e., calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and calbindin-D28k (CaBP-28k), transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPV5 and TRPV6), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) and plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b (PMCA1b), in CaBP-9k KO mice. Wild-type (WT) and KO mice were provided with calcium and vitamin D(3)-deficient diets for 10 weeks. The deficient diet significantly decreased body weights compared with the normal diet groups. The serum calcium concentration of the WT mice was decreased by the deficient diet but was unchanged in the KO mice. The deficient diet significantly increased duodenal transcription of CaBP-9k and TRPV6 in the WT mice, but no alteration was observed in the KO mice. In the kidney, the deficient diet significantly increased renal transcripts of CaBP-9k, TRPV6, PMCA1b, CaBP-28k and TRPV5 in the WT mice but did not alter calcium-relating genes in the KO mice. Two potential mediators of calcium-processing genes, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), have been suggested to be useful for elucidating these differential regulations in the calcium-related genes of the KO mice. Expression of VDR was not significantly affected by diet or the KO mutation. Renal PTHR mRNA levels were reduced by the diet, and reduced expression was also seen in the KO mice given the normal diet. Taken together, these results suggest that the active calcium transporting genes in KO mice may have resistance to the deficiency diet of calcium and vitamin D(3).

  4. Efecto del calcio dietético vs el citrato de calcio sobre marcadores bioquímicos convencionales en mujeres perimenopáusicas Effect of dietary calcium vs. calcium citrate on conventional biochemical markers in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparación del efecto del citrato de calcio y una dieta con calcio en los alimentos sobre marcadores bioquímicos convencionales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 82 mujeres de 30 a 35 años de edad divididas al azar en tres grupos: grupo control: 23 mujeres sin modificación de sus hábitos alimenticios ni actividad física. Grupo con calcio dietético: 28 mujeres con un régimen de 1 000 mg de calcio más actividad física de 30 minutos tres veces por semana. Grupo con citrato de calcio: 31 mujeres suplementadas con citrato de calcio (600 mg, más 500 mg de calcio dietético, y actividad física de 30 minutos tres veces por semana durante siete meses. Se hizo densitometría ósea de calcáneo para clasificarlas en normal y osteopenia, se determinaron parámetros bioquímicos al inicio y final del estudio: fosfatasa alcalina, magnesio, calcio y fósforo séricos, y relación calcio/creatinina en orina. RESULTADOS: El 34% de las mujeres presentaron osteopenia; éstas tuvieron una reducción significativa en el calcio final en el grupo de citrato de calcio en comparación con el grupo de calcio dietético (p0.05. La relación calcio/creatinina fue normal en todos los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: El grupo con calcio dietético presentó mayor formación ósea que el grupo con citrato de calcio; en ninguno de ellos se observó resorción ósea.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of calcium citrate and a calcium enriched diet on conventional biochemical markers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-two women aged 30 to 35 years were randomized to any of three groups: A control group of 23 women who remained intact in their dietary habits and physical activity; a second group of 28 women who received 1 000 mg of dietary calcium plus physical activity 30 minutes three times per week; and a third group of 31 women who received 600 mg of calcium citrate plus 500 mg of dietary calcium and physical activity three times per week for seven months. Calcaneum

  5. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Antje Bruckbauer; Zemel, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity) and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca...

  6. Effects of aging and dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Hui; Wang, Ming-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Chin

    2007-12-31

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aging and long-term dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized (Ovx) SAMP8 mice. The female SAMP8 mice were divided into four groups (in each group n = 6), Ovx or sham operated at the age of 2 months, and fed with 0.2% antler containing diet or control diet from the age of 2.5 months. The samples were collected at the age of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months, respectively, for physicochemical analyses, biochemical analyses, and the determination of hormones by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that plasma calcium (Ca) concentrations were maintained in a narrow range in all groups throughout the whole experimental period. With aging and/or ovariectomy, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3) levels increased, and plasma phosphorus (P) and calcitonin (CT) levels decreased, and the femoral bone densities and Ca contents increased during the earlier stage, and then decreased gradually in all groups. Plasma PTH and 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the Ovx mice were significantly higher than those in the intact mice, and plasma P concentrations, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents in the Ovx mice were significantly lower than those in the intact mice. In addition, the decreases of plasma P levels, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents, and the increases of plasma PTH levels were moderated by antler administration in both Ovx and intact mice. However, there was no effect of the dietary antler supplementation on the plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the female mice. It is concluded that prolonged dietary antler supplementation has important positive effects on bone loss with age and/ or ovarian function deficiency.

  7. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  8. Effects of dietary calcium and cadmium on cadmium accumulation, calcium and cadmium uptake from the water, and their interactions in juvenile rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserotto, B. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105.900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Chowdhury, M.J. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: woodcm@mcmaster.ca

    2005-03-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of chronically elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} (as CaCO{sub 3}), alone and in combination with elevated dietary Cd, on survival, growth, and Cd and Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in several internal compartments in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In addition, effects on short-term branchial uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated waterborne Ca{sup 2+} and Cd during acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 {mu}g/L as CdNO{sub 3} for 3 h) were monitored using radiotracers ({sup 45}Ca, {sup 65}Cd). Fish were fed with four diets: 20 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g food (control), 50 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g food, 300 {mu}g Cd/g food, and 50 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g + 300 {mu}g Cd/g food for 30 days. There were no significant effects on growth, mortality, or total body Ca{sup 2+} accumulation. The presence of elevated Ca{sup 2+}, Cd, or Ca{sup 2+} + Cd in the diet all reduced waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake in a short-term experiment (3 h), though the inhibitory mechanisms appeared to differ. The effects were marked after 15 days of feeding, but attenuated by 30 days, except when the diet was elevated in both Ca{sup 2+} and Cd. The presence of elevated Ca{sup 2+} in the diet had only modest influence on Cd uptake from the water during acute Cd challenges but greatly depressed Cd uptake from the diet and accumulation in most internal tissues. None of the treatment diets prevented the decreases in waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake and new Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in internal tissues caused by acute exposure to waterborne Cd. In conclusion, there are complex interactions between waterborne and dietary effects of Ca{sup 2+} and Cd. Elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} protects against both dietary and waterborne Cd uptake, whereas both waterborne and dietary Cd elevations cause reduced waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake.

  9. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol and dietary calcium-phosphate on distribution of lead to tissues during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The susceptibility to the toxic effects of lead (Pb) is mainly mediated by age and nutritional and hormonal status, and children are among the most vulnerable to them. During growth, an increase in calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in diet is recommended to enhance calcium and phosphate intestinal absorption and bone deposit. Calcium and phosphate reduce lead intestinal absorption, and 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) (active metabolite of vitamin D) increases both lead and calcium intestinal absorption. However, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on lead bone deposit and redistribution to soft tissues are not well known. In this study, we examined the effects of calcium-phosphate diet supplementation and the administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 on Pb distribution to soft tissue and bone in growing rats exposed to Pb. Rats (21 days old) were exposed for 28 days to 100 ppm of Pb solution in drinking water. Calcium and phosphate in diet were increased from 1 to 2.5% and from 0.65 to 1.8%, respectively, and 1,25(OH)2D3 was administrated by intraperitoneal injection of 7.2 ng/kg every 7 days. Between 21 and 49 days, the body weight increased about 5 times. The results showed that high calcium-phosphate diet led to lower Pb concentration in blood and in bone, but Pb liver and kidney concentrations increased, which indicates that absorption and bone deposit redistribution of Pb decreased. On the other hand, no effect of this diet rich in calcium-phosphate in Pb concentration was observed in brain. Blood and bone Pb concentrations increased even more when the high calcium-phosphate diet included 1,25(OH)2D3. In the rats treated only with 1,25(OH)2D3, blood and bone Pb concentrations were lower. Higher concentrations of lead in the soft organs were observed also in rats treated under a high calcium-phosphate diet plus 1,25(OH)2D3 administration. The above mentioned results suggested that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces an increased absorption and redistribution of Pb, and therefore, it may

  10. Influence of dietary calcium on phosphorus absorption and excretion and on phosphorus-33 distribution in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted using isotope-dilution and comparative balance techniques to estimate urinary and fecal P excretion of laying hens fed different levels of dietary Ca. Two levels of dietary Ca (3.46 and 4.2%) were fed to eight hens for 30 days. After 30 days, 50 microCi of the radioisotope 33P was injected intramuscularly to label endogenous P. On the 2nd day after 33P dosing and at 1 h postoviposition, plasma, liver, kidney, femur bone, whole egg, ileum, ileal digesta, and excreta samples were collected from each hen. Results showed a favorable effect of increasing dietary Ca consumption (2.91 vs 3.57 g/hen per day): femur ash increased (P less than .08), excreta P decreased (P less than .03), and urinary P decreased (P less than .06). The P content of ileal digesta was not affected by dietary Ca intake, but excreta P was greater for hens consuming less Ca, indicating that, during the collection period, excretion of P in urine was increased by the low Ca diet. Endogenous P secretions constituted less than 1% of the P in ileal digesta and excreta samples and this proportion was not changed by dietary Ca consumed

  11. The effect of dietary calcium and vitamin D3 on the duodenal cadmium transport in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary Ca and vitamin D3 on the duodenal Cd transport was observed in the rat using everted gut sac technique in vitro, 1. Duodenal Cd transport was significantly increased in vitamin D deficient rat, however, it was not influenced by dietary Ca. The duodenal tissue binding and/or uptake of Cd from mucosal incubation medium was neither influenced by vitamin D3 nor dietary Ca. 2. The transported Cd to serosal medium was very little compared to the Cd binding and/or uptake of duodenal tissue, suggesting two steps mechanism for intestinal Cd transport. The first step is the transfer from mucosal medium to duodenal mucosa and the second step is from duodenal mucosa to serosal medium. The second step was influenced by vitamin D. These results suggested that a significant increase in hepatic Cd accumulation of vitamin D deficient rat could be ascribed to the increase in the intestinal Cd absorption. (author)

  12. 吉富罗非鱼饲料钙磷比研究%Dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio requirement of GIFT tilapia fingerling,Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹰飞; 文华; 蒋明; 吴凡; 刘伟; 田娟

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects dietary calcium/phosphorus ratios(mass ratio) on the growth performance,feed utilization efficieny,the apparent digestibility of phosphorus,body composition,inorganic matter content in bone and serum biochemical indexes of GIFT tilapia fingering,to determine the optimal dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio of feed.【Method】 GIFT tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)(Initial weight(46.03±2.14) g) were satiably fed on six experimental isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purfied diets with increasing contents of total phosphate(9-10 g/kg)and calcium/phosphorus ratios(1.8∶1,1.3∶1,1∶1.1,1∶1.5,1∶2.5 and 1∶2.9)for 8 weeks respectively.Potassium dihydrogen phosphate was the source of phosphate and calcium chloride was the source of calcium.Each treatment was triplicate.【Result】 The results showed that fish fed the diet with high level of calcium/phosphorus ratio(diet 1) has significantly lower weight gain rate(WGR)and specific growth rate(SGR)than those of fish fed the test diets with diet 3,diet 4,diet 5,diet 6(P〈0.05),and there were no significant differences among treatments of diet 3,diet 4,diet 5,diet 6(P〉0.05);the feed conversion ratio(FCR)of fish fed the test diets with diet 5 was significantly lower than that fed diets 1(P〈0.05),while the survival rate(SR),fat factor(FR),viscerosomatic index(VSI),hepatosomatic index(HIS) of fish didn’t show significant differences among various dietary treatments(P〉0.05).The body composition analysis showed that dietary calcium/phosphorus ratios had no significant effect on crude protein and crude ash contents in the whole body,as well as vertebrae crude ash content(P〉0.05).The whole body and vertebrae caclcium,phosphorus concentration were significantly affected by dietary calcium/phosphorus ratios(P〈0.05),as well as the muscle crude lipid and crude ash contents

  13. Hormonal Relationships to Bone Mass in Elderly Spanish Men as Influenced by Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Moran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate whether calcium and vitamin D intake is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-Vitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH serum concentrations or is associated with either the phalangeal dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA or the quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS in independent elderly men. Serum PTH and 25-OH-Vitamin D3 were measured in 195 healthy elderly men (mean age: 73.31 ± 5.10 year. Food intake was quantified using a dietetic scale. Participants with 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels ≥ 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L and a calcium intake of 800–1200 mg/day exhibited the lowest PTH levels (41.49 ± 16.72 ng/mL. The highest PTH levels (75.60 ± 14.16 ng/mL were observed in the <30 ng/mL group 25-OH-Vitamin D3 with a calcium intake >1200 mg/day. No significant differences in the serum PTH levels based on the serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels were observed among participants with a calcium intake of 800–1200 mg/day. Serum PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 in the entire patient sample (r = −0.288, p = 0.019. No differences in any of the three densitometry techniques were observed between any of the age groups in the 800–1200 mg/day and >1200 mg/day calcium intake groups. PTH levels correlate negatively with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels, and neither calcium nor vitamin D intake exert a strong influence on either of the two parameters.

  14. Hormonal relationships to bone mass in elderly Spanish men as influenced by dietary calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jose M; Lopez-Arza, Luis Gonzalez; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Fernandez, Pilar; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2013-12-01

    We aim to evaluate whether calcium and vitamin D intake is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-Vitamin D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum concentrations or is associated with either the phalangeal dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA) or the quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in independent elderly men. Serum PTH and 25-OH-Vitamin D3 were measured in 195 healthy elderly men (mean age: 73.31 ± 5.10 year). Food intake was quantified using a dietetic scale. Participants with 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels ≥ 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) and a calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/day exhibited the lowest PTH levels (41.49 ± 16.72 ng/mL). The highest PTH levels (75.60 ± 14.16 ng/mL) were observed in the ng/mL group 25-OH-Vitamin D3 with a calcium intake >1200 mg/day. No significant differences in the serum PTH levels based on the serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels were observed among participants with a calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/day. Serum PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 in the entire patient sample (r = -0.288, p = 0.019). No differences in any of the three densitometry techniques were observed between any of the age groups in the 800-1200 mg/day and >1200 mg/day calcium intake groups. PTH levels correlate negatively with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels, and neither calcium nor vitamin D intake exert a strong influence on either of the two parameters. PMID:24304609

  15. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

  16. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  17. Hormonal Relationships to Bone Mass in Elderly Spanish Men as Influenced by Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Jose M Moran; Luis Gonzalez Lopez-Arza; Jesus M. Lavado-Garcia; Maria Pedrera-Canal; Purificacion Rey-Sanchez; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J.; Pilar Fernandez; Juan D. Pedrera-Zamorano

    2013-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether calcium and vitamin D intake is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-Vitamin D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum concentrations or is associated with either the phalangeal dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA) or the quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in independent elderly men. Serum PTH and 25-OH-Vitamin D3 were measured in 195 healthy elderly men (mean age: 73.31 ± 5.10 year). Food intake was quantified using a dietetic scale. Participants with 25-...

  18. 膳食钙、骨密度与儿童肥胖相关代谢异常的关系%Effects of dietary calcium intake on bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorders in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮慧娟; 汤庆娅

    2009-01-01

    越来越多研究支持增加钙摄入可减少代谢综合征的发生率,儿童时期的牛奶摄入水平及保持饮用牛奶的习惯与成年后骨密度呈正相关,有助于获得更高的骨峰值.本文总结了膳食钙摄入量对骨密度和儿童肥胖相关代谢异常之间的关系.%More studies have shown that dietary calcium intake can decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Milk consumption in childhood and the habit of milk drinking are positively correlated with bone mineral density in adult-hood. This article summarizes the relationship between dietary calcium and bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorder in children.

  19. Dietary calcium, phosphorus, and phytase effects on bird performance, intestinal morphology, mineral digestibility, and bone ash during a natural necrotic enteritis episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Diego; Walk, Carrie; McElroy, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Ca, P, and phytase on performance, intestinal morphology, bone ash, and Ca and P digestibility during a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak. The 35-d trial was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial, which included 2 Ca levels (0.6 and 0.9%), 2 P levels (0.3 and 0.45%), and 2 levels of phytase [0 and 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg]. Birds were placed on litter from a previous flock that exhibited clinical signs of NE. Birds and feed were weighed on d 12, 19, and 35, and BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion were calculated. Mortality was recorded daily, and gastrointestinal pH was measured. Tibias and ileal digesta were also collected. Birds began exhibiting clinical signs of NE on d 9, and NE-associated mortality persisted until d 26. Dietary Ca supplemented at 0.9% or inclusion of 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase significantly increased mortality compared with 0.6% Ca or 0 FTU/kg of phytase, respectively. From d 0 to 12, birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P with phytase had greater BW gain compared with birds fed 0.6% Ca, 0.45% available P, and phytase. From d 0 to 19, birds fed diets with 0.9% Ca and 0.3% available P had decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion compared with birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P. Calcium at 0.9% increased gizzard (d 19) and jejunum (d 12) pH. Phytase supplementation significantly increased Ca digestibility regardless of Ca and P levels of the diets. In addition, diets containing 0.6% Ca and 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase resulted in a significant increase in P digestibility. The results suggest that dietary Ca level may influence NE-associated mortality. In addition, bird performance was affected by interactions of Ca, P, and phytase during the exposure to Clostridium perfringens and the subsequent NE outbreak. Results showed improvements in bird performance when birds were fed 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P in diets supplemented with phytase, which was likely consequent to the

  20. The importance of dietary calcium consumption in two species of semi-terrestrial grapsoid crabs A importância do consumo de cálcio na dieta de duas espécies de caranguejos grapsóides semi-terrestres

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia P. Zanotto; Felipe Pinheiro; Marina G. e Sá

    2009-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) is essential for crustaceans, due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition in the new exoskeleton to harden it. The purpose of this work was to study short term Ca balance in terms of dietary Ca ingestion in two phylogenetically related crabs (Superfamily Grapsoidea) showing different degrees of terrestrial adaptations: Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 and Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851). Dietary Ca ingestion was studied using purified diets with different Ca concentrations (0, 2.2 a...

  1. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    Full Text Available Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC, isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA, a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+ concentrations, [Ca(2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+ (SOC channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  2. Oro-Gustatory Perception of Dietary Lipids and Calcium Signaling in Taste Bud Cells Are Altered in Nutritionally Obesity-Prone Psammomys obesus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitam, Arezki; Sadou, Hassimi; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC), isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA), a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, [Ca2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus. PMID:23936306

  3. Stimulating effects of a diet negative in dietary cation-anion difference on calcium absorption from the rumen in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, M R; Praechter, C; Breves, G; Schröder, B

    2016-02-01

    The concept of feeding anionic salts in late gestation is widely used to prevent milk fever in dairy cows. While the effects of these diets on renal Ca excretion and tissue responsiveness towards parathyroid hormone have clearly been demonstrated, data on a potential impact on gastrointestinal Ca absorption are conflicting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of feeding a diet negative in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal mineral concentrations, fermentation products, electrophysiological properties of rumen epithelia and Ca flux rates. For this purpose, sheep were kept for 3 weeks on diets that were either positive or negative in DCAD. The induction of a compensated hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis could be demonstrated by increased plasma Cl and enhanced concentrations of ionised Ca, while plasma concentrations of HCO3- and base excess were decreased with the low DCAD diet. Neither transmural potential differences nor fermentation products were affected, but ruminal concentrations of Cl and Mg as well as the relation of ionised to total Ca were increased. Ussing chamber experiments revealed alterations of electrophysiological parameters and an increase in the electroneutral component of Ca flux rates from the mucosal to the serosal side of rumen epithelium. As plasma calcitriol concentrations were not affected, it can be concluded that the administration of anionic salts results in a vitamin D-independent stimulation of ruminal Ca transport. PMID:25643625

  4. Interaction of a dietary fiber (pectin) with gastrointestinal components (bile salts, calcium, and lipase): a calorimetry, electrophoresis, and turbidity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; McClements, David Julian

    2014-12-31

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model consisting of oral, gastric, and intestinal phases was used to elucidate the impact of pectin on the digestion of emulsified lipids. Pectin reduced the extent of lipid digestion, which was attributed to its binding interactions with specific gastrointestinal components. The interaction of pectin with bile salts, lipase, CaCl2, and NaCl was therefore investigated by turbidity, microstructure, electrophoresis, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C. ITC showed that the interaction of pectin was endothermic with bile salts, but exothermic with CaCl2, NaCl, and lipase. Electrophoresis, microstructure, and turbidity measurements showed that anionic pectin formed electrostatic complexes with calcium ions, which may have decreased lipid digestion due to increased lipid flocculation or microgel formation because this would reduce the surface area of lipid exposed to the lipase. This research provides valuable insights into the physicochemical and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of pectin with gastrointestinal components that may affect the rate and extent of lipid digestion.

  5. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fort...

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation of acidic calcium sulfate (Vitoxal) on growth, survival, immune response, and gut microbiota of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary acidifiers have been recognized as beneficial in animal production including aquacultural production of fish where they confer such benefits as improved feed utilization, growth, and resistance to pathogenic organisms. If improvements in growth and immune responses by acidifier supplementat...

  7. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  8. The effects of dietary calcium and protein intake on bone mass in adolescents in Beijing%青春期学生膳食钙和蛋白质对骨量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴非同; 胡小琪; 檀倩影; 左娇蕾; 王晓君; 卢佳希; 黄振武; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索北京郊区青春期学生的膳食钙及蛋白质摄入与全身和股骨颈骨量之间的关系.方法 多层随机整群抽样的方法,选取北京怀柔区342名12~16岁学生(男生170人,女生172人).采用3d24h膳食回顾调查问卷了解膳食摄人情况.采用双能X线骨密度测量仪(Dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry,DXA)测量全身及股骨颈骨量.结果 研究对象平均每天膳食钙和蛋白质摄人量分别为316mg和70g.多元逐步回归分析发现:无论低钙组或高钙组中,体重和身高都是全身和股骨颈骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD)、骨矿物含量(bone mineral content,BMC)的主要影响因素,其他影响因素还包括性别、年龄、能量和钙、蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物及铁等营养素.调整性别、年龄、身高等混杂因素时,全身BMD、BMC在高钙低蛋白组最高(分别为0.804 g/m2,2010 g),而在低钙高蛋白组最低(分别为0.708 g/m2,1660 g;P <0.05).股骨BMD在高钙低蛋白组(0.809 g/m2)最高,BMC在低钙低蛋白组(3.8g)最高,而两者均在高钙高蛋白组最低(0.752 g/m2,3.51g;P <0.05).进一步调整体重后,上述差异的显著性消失.结论 除性别和年龄等不可控因素外,对北京郊区学生全身和股骨颈骨量影响最大的是体重和身高.对于钙摄入量不足的北京郊区青春期少年,高蛋白质、低钙饮食通过影响体重的变化间接地对全身和股骨颈BMD、BMC产生不利影响.%Objective To explore the relationship between dietary calcium and protein intake and bone mass of the total body and the femur in adolescents of rural area of Beijing. Methods A total of 342 12-16-year-old students (170 boys and 172 girls) in Huairou district, Beijing, were selected using multi-layer random cluster sampling method. A consecutive 3-day-food questionnaire was used to understand the dietary intake. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA ) was used to measure the bone mass of total body and the femur

  9. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Wijlen, ter H.; Laar, van H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in

  10. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  11. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1990-01-01

    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  12. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; Laar, H. van; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metab...

  13. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  14. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  15. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  16. 日粮钙水平对泌乳水牛生产性能的影响%Effect of dietary calcium on the production performance in the lactating water buffalo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔政安; 邹彩霞; 梁辛; 韦升菊; 李舒露; 夏中生; 梁贤威

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary calcium on the production performance in the lactating water buffalo. A total of 12 water buffaloes with similar parity, milking date and milking yield were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group including 3 animals. The Latin square design was used, and the 4 group animal was subjected into 0.47, 0. 62, 0. 78 and 0. 93% Ca (DM base) , with the other nutrition parameter kept the same, except for the P was 0. 50% based on dry matter intake. Four periods and 21 days for each period including 7 days for adaptation were conducted in the present study. The results showed that the average daily milk yield was not significant difference among 4 groups (P>0. 05) , but 0. 78% Ca ( DM base) treatment had biggest milk yields, with 5.4% , 5. 5% and 3. 9% higher than the 0.47, 0. 62 and 0.93% Ca ( DM base), respectively. The milk content was non-significant differences among different calcium content diet treatment. In addition, the blood plasma contents of calcium were significant differences among different dietary calcium contents (P<0. 05). Blood Parathyroid hormone and 1, 25- (OH) 2 Vit D decreased significantly with the diet calcium content increase ( P<0.05). Therefore, the 0. 78% Ca (DM base) for the water buffalo diets can increase the milk production.%为了探讨日粮钙水平对泌乳水牛生产性能的影响,本试验选用12头胎次、泌乳时间、泌乳量相近的水牛,随机分成4组,每组3头水牛.采用4x4拉丁方试验方法,4组水牛基础日粮中钙含量分别占基础日粮干物质的0.47%、0.62%、0.78%、0.93%,其他营养成分均相同,其中磷占采食干物质比例为0.50%;共4期试验,每一试验期21 d,其中预饲期7d,正饲期14 d.试验结果表明:1、不同钙水平日粮对泌乳水牛的产奶性能影响不显著(P>0.05),但0.78%钙水平日粮组水牛的产奶量分别比其他3组提高5.4%、5.5%、3.9%,不同钙水

  17. The Comparative Kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra within the Yellow-Bellied Turtle. Trachemys scripta, as influenced by Dietary Calcium, Season, Age and Sex of the Animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the data on assimilation and retention of radionuclides by animals is from homeothermic mammals. The assimilation and retention of radionuclides have only recently been investigated in reptiles. In both groups, interesting conjectures can be made concerning the kinetics of radionuclides in relation to temperature and to the abundance of the radioisotope chemical analogue. Temperature plays an important role in the metabolism and behavior of ectotherms and can thus affect radionuclide kinetics. The abundance of chemical analogues has been shown to decrease the assimilation and retention of radionuclides in homeotherms but such relationships have not been well documented in vertebrate ectotherms. The kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta is studied. It is ectothermic and 40% of its wet mass is comprised of a calcareous shell. What role does the shell play in calcium homeostasis, and how do the kinetics of analogous radioisotopes behave in such a calcium-rich system. T. scripta have a long life span of 20-30 years. They demonstrate reserved sexual dimorphism with females being larger, and they grow continuously, which results in large ranges in adult body size. Much of the winter is spent in hibernation. The spring is an active period related to mating, yet one in which little food is consumed. How do such oscillating changes in metabolic rate, as well as differences in body size, affect radionuclide elimination. To address such questions, radionuclide assimilation and retention as influenced by the amount of stable calcium in the turtle diet, season of the year and age and sex of the animal, are examined. The results demonstrate the complex nature of radionuclide kinetics within ectotherms and give insights into the basic biology of turtles

  18. Dietary intake of calcium and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) 2001-2010 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Albert, Jeffrey M; Singer, Mendel E; Swain, James; Nock, Nora L

    2015-09-28

    Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Experimental studies suggest that a higher intra-cellular ratio of Ca:Mg, which may be induced by a diet high in Ca and low in Mg, may lead to hypertension and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have examined the effects of the combined intake of Mg and Ca on MetSyn. Thus, we evaluated the association between dietary intakes of Ca and Mg (using 24-h recalls), independently and in combination, and MetSyn in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001-2010 data, which included 9148 adults (4549 men and 4599 women), with complete information on relevant nutrient, demographic, anthropometric and biomarker variables. We found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (intakes in the highest quartile for Mg (≥ 386 mg/d) and Ca (≥ 1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59, 0.93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be protected against MetSyn.

  19. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  20. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  1. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  2. Dietary Deficiency of Calcium and/or Iron, an Age-Related Risk Factor for Renal Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyong-Son; Sano, Erika; Ueda, Hidenori; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Yamada, Keita; Takano, Masaoki; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The major route of cadmium (Cd) intake by non-smokers is through food ingestion. Cd is a non-essential metal absorbed through one or more transporters of essential metal ions. Expression of these transporters is affected by nutritional status. To investigate the risk factors for Cd toxicity, the effects of deficiency of essential metals on hepatic and renal accumulation of Cd were studied in mice of different ages. Mice were administered a control diet or one of the essential metal-deficient diets, administered Cd by gavage for 6 weeks, and killed; then, Cd accumulation was evaluated. Iron deficiency (FeDF) or calcium deficiency (CaDF) resulted in remarkable increases in hepatic and renal Cd accumulation compared with control-diet mice and other essential metal-deficient mice. Cd accumulation in hepatic and renal tissue was increased significantly at all ages tested in FeDF and CaDF mice. Renal Cd concentrations were higher in 4-week-old mice than in 8- and 25-week-old mice. Increase in intestinal mRNA expression of calcium transporter (CaT)1, divalent metal ion transporter-1, and metallothionein (MT)1 was also higher in 4-week-old mice than in other mice. Renal accumulation of Cd showed strong correlation with intestinal mRNA expression of CaT1 and MT1. These data suggest that CaDF and FeDF at younger ages can be a risk factor for Cd toxicity.

  3. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established and...... used for dietary or drug intervention: 1) the cholesterol-fed normolipidemic rabbit, 2) the 1% cholesterol- fed heterozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit and 3) the homozygous WHHL rabbit. The reproductive performance and physiological blood lipid levels in growing and adult...... heterozygous and homozygous WHHL and normolipidemic rabbit were characterized. The position of the rabbit models in atherosclerosis research was discussed. The characteristic features of cholesterolfed and WHHL rabbis were compared....

  4. Dietary magnesium, calcium:magnesium ratio and risk of reflux oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi; Cantwell, Marie M; Murray, Liam J; Zheng, Wei; Anderson, Lesley A; Coleman, Helen G

    2016-01-28

    Evidence suggests a role of Mg and the ratio of Ca:Mg intakes in the prevention of colonic carcinogenesis. The association between these nutrients and oesophageal adenocarcinoma - a tumour with increasing incidence in developed countries and poor survival rates - has yet to be explored. The aim of this investigation was to explore the association between Mg intake and related nutrients and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. This analysis included cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (n 218), Barrett's oesophagus (n 212), reflux oesophagitis (n 208) and population-based controls (n 252) recruited between 2002 and 2005 throughout the island of Ireland. All the subjects completed a 101-item FFQ. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to determine odds of disease according to dietary intakes of Mg, Ca and Ca:Mg ratio. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals consuming the highest amounts of Mg from foods had significant reductions in the odds of reflux oesophagitis (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·87) and Barrett's oesophagus (OR 0·29; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·71) compared with individuals consuming the lowest amounts of Mg. The protective effect of Mg was more apparent in the context of a low Ca:Mg intake ratio. No significant associations were observed for Mg intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·30, 1·99 comparing the highest and the lowest tertiles of consumption). In conclusion, dietary Mg intakes were inversely associated with reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus risk in this Irish population.

  5. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; van Laar, H; Verstegen, M W A

    2014-08-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts. PMID:24138155

  6. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  7. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Isela Rojas-Molina; Elsa Gutiérrez-Cortez; Moustapha Bah; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Eric Rivera-Muñoz; Alicia del Real; Ma. de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O), weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O)2.375),...

  8. Uterine fluid proteins and egg quality characteristics for 2 commercial and 2 heritage laying hen lines in response to manipulation of dietary calcium and vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Rathgeber, Bruce M; Thompson, Kristen L; Macisaac, Janice

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from 2 selected commercial strains of laying hens and 2 unselected lines of chickens fed diets with different combinations of Ca and vitamin D and relate it to the profile of uterine proteins and ultrastructure of the shell. A group of 4 chickens was housed in each of 24 cages. The group consisted of one representative from each of the following breeds: Lohmann LSL- Lite, Lohmann Classic-Brown, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex. Six dietary combinations of Ca and vitamin D(3) (3.35%, 2,500 IU; 4.10%, 2,500 IU (control); 4.85%, 2,500 IU; 3.35%, 200 IU; 4.10%, 200 IU; and 4.85%, 200 IU) were randomly assigned to 4 replicate cages for 2 treatment periods (26-29 and 56-59 wk of age). Data were analyzed as a split-plot design with cage as the main plot and hen as the subplot. Egg quality traits were different (P hens age. PMID:23960126

  9. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  10. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate... (racemic) form. (b) To assure safe use of the additive, the label and labeling of the food...

  11. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o papel nutricional do cálcio e da vitamina D no processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento infanto-juvenil, visando, em especial, a prevenção e o tratamento do atraso de crescimento causado por deficiência nutricional. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos publicados nas 2 últimas décadas, pesquisados nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e MEDLINE, livros técnicos e publicações de organizações internacionais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O crescimento sofre influência de fatores intrínsecos (genéticos e metabólicos e extrínsecos (fatores ambientais, como alimentação, saúde, higiene, habitação, e o acesso aos serviços de saúde. Entre os fatores nutricionais, destacam-se as deficiências de vitaminas e oligoelementos que podem se associar à desnutrição ou depender da absorção insuficiente dos mesmos. Sendo o cálcio um dos principais componentes do tecido mineral ósseo, este é essencial para uma adequada formação óssea e, considerando que a vitamina D desempenha papel importante no metabolismo do cálcio, uma dieta insuficiente nesses nutrientes pode influenciar a formação do esqueleto e o processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento. CONCLUSÕES: A baixa ingestão ou baixa absorção de cálcio e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes pode limitar seu desenvolvimento estatural, sendo necessário fornecer quantidades suficientes de ambos na fase crítica do crescimento.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of dietary calcium and vitamin D in the process of growth and development of children and adolescents, focusing in particular on the prevention and treatment of delayed growth caused by nutritional deficiency. SOURCES: Information was gathered from articles published in the last 2 decades, from searches on the databases SciELO, PubMed and Medline, technical books and publications of international organizations. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Growth is influenced by intrinsic

  12. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijderveld, S M; Dijkstra, J; Perdok, H B; Newbold, J R; Gerrits, W J J

    2011-06-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1, a control diet (CON1) and diets supplemented with 56 mg of DADS/kg of dry matter (DM), 3g of YP/kg of DM, or 25 g of CAFU/kg of DM were evaluated. In experiment 2, an inert saturated fat source in the control diet (CON2) was exchanged isolipidically for an extruded linseed source (100g/kg of DM; UNSAT) or a mixture of C8:0 and C10:0 (MCFA; 20.3g/kg of DM). In experiment 2, a higher inclusion level of DADS (200mg/kg of DM) was also tested. Both experiments were conducted using 40 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 d and were subsequently kept in respiration chambers for 5 d to evaluate methane production, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance. Feed intake was restricted to avoid confounding effects of possible differences in ad libitum feed intake on methane production. Feed intake was, on average, 17.5 and 16.6 kg of DM/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. None of the additives reduced methane production in vivo. Methane production in experiment 1 was 450, 453, 446, and 423 g/d for CON1 and the diets supplemented with DADS, YP, and CAFU, respectively. In experiment 2, methane production was 371, 394, 388, and 386 g/d for CON2 and the diets supplemented with UNSAT, MCFA, and DADS, respectively. No effects of the additives on energy balance or neutral detergent fiber digestibility were observed. The addition of MCFA increased milk fat content (5.38% vs. 4.82% for control) and fat digestibility (78.5% vs. 59.8% for control), but did not affect milk yield or other milk components. The other products did not affect milk yield or composition. Results from these experiments emphasize the need to confirm methane

  13. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  14. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  15. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  16. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  17. O recordatório de 24 horas como instrumento na avaliação do consumo alimentar de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de baixa estatura foram excluídas da avaliação. Foram dosados cálcio, fósforo, creatinina, vitamina D, paratormônio fosfatase alcalina no soro e cálcio, fósforo, creatinina e sódio em urina de Recordatório Alimentar de 24h foi empregado para estimar o consumo dietético. RESULTADOS: Foi constatada ingestão reduzida de cálcio e vitamina D, em relação ao recomendado para idade e sexo. Verificou-se correlação negativa entre paratormônio e vitamina D dietética (r= -0,46; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the extent to which the 24 hour recall, used as a tool to assess dietary intake, contributes to the assessment of biological parameters involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in stunted children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 59 stunted children and adolescents seen at the outpatient clinic that specializes in stunting of the Endocrinology Service of Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre, were assessed. Organic, genetic and endocrine causes of stunting were excluded from the assessment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, vitamin D, parathormone and alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and sodium were measured. The 24 hour recall was used to determine dietary intake of these nutrients. RESULTS: Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low according to the values recommended for the two genders and studied age groups. There was a negative correlation

  18. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  19. 饲粮钙水平对7~11周龄临武鸭生长性能、胫骨发育及血清生化指标的影响%Effects of Dietary Calcium Level on Growth Performance, Tibia Development and Serum Biochemical Indices of Linwu Ducks Aged from 7 to 11 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李闯; 黄璇; 蒋桂韬; 王向荣; 张旭; 戴求仲

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮钙水平对7~11周龄临武鸭生长性能、胫骨发育及血清生化指标的影响. 选择48日龄健康、体重相近的临武鸭母鸭270只,随机分成5组,每组6个重复,每个重复9只鸭. 饲粮以石粉为钙源,分别设置0.60%、0.70%、0.80%、0.90%和1.00% 5个钙水平.试验期28 d. 结果表明:1)随着饲粮钙水平增加,试验鸭平均日增重表现出先增加后降低的趋势,料重比先降低后升高;0.90%钙水平组平均日增重最大,料重比最低. 饲粮钙水平对试验鸭生长性能无显著影响(P>0.05). 2)饲粮钙水平对试验鸭胫骨指标均无显著影响(P>0.05), 0.70%钙水平组胫骨灰分含量最高,0.80%钙水平组胫骨折断力最大. 3)饲粮钙水平对试验鸭血清钙、磷含量无显著影响( P>0.05) ,但血清碱性磷酸酶活性随着饲粮钙水平的升高而显著降低( P0.05) . 2) Dietary calcium level had no effect on all the tibia inde-xes ( P>0.05) , and the ash content of tibia was the highest in 0.70% calcium level group, and the maximum of tibia broking strength in 0.80% calcium level group was the highest. 3) Dietary calcium level had no effect on serum calcium and phosphorus content of ducks ( P>0.05) . Increasing dietary calcium level significantly re-duced serum alkaline phosphatase activity ( P<0.05) . According to the growth performance and tibia indices, 0.60% calcium level can meet the growth needs of Linwu ducks aged from 7 to 11 weeks. With serum alkaline phosphatase activity as the basis for evaluation, through the regression analysis and derivation to get the lowest serum alkaline phosphatase activity and the corresponding calcium requirement is 0.996%.

  20. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy; Jae Jun Sim; Yeong-Su Jang; Siddhartha Kumar Mishra; Keun-Yeong Jeong; Poonam Mander; Oh Byung Chul; Won-Sik Shim; Seung Hyun Oh; Ky-Youb Nam; Hwan Mook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstrea...

  1. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  2. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  3. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  4. CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION AS PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST COLON-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; CATS, A; VANDERMEER, R; LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, EGE

    1994-01-01

    Dietary factors are major determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Especially a diet high in fat and low in fiber is recognized to be a risk factor. Dietary calcium has been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer through the binding of intraluminal fatty acids and bile acids. Because of

  5. Optimizing bone health in older adults: the importance of dietary protein

    OpenAIRE

    Surdykowski, Anna K; Kenny, Anne M.; Insogna, Karl L.; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Age-related bone loss is progressive and can lead to osteoporosis. While it is accepted that both dietary calcium and vitamin D are important and beneficial for skeletal health, the impact of dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone balance remains controversial. Contrary to the hypothesis that increasing dietary protein contributes to bone loss, research supports the notion that protein may play a pivotal role in maintenance of bone health by several mechanisms; for example, increasing...

  6. Effects of Dietary Calcium Level on Reproductive Performance and Tibia Quality of Yellow-Feathered Broiler Breeders Aged from 49 to 56 Weeks%饲粮钙水平对49~56周龄黄羽肉种鸡繁殖性能和胫骨性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪平; 周桂莲; 蒋守群; 阮栋; 陈芳

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of dietary calcium level on production performance, reproductive performance (laying performance, hatching performance, egg quality), serum calcium and phosphorus contents and tibia quality of yellow-feathered broiler breeders aged from 49 to 56 weeks, five hundred and forty 49-week-old parent yellow-feathered broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 18 birds per replicate. Treatment 1 was the control group, in which the birds were fed corn-soybean meal based diet with 2. 75% calcium. Treatments 2 to 6 were test groups, in which dietary calcium level was adjusted to 3.00% , 3.25% , 3.50% , 3. 75% and 4. 00% based on the basal diet through adding different levels of limestone instead of zeolite powder, respectively. Other nutrient levels in the 6 treatment diets except calcium level were the same. Experimental birds were fed 125 g of diet per bird every day and watered ad libitum during the experimental period of 8 weeks. Results showed that different dietary calcium levels did not significantly affect the final weight, average daily gain, average egg weight, broken egg rate, unqualified egg rate, hatching performance, serum calcium and phosphorus contents and tibia quality of birds (P >0.05). Feed to egg ratio of birds in 3. 00% calcium group was significantly lower than that in 3. 50% calcium group (P 0.05). Laying rate and daily egg mass of birds in 3.00% calcium group were significantly higher than those in the other groups except 3.25% calcium group (P <0.05). Based on the estimated result by two-slope broken-line model, the calcium requirement of yellow-feathered broiler breeders aged from 49 to 56 weeks for the optimal laying rate and daily egg mass both is 3. 00% or 3. 75 g/d.%本试验旨在研究不同饲粮钙水平对49~56周龄黄羽肉种鸡生产性能、繁殖性能(产蛋性能、孵化性能、蛋品质)、血清钙和磷含量及胫骨性能的影响.选用49

  7. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons.

  8. Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenanc...

  9. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  11. Dietary supplement use among health care professionals enrolled in an online curriculum on herbs and dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Charles

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many health care professionals (HCPs in the United States have been educated about and recommend dietary supplements, little is known about their personal use of dietary supplements and factors associated with their use. Methods We surveyed HCPs at the point of their enrollment in an on-line course about dietary supplements between September, 2004 and May, 2005. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze demographic and practice factors associated with use of dietary supplements. Results Of the 1249 health care professionals surveyed, 81 % reported having used a vitamin, mineral, or other non-herbal dietary supplements in the last week. Use varied by profession with highest rates among nurses (88%, physician assistants or nurse practitioners (84 % and the lowest rates among pharmacists (66% and trainees (72%. The most frequently used supplements were multivitamins (60%, calcium (40%, vitamin B (31%, vitamin C (30%, and fish oil (24%. Factors associated with higher supplement use were older age, female, high knowledge of dietary supplements, and discussing dietary supplements with patients. In our adjusted model, nurses were more likely than other professionals to use a multivitamin and students were more likely to use calcium. Conclusion Among HCPs enrolled in an on-line course about dietary supplements, women, older clinicians, those with higher knowledge and those who talk with patients about dietary supplements had higher use of dietary supplements. Additional research is necessary to understand the impact of professionals' personal use of dietary supplements on communication with patients about them.

  12. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  13. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  14. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  15. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  16. Effects of high dietary calcium from different sources on renal injury and p53 protein expression in chicken growers%不同钙源高钙日粮对青年蛋鸡肾损伤及p53蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 曹华斌; 郭小权; 胡国良; 王小莺; 张彩英; 雷鹏; 国鑫; 田山

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty ISA growers aged 40 days were randomly divided into 3 groups with 40 growers each. The groups were: control group (semisynthetic commercial layer standard diet in accordance with the nutrient requirements of poultry, Ca 0. 9 %, DM basis); group 1 (high dietary calcium supplementation from limestone, Ca 3.78% ,DM basis) ; group 2 (high dietary calcium supplementation from CaHPO4 ,Ca 3.78% ,DM basis). All chickens were reared for 65 days under normal condition. Calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and urea N in serum were detected. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the p53 protein expression on 65 d. The results showed high dietary calcium cause the renal damage. Compared to the control group, uric acid, urea N and creatinine increased (P〈0.05 or P〈0.01) and phosphorus decreased in serum of group 1 (P〈0.01). Urea N increased (P〈0.01) and phosphorus decreased in serum of group 2 (P〈0.01). Phosphorus in serum of group 2 increased when compared with the group 1 (P〈0.01). p53 protein was expressed in kidney tissues of growers feeding high dietary calcium,es pecially the positive cells appeared in the epithelial cells of renal tubule (LLC-PK1). Expression of p53 protein of LLC-PK1 in group 1 was strong. Positive signal of p53 protein of LLC-PK1 in group 2 was moderately. The results indicated that high dietary calcium could cause the renal damage and promote the expression of p53 protein in the ep- ithelial ceils of renal tubule.%将120羽40日龄伊沙蛋鸡随机分成3组,每组40羽,分别为:对照组(根据禽类营养需求饲喂正常日粮,含钙0.9%),试验组1(石粉高钙日粮组,含钙3.78%),试验组2(磷酸氢钙高钙日粮组,含钙3.78%),进行为期65d的饲养试验。试验后65d,对各组鸡作血清中钙、磷、尿酸、肌酐和尿素氮的测定,并用免疫组织化学方法检测肾脏中p53蛋白的表达情况。结果表明,高钙组鸡肾

  17. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  18. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  19. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  20. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil : evaluation and comparison of rabbit models

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Alicja

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established and used for dietary or drug intervention: 1) the cholesterol-fed normolipidemic rabbit, 2) the 1% cholesterol- fed heterozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit and ...

  1. Effects of Different Dietary Vitamin D Contents on Growth Performance, Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism of Juvenile Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicas)%饲料中不同维生素 D含量对鲈鱼幼鱼生长性能和钙磷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 李静; 麦康森; 艾庆辉; 张春晓; 李会涛; 袁禹惠

    2016-01-01

    , calcium and phosphorus metabolism of juvenile Japanese seabass ( Lateo⁃labrax japonicas). Juvenile Japanese seabass with the initial body weight of (2.26±0.03) g as the experimen⁃tal animal, and were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates each group and 15 fish per replicate. Fish in the 6 groups were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergentic diets with the measured contents of vitamin D were 34.2, 219.4, 393.8, 775.9, 1 534.1 and 3 091.2 IU/kg, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) weight gain rare ( WGR) was significantly increased with increasing dietary vitamin D content from 34.2 to 393.8 IU/kg (P0.05) . Special growth rate ( SGR) , feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) showed a similar tendency to WGR. 2) Dietary vitamin D content significantly influenced the contents of ash, calcium and phosphorus in carcass, ash in vertebra, oper⁃culum and scale, and calcium and phosphorus in vertebra of juvenile Japanese seabass ( P0.05) . 3) Ser⁃um alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, and hydroxyproline (HPro), calcium ion (Ca2+) and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) contents were all significantly affected by dietary vitamin D content (P<0.05). 4) Dietary vitamin D content had significant influences on hepatosomatic index, liver lipid and vitamin D contents ( P<0.05) . Liver vitamin D content showed an increased trend with increasing dietary vitamin D content, and it changed to be steady when dietary vitamin D content up to 1 534.1 IU/kg. Broken⁃line model analysis with the WGR as the appraising index shows that juvenile Japanese seabass require 431.0 IU/kg diet vitamin D for max⁃imal growth. Base on the quadratic curve model analysis with the liver vitamin D content as the appraising in⁃dex, juvenile Japanese seabass require 2 444.4 IU/kg diet vitamin D for maximal liver vitamin D deposition.

  2. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  3. Effect of L-lactic acid on the absorption of calcium in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1998-12-01

    The effect of dietary L-lactic acid (LA), (0.5, 1.0, or 2.5 g/100 g of diet) on the absorption of calcium in gastrectomized rats was evaluated for 28 d. Calcium phosphate was used as a source of calcium. The apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of the femur and tibia in gastrectomized rats fed the control diet were significantly less than those in sham-operated rats. In the gastrectomized rats, the apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of bone in the rats fed the lower doses of LA diets (LA 0.5 or 1.0 g/100 g of diet) were not affected; however, the apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of bone in the rats fed the highest doses of LA diet (LA 2.5 g/100 g of diet) were greater than those in gastrectomized rats fed the control diet. Dietary LA (2.5 g/100 g of diet) also enhanced the phosphorus absorption and bone phosphorus content in the gastrectomized rats. We speculated that the highest dose of dietary LA might be associated with the dissolving of a water-insoluble form of calcium salt in the diet, thereby facilitating the calcium absorption and resulting in increased bone calcium content in gastrectomized rats.

  4. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  5. Calcium and weight control-Publications summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Çelebi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem. And it is known that both energy balance and nutritional factors are effective on it. The effects of dietary calcium on bone health are known however with recent studies, it has become a food item that focused on the effect on body weight control. Most epidemiyolojik studies claim that there is a relationship between long-term consumption of diary milk and milk products and the decrease of body weight and fat mass. In this article, there are different studies that support or do not support this idea. However the effect mechanism of calcium on weight control is tried to be explained.

  6. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  7. Maternal dietary vitamin D carry-over alters offspring growth, skeletal mineralisation and tissue mRNA expressions of genes related to vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus homoeostasis in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Laura A; Hernandez, Laura L; Laporta, Jimena; Crenshaw, Thomas D

    2016-09-01

    Maternal dietary vitamin D carry-over effects were assessed in young pigs to characterise skeletal abnormalities in a diet-induced model of kyphosis. Bone abnormalities were previously induced and bone mineral density (BMD) reduced in offspring from sows fed diets with inadequate vitamin D3. In a nested design, pigs from sows (n 23) fed diets with 0 (-D), 8·125 (+D) or 43·750 (++D) µg D3/kg from breeding through lactation were weaned and, within litter, fed nursery diets arranged as a 2×2 factorial design with 0 (-D) or 7·0 (+D) µg D3/kg, each with 95 % (95P) or 120 % (120P) of P requirements. Selected pigs were euthanised before colostrum consumption at birth (0 weeks, n 23), weaning (3 weeks, n 22) and after a growth period (8 weeks, n 185) for BMD, bone mechanical tests and tissue mRNA analysis. Pigs produced by +D or ++D sows had increased gain at 3 weeks (Pdiets depended on maternal diets (Pdiet interaction (Phumans and animals about maternal dietary influence on offspring skeletal health. PMID:27480125

  8. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  9. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  10. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  11. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  12. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  13. The importance of dietary calcium consumption in two species of semi-terrestrial grapsoid crabs A importância do consumo de cálcio na dieta de duas espécies de caranguejos grapsóides semi-terrestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia P. Zanotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca is essential for crustaceans, due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 deposition in the new exoskeleton to harden it. The purpose of this work was to study short term Ca balance in terms of dietary Ca ingestion in two phylogenetically related crabs (Superfamily Grapsoidea showing different degrees of terrestrial adaptations: Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 and Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851. Dietary Ca ingestion was studied using purified diets with different Ca concentrations (0, 2.2 and 6.66 % Ca, together with measurements of Ca excretion and Ca hemolymph levels. The results showed that both crabs had the same response to foods containing different levels of Ca, with both species eating more of the high Ca diet. However, S. rectum consumed more per mg body mass at all Ca concentrations (6 mg.g-1 for S. rectum against 3 mg.g-1 for N. granulata. Both species excreted/egested Ca differently: S. rectum excreted Ca proportionally to ingestion, whereas N. granulata maintained constant faecal Ca output at all dietary Ca levels. Moreover, Ca hemolymph levels for crabs fed the different diets were independent of dietary Ca. In conclusion, both S. rectum and N. granulata seem to regulate the consumption of diets containing more Ca, which suggests a fine balance for Ca intake.O cálcio (Ca é essencial para os crustáceos porque cristais de carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3 são depositados no novo exoesqueleto para endurecê-lo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o balanço do Ca em relação à sua ingestão em dois caranguejos filogenéticamente relacionados (Superfamília Grapsoidea, que apresentam diferentes graus de terrestrialidade: Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 e Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851. A ingestão de Ca foi estudada através do uso de dietas purificadas com diferentes quantidades de Ca (0, 2,2 e 6,66 % Ca, juntamente com a excreção de Ca nas fezes e níveis de Ca na hemolinfa. Os resultados mostraram que ambos apresentam a mesma

  14. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  15. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD......We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...

  16. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...

  17. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in...... relation to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors...... involved and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of...

  18. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...... and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of expertise...

  19. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Strang; Eric Van Young; Mary L’Abbe; Campbell, Norm R.C.; Willis, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expens...

  20. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  1. Randomized, placebo-controlled, calcium supplementation trial in pregnant Gambian women accustomed to a low calcium intake: effects on maternal blood pressure and infant growth 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Gail R.; Jarjou, Landing MA; Tim J Cole; Prentice, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium intake in rural Gambian women is very low (∼350 mg/d) compared with international recommendations. Studies have suggested that calcium supplementation of women receiving low-calcium diets significantly reduces risk of pregnancy hypertension. Objective: We tested the effects on blood pressure (BP) of calcium carbonate supplementation (1500 mg Ca/d) in pregnant, rural Gambian women. Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled supple...

  2. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bescós García

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OHD levels were collected after wintertime during the 2008/2009 (April and 2009/2010 (March seasons. In addition, athletes completed 4-day dietary records to estimate energy consumption and a food frequency questionnaire to determine dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Serum 25(OHD levels were 47.8 ± 21.8 nmol/L, with twelve subjects (57% being vitamin D deficient (Introducción: Aunque la deficiencia de vitamina D es muy prevalente en todo el mundo en la población general, se sabe muy poco acerca del estado vitamínico en los atletas. Objetivo: investigar las concentraciones séricas de vitamina D (25[OH]D después del invierno en baloncestitas masculinos de élite, y relacionar estas concentraciones con el aporte dietético de vitamina D y calcio. Métodos: se estudió a 21 jugadores del mismo equipo profesional español. Se recogieron las muestras de sangre para evaluar las concentraciones de 25(OHD después del invierno durante las temporadas de 2008/2009 (abril y 2009/2010 (marzo. Además, los atletas completaron unos registros de 4 días para estimar el consumo de energía y un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos para determinar el aporte dietético de vitamina D y calcio. Las concentraciones séricas de 25(OHD fueron 47,8 ± 21,8 nmol/L, estando 12 individuos (57% con deficiencia de vitamina D (< 50 nmol/L. Resultados: el consumo de vitamina D fue 139 ± 78 IU/día y el de calcio de 948 ± 419 mg/día. Las concentraciones séricas de 25(OHD se correlacionaban con el aporte diet

  3. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Pgrowth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Pmuscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  4. Calcium and iron absorption: mechanism of action and nutritional importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Rossander-Hultén, L; Brune, M; Gleerup, A

    1992-05-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption in 57 human subjects. Three studies suggested that the effect is not located in the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of phytate in a meal and formation of calcium-iron-phytate complexes is not a prerequisite for the inhibition. The relative increase in iron absorption by ascorbic acid was the same in meals with and without calcium, suggesting that calcium did not influence the balance between enhancing and inhibiting ligands in the gastrointestinal lumen. No inhibiting effect on iron absorption was seen when adding 3 mg calcium to 0.01 mg iron (molar ratio Ca/Fe = 420). Previous studies showing a marked inhibition by calcium had a lower molar ratio, but greater amounts of calcium were given. This suggests that a minimal concentration of calcium is needed to achieve an effect. The present results indirectly support our original hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption is situated within the intestinal mucosal cells. The practical nutritional implications of the inhibitory effect of calcium are considerable since addition of milk, milkshake or cheese to common meals such as pizza or hamburger meals reduced iron absorption by 50-60%. It is recommended to reduce the intake of dairy products with the main meals providing most of the dietary iron, especially for those having the highest iron requirements i.e. children, teenagers and women at childbearing age. PMID:1600930

  5. Influence of Dietary Calcium Level on Growth Performance, Body Measurements and Toe Quality of Princess Chickens%饲粮钙水平对贵妃鸡生长性能、体尺性状及趾骨特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文; 杜炳旺; 王润莲; 江国亮; 赵玉振; 米雁; 任莉; 叶昌辉

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同饲粮钙水平对贵妃鸡生长性能、体尺性状及趾骨特性的影响,以评价贵妃鸡饲粮中钙的适宜水平。选用1日龄贵妃鸡240只,随机分为5组,每个组6个重复,每个重复8只鸡,分别饲喂钙水平为0.65%(基础饲粮)、0.80%、0.95%、1.10%和1.30%的玉米-豆粕型饲粮(可利用磷水平为0.51%),试验期49 d。结果表明:1)饲粮钙水平对贵妃鸡生长性能有显著的影响(P<0.05),随着饲粮钙水平的提高,平均日增重和平均日采食量呈断线和二次曲线变化(P<0.05);但腿病发生率和死亡率组间差异不显著( P>0.05)。2)饲粮钙水平显著影响贵妃鸡的腿肌率和腹脂率( P <0.05),且随着饲粮钙水平的提高,腹脂率呈线性降低( P <0.05),腿肌率呈二次曲线变化趋势(P =0.072),但其他屠宰性能和各项肉品质指标均不受影响(P>0.05)。3)随着饲粮钙水平的提高,贵妃鸡龙骨长呈断线变化(P<0.05),体斜长和胫围呈二次曲线变化(P<0.05),但其他体尺指标无显著变化( P>0.05)。4)饲粮钙水平对贵妃鸡趾骨粗灰分和粗灰分钙含量有显著影响( P<0.05),且随着饲粮钙水平的提高呈二次曲线变化( P <0.05)。综上所述,平均日增重、平均日采食量、体斜长、龙骨长、胫围以及趾骨粗灰分、粗灰分钙含量是贵妃鸡体内钙的营养状况的敏感指标,综合以上敏感指标得出1~49日龄贵妃鸡饲粮中钙的适宜水平为1.10%(可利用磷水平为0.51%)。%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different dietary calcium(Ca)levels on growth performance,body measurements and toe quality of princess chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old prin-cess chickens were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each

  6. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  7. Biomarkers for the activation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows: elevation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity by lowering dietary cation-anion difference is associated with the prevention of milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Naito, Yoshihisa; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2007-03-01

    In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the administration of anion salts, which slightly lower the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), in the prepartum period is safe and effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. In the present study, several biomarkers, which might show activation of Ca metabolism, were analyzed using stored samples in the previous study to investigate the mechanism of the preventive effect on milk fever by lowering DCAD. Changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in serum were almost the same among the three groups of multiparous cows with or without the oral administration of anion salts, while the levels of these serum biomarkers in the group of primiparous cows (heifer group) were much higher compared with those in the three multiparous groups throughout the experimental period. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was not a useful biomarker for dairy cows because it hardly changed during the peripartum period in all groups. However, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, which is known as a biomarker of osteoclast activity, was well associated with the administration of anion salts lowering DCAD because among the three multiparous groups, only the group of multiparous cows fed the anion salts (anion group) showed an increased level, which rose to the level in the heifer group, and was markedly higher than those in the other control groups of multiparous cows. The increased activity of serum TRAP in the anion group suggested that Ca in the plasma pool was mobilized smoothly from bone-bound Ca via mature osteoclasts at parturition, which might be due to prior activation under mild acidosis induced by slightly lowering DCAD. Therefore, TRAP was the best biomarker to monitor the activation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows fed anion salts.

  8. Effect of L-lactic acid on calcium absorption in rats fed omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1998-06-01

    We examined the effect of L-lactic acid on calcium absorption in male Wistar rats made achlorhydric by dietary omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. The dietary omeprazole intake (0.03 g/100 g of diet) increased the gastric pH and decreased the apparent calcium absorption ratio. Dietary famotidine (0.03 g/100 g of diet), an H2-receptor antagonist, and lower doses of omeprazole (0.005 or 0.01 g/100 g of diet) did not affect the gastric pH or the calcium absorption. In a second experiment, dietary lactic acid (0.5, 1.0, or 2.5 g/100 g of diet) increased the intestinal calcium absorption dose dependently in rats fed omeprazole (0.03 g/100 g of diet). The gastric pH was significantly decreased only in the rats fed higher doses of lactic acid (1.0, or 2.5 g/100 g of diet). In a third experiment, a dietary sour milk beverage containing lactic acid (0.5 g/100 g of diet) increased the intestinal calcium absorption, but did not affect the gastric pH in rats fed omeprazole (0.03 g/100 g of diet). Although the significance of gastric acid in terms of overall calcium absorption is not known, under the present experimental conditions, the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by dietary omeprazole decreased the apparent calcium absorption, and the dietary lactic acid prevented the calcium absorption in rats fed omeprazole.

  9. A STUDY OF MATERNAL DIETARY INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid S Almurshed; Bani, Ibrahim A.; Al-Kanhal, Mohammed A.; Al-Amri, Mohammed A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective : This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary nutrient intake of pregnant women. The relationship between dietary intake and pregnancy outcome was also studied. Method: A total of 114 pregnant women were studied, using systematic random sampling. Results : The percentages of the mean nutrient intake below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for pregnant women were as the follows: 51.8%, 93.9%, 82.5% and 98.2% for energy, vitamin B1, calcium and iron, respectively...

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Condlin, Michelle L.; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation si...

  11. DETERMINANTS OF BONE CALCIUM ACCRETION DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone mineral status during adolescence may be related to genetic and dietary factors. We evaluated 49 female and 49 male adolescents (Tanner 2/3) randomized to receive 8g of Synergl (Orafti Inc., Belgium), a non-digestible inulin-type fructan daily for a year or placebo. Fractional calcium (Ca) abso...

  12. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  13. Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT. Methods Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. Results Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group. Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF. Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p -1, respectively, p Conclusions The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration.

  14. Should we prescribe calcium supplements for osteoporosis prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian R

    2014-02-01

    Advocacy for the use of calcium supplements arose at a time when there were no other effective interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis. Their promotion was based on the belief that increasing calcium intake would increase bone formation. Our current understandings of the biology of bone suggest that this does not occur, though calcium does act as a weak antiresorptive. Thus, it slows postmenopausal bone loss but, despite this, recent meta-analyses suggest no significant prevention of fractures. In sum, there is little substantive evidence of benefit to bone health from the use of calcium supplements. Against this needs to be balanced the likelihood that calcium supplement use increases cardiovascular events, kidney stones, gastrointestinal symptoms, and admissions to hospital with acute gastrointestinal problems. Thus, the balance of risk and benefit seems to be consistently negative. As a result, current recommendations are to obtain calcium from the diet in preference to supplements. Dietary calcium intake has not been associated with the adverse effects associated with supplements, probably because calcium is provided in smaller boluses, which are absorbed more slowly since they come together with quantities of protein and fat, resulting in a slower gastric transit time. These findings suggest that calcium supplements have little role to play in the modern therapeutics of osteoporosis, which is based around the targeting of safe and effective anti-resorptive drugs to individuals demonstrated to be at increased risk of future fractures. PMID:24707464

  15. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium.

  16. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  17. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  18. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  19. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  20. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    of the complexity in child nutrition both in observational and intervention designs as well as for investigating development of dietary patterns over time. Explorative analyses of indicators for dietary patterns showed that parental, household and child characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in early...

  1. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  2. The dietary status of "new" vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P T; Bergan, J G

    1975-11-01

    A study of fifty well educated young adults, average age twenty-eight years, living in a metropolitan area of New England, who were followers of Zen macrobiotics, revealed that none was below his/her desirable weight although all were at the limit of the normal range. Average triceps skinfold thickness of the men and women fell in the 15th percentile, while arm circumference for members of both sexes was in the 5th percentile (24). Their ten-day dietary records indicated that the base of their diet was grains interspersed with a wide variety of vegetables, fish, cheese, and eggs and that nutrient intakes of the adults were limiting in energy, calcium, and riboflavin--and additionally in iron for the women. Improvement in the nutritional value could be achieved by greater consumption of foods common to macrobiotic dietary practices. Calcium and energy intakes of ten young children were low, especially for a period of rapid growth and development. Because of the bulk necessary to achieve nutritional adequacy with respect to calcium, increasing the children's consumption of macrobiotic food would not be advisable. Consequently, it is suggested that milk be included in their diets.

  3. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  4. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  5. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  6. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  7. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  8. Combined intervention of dietary soybean proteins and swim training: effects on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Gaume, Vincent; Berthelot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Soybean proteins, a rich source of isoflavones, taken immediately after an ovariectomy prevent bone loss in rats. Exercise-induced stimuli are essential for bone growth. Few studies exist about the combined effects of swim training and soybean protein supplementation on bone metabolism. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate, in 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) the effects of an 8-week swim-training regimen (1 h/day, 5 days/week) and dietary soybean proteins (200 g/kg diet) on bone metabolism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) ovariectomized fed with a semisynthetic control diet; (2) ovariectomized fed with a soybean protein-enriched semisynthetic diet; (3) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with control diet; (4) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with a soybean protein diet. Following the treatment period, body weight gain was identical in the four groups. Soybean protein supplementation increased bone calcium content, and reduced plasma osteocalcin values, without significant modification of calcium balance and net calcium absorption. Swim training enhanced plasma and bone calcium content and calcium balance and net calcium absorption. It did not modify either plasma osteocalcin values or urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Both exercise and soybean protein intake increased plasma on bone calcium without modifying net calcium absorption or bone markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated, in ovariectomized rats, that swimming exercise and dietary supplementation with soy proteins do not have synergistic effects on calcium metabolism and bone markers.

  9. The influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus on bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of this study it was attempted to obtain a better insight into the possible influence of the diet on the development of human osteoporosis. This disease, which is a consequence of decalcification of the bones, occurs frequently in elderly people, particularly in postmenopausal women.On the

  10. Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium, and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstelten, Jorrit L; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy products may be involved in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease by modulating gut microbiota and immune responses, but data from epidemiological studies examining this relationship are limited. We investigated the association between prediagnostic intake of these foods an...

  11. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  12. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  13. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  14. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  15. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  16. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Lactobacilli in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Based on earlier studies in veal calves and rats, the hypothesis tested was that high calcium intakes by ruminating dairy calves reduce fat digestibility, but do not affect growth performance due to enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli. Approach: In dairy calves that were fed on a combination of milk replacer, concentrate on grass hay, the effects of supplemental calcium on growth, nutrient digestibility and fecal lactobacilli were studied. Four concentrates with different levels of calcium were used. Results: Final body weight and weight gain were raised by the calcium level in the concentrate in a dose-dependent, linear fashion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat were not influenced by the level of calcium in the concentrate. The number of fecal lactobacilli was significantly increased by higher dietary calcium levels, the effect having a linear trend. Calcium intake did not change the number of fecal E. coli. The apparent absorptions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were lowered in a linear, dose-dependent fashion by the calcium level in the concentrate. Conclusion: Increased calcium intakes stimulate weight gain in dairy calves fed a combination of milk replacer, concentrate and grass hay. This calcium effect may be related to an enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli.

  17. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  18. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  19. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Suriawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs. Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  20. Minerals to dairy cows with focus on calcium and magnesium balance

    OpenAIRE

    Kronqvist, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Both clinical and subclinical deficiency of calcium and magnesium may cause problems in dairy cows. Clinical hypocalcaemia most commonly occurs at calving and onset of lactation and is associated with milk fever, while clinical hypomagnesaemia occurs under certain dietary conditions. Factors affecting the calcium and magnesium status in dairy cows were examined in this thesis. The effect of dietary magnesium (0.19 and 0.43 % of dry matter) and potassium (1.9, 2.8, and 3.7 % of dry matter)...

  1. Relationship Between Nutritional Habits and Hair Calcium Levels in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectr...

  2. Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Mario J; Kaveri Pathak; Emily K Calton

    2014-01-01

    There is a pandemic of obesity and associated chronic diseases. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have many extra-skeletal roles in human health. In this review we have summarized the current understanding of their influence on human energy balance by examining the epidemiological, clinical, animal, cellular and molecular evidence. We opine that while calcium and vitamin D are functional nutrients in the battle against obesity, there is a need for prospective human trials to tilt the balance of e...

  3. Application of Adult-Based Dietary Guidelines to Children: Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, and Policy Implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Ronette R. Briefel; Allison Hedley Dodd; Charlotte Cabili; Carol West Suitor

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations to promote healthy living, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, are intended to translate scientific knowledge into everyday practice. This report assesses the evidence base for child-focused dietary guidance, identifying new evidence as well as topics where there are gaps for developing future direction. Relatively little growth of the science base has occurred since 2004, except on a few topics—added sugars and weight, dairy foods/calcium and bone health, and sodi...

  4. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  5. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  6. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by age and gender, include: Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): The average daily level of intake that is ... nearly all (97 to 98%) healthy people. An RDA is an intake level based on scientific research ...

  7. Australian dietary targets in 1995: their feasibility and pertinence to dietary goals for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J R

    1995-10-01

    To ascertain whether the diet of young students in health-related courses conformed to Australian dietary targets for 1995 and to identify nutritional needs in view of dietary targets for 2000, 246 undergraduate students analysed their weighed diet for three or five days. Eight of ten male participants were meeting the dietary goals for 1995 for fibre and fat intake and six of ten were meeting the goals for 2000. More female participants were meeting the goals for fat, but less than half of the female were meeting the 1995 goals for fibre. Some 84 per cent of females, but only 29 percent of males, were meeting the 1995 dietary goals for sodium. Few participants derived 10 per cent or less of their energy from saturated fat or 10 per cent of their energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Substantial numbers of participants failed to meet the recommended daily intakes of zinc. calcium, magnesium and iron (females). Education of specific subgroups and modifications to food production and processing are proposed.

  8. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  9. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content Article Body If you ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

  10. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sorbitol, commonly used as a sweetener in many dietetic foods, candies, and gums; and fructose, also used ... everyone. A physician can take a brief dietary history and with a 2–3 week diary of ...

  11. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled tria...

  12. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  13. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport...

  14. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  15. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  16. Bone disease in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Szejnfeld, V L; Carvalho, A B; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1994-09-01

    The association between idiopathic hypercalciuria and osteopenia (OP) has been recently recognized. It is not established whether or not calcium intake plays a critical role in the loss of bone mass. Fifty-five calcium stone forming patients with either absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) or fasting hypercalciuria (FH), 29 males and 26 premenopausal females, were submitted to dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Calcium intake was assessed by a 72 hr dietary record. OP was detected in 20% (11/55) of patients, being more common among men, 9/26 (35%) than in women, 2/29 (7%), p < 0.05. Male FH patients presented lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than sex, weight and age-matched control (1.058 +/- 0.18 vs 1.209 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, X +/- SD, p < 0.05). OP was more frequent in FH patients, 7/20 (35%) than in AH patients 4/35 (11%), albeit the difference was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between calcium intake and BMD measurement. Six osteopenic male FH patients were further submitted to histomorphometric evaluation with tetracycline double labeling. Bone volume was lower than the controls (13.2 +/- 3.0 vs 27.2 +/- 3.7%, p < 0.05). Osteoid surfaces were reduced, although not significantly (10.1 +/- 8.2% vs 15.9 +/- 6.7%). Eroded surfaces were markedly increased (23.9 +/- 13.4 vs 4.2 +/- 1.4%, p < 0.05). The bone formation rate was very low with a complete lack of tetracycline double labeling in 4 patients. These data suggest low bone volume, tendency to low bone formation, increased bone resorption and a severe mineralization defect, consistent with normal or low bone turnover osteoporosis. PMID:7994936

  17. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  18. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  19. Calcium and vitamin D requirements for optimal bone mass during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    There remains very strong interest in the calcium and vitamin D requirements of adolescents related to bone health. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released new dietary guidelines in late 2010 for these nutrients. These guidelines were primarily based on literature published in 2009 and earlier and ...

  20. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, cal

  1. Role of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose in the absorption of calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Weidauer, T.

    1999-01-01

    The current trends in healthy eating will increase levels of bulk- forming material in the diet, such as dietary fibre and other plant foods. Depending on the complex forming of such material the availability of absorbable calcium and other minerals may be impaired. It seems that non- digestible car

  2. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  3. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  4. Effects of dietary Aspergillus meal prebiotic on turkey poults production parameters and bone qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Aspergillus meal (AM), a prebiotic on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host and have been shown to stimulate calcium and magnesium a...

  5. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    sensitivity and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were found. In conclusion, results from this PhD thesis suggest that diets prepared by low heat may reduce risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, it can currently not be concluded that AGEs are responsible...... complications. A potential pathophysiological role of dietary AGEs in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been discussed, as the contribution of dietary AGEs has been estimated to be larger than the amount of endogenously formed AGEs. Furthermore, the increased mortality associated with type 2...... diabetes and cardiovascular disease underlines the importance of identifying possible risk factors in the Western lifestyle. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if intake of dietary AGEs increases risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In an acute meal study, effects...

  6. Effect of Calcium Sources and Particle Size on Performance and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Erol Tunç

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different combination calcium sources and particle size on performance and egg shell quality in layer hens. In the experiment, 198 brown laying hens at 44 week of age were randomly assigned into 11 treatments groups. The experimental diets consisted of different calcium sources (Fine limestone, large limestone, large oyster shell and large egg shell and their different combination. The experimental unit consisted of a groups of three hens, thus each treatment was replicated six times. Different calcium sources and particle size addition to the laying hens diet had no significantly effect on body weight gain, egg production, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg specific gravity, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness and egg shell breaking strength but egg weight had significantly affected by the treatments. The significantly highest egg weight was found in laying hens fed with 50 % fine limestone and 50 % large limestone. Dietary different Ca sources had a significant effect on Ca, P and Mg as mineral contents of eggshell and tibia. In the present study, when dietary large calcium sources (limestone, oyster shell and egg shell had no effect on performance and eggshell quality parameters in laying hens. However, dietary containing at least 50 % large calcium sources had positive effect on mineral contents of tibia.

  7. Promoting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S

    1995-01-01

    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  8. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  9. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

  10. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  11. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  12. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  13. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Irshad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML. Materials and Methods: Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g, water activity (aw, Lovibond® tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA, and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Results: Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%, product pH, moisture (%, protein (%, fat (%, and water activity (aw decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. Conclusions: The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  14. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  15. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  16. The effect of supplementary calcium on blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18-30 years in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in developed countries and has an increasing trend in developing countries. There are some evidences that calcium supplementation may decrease blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular disease, but they are not conclusive and there is no agreement in this respect. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supplementary calcium on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18–30 years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five normotensive volunteers were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group received 1000 mg/day calcium (four doses of 625 mg calcium carbonate) for 1 month and the control group received placebo (dextrose). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was determined before and after intervention in supine position after 10 min of rest. Results: The mean daily calcium intake from food was 773.9 mg in treatment and 721 mg in control group (no significant difference) but in both the groups dietary calcium intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance: After calcium supplementation, the mean change of systolic blood pressure was not significant in the two groups, but diastolic blood pressure reduced in treatment group and increased in control group (−4.9 vs 2.6 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that, calcium supplementation does not have any effect on systolic blood pressure of our volunteers but can decrease diastolic blood pressure significantly and therefore it seems that calcium supplementation may be useful for people with increased diastolic blood pressure, especially for those who receive less calcium than recommended dietary allowance. PMID:26430694

  17. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  18. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could...... influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  19. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  20. Dietary xylitol in the prevention of experimental osteoporosis:beneficial effects on bone resorption, structure and biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, P.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Dietary xylitol supplementation increases bone calcium and phosphorus concentrations in healthy rats, as well as protects against the decrease of bone minerals and bone density during experimental osteoporosis. This suggests that dietary xylitol might have a favorable effect on the prevention of osteoporosis. However, before any conclusions can be drawn about the usefulness of a compound, studies including structural evaluation and biomechanical testing of ...

  1. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross sectional clinical observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Martha E.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.; Anderson, John J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated calcium supplements with elevated vascular risk, and therefore these supplements may also relate to the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. This cross sectional clinical observational study examined the association between use of calcium-containing dietary supplements and lesion volumes in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and older). Food and suppleme...

  2. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see Thiamin ) Vitamin B12 Vitamin B2 (see Riboflavin ) Vitamin B6 C Caffeine (see Weight Loss ) Calcium Carnitine Cartilage ( ... see Thiamin ) Vitamin B12 Vitamin B2 (see Riboflavin ) Vitamin B6 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K ...

  3. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  4. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  5. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  6. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  7. Vitamin D does not increase calcium absorption in young women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly said that vitamin D should be used to increase calcium absorption. We tested this statement in a dose-response study of vitamin D on calcium absorption. A total of 198 white and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, with vitamin D insufficiency, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) ng/mL, were randomized in a double-blind study to vitamin D3 400, 800, 1600, 2400 IU, or placebo. A calcium supplement was given to increase mean calcium intake at baseline from 706 mg/d to 1031 mg/d. Calcium absorption was measured at baseline and after 12 months using a single isotope method with radiocalcium45 and 100 mg of calcium. Mean baseline serum 25OHD was 13.4 ng/mL (33.5 nmol/L) and increased to 40 ng/mL (100 nmol/L) on the highest dose of 2400 IU. Using a multivariate regression analysis with significant predictors, baseline absorption, calcium intake, and weight, there was no increase in 12-month calcium absorption compared with baseline on any dose of vitamin D in either whites or African Americans. There was no significant relationship between 12-month calcium absorption and final serum 25OHD. In an analysis of calcium absorption and serum 25OHD at baseline, serum 25OHD levels were divided into groups: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, or 16 to 20 ng/mL. There was no evidence of a threshold decrease in calcium absorption or serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) amongst the lowest groups. Vitamin D doses up to 2400 IU daily did not increase calcium absorption. No threshold level of serum 25OHD for calcium absorption was found at baseline or in the longitudinal study, suggesting that active transport of calcium is saturated at very low serum 25OHD levels ng/mL. There is no need to recommend vitamin D for increasing calcium absorption in normal subjects. Very efficient calcium absorption at very low levels of serum 25OHD explains why people do not develop osteomalacia provided that dietary intakes of calcium and phosphorus are adequate. PMID

  8. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  9. Calcium requirements for Chinese adults by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance studies: an individual participant data and aggregate data meta-regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Aiping; Li Keji; Shi Haoyu; He Jingjing; Li He

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese dietary reference intakes for calcium are largely based on foreign studies.We undertook metaregression to estimate calcium requirements for Chinese adults derived from calcium balance data in Chinese adults.Methods We searched PubMed,Cochrane CENTRAL,and SinoMed from inception to March 5,2014,by using a structured search strategy.The bibliographies of any relevant papers and journals were also screened for potentially eligible studies.We extracted a standardized data set from studies in Chinese adults that reported calcium balance data.The relationship between calcium intake and output was examined by an individual participant data (IPD) and aggregate data (AD) meta-regression.Results We identified 11 metabolic studies in Chinese adults within 18-60 years of age.One hundred and forty-one IPD (n=35) expressed as mg/d,127 IPD (n=32) expressed as mg·kg body wt-1·d-1,and 44 AD (n=132) expressed as mg/d were collected.The models predicted a neutral calcium balance (defined as calcium output (Y) equal to calcium intake (C)) at intakes of 460 mg/d (Y=0.60C+183.98) and 8.27 mg·kg body wt-1·d-1 (Y=0.60C+3.33)for IPD,or 409 mg/d (Y=0.66C+139.00) for AD.Calcium requirements at upper intakes were higher than that at lower intakes in all these models.Conclusion Calcium requirement for Chinese adults 18-60 years of age approximately ranges between 400 mg/d and 500 mg/d when consuming traditional plant-based Chinese diets.

  10. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  11. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  12. Dietary Teatment of Galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    H. Ehsani; M Kabiri

    1986-01-01

    For the time being, dietary treatment is the only available therapy for Galactosemia. This article indicates, with regard to the daily requirements of normal infants and children for protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals and vitamins, the possibilities of preparing appropriate diets for Galactosemic patients. Few instructions for preparing lactose and galactose free infant foods using MBF formula have been given. A list of foods not allowed for Galactosemic patients is also presented.

  13. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  14. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic f...

  15. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  16. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  17. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J;

    2011-01-01

    of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  18. Current data with inulin-type fructans and calcium, targeting bone health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxam, Véronique

    2007-11-01

    In humans, there is increasing evidence that the colon can absorb nutritionally significant amounts of calcium, and this process may be susceptible to dietary manipulation by fermentable substrates, especially inulin-type fructans. Inulin-type fructans can modulate calcium absorption because they are resistant to hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and are fermented in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids, which in turn reduce luminal pH and modify calcium speciation, and hence solubility, or exert a direct effect on the mucosal transport pathway. Quite a few intervention studies showed an improvement of calcium absorption in adolescents or young adults by inulin-type fructans. In the same way, a positive effect has been reported in older women.

  19. Dietary supplements and disease prevention - a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Manson, JoAnn E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Sesso, Howard D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address these issues, dietary supplements and/or food fortification could help meet requirements for individuals at risk of deficiencies. For example, supplementation with vitamin A and iron in developing countries, where women of reproductive age, infants and children often have deficiencies; with folic acid among women of reproductive age and during pregnancy; with vitamin D among infants and children; and with calcium and vitamin D to ensure bone health among adults aged ≥65 years. Intense debate surrounds the benefits of individual high-dose micronutrient supplementation among well-nourished individuals because the alleged beneficial effects on chronic diseases are not consistently supported. Daily low-dose multivitamin supplementation has been linked to reductions in the incidence of cancer and cataracts, especially among men. Baseline nutrition is an important consideration in supplementation that is likely to modify its effects. Here, we provide a detailed summary of dietary supplements and health outcomes in both developing and developed countries to help guide decisions about dietary supplement recommendations. PMID:27150288

  20. Regulation of the murine renal vitamin D receptor by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Kevin D.; Zella, Julia B.; Prahl, Jean M.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2003-01-01

    Renal vitamin D receptor (VDR) is required for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-[1,25(OH)2D3]-induced renal reabsorption of calcium and for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced 1,25(OH)2D3 24-hydroxylase. The long-term effect of vitamin D and dietary calcium on the expression of renal VDR was examined in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete mice were maintained on diets containing 0.02%, 0.25%, 0.47%, and 1.20% calcium with or without 50 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 ...

  1. Zeolite A effect on calcium homeostasis in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, D; Wilkens, M R; Liesegang, A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 2 different concentrations of zeolite A on calcium homeostasis. Seventeen growing goats were divided into 3 groups. Whereas the control group (5 animals) received no supplementation, 2 treatment groups were supplemented with zeolite A at either 1.2 (6 animals) or 1.6 g/kg BW (6 animals), respectively. Blood and urine samples were continually drawn and bone mineral density was measured weekly by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After 3 wks, the animals were slaughtered and samples were taken from the rumen, duodenum, and kidneys. Plasma concentrations of phosphate ( Ussing chamber technique and quantification of RNA and protein expression of genes known to be involved in active calcium absorption did not reveal any stimulating effect of zeolite. Plasma calcium concentrations were not altered, probably because of the sufficient dietary calcium supply. However due to the effects of zeolite on 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, bone metabolism and serum concentrations of phosphate and magenesium shown in the present study, potential negative long-termin effects on the animals should be considered whenever rations with zeolite are designed. PMID:27136016

  2. Dietary Intake of Some Essential Micronutrients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. Method Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours recall method for three consecutive days. The food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated in accordance with the Chinese food composition table. The consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated in reference to the Chinese RDAs. Results The average intakes of niacin, ascorbic acid and vitamin E were sufficient, whereas that of zinc, selenium and thiamin were between 80% and 90% RDAs. The consumption of calcium, retinol equivalent and riboflavin was low compared with the Chinese RDAs. Calcium was the most insufficient nutrient in Chinese diet. Conclusion Food fortification seems necessary for improving the nutritional status of some micronutrients in China.

  3. Health effects of dietary fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Ötles; Selin Ozgoz

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water i...

  4. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  5. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  6. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  7. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  8. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  9. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  11. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  12. Potassium inhibits dietary salt-induced transforming growth factor-beta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wei-Zhong; Aaron, Kristal; Wang, Pei-Xuan; Sanders, Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Human and animal studies demonstrate an untoward effect of excess dietary NaCl (salt) intake on cardiovascular function and life span. The endothelium in particular augments the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, a fibrogenic growth factor, in response to excess dietary salt intake. This study explored the initiating mechanism that regulates salt-induced endothelial cell production of TGF-beta. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing different amounts of NaCl and potassium for 4 days. A bioassay for TGF-beta demonstrated increased (35.2%) amounts of active TGF-beta in the medium of aortic ring segments from rats on the high-salt diet compared with rats maintained on a 0.3% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel inhibited dietary salt-induced vascular production of TGF-beta but did not affect production of TGF-beta by ring segments from rats on the low-salt diet. Immunohistochemical and Western analyses demonstrated the alpha subunit of the calcium-activated potassium channel in endothelial cells. Increasing medium [K+] inhibited production of dietary salt-induced vascular production levels of total and active TGF-beta but did not alter TGF-beta production by aortic rings from rats on the 0.3% NaCl diet. Increasing dietary potassium content decreased urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the high-salt diet but did not change urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the low-salt diet. The findings demonstrated an interesting interaction between the dietary intake of potassium and excess NaCl and further showed the fundamental role of the endothelial calcium-activated potassium channel in the vascular response to excess salt intake.

  13. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  14. Phytate intake and molar ratios of phytate to zinc, iron and calcium in the diets of people in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, G.; Li, Y.; Jin, Y.; Zhai, F.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the phytate intake and molar ratios of phytate to calcium, iron and zinc in the diets of people in China. Design: 2002 China Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey is a cross-sectional nationwide representative survey on nutrition and health. The information on dietary intakes w

  15. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet.The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1) modifying the average diet according to the Danish food based dietary guidelines, 2) and adjusting to ensure an iso-energy content and a nutrient content according to the Nordic Nutrient Recommendations. Af...

  16. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  17. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Aliu, Oluseyi; Griffin, Ian J; Pam, Sunday D; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Imade, Godwin E; Abrams, Steven A

    2009-05-01

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without rickets. Nineteen children with rickets and 15 age-matched control children, aged 2-10 y, were given calcium (600 mg/d) and ergocalciferol (1250 microg/wk). After 6 wk, calcium and zinc absorption were measured in both groups with and without maize porridge using stable isotopes. One week later, absorption measurements were repeated to assess the effects of enzymatic dephytinization and fermentation of the maize porridge. The phytate concentration of maize porridge (3.87 +/- 0.38 g/kg wet weight) was reduced by enzymatic dephytinization (2.83 +/- 0.41 g/kg; P porridge. Calcium absorption was greater with a meal (61.3 +/- 25.1%) than without (27.8 +/- 14.6%; P porridge, but zinc absorption was reduced. Enzymatic dephytinization increased zinc absorption. Multiple strategies may be required to optimize calcium and zinc absorption in deficient populations.

  18. Correlates of Dietary Intake in Youth with Diabetes: Results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortsov, Andrey; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore demographic, socioeconomic, diabetes-related, and behavioral correlates of dietary intake of dairy, fruit, vegetables, sweetened soda, fiber, calcium, and saturated fat in youth with diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of youth 10-22 years old with type 1 (T1DM, n = 2,176) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, n = 365). Association…

  19. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  20. Comparing the calcium bioavailability from two types of nano-sized enriched milk using in-vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Rasti, Babak; Manap, Yazid

    2017-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability from two types of enriched (calcium citrate and calcium carbonate) milks homogenized to a nano-sized particle distribution has been studied among 48 female Sprauge-dawley rats. Skim milk powder was enriched with some essential nutrients (Inulin, DHA & EPA, vitamins B6, K1, and D3) as enhancers of calcium bioavailability according to recommended dietary allowances of the West European and North American. Ovariectomized and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats were used as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model, respectively. Although, nano-sized enriched milk powders had the greatest calcium bioavailability among the groups, but bioavailability of nano-sized calcium carbonate-enriched-milk was significantly (P<0.05) better than nano-sized calcium citrate-enriched-milk. Moreover, the trends were similar for bone calcium, strength and morphology. Therefore, based on the current results the calcium carbonate nano-sized enriched milk could be an effective enriched milk powder in ovariectomized-osteoporosis and ovariectomized rats as a model of menopause-osteoporosis and menopause women. PMID:27507516

  1. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  2. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  3. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  4. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  5. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  6. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  7. The effect of interactions between dietary egg white protein and zinc on body weight, bone growth and tissue trace metals in the 30-day-old rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwork, J C; Johnson, L K; Milne, D B; Sandstead, H H

    1983-07-01

    Nine groups of 30-day-old rats were fed different diets, which contained 8, 15 or 20% egg white (equivalent to 6.0, 11.3 and 15.0% protein, respectively) each at 3 levels of zinc (6, 12 and 18 ppm zinc) for 30 days. The rats consuming the 6.0% protein, regardless of zinc intake, gained less weight than the groups fed 11.3 or 15.0% protein. Plasma zinc was not influenced by dietary egg white protein content, whereas, plasma zinc levels were lower in the rats fed 6 ppm dietary zinc compared to those fed 12 or 18 ppm zinc. Of the liver trace metals measured, only iron appeared to be influenced by an egg white protein-zinc interaction. Increasing dietary egg white protein led to increased concentrations of liver zinc and magnesium. Dietary zinc levels had no effect on the concentration of these metals in the liver. Liver calcium and copper concentrations were not significantly influenced by either dietary zinc or egg white protein. Femur weights and lengths were lower in the rats fed 6.0% than in those fed 11.3 or 15.0% protein diet but were unaffected by dietary zinc. Femur width was related to dietary protein and zinc. Dietary protein and zinc were interrelated in their affect on femur zinc levels. Femur zinc concentrations increased with increasing dietary zinc levels. Also femur zinc levels decreased with increasing dietary protein content. Other femur metal (copper, iron and calcium) concentrations were higher in rats fed the low level versus the higher levels of protein, but were not influenced by dietary zinc. These results show that dietary zinc and egg white protein are interrelated with regard to their effect on body and femur growth and tissue trace metal content.

  8. Diet calcium level but not calcium supplement particle size affects bone density and mechanical properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Martin, Berdine R; Legette, Leecole L; Lachcik, Pamela J; Welch, Jo; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-07-01

    Calcium (Ca) supplements, especially Ca carbonate (CaCO3), are the main alternative sources of dietary Ca and an important part of a treatment regimen for osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disorder of aging and menopause. In a female ovariectomized (OVX) rat model for studying postmenopausal osteoporosis, we tested the hypothesis that a small compared with a large particle size of CaCO3 (13.0- vs. 18.5-mum geometric diameter) would result in increased Ca balance and subsequently bone mass and that this would be affected by dietary Ca level. We used 6-mo-old rats that were OVX either at 6 or 3 mo of age as models of early or stable menopausal status, respectively. The rats received semipurified diets that contained either 0.4 or 0.2% dietary Ca provided from CaCO3 of 2 particle sizes. A group of Sham-operated rats with intact ovaries served as control and were fed 0.4% dietary Ca from large particles. Estrogen deficiency as a result of ovariectomy had an adverse effect on bone density, mineral content, and bone mechanical properties (P < 0.001). Reducing dietary Ca from 0.4 to 0.2% resulted in significant adverse effects on bone density and mechanical properties (P < 0.001). The particle size of CaCO3 did not affect total Ca balance, bone dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography indices, bone ash and Ca content, or the mechanical determinants of bone strength. We conclude that a decrease in particle size of CaCO3 to 70% of that typically found in Ca supplements does not provide a benefit to overall Ca metabolism or bone characteristics and that the amount of Ca consumed is of greater influence in enhancing Ca nutrition and skeletal strength.

  9. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  10. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Vitoria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. Objective: To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. Methods: We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. Results: The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40159.68 mg/L. In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L. Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Discussion: Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium.

  11. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

    2008-01-15

    A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

  12. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  13. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn M Wilson; Edward L Giovannucci; Lorelei A Mucci

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease.In this review,we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer.We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors:obesity and weight change,physical activity,smoking,antioxidant intake,vitamin D and calcium,and coffee intake.

  14. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer. We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors: obesity and weight change, physical activity, smoking, antioxidant intake, vitamin D and calcium, and coffee intake.

  15. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness. PMID:7488645

  16. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  17. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  18. Calcium Fructoborate for Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Biţă, Andrei; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Croitoru, Octavian; Rău, Gabriela; Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Florescu, Dan Nicolae; Neamţu, Johny; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2016-08-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CF), a natural sugar-borate ester found in fresh fruits and vegetables, is a source of soluble boron. CF contains three forms of borate (diester, monoester, and boric acid) and all are biologically active, both at the intracellular (as free boric acid) and extracellular level (as fructose-borate diester and monoester). At the cellular and molecular level, CF is superior to the boric acid/borate, exhibiting a complex "protective" effect against inflammatory response. CF is commercially available in the USA as a "nature-identical" complex, an active compound for dietary supplements. It provides effective and safe support against the discomfort and lack of flexibility associated with osteoarticular conditions (arthritis and joint degeneration), and improves Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) and McGill indexes. In addition, orally administered CF is effective in ameliorating symptoms of physiological response to stress, including inflammation of the mucous membranes, discomfort associated with osteoarthritis disorders, and bone loss, and also for supporting cardiovascular health. Clinical studies have exhibited the ability of CF to significantly modulate molecular markers associated with inflammatory mechanisms, mainly on the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMID:26686846

  19. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  20. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. CONCEI�O

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  1. Dietary Polyphenols as Potential Remedy for Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    With increasing life expectancy as a result of better quality of life and improved health care, the incidence of aging related diseases and disorders is heading toward epidemic proportions. Dementia, a spectrum of neurological diseases associated with aging, is an increasingly prevalent disease. No cure exists yet for dementia; however, there are many potential candidates for treatment of dementia that merit more exploration. Polyphenols, which constitute one such class of compounds, are dietary agents that are globally found in commonly consumed food. Many processes that are associated with the pathophysiology of dementia can be modulated by polyphenols. Polyphenolic compounds can alleviate oxidative stress by acting as direct scavengers of free radicals and clearing superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and by increasing the level of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase. They also chelate metal ions to prevent free radical formation. Polyphenols can also combat inflammation by affecting transcription factors such as NF-κB. Some polyphenols may have the potential to inhibit excitotoxicity by regulating intracellular calcium ion concentration, inhibiting glutamate receptors and increasing glutamate reuptake at the synapse. The cognitive decline in dementia due to decreased availability of acetylcholine can also be countered by polyphenols that inhibit acetyl-cholinesterase activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that increasing the consumption of polyphenol rich food may alleviate the effects of dementia. Moreover, their effects on controlling multiple mechanisms that are associated with dementia may also prevent or slow down the onset and progress of this devastating disease. PMID:27651247

  2. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  3. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  4. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognizing Cataracts Health Capsules Predicting Response to Breast Cancer Drugs Volunteers Needed ... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that bottle ...

  5. Dietary intakes of essential trace elements. Results from total diet studies supported by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many countries were lower than the dietary requirements. (author)

  6. A study of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid S Almurshed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary nutrient intake of pregnant women. The relationship between dietary intake and pregnancy outcome was also studied. Method: A total of 114 pregnant women were studied, using systematic random sampling. Results : The percentages of the mean nutrient intake below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA for pregnant women were as the follows: 51.8%, 93.9%, 82.5% and 98.2% for energy, vitamin B1, calcium and iron, respectively. Moreover, 13.2% of the women experienced some form of pica. Using height and mid-arm circumferences, about 2.8% and 4.4% were seen to be undernourished respectively. Conclusion: Saudi pregnant women need guidance in selecting nutrient dense foods to reduce maternal and outcome health hazards.

  7. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    ), and dietary fibre did not improve this result. During VLCD with fibre hunger ratings were significantly lower than during VLCD without fibre (fibre effect, ANOVA; P less than 0.01). Bowel movements decreased from 1.9/day on habitual diet to 0.7/day on VLCD without fibre, but increased to 1.0/day by fibre...... supplement (fibre effect, P less than 0.01). No effect of fibre supplementation to VLCD was found on satiety, consistency of faeces and flatulence. The supplement of dietary fibre did not influence plasma concentrations of divalent cations as calcium, iron or magnesium, nor did it add any lowering effect...... on plasma glucose, cholesterol or triglyceride to that of VLCD. In conclusion, the supplement of dietary fibre to VLCD may improve compliance by reducing hunger and increasing the number of bowel movements, without impairment of absorption of divalent cations....

  8. Dietary intervention in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Jamison, Jennifer R.

    1987-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a disabling disease prevalent in modern society. Dietary prevention may be possible in a subgroup of individuals who appear to suffer food intolerance; dietary intervention, as an adjunct to other management strategies, may be useful in modifying the inflammatory response. The former suggestion is supported by anecdotal evidence; the latter by some in vitro experimentation which implicates arachidonic acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid tissue inflammatio...

  9. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  10. Calcium-41 as a long-term biological tracer for bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, David; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.; Sacco-Gibson, Nancy; Peterson, David P.

    1990-12-01

    The use of 41Ca (half-life 1 × 10 5 yr) as a tracer for studying calcium metabolism in living systems is compared to the shorter-lived radionuclides 45Ca (165 d) and 47Ca (45 d) and the stable isotopes 42Ca and 44Ca. The feasibility of using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 41Ca for studying multi-year calcium resorption in humans was tested as part of a companion study that used 45Ca to measure the effects of dietary cadmium on calcium metabolism in dogs. It was shown that Ca resorbed from prelabeled bones correlates well with 45Ca for a period of 28 weeks. The advantage of 41Ca is that, even with a negligible radiation dose, it can be measured by AMS long after the 45Ca becomes unmeasurable.

  11. Dietary changes among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, G; Murphy, S; Shumay, D M; Kakai, H

    2001-03-01

    Given the limited scientific knowledge about dietary factors that affect cancer recurrence, dietary guidelines for cancer survivors are similar to general recommendations on healthy eating. This study explored the patterns of and motivation for, dietary changes among cancer patients. We conducted in-person interviews with 143 cancer survivors who were chosen from a mail survey on complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients. We applied qualitative analysis using the software package NUD*IST to sort and code the transcribed interviews. The majority of dietary changes reported by 69 cancer patients agreed with current nutritional recommendations, such as decreasing meat and fat intake and increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruits. However, many diet changers also reported the intake of herbal and vitamin supplements, many with unproven effects. The major themes for changing diet were hopes that nutrition would increase well-being, maintain health and prevent cancer recurrence and beliefs that foods that cause or prevent cancer should be avoided and increased, respectively. Many cancer patients use non-scientific reasons when deciding on dietary changes and supplement use. Increasing communication with health care providers may prevent the use of extreme diets, unproven and possibly harmful supplements and reduce exaggerated hopes related to the benefits of a particular dietary regimen. PMID:11827263

  12. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  13. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (Pcopper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  14. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Moen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and lactation. We used data on dietary digestibility, protein, calcium and phosphorus content, and seasonal patterns in body mass to predict the energy, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances of a "generic" male and female caribou. Antler growth in males increased energy requirements during antler growth by 8 to 16%, depending on the efficiency with which energy was used for antler growth. Female energy requirements for antler growth were proportionately much smaller because of the smaller size of female antlers. Protein requirements for antler growth in both males and females were met by forage intake. Calcium and phosphorus must be resorbed from bone during peak antler growth in males, when > 25 g/day of calcium and > 12 g/day of phosphorus are being deposited in antlers. Females are capable of meeting calcium needs during antler growth without bone resorption, but phosphorus was resorbed from bone during the final stages of antler mineralization. After energy, phosphorus was most likely to limit growth of antlers for both males and females in our simulations. Input parameters can be easily changed to represent caribou from specific geographic regions in which dietary nutrient content or body mass patterns differ from those in our "generic" caribou. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the evolutionary basis for development of antlers in female caribou, and the relationship between body mass and antler size in the Cervidae.

  15. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  16. Mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J

    2013-06-25

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  17. The role of natural dietary compounds in colorectal cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olejnik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the preventive and therapeutic potential of natural dietary compounds against colorectal cancer. The chemopreventive properties of many natural food matrices and purified bioactive compounds have been evaluated. Prominent among the dietary constituents that are the focus of interest in colorectal cancer chemoprevention are dietary fiber, probiotics and prebiotics, methionine and folate, vitamins D and E, calcium and selenium, anthocyanins, procyanidins, phytoestrogens, isothiocyanates, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, and resveratrol. Laboratory studies provide strong evidence for the antitumor potential of these dietary agents. The mechanisms of their chemopreventive action are associated with, for example, the modulation of gene expression involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and the suppression of metastasis and angiogenesis. The anti-carcinogenic properties of these food compounds are also related to inhibition of many inflammatory agents, including the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. [i]In vitro[/i] and animal studies showed that most of them can protect against various carcinogens mediating colon cancer and suggest that they can also sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiation. Although experimental studies have clearly demonstrated their anticancer activity, not many clinical trials have provided satisfying results, not only because of the lack of efficiency of the chemopreventive agents, but also due to the lack of precise biomarkers monitoring their effects on colon cancer. Despite the lack of strong evidence for the anticancer potential of natural food compounds, clinicians have high hopes for using these factors in colon cancer chemoprevention and decreasing the incidence of this common malignancy in the future.

  18. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2-2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios 2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.

  19. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

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    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  20. Fat digestion in veal calves fed milk replacers low or high in calcium and containing either casein or soy protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuangklang, C; Wensing, Th; Van den Broek, L; Jittakhot, S; Beynen, A C

    2004-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the inhibitory effect of dietary soy protein versus casein on fat digestion in veal calves would be smaller when diets were fed with high instead of low calcium content. Male calves, 1 wk of age, were fed 1 of 4 experimental milk replacers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. There were 19 animals per dietary group. The milk replacers contained either casein or soy protein isolate as variable protein source and were either low or high in calcium. Body weight gain was not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Soy protein isolate versus casein significantly reduced apparent fat digestibility. High versus low calcium intake also depressed fat digestion. The protein effect was smaller (2.9% units) for the high than the low calcium diets (3.6% units), but the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Soy protein isolate versus casein raised fecal bile acid excretion and so did high versus low calcium intake. The difference in bile acid excretion between the soy and casein containing diets was significantly greater for the high than low calcium diets. The absorption of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium was higher for the casein diets than for the soy-containing diets. This study shows for the first time that soy protein isolate versus casein depressed fat digestion and raised fecal bile acid excretion in veal calves.

  1. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P DCP were greater (P DCP diets than in pigs fed calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( PDCP. Basal, MCP, and DCP diets had greater ATTD of P than the other diets, and inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the diets.

  2. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  3. Like Mother, Like Daughter? Dietary and Non-Dietary Bone Fracture Risk Factors in Mothers and Their Daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila SOBAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differences between mothers and daughters regarding dietary and non-dietary risk factors for bone fractures and osteoporosis.Methods: The study was carried out in 2007-2010 on 712 mothers (29-59 years and daughters (12-21 years family pairs. In the sub-sample (170 family pairs bone mineral density (BMD was measured for the forearm by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The consumption of dairy products was determined with a semi-quantitative food fre-quency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca and calcium intake from the daily diet was calculated.Results: The presence of risk factors for bone fractures in mothers and daughters was significantly correlated. The Spearman rank coefficient for dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.87 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.94 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.82 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.54 (P>0.05 in upper tercile of BMD and for non-dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.83 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.86 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.93 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.65 (P<0.05 in upper tercile of BMD.Conclusions: Our results confirm the role of the family environment for bone health and document the stronger ef-fect of negative factors of the family environment as compared to other positive factors on bone fracture risk.

  4. Serotonin and calcium homeostasis during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S R; Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Hernandez, L L

    2016-07-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation puts significant, sudden demands on maternal energy and calcium reserves. Although most mammals are able to effectively manage these metabolic adaptations, the lactating dairy cow is acutely susceptible to transition-related disorders because of the high amounts of milk being produced. Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic disorder that occurs at the onset of lactation. Hypocalcemia is also known to result in poor animal welfare conditions. In addition, cows that develop hypocalcemia are more susceptible to a host of other negative health outcomes. Different feeding tactics, including manipulating the dietary cation-anion difference and administering low-calcium diets, are commonly used preventative strategies. Despite these interventions, the incidence of hypocalcemia in the subclinical form is still as high as 25% to 30% in the United States dairy cow population, with a 5% to 10% incidence of clinical hypocalcemia. In addition, although there are various effective treatments in place, they are administered only after the cow has become noticeably ill, at which point there is already significant metabolic damage. This emphasizes the need for developing alternative prevention strategies, with the monoamine serotonin implicated as a potential therapeutic target. Our research in rodents has shown that serotonin is critical for the induction of mammary parathyroid hormone-related protein, which is necessary for the mobilization of bone tissue and subsequent restoration of maternal calcium stores during lactation. We have shown that circulating serotonin concentrations are positively correlated with serum total calcium on the first day of lactation in dairy cattle. Administration of serotonin's immediate precursor through feeding, injection, or infusion to various mammalian species has been shown to increase circulating serotonin concentrations, with positive effects on other components of maternal metabolism. Most recently

  5. Optimizing calcium selective fluorimetric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Gniadek, Marianna; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2015-11-01

    Recently it was shown that optical nanosensors based on alternating polymers e.g. poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) were characterized by a linear dependence of emission intensity on logarithm of concentration over a few of orders of magnitude range. In this work we focus on the material used to prepare calcium selective nanosensors. It is shown that alternating polymer nanosensors offer competitive performance in the absence of calcium ionophore, due to interaction of the nanospheres building blocks with analyte ions. The emission increase corresponds to increase of calcium ions contents in the sample within the range from 10(-4) to 10(-1) M. Further improvement in sensitivity (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) M) and selectivity can be achieved by incorporating calcium ionophore in the nanospheres. The optimal results were obtained for core-shell nanospheres, where the core was prepared from poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) and the outer layer from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene). Thus obtained chemosensors were showing linear dependence of emission on logarithm of calcium ions concentration within the range from 10(-7) to 10(-1) M. PMID:26452839

  6. Influence of Hydrocolloids (Dietary Fibers) on Lipid Digestion of Protein-Stabilized Emulsions: Comparison of Neutral, Anionic, and Cationic Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dingkui; Yang, Xiaojun; Gao, Songran; Yao, Junhu; McClements, David Julian

    2016-07-01

    The impact of dietary fibers on lipid digestion within the gastrointestinal tract depends on their molecular and physicochemical properties. In this study, the influence of the electrical characteristics of dietary fibers on their ability to interfere with the digestion of protein-coated lipid droplets was investigated using an in vitro small intestine model. Three dietary fibers were examined: cationic chitosan; anionic alginate; neutral locust bean gum (LBG). The particle size, ζ-potential, microstructure, and apparent viscosity of β-lactoglobulin stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing different types and levels of dietary fiber were measured before and after lipid digestion. The rate and extent of lipid digestion depended on polysaccharide type and concentration. At relatively low dietary fiber levels (0.1 to 0.2 wt%), the initial lipid digestion rate was only reduced by chitosan, but the final extent of lipid digestion was unaffected by all 3 dietary fibers. At relatively high dietary fiber levels (0.4 wt%), alginate and chitosan significantly inhibited lipid hydrolysis, whereas LBG did not. The impact of chitosan on lipid digestion was attributed to its ability to promote fat droplet aggregation through bridging flocculation, thereby retarding access of the lipase to the droplet surfaces. The influence of alginate was mainly ascribed to its ability to sequester calcium ions and promote depletion flocculation. PMID:27300319

  7. Antitumor Immunity and Dietary Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise R. Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which natural dietary compounds exert their antitumor effects have been the focus of a large number of research efforts in recent years. Induction of apoptosis by inhibition of cell proliferative pathways is one of the common means of cell death employed by these dietary compounds. However, agents that can activate an antitumor immune response in addition to a chemotherapeutic effect may be useful adjuvants or alternative therapies for the treatment of cancer. The focus of this review is to highlight representative dietary compounds, namely Withania somnifera, Panax ginseng, curcumin and resveratrol with special emphasis on their antitumor immune mechanism of action. Each of these dietary compounds and their sources has a history of safe human use as food or in herbal medicine traditions, potentially making them ideal therapeutics. Here we report the recent advances in the cellular immune mechanisms utilized by these compounds to induce antitumor immunity. Taken together, these findings provide a new perspective for exploiting novel dietary compounds as chemoimmunotherapeutic anti-cancer agents.

  8. Presenilin promotes dietary copper uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Southon

    Full Text Available Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake.

  9. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  10. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  11. Java project on periodontal diseases: effect of vitamin C/calcium threonate/citrus flavonoids supplementation on periodontal pathogens, CRP and HbA1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Amaliya; M.L. Laine; B.G. Loos; U. van der Velden

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a periodontally diseased rural population deprived from regular dental care and having poor dietary conditions, the effect of vitamin C/calcium threonate/citrus flavonoids (VitC/Ca/Fl) supplementation on subgingival microbiota and plasma levels of vitamin C, HbA1c and hsCRP. M

  12. Supplemental calcium attenuates the colitis-related increase in diarrhea, intestinal permeability, and extracellular matrix breakdown in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepens, M.A.; Schonewille, A.J.; Vink, C.; Schothorst, E.M. van; Kramer, E.; Hendriks, T.; Brummer, R.J.; Keijer, J.; Meer, R. van der; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown in several controlled rat and human infection studies that dietary calcium improves intestinal resistance and strengthens the mucosal barrier. Reinforcement of gut barrier function may alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of supplemental cal

  13. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  14. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  15. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A;

    2016-01-01

    , followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...

  16. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  17. Life Course Dietary Patterns and Bone Health in Later Life in a British Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kate A; Prentice, Ann; Kuh, Diana L; Adams, Judith E; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for the contribution of individual foods and nutrients to bone health is weak. Few studies have considered hypothesis-based dietary patterns and bone health. We investigated whether a protein-calcium-potassium-rich (PrCaK-rich) dietary pattern over the adult life course, was positively associated with bone outcomes at 60 to 64 years of age. Diet diaries were collected at ages 36, 46, 53, and 60 to 64 years in 1263 participants (661 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. DXA and pQCT measurements were obtained at age 60 to 64 years, including size-adjusted bone mineral content (SA-BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). A food-based dietary pattern best explaining dietary calcium, potassium, and protein intakes (g/1000 kcal) was identified using reduced rank regression. Dietary pattern Z-scores were calculated for each individual, at each time point. Individual trajectories in dietary pattern Z-scores were modeled to summarize changes in Z-scores over the study period. Regression models examined associations between these trajectories and bone outcomes at age 60 to 64 years, adjusting for baseline dietary pattern Z-score and other confounders. A consistent PrCaK-rich dietary pattern was identified within the population, over time. Mean ± SD dietary pattern Z-scores at age 36 years and age 60 to 64 years were -0.32 ± 0.97 and 2.2 ± 1.5 (women) and -0.35 ± 0.98 and 1.7 ± 1.6 (men), respectively. Mean trajectory in dietary pattern Z-scores ± SD was 0.07 ± 0.02 units/year. Among women, a 0.02-SD unit/year higher trajectory in dietary pattern Z-score over time was associated with higher SA-BMC (spine 1.40% [95% CI, 0.30 to 2.51]; hip 1.35% [95% CI, 0.48 to 2.23]), and vBMD (radius 1.81% [95% CI, 0.13 to 3.50]) at age 60 to 64 years. No statistically significant associations were found in men. During adulthood, an increasing score for a dietary pattern rich in protein, calcium, and potassium

  18. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  19. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  20. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  1. The effects of dietary phosphorus and vitamin D3 on the cadmium accumulation in the tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dietary Ca and vitamin D3 on the Cd accumulation in the liver and the kidney were observed and discussed in relation with the responses to the intestinal Ca transport and vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP). 1. Ca transport in rat duodenum was significantly increased by vitamin D3, especially in rats raised on low P diet. However, this effect was reduced in Cd-exposed rats. 2. 45Ca binding activity of the smaller CaBP (PIII), which was found predominantly in the duodenum and jejunum was increased by low P diet. However, in Cd-exposed rats, 45Ca binding activity was suppressed significantly. On the other hand, the larger CaBP (PII) found mainly in jejunum and ileum showed a good response to vitamin D3, too, but not influenced by dietary P and Cd levels as the smaller CaBP. 3. Renal Cd accumulation was influenced by neither dietary P nor vitamin D3. However, hepatic Cd accumulation was significantly decreased in vitamin D3 repleted rat, although it was not influenced by dietary P. These results suggest that dietary P modulates the inhibitory effect of Cd on intestinal vitamin D-stimulated Ca transport, presumably through the inhibition of Ca binding to the smaller CaBP (PIII). But Cd accumulation in the liver was decreased in vitamin D repleted groups, presumably, vitamin D dependent CaBP acts as the barrier in the Cd-exposed rats. (author)

  2. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG...... one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  3. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fiber URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary ... might reduce the effectiveness of some types of cancer chemotherapy. Keep in mind that some ingredients found ...

  5. Zinc, iron and calcium are major limiting nutrients in the complementary diets of rural Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine; Chege, Peter; Kimiywe, Judith; Wiesmann, Doris; Hotz, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Poor quality infant and young child (IYC) diets contribute to chronic under-nutrition. To design effective IYC nutrition interventions, an understanding of the extent to which realistic food-based strategies can improve dietary adequacy is required. We collected 24-h dietary recalls from children 6-23 months of age (n = 401) in two rural agro-ecological zones of Kenya to assess the nutrient adequacy of their diets. Linear programming analysis (LPA) was used to identify realistic food-based recommendations (FBRs) and to determine the extent to which they could ensure intake adequacy for 12 nutrients. Mean nutrient densities of the IYC diets were below the desired level for four to nine of the 10 nutrients analysed, depending on the age group. Mean dietary diversity scores ranged from 2.1 ± 1.0 among children 6-8 months old in Kitui County to 3.7 ± 1.1 food groups among children 12-23 months old in Vihiga County. LPA confirmed that dietary adequacy for iron, zinc and calcium will be difficult to ensure using only local foods as consumed. FBRs for breastfed children that promote the daily consumption of cows'/goats' milk (added to porridges), fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and meat, fish or eggs, 3-5 times per week can ensure dietary adequacy for nine and seven of 12 nutrients for children 6-11 and 12-23 months old, respectively. For these rural Kenyan children, even though dietary adequacy could be improved via realistic changes in habitual food consumption practices, alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy at the population level. PMID:26778799

  6. Calcium and Vitamin D Deficiency in Vietnamese: Recommendations for an Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Danh; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Binh, Pham Thanh; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, reports have described various roles of vitamin D in human health. Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a significant public health problem throughout the world. Even in the Vietnamese context, it has been reported to be present in a majority of the population in spite of the wide availability of sunlight. Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients for bone health. The proposed health benefits of vitamin D and calcium have attracted increased interest from health care professionals, the media, and the public. The aim of this paper is to summarize the published data on vitamin D and calcium intake as well as on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Vietnamese population, and to provide recommendations for a proper strategy to control calcium and vitamin D deficiency in this population. The national authorities should adopt policies aimed at improving vitamin D and calcium status by using measures such as dietary recommendations, food fortification, vitamin D supplementation, and judicious sun exposure. PMID:27117844

  7. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... NDI and any other dietary ingredients in the dietary supplement ``have been present in the food supply... notification requirements for dietary supplements that contain an NDI (62 FR 49886, September 23, 1997). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements:...

  8. Effects on anionic salts in a pre-partum dairy ration on calcium metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Van Dijk

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of anionic salts in the transition diet on serum and urine calcium at calving and on peripartal health, subsequent milk production and fertility performance were studied in a well-managed, high-producing Friesland dairy herd. Over a period of a year, approximately 21 days before the expected date of calving, 28 pre-partum heifers and 44 multiparous dry cows were randomly allocated within parity to 1 of 2 transition diets, designated control and experimental anionic diets. The anionic diet contained the same quantities of the basic transition ration fed to the control group as well as a standard anionic salt mixture containing 118 g NH4Cl, 36 g (NH42SO4 and 68 g MgSO4 (total 222 g per animal per day. This reduced the DCAD to -11.68 mEq/100 g dietary dry matter compared to +13.57 for the control diet. Blood and urine were randomly sampled from 7 to 8 animals within each category within 3 hours post-partum. Serum calcium (total and ionised and creatinine, urine calcium and creatinine and the fractional clearance of calcium were assessed. Relevant clinical, milk production, and fertility data were collected. The total serum calcium (2.07 versus 1.60 mmol/ , serum ionised calcium (1.12 vs 1.02 mmol/ , urine calcium (0.92 vs 0.10 mmol/ and the fractional clearance of calcium (1.88 vs 0.09 % were significantly higher (P <0.01 at calving for multiparous cows fed the anionic diet compared to those fed the control diet. In the primiparous cows there were no significant differences in serumcalcium levels. However, the urine calcium (1.07 vs 0.43 mmol/ and the fractional clearance of calcium was higher (1.75 vs 0.45 % in cows fed the anionic diet (P <0.05 and 0.01 respectively. These results illustrated that there were benefits, although no differences were demonstrated with respect to health, milk production or fertility. The supplementation of diets with anionic salts in the last 2-3 weeks before calving has the potential to significantly

  9. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  10. Dietary pattern and risk of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Aloosh; Mansoureh Toghae; Mohammad Jamal Razeghi Jahromi; Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS. Methods Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 ...

  11. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  12. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  13. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can break easily, even without an obvious injury. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Eat foods that provide the right amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and protein. This kind of diet will give ...

  14. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  15. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  16. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1997. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1994 to Mar. 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: (1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, (2) Preparation of samples for analysis, (3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, (4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, (5) Counting, (6) Results, and (7) Contents of Figure. (G.K.)

  17. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1995 to Mar. 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  18. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1996 to March, 1997. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  19. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  20. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tan; Yulin Deng; Hong Qing

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofi-brillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers in-volved in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium oxide. 184.1210 Section 184.1210 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8) is also known as lime, quick lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone,...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  3. A Review of the Impact of Dietary Intakes in Human Pregnancy on Infant Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Grieger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary patterns, on infant birthweight. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken via the electronic databases Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Included articles were those published in English, in scholarly journals, and which provided information about diet and nutrition during pregnancy and infant birthweight. There is insufficient evidence for omega-3 fatty acid supplements’ ability to reduce risk of low birthweight (LBW, and more robust evidence from studies supplementing with zinc, calcium, and/or vitamin D needs to be established. Iron supplementation appears to increase birthweight, particularly when there are increases in maternal hemoglobin concentrations in the third trimester. There is limited evidence supporting the use of folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for LBW; however, supplementation may increase birthweight by ~130 g. Consumption of whole foods such as fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean meats throughout pregnancy appears beneficial for appropriate birthweight. Intervention studies with an understanding of optimal dietary patterns may provide promising results for both maternal and perinatal health. Outcomes from these studies will help determine what sort of dietary advice could be promoted to women during pregnancy in order to promote the best health for themselves and their baby.

  4. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  5. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Willmann

    2008-01-01

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  6. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate....

  8. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve po

  11. 21 CFR 582.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.1210 Section 582.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, J Z; Kerstetter, J E

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex, multi-factorial condition characterized by reduced bone mass and impaired micro-architectural structure, leading to an increased susceptibility to fractures. Although most of the bone strength (including bone mass and quality) is genetically determined, many other factors (nutritional, environmental and life-style) also influence bone. Nutrition is important modifiable factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Approximately 80-90% of bone mineral content is comprised of calcium and phosphorus. Other dietary components, such as protein, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, fluoride, vitamins D, A, C, and K are required for normal bone metabolism, while other ingested compounds not usually categorized as nutrients (e.g. caffeine, alcohol, phytoestrogens) may also impact bone health. Unraveling the interaction between different factors; nutritional, environmental, life style, and heredity help us to understand the complexity of the development of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. This paper reviews the role of dietary components on bone health throughout different stages of life. Each nutrient is discussed separately, however the fact that many nutrients are co-dependent and simultaneously interact with genetic and environmental factors should not be neglected. The complexity of the interactions is probably the reason why there are controversial or inconsistent findings regarding the contribution of a single or a group of nutrients in bone health.

  17. Interaction of calcium with the human divalent metal-ion transporter-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Whereas dietary calcium is known to reduce the bioavailability of iron, the molecular basis of this interaction is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1)-the principal or only mechanism by which nonheme iron is taken up at the intestinal brush border-is shared also by calcium. We expressed human DMT1 in RNA-injected Xenopus oocytes and examined its activity using radiotracer assays and the voltage clamp. DMT1 did not mediate 45Ca2+ uptake. Instead, we found that Ca2+ blocked the Fe2+-evoked currents and inhibited 55Fe2+ uptake in a noncompetitive manner (Ki ∼ 20 mM). The mechanism of inhibition was independent of voltage and did not involve intracellular Ca2+ signaling. The alkaline-earth metal ions Ba2+, Sr2+, and Mg2+ also inhibited DMT1-mediated iron-transport activity. We conclude that Ca2+ is a low-affinity noncompetitive inhibitor-but not a transported substrate-of DMT1, explaining in part the effect of high dietary calcium on iron bioavailability.

  18. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied the effect of dietary vitamin D restriction on serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, measured by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Both WKY and SHR were fed a vitamin D-deficient or a vitamin D-supplemented diet beginning at 4 wk of age. In vitamin D-supplemented animals, the serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] concentration of WKY was similar to the level of SHR. Plasma calcium concentration was not different between WKY and SHR. In animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 of SHR was significantly lower than that of WKY. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level was markedly decreased in both WKY and SHR. The SHR, but not the WKY, developed hypocalcemia. Despite hypocalcemia, fasting urinary Ca2+ excretion of SHR exceeded that of WKY. They conclude that the lower 1,25(OH)2D3 level in SHR fed a vitamin D-deficient diet may be due to a defect in the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3. The low level of 1,25(OH)2D3 is associated with renal wasting of calcium and hypocalcemia in SHR

  19. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  20. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation...... offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium...... electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...

  1. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. PMID:27072845

  2. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident.

  3. Effect of calcium, copper, and zinc levels in a rapeseed meal diet on mineral and trace element utilization in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Sandström, B

    1992-11-01

    Mineral and trace element interactions were studied in a balance trial with rats. Calcium, copper, and zinc were supplied to a rapeseed meal diet in a factorial design. Animals were fed ad libitum, and absorption, excretion, and retention of the elements were evaluated either as fractions of total intake or in relation to nitrogen retention to account for differences in food intake and lean body mass increment. The intrinsic content of minerals and trace elements was sufficient to support growth at a rate that could be expected from the rapeseed protein quality. However, when calcium was included in the diet, the intrinsic dietary level of zinc appeared to be limiting, despite the fact that the zinc level was twice the recommended level. Additional zinc supply reversed growth impairment. This calcium-zinc interaction is believed to be owing to the formation of phytate complexes. Calcium addition influenced the calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and iron--but not the copper--balances. The addition of calcium reduced the availability of the intrinsic zinc, whereas no effect was seen in the zinc-fortified groups. The availability of intrinsic copper was in a similar way significantly impaired by addition of dietary zinc, whereas copper-supplied groups were unaffected by zinc addition. Intrinsic iron availability was also dependent upon zinc addition, although in a more ambiguous way. Thus, addition of extrinsic minerals to a diet high in phytate can result in significant impairments of growth and mineral utilization.

  4. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  5. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  6. Nutrition label use mediates the positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating with dietary quality among university students in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Rachel; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating are predictors of nutrition label use (NLU) and dietary quality in a diverse sample of university students in the UK. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 500 students (mean age 24.9 years; 75% females) in 37 UK universities. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, NLU and dietary quality were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The majority of participants met dietary recommendations for fat, added sugar and fast food intake, and failed to meet recommendations for calcium, fibre, fruit and vegetable and dairy product intake, resulting in a median dietary quality score of 2.0 (score range = 0-8). Nutrition knowledge differed according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), nationality and NLU. Attitudes towards healthy eating differed according to BMI and NLU and dietary quality differed according to gender. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of NLU and dietary quality, with NLU mediating the latter relationship, whereas NLU, when controlled for knowledge and attitudes, negatively predicted dietary quality but did not have a significant independent relationship with diet. Future nutrition interventions to improve dietary quality in this sample of UK university students should focus on improving nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.

  7. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan, T

    2009-01-01

    A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

  8. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - Dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutch, Bente [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)], E-mail: bd@mil.au.dk; Dyerberg, Jorn [Capio Diagnostic, a.s., Nygaardsvej 32, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Centre of Primary Health Care, Box 1001, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Aschlund, Ejner; Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2007-10-01

    average of about 20% and with it the dietary content of n-3 fatty acids. Also, the intakes of many vitamins and minerals had decreased, and were below Nordic Nutrient Recommendations in 2004 and 2006. Vitamin A, B{sub 1}, (B{sub 2}), B{sub 12}, iron, iodine, phosphorus, and selenium contents were correlated with n-3 content, whereas vitamin C, folate, and calcium contents were not and the same time very low. In the traditional food, especially from the villages, the intakes of vitamin A, vitamin D, and iron were extremely high and borderline toxic. The levels of contaminants such as organochlorins and heavy metals were also strongly correlated with the relative content of local food in the diet. The best balance between potentially beneficial and harmful substances was found for 20-30% local food, corresponding to a daily intake of 3-5 g of n-3 fatty acids. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, and S-triglycerides had increased significantly between 1976 and 2004. Conclusion: The dietary changes to a more western fare were found to be negative resulting in less adequate nutrient coverage but at the same time lower contaminant load. Thus, we recommend not to increase the consumption of local products beyond the present level but rather to improve the quality of the imported food.

  9. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - Dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    about 20% and with it the dietary content of n-3 fatty acids. Also, the intakes of many vitamins and minerals had decreased, and were below Nordic Nutrient Recommendations in 2004 and 2006. Vitamin A, B1, (B2), B12, iron, iodine, phosphorus, and selenium contents were correlated with n-3 content, whereas vitamin C, folate, and calcium contents were not and the same time very low. In the traditional food, especially from the villages, the intakes of vitamin A, vitamin D, and iron were extremely high and borderline toxic. The levels of contaminants such as organochlorins and heavy metals were also strongly correlated with the relative content of local food in the diet. The best balance between potentially beneficial and harmful substances was found for 20-30% local food, corresponding to a daily intake of 3-5 g of n-3 fatty acids. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, and S-triglycerides had increased significantly between 1976 and 2004. Conclusion: The dietary changes to a more western fare were found to be negative resulting in less adequate nutrient coverage but at the same time lower contaminant load. Thus, we recommend not to increase the consumption of local products beyond the present level but rather to improve the quality of the imported food

  10. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  11. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choksi Krishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg. Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.

  12. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, C; Kaiserling, E; Koitschev, A

    2003-08-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) of the temporomandibular joint is rare. The disorder is characterized by the presence of crystal deposits within the affected joint. The deposition of crystals in adjacent soft tissue may lead to the formation of pseudotumors. This form of the disease is called tophaceous pseudogout and typically affects the temporomandibular joint. It is difficult to differentiate the disease, particularly from malignant tumors, on the clinical and radiographic findings alone. The diagnosis is based on histological identification of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals. We present an unusually advanced case of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as treatment options are discussed on the basis of our own experience and a review of the literature. PMID:12942180

  13. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  14. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  15. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this potential role, microscopic and biochemical comparisons were conducted on the different tissues of Medicago truncatula wild-type and the calcium oxalate defective (cod) 5 which lacks the ability to accumulate prismatic crystals in the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. Calcium measurements showed that cod5 seeds had more calcium and cod5 pods contained less calcium than the corresponding wild-type tissues. Roots, stems, and leaves from cod5 and wild-type had similar calcium content. Although cod5 was devoid of prismatic crystals, cod5 pods were observed to form druse crystals of calcium oxalate not found in wild-type pods. Taken together these findings suggest a functional role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport to the seeds. Regulating calcium uptake at the roots also appeared to be another point of control in determining seed calcium content. Overall, regulating the long distance transport and partitioning of calcium to the seeds appears to be a complex process with multiple points of control. PMID:22325887

  16. Vitamin d deficiency is associated with insulin resistance independent of intracellular calcium, dietary calcium and serum levels of parathormone, calcitriol and calcium in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Rocha, Tatiana Martins; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Hay evidencias de que la deficiencia de vitamina D se asocia con mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Sin embargo, no se sabe si esta asociación es independiente de calcio en la dieta, el calcio intracelular y los niveles séricos de hormona paratiroidea, calcitriol y calcio. Objetivos: investigar la relación independiente de la deficiencia de vitamina D con resistencia a la insulina, el perfil lipídico, el estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con 73 mujeres pre menopáusicas sanas brasileñas con edad 18-50 años. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados para: niveles séricos de 25 hidroxivitamina D, parámetros antropométricos, la composición corporal, metabolismo del calcio, resistencia a la insulina, el perfil de lipoproteínas, estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. La función endotelial fue evaluada por el índice de hiperemia reactiva mediante el uso de Endo-PAT 2000®. Las mujeres fueron estratificados en dos grupos: con deficiencia de vitamina D (25 hidroxivitamina D.

  17. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  18. Use of dietary supplements by female seniors in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged ≥ 65 years are high utilizers of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and many of these women are also taking dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use by older women is a concern because of possible side effects and drug-supplement interactions. The primary aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of dietary supplement use among older women in a large health plan in Northern California, USA, to raise awareness among health care providers and pharmacists about the need for implementing structural and educational interventions to minimize adverse consequences of self-directed supplement use. A secondary aim was to raise awareness about how the focus on use of herbals and megavitamins that has occurred in most surveys of complementary and alternative therapy use results in a significant underestimate of the proportion of older women who are using all types of dietary supplements for the same purposes. Methods We used data about use of different vitamin/mineral (VM supplements and nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM supplements, including herbals, from a 1999 general health survey mailed to a random sample of adult members of a large Northern California health plan to estimate prevalence of and characteristics associated with supplement use among women aged 65–84 (n = 3,109. Results Based on weighted data, 84% had in the past 12 months used >1 dietary supplement, 82% a VM, 59% a supplement other than just multivitamin or calcium, 32% an NVNM, and 25% an herbal. Compared to white, nonHispanic women, African-Americans and Latinas were significantly less likely to use VM and NVNM supplements and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to use NVNM supplements. Higher education was strongly associated with use of an NVNM supplement. Prevalence did not differ by number of prescription medications taken. Among white, nonHispanic women, multiple logistic regression models showed that college

  19. Analysis of the occurrence of dietary and non-dietary factors of fracture risk in relation to bone mineral density in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Sobaś

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study analysed the correlation between characteristic dietary and non-dietary factors of fracture risk in women and mineral density of bone tissue (BMD. Material and methods. The study involved examination of 172 women, aged between 32 and 59. Calcium intake from a daily diet was determined with the use of the semi-quantitative food consumption frequency method. The physical activity of the women was expressed in MET-minutes/week. BMD was determined by double-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The frequency of bone fracture and osteoporosis risk factors was determined and a 10-year risk of fracture (RB-10 was individually diagnosed according to the WHO and IOF criteria (2007. A high level of fracture risk (RB-10 > 14% was assumed according to the Johnell’s algorithm [2005]. Results. The most frequent factors of fracture risk in women included: bone pains (76% of the total sample, inadequate calcium intake (43%, smoking (24%, previous fractures (24%, incidence of chronic diseases (22%, menstrual disorders (19%, family history of osteoporosis (17%, low physical activity (15% and the incidence of thyroid disorders (10%. 85% of women had at least one factor of 10-year absolute risk of fracture. None of the examined women consumed a sufficient amount of calcium and the average calcium intake level was low (median of about 400 mg/day. Bone mineral density did not reveal any relationship with current intake of calcium by women, but depended on the consumption of dairy products in the past. Conclusions. Daily consumption of dairy products in childhood and in the school period was conductive to a higher mineral density of bone tissue in women. Advanced age and the occurrence of menstrual disorders were conductive to a lower mineral density of bone tissue in women. Women with low bone mineral density (lower BMD tertile more frequently used supplementation with preparations containing calcium (25% and more often had at least one RB

  20. The Role of Nutrition in the Changes in Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    On Earth, the primary purpose of the skeleton is provide structural support for the body. In space, the support function of the skeleton is reduced since, without gravity, structures have only mass and no weight. The adaptation to space flight is manifested by shifts in mineral distribution, altered bone turnover, and regional mineral deficits in weight-bearing bones. The shifts in mineral distribution appear to be related to the cephalic fluid shift. The redistribution of mineral from one bone to another or to and from areas in the same bone in response to alterations in gravitational loads is more likely to affect skeletal function than quantitative whole body losses and gains. The changes in bone turnover appear dependent upon changes in body weight with weight loss tending to increase bone resorption as well as decrease bone formation. During bedrest, the bone response to unloading varies depending upon the routine activity level of the subjects with more active subjects showing a greater suppression of bone formation in the iliac crest with inactivity. Changes in body composition during space flight are predicted by bedrest studies on Earth which show loss of lean body mass and increase tn body fat in adult males after one month. In ambulatory studies on Earth, exercising adult males of the same age, height, g weight, body mass index, and shoe size show significantly higher whole body mineral and lean body mass. than non-exercising subjects. Nutritional preference appears to change with activity level. Diet histories in exercisers and nonexercisers who maintain identical body weights show no differences in nutrients except for slightly higher carbohydrate intake in the exercisers. The absence of differences in dietary calcium in men with higher total body calcium is noteworthy. In this situation, the increased bone mineral content was facilitated by the calcium endocrine system. This regulatory system can be by-passed by raising dietary calcium. Increased

  1. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  2. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  3. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  4. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  5. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K

    2011-07-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  6. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Longo-Silva; Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; de Menezes, Risia Cristina E.; Tatiane Leocádio Temteo; Oliveira, Maria Alice A.; Leiko Asakura; Emília Chagas Costa; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary i...

  7. Predictors of Adherence in the Women’s Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, R.; Dunbar-Jacob, J.; LeBoff, M. S.; Granek, I.; BOWEN, D; Snetselaar, L. G.; Shumaker, S A.; Ockene, J.; Rosal, M.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Cauley, J.; Cochrane, B.; Tinker, L.; Jackson, R.; Wang, C.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation Trial (CaD) to learn more about factors affecting adherence to clinical trial study pills (both active and placebo). Most participants (36,282 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years) enrolled in CaD 1 year after joining either a hormone trial or the dietary modification trial of WHI. The WHI researchers measured adherence to study pills by weighing the amount of remaining pills at an annual...

  8. Dietary patterns and quality in West-African immigrants in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating patterns of immigrants deserve to be better documented because they may reflect the extent of acculturation and associated health risks. The study assessed dietary patterns and quality in Bubi immigrants (from Equatorial Guinea using cluster analysis and comparing different diet quality indexes. Methods A random sample of 83 Bubi men and 130 women living in Madrid were studied. A 99-item food frequency questionnaire was administered, body weights and heights were self-reported and socio-demographic and health information was collected during interviews. Usual intakes were collapsed into 19 food groups. Cluster analysis of standardized food intakes per 1000 kcalories was performed. Dietary quality was appraised using the Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index and scores of micronutrient adequacy and prevention based on WHO/FAO recommendations. Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The 'Healthier' pattern, so confirmed by two dietary quality indexes, featured a higher consumption of fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products and bread while the 'Western' pattern included more processed meat, animal fat, and sweetened foods and drinks. One third of the subjects were in the 'Healthier' food cluster, with the same proportion of men and women. Age ≥ 30 and residence in Madrid ≥ 11 years were independently associated with the healthier diet. Consumption of traditional foods was unrelated to dietary pattern, however. Overall, Bubi diets were somewhat protective because of high intakes of fruits and vegetables and monounsaturated fat (olive oil, but not with respect to sugar, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fibre. Less than two thirds of subjects had adequate intakes of iron, calcium and folate in both dietary phenotypes. Body mass index, physical exercise, and self-reported health and cardiovascular disease condition showed no significant association with the dietary

  9. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.

    2007-07-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  10. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health. PMID:27783700

  11. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD, but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD (n = 81 and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD (n = 81, matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038 s-25(OHD (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OHD < 29.9 ng/mL were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013 in the AUD group (90% compared to the non-AUD group (70%. All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.

  12. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED, renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine (Cr, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; P=0.01. Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression.

  13. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  14. Subchronic and genetic safety evaluation of a calcium fructoborate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Heimbach, James T; Nemzer, Boris; Hunter, John M

    2016-09-01

    A branded calcium fructoborate product, a nature-identical calcium salt of bis (fructose) ester of boric acid found in plants and a natural source of boron in the human diet and sold under the trade name FruiteX-B(®) Brand Calcium Fructoborate ("FrxB"), was evaluated in a 90-day dietary toxicity study and two genotoxicity studies. In the 90-day study, four groups of 10 male and 10 female Crl:SD CD(®) IGS rats were fed diets with FrxB admixtures of 0.56, 1.12, and 1.68% dietary concentration, providing mean overall daily intakes of FrxB in male rats of 385.8, 774.9, and 1161.3 mg/kg bw/day, and 392.1, 784.4, and 1171.1 mg/kg bw/day in female rats. There were no mortalities, no clinical or ophthalmologic signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, Functional Observational Battery (FOB), or Motor Activity (MA) findings associated with the administration of FrxB. There were no adverse changes in hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, or urinalysis parameters in male or female rats considered the result of test substance administration. At necropsy, there were no macroscopic, histopathological findings, or organ weight changes deemed related to administration of the test substance. Under the conditions of this study, based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for FrxB in the diet was 1161.3 and 1171.1 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively. Bacterial mutagenicity studies and a micronucleus test using Chinese hamster V79 cells demonstrated no mutagenic or genotoxic potential of the tested brand of calcium fructoborate. PMID:27350145

  15. Activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and prevents hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dachun; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Shuangtao;

    2010-01-01

    Some plant-based diets lower the cardiometabolic risks and prevalence of hypertension. New evidence implies a role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Little is known about impact of chronic TRPV1 activation on the...... regulation of vascular function and blood pressure. Here we report that chronic TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increases the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and eNOS and thus production of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells, which is calcium dependent. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin...

  16. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  17. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  18. Binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribello, Gareth A; Liew, CheeChin; Parrinello, Michele

    2009-05-21

    Polyacrylate molecules can be used to slow the growth of calcium carbonate. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the molecules impede the growth rate. A recent computational study (Bulo et al. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3437) used metadynamics to investigate the binding of calcium to polyacrylate chains and has thrown some light on the coiling and precipitation of these polymers. We extend these simulations to examine the binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylate chains. We show that calcium complexed with both carbonate and polyacrylate is a very stable species. The free energies of calcium-carbonate-polyacrylate complexes, with different polymer configurations, are calculated, and differences in the free energy of the binding of carbonate are shown to be due to differences in the amount of steric hindrance about the calcium, which prevents the approach of the carbonate ion. PMID:19400592

  19. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  20. Why US children use dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31%...

  1. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jee-Seon; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a major lifestyle-related risk factor of various chronic diseases. Dietary intake can be assessed by subjective report and objective observation. Subjective assessment is possible using open-ended surveys such as dietary recalls or records, or using closed-ended surveys including food frequency questionnaires. Each method has inherent strengths and limitations. Continued efforts to improve the accuracy of dietary intake assessment and enhance its feasibility in epidemiological studies...

  2. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  3. Is dietary diversity an indicator of food security or dietary quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    Although dietary diversity is universally recognized as a key component of healthy diets, there is still a lack of consensus on how to measure and operationalize it. This paper focuses on the issues of dietary diversity in developing countries. It also draws upon experience from developed countries to address the following questions: 1. How is dietary diversity conceptualized, operationalized, and measured, and how does it relate operationally to dietary quality? 2. Is there an association be...

  4. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Manali R Srinivasan; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium pho...

  5. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  6. [Calcium carbide of different crystal formation synthesized by calcium carbide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-yuan; Kang, Ming; Jiang, Cai-rong; Tu, Ming-jing

    2006-04-01

    To recycle calcium carbide residue effectively, calcium carbide of different crystal form, including global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide was synthesized. Both the influence of pretreatment in the purity of calcium carbide, and the influence of temperatures of carbonization reaction, release velocity of carbon dioxide in the apparition of calcium carbide of different crystal form were studied with DTA-TG and SEM. The result shows that calcium carbide residue can take place chemistry reaction with ammonia chlorinate straight. Under the condition that pH was above 7, the purity of calcium carbide was above 97%, and the whiteness was above 98. Once provided the different temperatures of carbonization reaction and the proper release velocity of carbon dioxide, global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide were obtained.

  7. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  8. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  9. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  10. Altered calcium signaling following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Weber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI.

  11. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  12. Peroxisome is a reservoir of intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhury, Bikramjit; Gupta, Shreedhara; Banerjee, Shouvik; Datta, Salil C

    2006-07-01

    We have examined fura 2-loaded purified peroxisomes under confocal microscope to prove that this mammalian organelle is a store of intracellular calcium pool. Presence of calcium channel and vanadate sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase in the purified peroxisomal membrane has been demonstrated. We have further observed that machineries to maintain calcium pool in this mammalian organelle are impaired during infection caused by Leishmania donovani. Results reveal that peroxisomes have a merit to play a significant role in the metabolism of intracellular calcium. PMID:16713100

  13. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  14. Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium ion (Ca2+ is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research.

  15. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    OpenAIRE

    A Rathod; Bonny, O; Guessous, I; Suter, P M; Conen, D; Erne, P; Binet, I; Gabutti, L; Gallino, A; Muggli, F; Hayoz, D; Pechere-Bertschi, A; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; Bochud, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root-transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dep...

  16. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for lunch; and beans, salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and low-fat mozzarella or soy cheese. Try whole-grain crackers with low-fat cheese ...

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. ... that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running). Osteoporosis is a disease of the ...

  18. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Population groups in dietary transition

    OpenAIRE

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods: A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMedfor articles published in 19902011.Results: A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western or...

  20. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  1. Dietary magnesium, not calcium, prevents vascular calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); A. de Wolf (Anneke); J.B. ten Brink (Jacoline); W.J.P. Loves (Willem); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic calcification of connective tissue in skin, Bruch's membrane of the eye, and walls of blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, but the exact etiology is still unknown. While observations o

  2. Dietary magnesium, not calcium, prevents vascular calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.M.F. Gorgels; J.H. Waarsing; A. de Wolf; J.B. ten Brink; W.J.P. Loves; A.A.B. Bergen

    2010-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic calcification of connective tissue in skin, Bruch's membrane of the eye, and walls of blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, but the exact etiology is still unknown. While observations on patients s

  3. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-28

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  4. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza B Thomsen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A TTX-sensitive fast Na+ spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers. Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none tetrodotoxin (TTX -sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than one second affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could be modulated locally, suggesting that cerebellar glomeruli may be dynamically sub-compartmentalized due to ongoing inhibition mediated by Golgi cells. This could provide a fine-grained control of mossy fibre-granule cell information transfer and synaptic plasticity within a mossy fibre rosette.

  5. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Almut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES, and lower physical activity level (PA. High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for

  6. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  7. Türkiye’de Besin Destek Ürünlerine Yönelik Görüşler ve Tüketici Profilini Tanımlamaya Yönelik Bir Araştırma (Views Regarding Dietary Supplements in Turkey and a Research to Profile the Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu ERGEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement market is growing in Turkey. Local and multinational companies develop and introduce many new products for Turkish dietary supplements market. However, in marketing literature few academic research could be found regarding Turkish consumers’ behavior about dietary supplements. The study involved 673 Turkish consumers from Istanbul, over eighteen years of age. The study examines the characteristics of the respondents regarding demographics, reasons for using dietary supplements, dietary supplements recognition and consumption rates. It is found that top three reasons to consume dietary supplements are immunization, prevention of exhaustion and increasing physical and mental performance. The usage frequency of vitamins C, B, D and calcium are the highest among all. Glucosamine recognition and usage frequency is found very low in the sample. This research is believed to provide valuable information for further causal research that will be conducted in healthy lifestyle products market.

  8. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  9. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  10. Applications of soluble dietary fibers in beverages

    OpenAIRE

    C. I. Beristain; M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo; C. Lobato-Calleros; F. Cruz-Sosa; R. Pedroza-Islas; J. R. Verde-Calvo

    2006-01-01

    In this work the importance of soluble dietary fibers in the human diet is discussed. Traditional and new sources of soluble dietary fiber are mentioned, and a description of how to apply them in different types of beverages such as energy drinks, sport drinks, carbonated beverages and protein-based beverages in order to achieve enhanced functional properties is given.

  11. Diabetes and diet: Managing dietary barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of coping with

  12. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  13. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Melvin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  14. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Melvin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  15. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  16. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident. (a) Staffing. The facility management must employ a... American Dietetic Association. (b) Sufficient staff. The facility management must employ sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the dietary service. (c) Menus and nutritional...

  17. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., palatable, well-balanced diet that meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident... programs. (b) Sufficient staff. The facility must employ sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the dietary service. (c) Menus and nutritional adequacy. Menus must— (1) Meet...

  18. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  19. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Santosh K. Katiyar

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFIACATION: adverse effects;Animals;Antineoplastic Agents;Antineoplastic Agents,Phytogenic;Antioxidants;chemistry;Chemoprevention;drug therapy;Dermatology;dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Dietary Supplements;Evaluation;Humans;methods;Neoplasms,Radiation-Induced;prevention & control;Phytotherapy;radiation effects;Research;Skin;Skin Neoplasms;therapeutic use;toxicity;Ultraviolet Rays. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultra...

  20. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain polyunsaturate

  1. An Intracellular Calcium Oscillations Model Including Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Min; LIU Zeng-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger. Mitochondria contributes significantly to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.The experiment of Kaftan et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 275(2000) 25465] demonstrated that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can reduce the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration oscillations of gonadotropes. By considering the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling we develop a three-variable model of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations based on the models of Atri et al. [Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1727] and Falcke et al. [Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 37]. The model reproduces the fact that mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling increases the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which accords with Kaftan's results. Moreover the model predicts that when the mitochondria overload with Ca2+, the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations vanish, which may trigger apoptosis.

  2. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age Publication ... Osteoporosis Program For Your Information The Role of Calcium Calcium is needed for our heart, muscles, and ...

  3. Bone Up on the Need for Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Most grade-schoolers drink milk at each meal, but teens, especially girls, often switch to carbonated soda at mealtime just as they should be building up their bone bank of calcium. Why calcium is important and how to get enough of it are covered. (MT)

  4. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed

  5. Stochastic Kinetics of Intracellular Calcium Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌胜; 曾仁端

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic model of intracellular calcium oscillations is put forward by taking into account the random opening-closing of Ca2+ channels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The numerical results of the stochastic model show simple and complex calcium oscillations, which accord with the experiment results.

  6. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...... enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...

  7. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithel

  8. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  9. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail: sten.ruediger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-10

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  10. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  11. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies six new Loci for serum calcium concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conall M O'Seaghdha

    Full Text Available Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ≤ 21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P = 9.1E-12, rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P = 4.8E-09 and rs7481584 in CARS (P = 1.2E-10 implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P = 8.2E-11, also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P = 9.1E-10 are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis.

  13. Effectiveness of a theory-driven nutritional education program in improving calcium intake among older Mauritian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.

  14. DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie M. Lowery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

  15. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions.

  16. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  17. Calcium-sensing receptor: a key target for extracellular calcium signaling in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though both clinicians and scientists have long recognized the influence of extracellular calcium on the function of muscle and nervous tissue, recent insights reveal that the mechanisms allowing changes in extracellular calcium to alter cellular excitability have been incompletely understood. For many years the effects of calcium on neuronal signaling were explained only in terms of calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels and biophysical charge screening. More recently however, it has been recognized that the calcium-sensing receptor is prevalent in the nervous system and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal activity via multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the multiplicity of mechanisms by which changes in extracellular calcium alter neuronal signaling and propose that multiple mechanisms are required to describe the full range of experimental observations.

  18. Optogenetic Control of Calcium Oscillation Waveform Defines NFAT as an Integrator of Calcium Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannanta-Anan, Pimkhuan; Chow, Brian Y

    2016-04-27

    It is known that the calcium-dependent transcription factor NFAT initiates transcription in response to pulsatile loads of calcium signal. However, the relative contributions of calcium oscillation frequency, amplitude, and duty cycle to transcriptional activity remain unclear. Here, we engineer HeLa cells to permit optogenetic control of intracellular calcium concentration using programmable LED arrays. This approach allows us to generate calcium oscillations of constant peak amplitude, in which frequency is varied while holding duty cycle constant, or vice versa. Using this setup and mathematical modeling, we show that NFAT transcriptional activity depends more on duty cycle, defined as the proportion of the integrated calcium concentration over the oscillation period, than on frequency alone. This demonstrates that NFAT acts primarily as a signal integrator of cumulative load rather than a frequency-selective decoder. This approach resolves a fundamental question in calcium encoding and demonstrates the value of optogenetics for isolating individual dynamical components of larger signaling behaviors. PMID:27135540

  19. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

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    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  20. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.