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Sample records for calcium dietary

  1. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemel, M B; Shi, H; Greer, B; Dirienzo, D; Zemel, P C

    2000-06-01

    Recent data from this laboratory demonstrate that increasing adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) results in a coordinated stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis. We have also noted that increasing dietary calcium of obese patients for 1 year resulted in a 4.9 kg loss of body fat (Pinhibition of lipolysis (EC(50) approximately 50 pM; Pagouti gene specifically in adipocytes on a low (0.4%) Ca/high fat/high sucrose diet either unsupplemented or with 25 or 50% of the protein replaced by non-fat dry milk or supplemented to 1.2% Ca with CaCO(3) for 6 wk. Weight gain and fat pad mass were reduced by 26-39% by the three high calcium diets (Pinhibition of adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity (Pobesity risk.

  2. Mechanical Properties of a Calcium Dietary Supplement, Calcium Fumarate Trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijing; Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Li, Wei; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2015-12-07

    The mechanical properties of calcium fumarate trihydrate, a 1D coordination polymer considered for use as a calcium source for food and beverage enrichment, have been determined via nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction with single crystals. The nanoindentation studies reveal that the elastic modulus (16.7-33.4 GPa, depending on crystallographic orientation), hardness (1.05-1.36 GPa), yield stress (0.70-0.90 GPa), and creep behavior (0.8-5.8 nm/s) can be rationalized in view of the anisotropic crystal structure; factors include the directionality of the inorganic Ca-O-Ca chain and hydrogen bonding, as well as the orientation of the fumarate ligands. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show a bulk modulus of ∼ 20 GPa, which is indicative of elastic recovery intermediate between small molecule drug crystals and inorganic pharmaceutical ingredients. The combined use of nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques provides a complementary experimental approach for probing the critical mechanical properties related to tableting of these dietary supplements.

  3. Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Horn G

    2012-01-01

    Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item fo...

  4. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  5. A Closer look at calcium absorption and the benefits and risks of dietary versus supplemental calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Anna; Camacho, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    To perform a thorough search of the literature on calcium research and specifically address the topic of calcium absorption. PubMed and Ovid were the main engines used for primary literature searches; textbooks, review articles, and book chapters are examples of the other sources used for supplemental information. Regarding calcium absorption, it seems apparent that the absorption efficiency of all calcium salts, regardless of solubility, is fairly equivalent and not significantly less than the absorption efficiency of dietary calcium. However, dietary calcium has been shown to have greater impact in bone building than supplemental calcium. This is likely due to improved absorption with meals and the tendency of people to intake smaller amounts more frequently, which is more ideal for the body's method of absorption. In addition, the cardiovascular risks of excessive calcium intake appear to be more closely related to calcium supplements than dietary calcium; this relationship continues to be controversial in the literature. We conclude that further studies are needed for direct comparison of supplemental and dietary calcium to fully establish if one is superior to the other with regard to improving bone density. We also propose further studies on the cardiovascular risk of long-term increased calcium intake and on physician estimates of patients' daily calcium intake to better pinpoint those patients who require calcium supplementation.

  6. Dietary Zinc and Incident Calcium Kidney Stones in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Ross, Michelle E; Song, Lihai; Grundmeier, Robert W; Massey, James; Denburg, Michelle R; Copelovitch, Lawrence; Warner, Steven; Chi, Thomas; Killilea, David W; Stoller, Marshall L; Furth, Susan L

    2017-05-01

    We determined the association between dietary zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones in adolescents. We also examined the relationship between dietary zinc intake and urinary zinc excretion between cases and controls. We conducted a nested case-control study within a large pediatric health care system. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and spot urine chemistry analyses were obtained for 30 participants 12 to 18 years old with a first idiopathic calcium based kidney stone and 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex, race and month of enrollment. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between daily zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones, adjusting for dietary phytate, protein, calcium, sodium and oxalate. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between dietary and urine zinc, adjusting for urine creatinine and dietary phytate and calcium. Cases had lower daily zinc intake (8.1 mg) than controls (10 mg, p = 0.029). Daily zinc intake of boys and girls with calcium stones was 2 mg and 1.2 mg less, respectively, than the daily intake recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Odds of incident stones were reduced by 13% for every 1 mg increase in daily zinc intake (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). There was an estimated 4.5 μg/dl increase in urine zinc for every 1 mg increase in dietary zinc (p = 0.009), with weak evidence of a smaller increase in urine zinc in cases than in controls (interaction p = 0.08). Decreased dietary zinc intake was independently associated with incident calcium nephrolithiasis in this population of adolescents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactions of genotype, housing and dietary calcium in layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the interactions in performance, eggshell quality and tibia traits of two laying hen genotypes, namely a commercial hybrid, Lohmann (LSL), and a traditional breed, the Czech Hen (CH), housed in conventional cages and on litter, and fed two levels of dietary calcium (Ca) (3.5% vs. 3.0%).

  8. Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium, and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstelten, Jorrit L; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K

    2016-01-01

    , yogurt, and cheese) and dietary calcium was measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. Cases developing incident CD (n = 110) or UC (n = 244) during follow-up were matched with 4 controls. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence...

  9. Dietary calcium and blood lead levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostial, K; Dekanić, D; Telisman, S; Blanusa, M; Duvancić, S; Prpić-Majić, D; Pongracić, J

    1991-03-01

    Nutritional factors are known to influence metabolism and toxicity of several metals in animal experiments, but relevant human data are scarce and inconclusive. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that dietary calcium influences lead metabolism in humans. Blood lead concentrations were used as indicators of lead exposure and metabolism. Two groups of peasant women living in similar conditions in two different regions in Yugoslavia (100 in each) were chosen as subjects for this purpose. In region A, the dietary calcium intake was about 940 mg, and in region B about two times lower, i.e., 450 mg/day. The average blood lead concentration was significantly lower in women from region A (69 micrograms/L) than from region B (83 micrograms/L). Our results support the assumption that adequate calcium intake might be one of the preventive measures for decreasing lead absorption. This new evidence, sought for some time by nutritionists and toxicologists, needs further international confirmation.

  10. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Stewart

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... The study investigated the effects of varying dietary calcium (Ca) levels and sources of oil on ... Formation of soluble soap may render the fatty acids and .... Wheat pollard. 97.7. 68.8. 38.9. 97.7. 68.8. 38.9. 97.7. 68.8. 38.9. MDCP3 21%. 15.9. 22.8. 29.8. 15.9. 22.8. 29.8. 15.9. 22.8. 29.8. Calcium carbonate.

  11. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of varying dietary calcium (Ca) levels and sources of oil on performance of broiler chickens. A total of 378 one-day-old birds were fed 6% palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) in combination with three levels of Ca, 1%, 1.25% and 1.5%, for six weeks in a 3 x 3 factorial ...

  12. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  13. Relative bioavailability of calcium-rich dietary sources in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ligia; Wood, Richard J

    2002-12-01

    The recent increase in the dietary calcium recommendation from 800 to 1200 mg/d for persons aged > 51 y has made it important to identify alternative high-calcium dietary sources that the elderly can use in meeting their calcium requirement. We determined the bioavailability of calcium from 3 different sources: orange juice fortified with calcium-citrate malate, skim milk, and a calcium carbonate supplement. Twelve subjects [9 women and 3 men with a mean (+/- SEM) age of 70 +/- 3 and 76 +/- 6 y, respectively] consumed low-calcium (300 mg/d) and high-calcium (1300 mg/d) diets for three 1-wk periods each during a 6-wk crossover study. The acute biochemical response to calcium from each of the 3 sources was assessed during a 4-h period after the initial breakfast meal of the high-calcium diet. Postprandial suppression of serum parathyroid hormone did not differ significantly between the test meals containing calcium-fortified orange juice, the calcium carbonate supplement, and milk. This finding suggests that the calcium bioavailability from the 3 sources was equivalent. During the 1-wk high-calcium diet periods, fasting serum calcium increased by 3% (P calcium diet period. However, no differences among the supplemental calcium sources were found in these calcium-responsive measures or fasting serum parathyroid hormone concentration. In elderly subjects, the calcium bioavailability of the 3 high-calcium dietary sources tested was equivalent, during both the acute postprandial and longer-term periods.

  14. Content Validity of a Short Calcium Intake List to Estimate Daily Dietary Calcium Intake of Patients with Osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, L.A.; Schueren, de van der M.A.E.; Tuyl, van L.H.D.; Bultink, I.E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Calcium supplements are prescribed for prevention of osteoporotic fractures, but there is controversy whether excess of calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular events. While an accurate estimation of dietary calcium intake is a prerequisite to prescribe the adequate amount of

  15. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  16. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  17. MECHANISM OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY CALCIUM ON CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FECAL WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, HT; TERMONT, DSML; KLEIBEUKER, JH; DEVRIES, EGE; VANDERMEER, R

    1993-01-01

    Dietary calcium supplementation inhibits hyperproliferation of rectal epithelium, possibly by precipitating luminal surfactants and thus preventing their cell-damaging effects. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplemental dietary calcium (35.5 mmol/day) on composition and cytolytic activity of

  18. Vitamin d deficiency is associated with insulin resistance independent of intracellular calcium, dietary calcium and serum levels of parathormone, calcitriol and calcium in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Rocha, Tatiana Martins; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2015-04-01

    There is evidence that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not known if this association is independent of dietary calcium, intracellular calcium and serum levels of parathormone, calcitriol and calcium. To investigate the independent relationship of vitamin D deficiency with insulin resistance, lipid profile, inflammatory status, blood pressure and endothelial function. Cross-sectional study conducted with 73 healthy Brazilian premenopausal women aged 18 - 50 years. All participants were evaluated for: 25 hydroxyvitamin D serum levels, anthropometric parameters, body composition, calcium metabolism, insulin resistance, lipoprotein profile, inflammatory status, blood pressure and endothelial function. Endothelial function was assessed by reactive hyperemia index using Endo-PAT 2000®. Women were stratified in two groups: with vitamin D deficiency (25 hydroxyvitamin D independent of dietary calcium, intracellular calcium and serum levels of parathormone, calcitriol and calcium in healthy premenopausal women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  20. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case-control study in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-10-04

    An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case-control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000-2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the

  1. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case–control study in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease’s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. Methods A hospital based case–control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000–2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. Results After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. Conclusions The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across

  2. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  3. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal ...

  4. Dietary habits in women with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschi, Tiziana; Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Prati, Beatrice; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Pigna, Federica; Soldati, Laura; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Gambaro, Giovanni; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Borghi, Loris

    2012-03-28

    Nutrition has been widely recognized to influence the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess: a) whether usual diet of women with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN) living in Parma (Northern-Italy) is different compared to healthy controls, b) how their diet differs from Italian National guidelines and c) whether it is related to nephrolithiasis clinical course. 143 women with recurrent ICN (mean age 43 ± 13 ys) and 170 healthy women (mean age 42 ± 11 ys) were enrolled. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire for the last 60-days and a 3-day dietary diary analysed with a dedicated software. Stone formers showed a higher consumption of sausages, ham, meat and sweets than healthy controls (43.1% vs 11.1%, 29.4% vs 13.9%, 21.6% vs 4.2%, 66.7% vs 18.1%, p 40 years), the differences described above were amplified in the class ≤30 years, where nephrolithiasis presented a more serious course (shorter recurrence interval, greater stone-rate). In this age group the intake of fruit and vegetables was notably lower than guideline recommendations. We conclude that the usual diet of women with recurrent ICN is different from controls and characterized by low intake of fruits and vegetables and higher consumption of simple sugars and foods with high protein and salt content. This dietary imbalance could play a role in the ICN pathogenesis, especially in younger women.

  5. Dietary calcium supplementation enhances efficacy but also toxicity of EGFR inhibitor therapy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Erica S; Bankaitis, Eric D; Threadgill, David W

    2012-02-01

    The inverse correlation between levels of dietary calcium and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been extensively investigated. However, the impact of supplemental calcium on cancer therapy remains unknown. We used four models of CRC, Caco-2 and HCT116 human cancer cell lines and Apc (Min/+) and azoxymethane carcinogen-induced mouse models, to investigate the impact of a western-style diet low in calcium (0.05%) vs. a similar diet but supplemented with calcium (5%) on therapeutic targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We found that calcium supplementation combined with pharmacologic blockade of EGFR results in an additive effect on tumor growth inhibition in all models. Unexpectedly, the combined use of dietary calcium supplementation and EGFR inhibitors also resulted in elevated toxicity suggesting that careful consideration be given when combining dietary supplements with prescribed cancer therapies.

  6. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  7. Dietary habits in women with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meschi Tiziana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition has been widely recognized to influence the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess: a whether usual diet of women with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN living in Parma (Northern-Italy is different compared to healthy controls, b how their diet differs from Italian National guidelines and c whether it is related to nephrolithiasis clinical course. Methods 143 women with recurrent ICN (mean age 43 ± 13 ys and 170 healthy women (mean age 42 ± 11 ys were enrolled. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire for the last 60-days and a 3-day dietary diary analysed with a dedicated software. Results Stone formers showed a higher consumption of sausages, ham, meat and sweets than healthy controls (43.1% vs 11.1%, 29.4% vs 13.9%, 21.6% vs 4.2%, 66.7% vs 18.1%, p 40 years, the differences described above were amplified in the class ≤30 years, where nephrolithiasis presented a more serious course (shorter recurrence interval, greater stone-rate. In this age group the intake of fruit and vegetables was notably lower than guideline recommendations. Conclusions We conclude that the usual diet of women with recurrent ICN is different from controls and characterized by low intake of fruits and vegetables and higher consumption of simple sugars and foods with high protein and salt content. This dietary imbalance could play a role in the ICN pathogenesis, especially in younger women. This work was financed by grants from Italian Ministry of University and Research as part of a larger project about the prevention of kidney stones (PRIN 2005063822 and by Fondazione per la Ricerca Scientifica Termale (FoRST. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this paper was reported.

  8. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  9. Dietary calcium and bone density in adolescent girls and young women in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Ando, S.; Charles, P.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Väänänen, K.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J. van; Heikkinen, J.; Thomsen, J.; Maggiolini, M.; Deloraine, A.; Chabros, E.; Juvin, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake and radial bone density among young women, over the whole range of intake and at different levels of calcium intake. The study design was a cross-sectional, observational multicenter investigation in six

  10. Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplements: Statistical Comparison of Methods in the Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…

  11. Dietary and total calcium intakes are associated with lower percentage total body and truncal fat in young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Megan L; Simpson, Janis A Randall; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between different sources of calcium intake (dairy [milk products only], dietary [all dietary sources including dairy], nondairy dietary [all dietary sources excluding dairy], and total [dietary + supplemental]) and fat mass in young adults. One hundred ninety-seven healthy Caucasian men and women aged 18 to 28 years from southwestern Ontario underwent whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to determine total body fat mass (%FM) and truncal fat (%TF). Calcium intakes, determined using a food frequency questionnaire, were divided into quartiles for each of dairy, dietary, nondairy dietary, and total sources. Physical activity scores were collected on a subset of subjects (n = 167). Mean %FM and %TF were compared between the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) quartiles of calcium consumers for each calcium source. Calcium intakes between subjects with %FM ≥ 50th and regardless of calcium source (dairy, dietary, and total). When adjusted for physical activity, lower %FM and %TF persisted (P ≤ 0.05) for subjects in Q4 (1113-1595 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes) vs Q1 (116-393 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes). Calcium intakes from dairy, dietary, and total sources for subjects with a %FM ≥ 50th percentile were significantly lower (all P ≤ 0.05); when adjusted for physical activity, dietary (P = 0.025) and total (P = 0.060) calcium intakes remained lower. Our findings support a relationship, even after adjusting for physical activity, between higher dietary and total calcium intakes and lower total body and truncal fat in young adults. Results suggest an intake of approximately 1500 mg/d calcium could aid in the management of body and truncal fat. We recommend that young adults be encouraged to increase their total calcium intakes to at least the recommended daily allowance of 1000 mg/d for reasons extending beyond bone health.

  12. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-02-01

    Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable.

  13. Interactions of genotype, housing and dietary calcium in layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... Castillo, C., Cuca, M., Pro, A., González, M. & Morales, E., 2004. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in white leghorn laying hens. Poult. Sci. 83, 868-872. Cheng, T.K. & Coon, C.N., 1990. Effect of calcium source, particle size, limestone solubility in vitro and calcium intake level on layer bone ...

  14. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on intranephronic calculosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J C; Jee, W S

    1984-12-01

    The effects of varying dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on the incidence and severity of intranephronic calculosis were studied. Renal calculi were induced by feeding female rats the AIN-76TM semipurified diet for 4 weeks. During this time period, dietary levels of 350, 450 or 550 mg calcium per 100 g diet did not influence the occurrence of urolithiasis. Increasing dietary magnesium levels from 50 to 350 mg was beneficial in preventing the occurrence of calculi if the diet contained 400 mg or less phosphorus. The protective effects of dietary magnesium were counteracted when dietary phosphorus levels were increased from 400 mg to 550 or 700 mg. If the dietary content of phosphorus and magnesium permitted the formation of renal calculi, the severity of the condition was also influenced by the dietary level of calcium. Some animal groups fed semipurified diets did not have microscopic or radiographic evidence of renal calculi but were found to have significantly elevated renal calcium values. It was suggested that these animals might be in a precalculus-forming state.

  15. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)Dchildren enrolled, 390 completed the 18-month follow-up. Rickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary calcium intake by a group of 13 18-year-old Costa Rican teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, R; Nuñez, H P

    2001-06-01

    Calcium intake is one of the most important predictors of the amount of bone mass gained during growth. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the dietary calcium intake of Costa Rican urban and rural adolescents ages 13-18 years old. Calcium dietary intake was determined using prospective 3-d diet records. Two-thirds (or 66.7%) or less of the Adequate Intake (AI) was used as the criterion for inadequate calcium intake as suggested by several authors. Reported mean daily calcium intake was 573 mg +/- 290. On average 82% of the adolescents did not meet two-thirds of the Al for calcium. A higher percentage of rural than urban youngsters reported inadequate calcium intake (92% and 75% respectively, p = 0.000). Likewise a higher percentage of girls (91%) than boys (77%) reported marginal calcium intake. This study shows evidence that nutritional interventions and educational strategies are urgent for increasing calcium consumption among adolescents in order to reduce the future burden of osteoporosis in old age.

  17. Lead content in 70 brands of dietary calcium supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, B P; Evans, D R; Cornett, J R; Lingard, S M; Quattrone, A J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Elevated lead levels in calcium supplements may pose a health risk, particularly to children with milk intolerance who rely on these products to meet their calcium requirement. Earlier reports chiefly focused on the lead content in supplements derived from bonemeal and dolomite. This study undertook to determine the lead levels in the major forms of calcium supplements currently available. METHODS. The lead content was measured in 70 brands of calcium supplements grouped in the following five categories: dolomite, bonemeal, refined and natural source calcium carbonate, and calcium chelates. RESULTS. The lead levels measured in the supplements ranged from 0.03 microgram/g to 8.83 micrograms/g. Daily lead ingestion rates revealed that about 25% of the products exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's "provisional" total tolerable daily intake of lead for children aged 6 years and under. Less than 20% of the supplements had "normalized" lead levels comparable to or lower than that reported for cow's milk. CONCLUSIONS. Children are the most sensitive to the low-level effects of lead. If calcium supplements are to provide an alternate source of calcium to some of these individuals, they should also deliver concomitant lead dosages no greater than those obtained from milk products themselves. PMID:8342726

  18. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, V; Ekanayake, L; Silva, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing and the associations between dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and gingival bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschool children. A cross-sectional study. 784 children aged 48-72 months attending preschools in the Kegalle district and their mothers/carers. The prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing was 52.9%. A Poisson logistic regression model revealed that children with a high daily dietary intake of calcium were less likely to have gingival bleeding on probing than those with low intake (PR=0.80; 95%CI 0.64,0.98). Also prevalence of gingival bleeding was higher in children: with plaque on their teeth; whose mothers were not employed; or, were from families with three or more children. The prevalence of gingivitis was high in the children and the findings suggest that high levels of dietary calcium intake are associated with reduced gingival bleeding in preschool children.

  19. The Effects Of Calcium On Dietary Phosphorus Uptake By Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the dietary increase of P and Ca levels on weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was also not significant (P > 0.05). This study showed that dietary fortification with Ca and P probably suppressed weight gain and FCR in the hybrid catfish between 28 and 35 days of the experimental period, with ...

  20. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  1. Dietary supplementation of calcium may counteract obesity in mice mediated by changes in plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraichi, Sarah; Parra, Pilar; Zamanillo, Rocío; El Amarti, Ahmed; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2013-08-01

    The scope of this study was to assess the impact of calcium and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on plasma fatty acid profiles and to evaluate potential synergistic effects of both compounds against dietary obesity. Mice separated into five experimental groups were followed: control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF with calcium (Ca), HF plus CLA and HF with both Ca and CLA. Plasma metabolites and fatty acids were determined by commercial kits and gas chromatography, respectively. Both dietary calcium and CLA supplementation contributed to lower body fat gain under a HF diet. Maximum efficacy was seen with calcium; no additional effect was associated with the combined treatment with CLA. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and HOMA index were in accordance with an altered glucose/insulin homeostasis in the HF and HF + CLA groups, whereas control levels were attained under Ca-enriched diets. Plasma fatty acids showed minor changes associated to CLA treatment, but a high impact on PUFA was observed under Ca-enriched diets. Our results show that the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of calcium supplementation is mediated mainly by changes in PUFA plasma profile. In addition, the lack of synergy on body weight reduction in combination with associated lipid profiles of calcium and CLA suggests that calcium may interfere with absorption and/or bioactivity of CLA, which can be of relevance when using CLA-fortified dairy products against human obesity.

  2. Dietary calcium from dairy and non-dairy sources and risk of symptomatic kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Because of high correlations between dairy intake and total dietary calcium, previously reported associations between lower calcium intake and increased kidney stone risk represent de facto associations between milk products and risk. We sought to examine associations between dietary calcium from non-dairy and dairy sources and symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods We conducted prospective studies in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; N=30,762 men), the Nurses’ Health Study I (NHS I; N=94,164 women), and the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II; N=101,701 women). We excluded men ≥ 60 years old because we previously reported inverse associations between calcium intake and risk only in men kidney stones over a combined 56 years of follow-up. For participants in the highest compared to lowest quintile of non-dairy dietary calcium, the multivariable relative risks of kidney stones were 0.71 (95% CI 0.56–0.92; P for trend 0.007) for HPFS, 0.82 (0.69–0.98; P trend 0.08) for NHS I, and 0.74 (0.63–0.87; P trend 0.002) for NHS II. The multivariable relative risks comparing highest to lowest quintile of dairy calcium were 0.77 (0.63–0.95; P trend 0.01) for HPFS, 0.83 (0.69–0.99; P trend 0.05) for NHS I, and 0.76 (0.65–0.88; P trend 0.001) for NHS II. Conclusions Higher dietary calcium from either non-dairy or dairy sources is independently associated with lower kidney stone risk. PMID:23535174

  3. Egg weight and egg shell thickness as affected by dietary calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded levels of dietary inclusions of oyster shell and bone meal were used as calcium sources to determine their influence on egg weight and egg thickness for laying chicken in cages, under tropical conditions. Birds were allocated at random to 8% oyster shell and 2% bone meal in treatment 1; 7% and 3% in treatment II; ...

  4. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  5. VALIDITY OF A DIETARY CALCIUM QUESTIONNAIRE MODIFIED TO INCLUDE SUPPLEMENT USE IN ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Henry

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When conducting research in the area of bone health, accurate measurement of calcium intake is crucial. The rapid assessment method (RAM is one technique that has frequently been used for its measurement of calcium intake. However, the RAM and other currently established questionnaires lack the assessment of dietary supplement use, which is common for athletes. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of a RAM questionnaire designed to assess daily calcium consumption which was further modified to meet the needs of athletes who frequently consume dietary supplements. Usefulness of the modified RAM for athletes and non-athletes was evaluated as well as utility among those who do and do not use supplements. The 47 volunteers (n = 31 women, 16 men were between the ages of 18 and 25 including, 33 athletes and 14 controls. The population also contained 23 supplement users and 24 non-supplement users. Participants completed the modified RAM and were instructed to complete a three-day diet record (3DR, logging food intake for 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. The data collected via the modified RAM was compared with the 3DR. Mean calcium intake was 935mg ± 420mg and 1085mg ± 573mg, for the modified RAM and 3DR respectively. A strong positive correlation (r was found between calcium intake measured with the modified RAM and 3DRs (r(45 = 0.854, p 0.05. We have found the modified RAM to be a valid tool which can be used to estimate calcium intake in the athletes and controls we strive to study. The accuracy of this instrument improved by including assessment of dietary supplement sources of calcium

  6. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, I; Lin, Y; De Keyzer, W; Sioen, I; Mouratidou, T; Moreno, L A; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Vandevijvere, S; De Backer, G; De Henauw, S

    2011-09-01

    Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers. Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% boys) were used (66% of 1052 collected diaries). Contribution of 58 food groups to calcium and vitamin D intake were computed. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors. Mean calcium intake (844 mg per day) was above, and mean vitamin D intake (2.0 μg per day) largely below the Belgian recommendations. Milk, sweetened milk drinks and cheese were the main sources of calcium intakes (26, 25 and 11%, respectively). Butter and margarine were the main vitamin D sources (26%), followed by growth milk (=fortified milk) (20%) and fish (15%). Calcium and vitamin D intake were negatively associated with participants' age, and calcium positively with parental education and family size. The child's gender, supplement use and physical activity level, and the employment status and smoking behaviour of the parents were not associated with calcium or vitamin D intake. Flemish preschoolers had too low vitamin D intakes while most had adequate calcium intakes. Milk (including sweetened, fortified/growth milk) was the main food source of calcium intake and the second important source of vitamin D intake after butter and margarine. Calcium intake was positively associated with parental education, while vitamin D intake was not.

  7. Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Oudshoorn (Christian); K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); E.M. Colin (Edgar); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional

  8. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  9. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kesiena

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... B6, 1,200 mg; vitamin B9, 400 mg; vitamin B12, 6 mg; vitamin H2, 40 mg; choline chloride, 200,000 mg; Mn, 40,000 mg; Fe, 20,000 mg; Zn, 40,000 mg; Cu, 4,000 mg; Se, 80 mg. the growing bird may be affected by changes in mineral balance resulting from dietary manipulations to reduce pollution potential.

  10. Dietary calcium from dairy and nondairy sources, and risk of symptomatic kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N; Curhan, Gary C

    2013-10-01

    Because of high correlations between dairy intake and total dietary calcium, previously reported associations between lower calcium intake and increased kidney stone risk represent de facto associations between milk products and risk. We examined associations between dietary calcium from nondairy and dairy sources, and symptomatic nephrolithiasis. We performed prospective studies in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) in 30,762 men, and in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II in 94,164 and 101,701 women, respectively. We excluded men 60 years old or older because we previously reported inverse associations between calcium intake and risk only in men younger than 60 years. Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess calcium intake every 4 years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for age, body mass index, supplemental calcium, diet and other factors. We documented 5,270 incident kidney stones during the combined 56 years of followup. In participants in the highest vs the lowest quintile of nondairy dietary calcium the multivariate relative risk of kidney stones was 0.71 (95% CI 0.56-0.92, p for trend 0.007) in HPFS, 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.98, p trend 0.08) in NHS I and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63-0.87, p trend 0.002) in NHS II. When comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of dairy calcium, the multivariate relative risk was 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.95, p trend 0.01) for HPFS, 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-0.99, p trend 0.05) for NHS I and 0.76 (95% CI 0.65-0.88, p trend 0.001) for NHS II. Higher dietary calcium from nondairy or dairy sources is independently associated with a lower kidney stone risk. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  12. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ruth E; Williams, Sheila M; Jones, Ianthe E; Goulding, Ailsa

    2002-09-01

    Information concerning the adequacy of bone mineralization in children who customarily avoid drinking cow milk is sparse. The objective was to evaluate dietary calcium intakes, anthropometric measures, and bone health in prepubertal children with a history of long-term milk avoidance. We recruited 50 milk avoiders (30 girls, 20 boys) aged 3-10 y by advertisement. We measured current dietary calcium intakes with a food-frequency questionnaire and body composition and bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared the results with those of 200 milk-drinking control children. The reasons for milk avoidance were intolerance (40%), bad taste (42%), and lifestyle choice (18%). Dietary calcium intakes were low (443 +/- 230 mg Ca/d), and few children consumed substitute calcium-rich drinks or mineral supplements. Although 9 children (18%) were obese, the milk avoiders were shorter (P milk is associated with small stature and poor bone health. This is a major concern that warrants further study.

  13. Dietary calcium supplementation in adult rats reverts brown adipose tissue dysfunction programmed by postnatal early overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Oliveira, Elaine; Guarda, Deysla Sabino; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; Quitete, Fernanda Torres; Calvino, Camila; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Mathias, Paulo Cezar Freitas; Manhães, Alex Christian; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction is associated with obesity and its comorbidities, such as hypertension, and the improvement of BAT function seems important for obesity management. Here we investigated the effects of dietary calcium supplementation on BAT autonomic nerve activity, sympathoadrenal function and cardiovascular parameters in adult obese rats that were raised in small litters (SL group). Three days after birth, SL litters were adjusted to three pups to induce early overfeeding. The control group remained with 10 pups/litter until weaning (NL group). At PN120, the SL group was randomly divided into the following: rats fed with standard chow (SL) and rats fed with dietary calcium carbonate supplementation (SL-Ca, 10g/kg chow). Animals were killed either at PN120 or PN180. At both ages, SL rats had higher BAT autonomic nervous system activity, mass and adipocyte area, as well as increased heart rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic); 2 months of calcium supplementation normalized these parameters. At PN180 only, UCP1 and TRβ1 in BAT were decreased in SL rats. These changes were also prevented by calcium treatment. Also at PN180, the SL group presented higher tyrosine hydroxylase and adrenal catecholamine contents, as well as lower hypothalamic POMC and MC4R contents. Calcium supplementation did not revert these alterations. Thus, we demonstrated that dietary calcium supplementation was able to improve cardiovascular parameters and BAT thermogenesis capacity in adult animals that were early overfed during lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  15. Interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density or bone geometry in a low calcium intake population (KNHANES IV 2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Sang Wan; Jang, Hak Chul; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone strength parameters in populations or areas with low calcium intake. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) or bone geometry in an Asian population with low calcium intake. This was a cross-sectional study of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010. A total of 3448 men and 3812 women older than 50 years were stratified by daily dietary calcium intake: less than 400 mg/d, 400-799 mg/d, 800-1199 mg/d, and 1200 mg/d or greater. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the geometric index was calculated. Mean daily calcium intake was 470 mg/d in this population. BMD in the lumbar spine (both sexes) and femoral neck (women) was significantly lower only when calcium intake was less than 400 mg/d. In men, femoral neck and total hip BMD was positively related to calcium intake up to 1200 mg/d. Calcium intake less than 400 mg/d was negatively related to femoral cortical thickness and buckling ratio. These interactions disappeared when the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 30 ng/mL or greater in men and 20 ng/mL or greater in women. Low calcium intake was significantly related with low BMD and increased risk of osteoporosis. However, the association between calcium and BMD was not consistently linear, and a sufficient vitamin D level appears to compensate for the negative influences of low calcium intake on bone.

  16. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics...... following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. METHODS: A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet...... by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, Peffect was enhanced when combined...

  17. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  18. Adaptive response of broilers to dietary phosphorus and calcium restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Xavière; Valable, Anne-Sophie; Létourneau-Montminy, Marie-Pierre; Même, Nathalie; Godet, Estelle; Magnin, Michel; Nys, Yves; Duclos, Michel J; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of chickens to adapt to and compensate for early dietary restriction of non-phytate P ( NPP: ) and/or Ca (10 to 21 d) in a later phase (22 to 35 d), and to determine whether compensatory processes depend on the P and Ca concentrations in the finisher diet. Four diets were formulated and fed to broilers from 10 to 21 d in order to generate birds with different mineral status: L1 (0.6% Ca, 0.30% NPP), L2 (0.6% Ca, 0.45% NPP), H1 (1.0% Ca, 0.30% NPP), and H2 (1.0% Ca, 0.45% NPP). On d 22, each group was divided into three groups which received a low (L, 0.48% Ca, 0.24% NPP), moderate (M, 0.70% Ca, 0.35% NPP), or high (H, 0.90% Ca, 0.35% NPP) finisher diet until 35 d, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. Lowering the Ca level enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of P (P AID) at 21 d especially with the high NPP level (Ca × NPP, P < 0.01). The lower bone mineralization observed at 21 d in broilers fed the L1 diet compared to those fed the H2 diet had disappeared by 35 d with long-term stimulation of the P AID with the low NPP level (P < 0.001). Although P AID and growth performance were improved in birds fed the L1L compared to the L1H and H2H treatments, tibia characteristics tended to be lower in birds fed the L1L compared to those fed the L1H treatment. Birds fed the H1M treatment had higher P AID, growth performance and tibia ash content than those fed the H1H treatment. A significant increase in the mRNA levels of several genes encoding Ca and P transporters was observed at 35 d in birds fed the L1 followed by the L diet compared to birds fed the L1 followed by the M diet. In conclusion, chickens are able to adapt to early dietary changes in P and Ca through improvement of digestive efficiency in a later phase, and the extent of the compensation in terms of growth performance and bone mineralization depends on the P and Ca levels in the subsequent diet. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  20. Red meat and colon cancer : dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    2001-01-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with increased colon cancer risk. We have shown earlier that this may be due to the high haem content of red meat, because dietary haem increased cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation. Dietary calcium inhibits diet-induced

  1. Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Chon, S J; Noe, E B; Roh, Y H; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2017-01-01

    Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women. The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean men and women, especially postmenopausal women. The study was performed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) and included 14,705 participants (5953 men, 4258 premenopausal women, and 4494 postmenopausal women). Clinical and other objective characteristics, presence of metabolic syndrome, and the BMD of the femur neck and lumbar spine were evaluated according to dietary calcium intake. There was a higher tendency for metabolic syndrome in men with a dietary calcium intake of >1200 mg/day than with ≤400 mg of calcium intake; >400 and ≤800 mg of calcium intake was helpful for postmenopausal women to decrease risk for metabolic syndrome. Overall, the group with calcium intake >400 and ≤800 mg daily had significantly increased BMD in both femoral neck and lumbar spine from both men and postmenopausal women. From both femoral neck and lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women significantly decreased in the group whose calcium intake was >400 and ≤800 mg daily. Excessive dietary calcium may increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men. For postmenopausal women, calcium intake does not increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, but modest amount decreases the risk. It may increase the BMD in men and postmenopausal women, and also reduce the prevalence of both osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  2. Dietary calcium decreases plasma cholesterol level only in female but not in male hamster fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka Ying; Liang, Yin Tong; Chen, Jing Nan; Jiang, Yue; Kwan, Kin Ming; Peng, Cheng; Jiao, Rui; Zuo, Yuan Yuan; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen Yu

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary calcium on plasma lipoprotein profile in castrated and ovariectomized hamsters. Male, castrated, female and ovariectomized hamsters (n=36 each group) were randomly divided into three sub-groups (n=12) and fed one of the three diets containing 0, 2, and 8 g calcium per kg diet for a period of six weeks. Changes in plasma lipoprotein profile were monitored at the end of week 0, 3 and 6. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TG) and TC/HDL-C were decreased only in intact female and ovariectomized hamsters. In contrast, three levels of dietary calcium had no effect on lipoprotein profiles in both intact male and castrated hamsters. Beneficial modification of lipoprotein profile by dietary calcium was gender-dependent at least in hamsters. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  4. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  5. The effect of dairy products choice on calcium dietary intake in female university students of nutritional faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika; Lange, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products provide the most important source of calcium in a typical human diet, being of particular significance to women. To determine dietary calcium intakes in a group of female students studying human nutrition at a Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW through analysing the selections made of dairy products. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess average consumption of dairy products. Total daily calcium intakes were then estimated by adding the intakes obtained from such dairy products to an average non-dairy calcium value obtained from other foodstuffs and taken to be 250 mg. Varied choices were made of dairy foodstuffs, with most subjects consuming milk, milk beverages, cottage cheese and rennet cheese. Calcium intakes were thus dependent on the dietary assortment of such selected dairy products made. Whenever cheeses were avoided in the diet, then low calcium intakes became more common. When compared to dietary recommendations, calcium intakes in this group of young women were inadequately low especially for those not eating cheese and despite supposedly having sufficient knowledge through studying this subject area.

  6. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  7. Genetic Differences Control the Response of Femur and Lumbar Spine Trabecular Bone Microstructure to Dietary Calcium Restriction in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Both dietary calcium and genetics influence bone density and structure. However, how genetics affect the adaptation response of bone parameters to dietary calcium (Ca) restriction is unknown. 11 inbred strains of mice were fed adequate (0.5%) or low (0.25%) Ca diets from 4-12 weeks of age and were evaluated for gene-by-diet interactions affecting bone structure at the femur and lumbar spine. We observed that genetics and diet main effects as well as gene-by-diet interactions si...

  8. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  9. Dietary calcium and magnesium supplements in spontaneously hypertensive rats and isolated arterial reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkynen, H.; Kähönen, M.; Arvola, P.; Wuorela, H.; Vapaatalo, H.; Pörsti, I.

    1995-01-01

    1. High calcium diet attenuates the development of hypertension but an associated undesirable effect is that Mg2+ loss to the urine is enhanced. Therefore, we studied the effects of high calcium diet alone and in combination with increased magnesium intake on blood pressure and arterial function. 2. Forty-eight young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated into four groups, the dietary contents of Ca2+ and Mg2+ being: 1.1%, 0.2% (SHR); 2.5%, 0.2% (Ca-SHR); 2.5%, 0.8% (CaMg-SHR); and 1.1%, 0.8% (Mg-SHR), respectively. Development of hypertension was followed for 13 weeks, whereafter electrolyte balance, lymphocyte intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), and mesenteric arterial responses in vitro were examined. Forty normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were investigated in a similar manner. 3. Calcium supplementation comparably attenuated the development of Lypertension during normal and high magnesium intake in SHR, with an associated reduced lymphocyte [Ca2+]i and increased Mg2+ loss to the urine. 4. Endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation to acetylcholine was augmented in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR, while the relaxations to isoprenaline and the nitric oxide donor SIN-1 were similar in all SHR groups. Relaxation responses induced by the return of K+ to the organ bath upon precontractions in K(+)-free solution were used to evaluate the function of arterial Na+, K(+)-ATPase. The rate of potassium relaxation was similar in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR and faster than in untreated SHR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564205

  10. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  11. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Bintaş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  12. Dietary calcium regulates ROS production in aP2-agouti transgenic mice on high-fat/high-sucrose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Zemel, M B

    2006-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 promotes adipocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We have now evaluated whether decreasing 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 levels by increasing dietary calcium will decrease oxidative stress in vivo. We fed low-calcium (0.4% Ca) and high-calcium (1.2% Ca from CaCO3) obesity-promoting (high sucrose/high fat) diets to aP2-agouti transgenic mice and assessed regulation of ROS production in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Mice on the high-calcium diet gained 50% of the body weight (P=0.04) and fat (Pcalcium diet (0.4% Ca). The high-calcium diet significantly reduced adipose intracellular ROS production by 64 and 18% (Pphosphate oxidase expression by 49% (P=0.012) and 63% (P=0.05) in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively. Adipocyte intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels were suppressed in mice on the high-calcium diet by 73-80% (Pcalcium diet also induced 367 and 191% increases in adipose mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression (Pcalcium diet also suppressed 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) expression in visceral adipose tissue by 39% (P=0.034). 11beta-HSD expression was markedly higher in visceral vs subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice on the low-calcium diet (P=0.034), whereas no difference was observed between the fat depots in mice on the high-calcium diet. These data support a potential role for dietary calcium in the regulation of obesity-induced oxidative stress.

  13. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. © 2014 American

  14. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  15. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029412; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311469728; Everts, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073713694; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values for calcium. These include Average Requirement (AR), Population Reference Intake (PRI) and Adequate Intake (AI). For adults, data were analysed from a number...

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  18. The relation between dietary protein, calcium and bone health in women: results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Walter, Dietmar; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in bone health is controversial. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between protein intake, dietary calcium, and bone structure measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Our analysis includes 8,178 female study participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam Study. Ultrasound bone measurements were performed on the right os calcis, and BUA was determined. Dietary intake was assessed by a standardized food frequency questionnaire. We applied linear regression models to estimate the association between dietary protein and BUA. After multivariate adjustment, high intake of animal protein was associated with decreased BUA values (beta = -0.03; p = 0.010) whereas high vegetable protein intake was related to an increased BUA (beta = 0.11; p = 0.007). The effect of dietary animal protein on BUA was modified by calcium intake. High consumption of protein from animal origin may be unfavourable, whereas a higher vegetable protein intake may be beneficial for bone health. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that high calcium intake combined with adequate protein intake based on a high ratio of vegetable to animal protein may be protective against osteoporosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Dietary energy nutrient distribution, calcium, iron and zinc in young and old Asians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu-Tso, P.; Fuentes-Cano, M.; Tam, C.F. (California State Univ., Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The objective of this study is to examine whether ethnic eating patterns influence dietary nutrient intakes in young and old Asians. The authors experimental groups included young CSLA Asian students and their parents or close relatives. Most of them lived in the same households. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and zinc by the Nutritionist III computer program and statistically analyzed using Mustat. No statistical difference was observed in the KCAL distribution of protein, fat, and carbohydrate and both groups met the guidelines of 20%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. However, mean KCAL intakes of both groups were found to be about 79% of NRC-RDA. No statistical difference was found in % RDA for Ca and Zn between groups, except % RDA for Fe. With respect to RDA, the older Asians consumed more Fe than the younger Asians. It is noteworthy that they did not meet the RDA requirements for Ca and Zn. Since recent Asian immigrants and refugees often suffer from a high incidence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis, these observations of low intakes of KCAL, Ca, and Zn, may, at least in part, contribute to disease.

  20. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoride-induced thyroid dysfunction in rats: roles of dietary protein and calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Yang, Z; Zhou, B; Gao, H; Yan, X; Wang, J

    2009-02-01

    To assess the roles of dietary protein (Pr) and calcium (Ca) level associated with excessive fluoride (F) intake and the impact of dietary Pr, Ca, and F on thyroid function, 144 30-day-old Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to six groups of 24 (female:male = 1:1). The six groups were fed (1) a normal control (NC) diet (17.92% Pr, 0.85% Ca = NC group); (2) the NC diet and high F (338 mg NaF [=150 mg F ion]/L in their drinking water = NC+F group); (3) low Pr and low Ca diet (10.01% Pr, 0.24% Ca = LPrLCa group); (4) low Pr and low Ca diet plus high F = LPrLCa+F group; (5) high Pr and low Ca diet plus high F (25.52% Pr, 0.25% Ca = HPrLCa+F group); and (6) low Pr and high Ca diet plus high F (10.60% Pr, 1.93% Ca = LPrHCa+F group). The areas of thyroid follicles were determined by Image-Proplus 5.1, and triiodothyronine (T3), free T3 (FT3), thyroxine (T4), and free T4 (FT4) levels in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay. The histopathological study revealed obviously flatted follicular epithelia cells and hyperplastic nodules, consisting of thyroid parafollicular cells that appeared by excessive F ingestion, on the 120th day. Pr or Ca supplementation reverses the F-induced damage in malnutrition. The serum T3, FT3, T4, and FT4 levels in the NC+F group were significantly decreased and significantly increased in the LPrLCa+F group. Thus, excessive F administration induces thyroid dysfunction in rats; dietary Pr and Ca level play key roles in F-induced thyroid dysfunction.

  2. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case-control study in Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    .... In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items...

  3. High impact exercise is more beneficial than dietary calcium for building bone strength in the growing rat skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, J M; Turner, C H; Devareddy, L; Arjmandi, B H; Weaver, C M

    2008-04-01

    The benefits of impact exercise and dietary calcium on bone development are controversial. We used inbred rats under highly controlled conditions to test the independent and combined effects of impact exercise and physiological levels of calcium intakes on the growing skeleton. Forty growing F-344 female rats were fed diets containing either 100% (Ca+; 0.5% Ca) or 40% (Ca(-); 0.2% Ca) of their calcium requirements. Half of each dietary group was subjected to either 10 impacts per day from 45 cm freefall drops (Impact+), or no impact (Impact(-)). All rats received a free choice of physical activity period daily. After 8 weeks, the mechanical strength, volumetric density, geometry, and microarchitecture of their ulnae were measured. Body weight and bone length did not differ among groups. On both diets, freefall impact resulted in greater bone strength, cross-sectional moments of inertia, and endosteal and periosteal circumferences in the shaft. Only Ca+ resulted in greater shaft volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) but that did not affect shaft breaking strength. In the bone ends, both Impact+ and Ca+ positively affected density and structure of both cortical and trabecular bone but the effects of Impact+ were more pervasive. In the proximal end, Impact+ resulted in greater bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in the trabecular bone due to greater trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness was greater due to a smaller endosteal circumference. Impact+ exerted a compensatory effect on vBMD and BV/TV in Ca(-) rats at the proximal site. In Impact(-) rats only, Ca+ resulted in greater total and cortical vBMD and BV/TV in the proximal ulna. Impact+ and Ca+ exerted additive effects on cortical bone area (BA) in the proximal ulna and on total BA, periosteal circumference, and trabecular vBMD in the distal ulna. In conclusion, impact exercise was more beneficial than adequate dietary calcium to growing bones, although sufficient dietary calcium was beneficial in rats not

  4. Phosphorus digestibility response of broiler chickens to dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J B; Chen, D W; Adeola, O

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the true digestibility of P in soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens fed diets with different dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios (Ca:P) using the regression method. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 diets formulated to contain combinations of 4 levels of dietary Ca:P: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0 and 3 levels of SBM: 31.0, 44.0, or 57.0%. A total of 576 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 12 dietary treatments with 8 cages (6 birds per cage) per treatment from d 15 to 22 posthatching, and the BW between groups were similar. Chromic dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results showed that BW gain and feed efficiency were increased (linear, P < 0.01), and prececal DM digestibility and DM retention were decreased (linear, P < 0.01) with graded SBM in diets for each Ca:P. Decreasing linear (P < 0.01) relationships were observed for apparent prececal P digestibility and total tract P retention with increased dietary SBM levels. The prececal and excreta P output increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) as increasing levels of SBM were added to the experimental diets. True prececal P digestibility in SBM was greater (P < 0.05) for birds fed a diet with Ca:P of 0.8 compared with those fed higher Ca:P, but there was no difference among the Ca:P ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. However, the total tract retention of P from SBM was not affected by Ca:P between 0.8 and 2.0. In conclusion, results of the present experiment demonstrated that prececal digestibility of P in SBM was not affected by Ca:P ratio between 1.2 and 2.0; and there was no difference in total tract retention of P from SBM among the Ca:P ratios between 0.8 and 2.0 in broiler chickens.

  5. The Synergistic Effect of Dietary Calcium Restriction and Exhaustive Exercise on the Antioxioxidant Enzyme System in Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromi, MIYAZAKI; Shuji, OH-ISHI; Tomomi, OOKAWARA; Kasumigaura Hospital, Tokyo Medical University; Department of Biochemistry, Hyogo College of Medicine; Research Center of Health, Physical Fitness and Sports, Nagoya University; Institute of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba; Department of Hygiene, Kyorin University

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to elucidate whether dietary calcium restriction enhances exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to either the control (C) or the calcium-restricted (1 month)(R) rats. Each group was subdivided into non-exercised (CR, RR) or acutely exercised (CE, RE) groups. The level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly greater in the RR rats than...

  6. Calcium intake in the United States from dietary and supplemental sources across adult age groups: new estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Walsh, Stephen J; Insogna, Karl L; Kenny, Anne M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2011-05-01

    Adequate lifelong calcium intake is essential in optimizing bone health. Recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used to quantify variation in calcium intake across adult age groups and to relate age-associated changes in calcium intake with energy intake. Additional goals were to assess differences in dietary calcium intake between supplemental calcium users and nonusers and to evaluate associations between age and calcium density in the diet. This cross-sectional analysis determined calcium and energy intake for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey respondents during 2003-2006. Diet was assessed with 24-hour recall and supplement use via questionnaire. Trends in median intakes for dietary calcium, total calcium, and energy across age categories were assessed using survey analysis methods. Nutrient density was represented using calcium to energy intake ratios. The analyses included data from 9,475 adults. When compared to the 19- to 30-year age group, median dietary calcium intake was lower in the ≥81-year age group by 23% in men (Pcalcium supplement use increased (Pcalcium intake was greater than in nonusers (P=0.02). Calcium density in the diet significantly increased relative to age in men and women (Pcalcium to energy ratios were insufficient to meet target ratios inferred by adequate intake standards after age 50 years. Although supplemental calcium use and calcium density were highest in older age groups, they were not sufficient in meeting recommended levels. New approaches to increasing the frequency and level of calcium supplement use to enhance calcium density in diets may be necessary to reduce osteoporosis risk among older Americans. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of altering dietary cation-anion difference on calcium and energy metabolism in peripartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S J; VandeHaar, M J; Sharma, B K; Pilbeam, T E; Beede, D K; Bucholtz, H F; Liesman, J S; Horst, R L; Goff, J P

    2000-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of varying dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD: meq[(Na + K) - (Cl + S)]/100 g of dry matter) in prepartum diets on Ca, energy, and endocrine status prepartum and postpartum. Holstein cows (n = 21) and heifers (n = 34) were fed diets with varying amounts of CaCl2, CaSO4, and MgSO4 to achieve a DCAD of +15 (control), 0, or -15 meq/100 g of dry matter for the last 24 d before expected calving. Dietary Ca concentration was increased (by CaCO3 supplementation) with decreasing DCAD. Plasma ionized Ca concentrations prepartum and at calving in both cows and heifers increased with reduced DCAD in the diet. At calving, plasma ionized Ca concentration was 3.67, 3.85, and 4.35 for cows and 4.44, 4.57, and 4.62 mg/dl for heifers fed diets containing +15, 0, and -15 DCAD, respectively. All heifers had normal concentrations of plasma ionized Ca (>4 mg/dl) at calving. Also at calving, plasma concentrations ofparathyroid hormone and calcitriol were less in cows and heifers fed diets containing reduced DCAD, but the plasma concentration of hydroxyproline was not affected by diet. Prepartum dry matter intake, energy balance, and body weight gains were lower and concentration of liver triglyceride was higher for heifers but not cows fed the -15 DCAD diet. Also, nonesterified fatty acids the last week prepartum were positively correlated with liver triglyceride for heifers but not cows. Feeding of anionic salts plus CaCO3 to reduce DCAD to -15 and increase Ca in prepartum diets prevents hypocalcemia at calving in cows, but decreases prepartum dry matter intake and increases the concentration of liver triglyceride in heifers. That heifers maintained calcium homeostasis at calving regardless of diet but ate less when fed the -15 DCAD diet suggests that they should not be fed anionic salts before calving.

  8. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridget M. Stroup; Emily A. Sawin; Sangita G. Murali; Neil Binkley; Karen E. Hansen; Denise M. Ney

    2017-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design...

  9. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  10. The influence of breakfast and dairy products on dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in postpubertal adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B S E; Verly, E; Marchioni, D M L; Fisberg, M; Martini, L A

    2012-02-01

    Given the importance of both calcium and vitamin D for bone health and the high prevalence of vitamin D from around the world, the present study aimed to evaluate calcium and vitamin D intake in a group of healthy Brazilian adolescents and young adults and to examine the influence of breakfast and dairy products in the total intake of these nutrients.   One hundred and sixty adolescents and young adults, aged 16-20 years old, from a public school, participated in the present study. Three-day dietary records were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intakes. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. The results were expressed as the mean (SD). Only 3.8% of the subjects met the daily adequate intake recommendation for calcium, and none for vitamin D [682.2 (132.2)mg day(-1) and 124.0 (28.0)IU day(-1) , respectively]. 25(OH)D serum levels were insufficient in 51.5% and deficient in 9.7% of the individuals [72.5 (22.3) nmol L(-1) ]. There was a significant positive correlation between dairy product intake with both calcium and vitamin D (r=0.597 and r =0.561, respectively; P=0.000). Adolescents who ate breakfast had a significant higher mean calcium, vitamin D and dairy product intake than adolescents who did not report this meal. The majority of adolescents and young adults did not consume recommended intakes of calcium and vitamin D and also presented 25(OH)D insufficiency. The results indicate that a regular breakfast and the consumption of dairy products represent important strategies in improving calcium and vitamin D intake in the diet. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Dairy products, dietary calcium and bone health: possibility of prevention of osteoporosis in women: the Polish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Sobas, Kamila; Szczepanska, Justyna W; Slowinska, Malgorzata A; Czlapka-Matyasik, Magdalena; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa

    2013-07-16

    The objective of the study was to analyze the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium by women in the context of bone mineral density and to assess opportunities to prevent osteoporosis in a dietary manner. The study was carried out with 712 Polish women. In 170 women aged 32 to 59 bone mineral density (BMD) was measured. The data on the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium and some other osteoporosis risk factors was collected from 712 women. The average calcium intake from a diet was 507 mg/day. Only 2% of the women met Polish calcium intake recommendations. During adulthood, dairy product consumption or dietary calcium intake did not differ significantly between women with low BMD (below -1 SD) and women with regular BMD (≥-1 SD) (47.4 vs. 44.3 servings/week and 459 vs. 510 mg/day, respectively, p > 0.05). The odds ratios adjusted for age, menstruation and BMI in women with upper BMD tercile in comparison to the reference group (bottom tercile) was 2.73 (95% CI: 1.14, 6.55; p dairy products during the pre-school period and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.01, 5.70; p dairy products during the school period. Two clusters of women were established. In the S1 cluster, low BMD (below -1 SD) was associated with older age (≥ 50 years), lack of menstrual cycle. In the S2 cluster, regular BMD (≥-1 SD) was related to younger aged women (dairy products (≥28 servings/week) during adulthood and daily intake of dairy products during childhood and adolescence. The results indicate that good bone health to the larg e extent depended upon the combined impact of dietary factors and some non-modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis such as age and the presence of menstruation. Consumption of dairy products in childhood and adolescence may improve bone mineral density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis in adult women.

  12. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zemel Michael B; Teegarden Dorothy; Wiest Michelle M; Smilowitz Jennifer T; German J Bruce; Van Loan Marta D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A sec...

  13. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  14. Dietary sources of calcium among parents and their early adolescent children in the United States by parent race/ethnicity and place of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluskey, Mary; Wong, Siew Sun; Richards, Rickelle; Ballejos, Miriam; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol; Bruhn, Christine; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Dietary calcium sources may differ by race/ethnicity and dietary acculturation. A cross-sectional, convenience sample including 587 United States (US) Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White parent-child (10-13 years) pairs completed a calcium food frequency questionnaire. Calcium sources were ranked by mean percent contribution to total adjusted calcium intake, and compared by ethnic group and parents' location of birth. Five foods (fluid milk, cheese, milk on cereal, yogurt, and lattes) represented 49% of total calcium intake for parents. The same foods (except lattes) represented 55% of total calcium for early adolescent children. Fluid milk provided the largest mean percentage of intake for all race/ethnic groups among parents and children. Several food sources of calcium were greater for foreign-born versus US-born Asian or Hispanic parents and children. Understanding calcium food sources and changes in dietary patterns that affect calcium intake among parents and children is important to better promote adequate intake.

  15. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2007-01-01

    significantly affected the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration during zeolite supplementation, whereas the periparturient plasma Ca concentration was apparently not affected by the dietary Ca level. During zeolite A supplementation plasma parathyroid hormone was significantly higher among cows receiving...

  16. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilization by growing pigs: effect of dietary phosphorus, calcium and exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Jondreville, C; Sauvant, D; Narcy, A

    2012-10-01

    Optimizing phosphorus (P) utilization in pigs requires improving our capacity to predict the amount of P absorbed and retained, with the main modulating factors taken into account, as well as precisely determining the P requirements of the animals. Given the large amount of published data on P utilization in pigs, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the impact of the different dietary P forms, calcium (Ca) and exogenous phytases on the digestive and metabolic utilization criteria for dietary P in growing pigs. Accordingly, the amount of phytate P (PP) leading to digestible P (g/kg) was estimated to be 21%, compared with 73% for non-phytate P (NPP) from plant ingredients and 80% for NPP from mineral and animal ingredients (P < 0.001). The increase in total digestible dietary P following the addition of microbial phytase (PhytM) from Aspergillus niger (P < 0.001) was curvilinear and about two times higher than the increase following the addition of plant phytase, which leads to a linear response (P < 0.001). The response of digestible P to PhytM also depends on the amount of substrate, PP (PhytM(2) × PP, P < 0.001). The digestibility of dietary P decreased with dietary Ca concentration (P < 0.01) independently of phytase but increased with body weight (BW, P < 0.05). Although total digestible dietary P increased linearly with total NPP concentration (P < 0.001), retained P (g/kg), average daily gain (ADG, g/day) and average daily feed intake (ADFI, g/day) increased curvilinearly (P < 0.001). Interestingly, whereas dietary Ca negatively affected P digestibility, the effect of dietary Ca on retained P, ADG and ADFI depended on total dietary NPP (NPP × Ca, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Increasing dietary Ca reduced retained P, ADG and ADFI at low NPP levels, but at higher NPP concentrations it had no effect on ADG and ADFI despite a positive effect on retained P. Although the curvilinear effect of PhytM on digestible P increased with PP (P < 0

  17. Effects of dietary calcium on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Masaki; Nakamura, Shiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection causes gastritis and is considered a gastric cancer risk factor. We have previously reported that codfish meal markedly enhanced Hp-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we sought the responsible components in codfish meal. Codfish were divided into three parts (meat, viscera and 'other parts', including bone), and administered to Hp-infected gerbils. Subsequently, cod bone, sardine bone and prawn shell were tested, along with major calcium components, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, in bone and shell, respectively. 'Other parts' and cod bone enhanced Hp-induced gastritis, as was observed for whole codfish. Similarly, sardine bone and prawn shell, as well as 0.22-0.88% hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, enhanced gastritis. In contrast, administration of a higher dose of the calcium compounds exerted protective effects. Intake of calcium compounds may contribute to enhancement of Hp-induced gastritis.

  18. Timothy hay with a low dietary cation-anion difference improves calcium homeostasis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Tremblay, G F; Dow, T; Oba, M

    2008-05-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of feeding timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay differing in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the capability of cows to maintain calcium homeostasis around parturition. We hypothesized that feeding low-DCAD timothy hay during the prepartum period would induce a mild metabolic acidosis prepartum and improve calcium homeostasis postpartum with no effect on dry matter intake. Forty-one dry pregnant Holstein cows entering their second lactation or greater were used in a randomized complete block design. Timothy hay was obtained from an established timothy stand under a pivot irrigation system. Low-DCAD timothy hay was produced by fertilizing the area between the second and third pivot towers at a rate of 224 kg of CaCl(2)/ha, and control timothy hay (high DCAD) was grown on the area between the fourth and fifth pivot towers of the same field. The chloride concentration was 1.07 and 0.15% on a dry matter (DM) basis, and the DCAD was 1.2 and 21.6 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy hay, respectively. Experimental diets, containing timothy hay at 63% of dietary DM, were fed ad libitum starting 30 d before the expected calving date. The DCAD values were 1.6 vs. 14.5 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy-based diets, respectively. At the beginning of the study, urine pH and blood bicarbonate concentration averaged 8.22 +/- 0.06 and 28.5 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively. The low-DCAD timothy diet decreased urine pH compared with the high-DCAD timothy diet on d 21 (7.75 vs. 8.31), d 14 (7.69 vs. 8.22), and d 7 (7.50 vs. 8.19) before calving, and it also decreased the prepartum blood bicarbonate concentration by 2 mM. In addition, cows fed the low-DCAD timothy diet had greater blood ionized calcium concentration prepartum (1.22 vs. 1.19 mM), greater blood ionized calcium concentration at 0 and 8 h after calving, and similar prepartum dry matter intake. These results indicate that timothy hay

  19. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  20. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  1. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  2. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hoefkens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body — as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU — do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed.

  3. The Effects in the Rat of Varying Intakes of Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Hydrogen Ion on Hyperparathyroidism Due to Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Renal failure of 4 wk duration in rats led to parathyroid enlargement, increased bone resorption, and decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate by the remnant kidney. The degree of hyperparathyroidism was influenced by each of the three dietary factors investigated. In the first study increasing calcium intake reduced the size of the parathyroids by increasing calcium and reducing phosphate absorption. In the second study phosphate intake was linearly related to parathyroid gland size in the uremic animals and associated with rising plasma phosphate levels. In the last study acidosis led directly to increased bone resorption but small parathyroid glands associated with elevated ionized calcium levels. Alkalosis lowered the serum ionized calcium and led to parathyroid enlargement and the expected associated findings. It was shown that parathyroid weight reflected both metabolic activity as judged by amino acid uptake, and the content of immunoassayable parathyroid hormone. In all studies gland weight was inversely related to serum ionized calcium. PMID:4808640

  4. Mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned pigs and dynamics linked to dietary calcium-phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Mann

    Full Text Available Dietary composition largely influences pig's gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P = 0.035. Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs.

  5. Dietary magnesium and calcium intake and risk of depression in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingrong; Lv, Jing; Wang, Weijing; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-03-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) intake and the risk of depression. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore these associations and to investigate the possible dose-response relationship between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression. MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan fang databases and Databases of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals were searched for eligible publications up to September 2016. Pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects model. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline functions. A total of 17 epidemiological studies from 12 articles were included in the present meta-analysis. Among these studies, 11 studies evaluated the association between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression and 6 studies evaluated the association between dietary Ca intake and risk of depression. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled relative risks of depression were 0.81 (95% confidence interval = [0.70, 0.92]) for Mg and 0.66 (95% confidence interval = [0.42, 1.02]) for Ca. Dietary Mg intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of depression among studies conducted in Asia (relative risk  = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = [0.44, 0.74]) and in studies adjusting for energy intake (relative risk  = 0.73; 95% confidence interval = [0.58, 0.92]). For dose-response analysis, evidence of a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression, and the largest risk reductions were observed for 320 mg/day. This meta-analysis indicated that moderate Mg intake may be inversely associated with the risk of depression, which

  6. A 51-item calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire is a reliable tool to assess dietary calcium intake in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Goltzman, David; Whiting, Susan J; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Morin, Suzanne N

    2017-07-01

    Given the lack in a valid biomarker to assess dietary calcium intake (dCai), reproducible estimation of usual dCai is crucial for better understanding of its interaction with health outcomes in specific populations. This study tested the hypothesis that a calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be used to estimate dCai of women ≥50 years residing in a multicultural environment (Montreal, Canada). One hundred and eight women (age, 63.1±7.7 years; 98% postmenopausal) completed the FFQ twice and 4 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (24HRs) over 1 month. Medians of dCai were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Reproducibility and relative validity of the FFQ were assessed by Spearman correlation (rs) and Cohen's weighted kappa (κw). Agreement was further assessed by cross-classification by quartiles, Bland-Altman plot, and sensitivity and specificity analyses. The median (interquartile range) dCai estimated by the FFQ and 24HRs were 723 (524-1033) mg/d and 854 (666-1068) mg/d, respectively (P<.001). The FFQs had a strong correlation (rs=0.72, P<.001) and moderate agreement (κw=0.55). The FFQ and 24HRs were moderately correlated (rs=0.65, P<.001). Cross-classification showed moderate agreement (κw=0.42), with 85% of the participants classified into identical or contiguous quartiles and 2.8% into extreme opposite quartiles. According to the Bland-Altman plot, the FFQ underestimated dCai with a bias of 99 mg/d (95% limits of agreement, -677 to +480 mg/d). Sensitivity and specificity of identifying intakes <1000 mg/d were 90% and 57%, respectively. This FFQ is a useful tool to discriminate dCai <600 and ≥1000 mg/d in postmenopausal women and to rank dCai in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary calcium as a possible anti-promoter of colon carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapre, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARY
    Colon cancer is the second-most common malignancy in both males and females and is strongly related to environmental factors of which diet seems to be the most important one. Dietary fat is positively correlated with the

  8. Dietary calcium and phosphate in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Mechanism and nutrition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Maria Johanna Adriana Petronella

    1993-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (cancerof the large intestine) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors, and in particular dietary habits, play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. A positive association

  9. Consequences of dietary calcium and phosphorus depletion and repletion feeding sequences on growth performance and body composition of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, E; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Bernier, J F; Pomar, C

    2017-10-25

    The effect of a calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) depletion and repletion strategy was studied in four consecutive feeding phases of 28 days each. In all, 60 castrated male pigs (14±1.6 kg initial BW) received 60% (low (L) diet; depletion) or 100% (control (C) diet; repletion) of their Ca and digestible P requirements according to six feeding sequences (CCCC, CCCL, CLCC, CCLC, LCLC and LLLL; subsequent letters indicate the diet received in phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Pigs bone mineral content in whole-body (BMCb) and lumbar vertebrae L2 to L4 (BMCv) was measured in every feeding phase by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Growth performance was slightly (dietary treatments did not affect overall growth. Compared with control pigs, depletion reduced BMCb (34%, 38%, 33% and 22%) and BMCv (46%, 54%, 38% and 26%) in phases 1 to 4, respectively. Depletion increased however digestible P retention efficiency from the second to the fourth phases allowing LLLL pigs to present no differences in BMCb and BMCv gain compared with CCCC pigs in phase 4. Growth performance in repleted compared with control pigs was lower in phase 2, was no different in phase 3 and was lower in CLCC pigs in phase 4. Repletion increased body P and Ca retention efficiency when compared with control pigs (respectively, 8% and 10% for LC v. CC, PDietary Ca was, however, oversupply in L compared with C diets (3.1 v. 2.5 Ca:digestible P ratio, respectively) suggesting that P has probably driven the regulations. Phosphorus and Ca depletion and repletion increases dietary P utilization efficiency and can help to reduce dietary P supply, but the underlying mechanisms need elucidation before its practical application.

  10. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE.The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%.Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  11. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Wiest, Michelle M; Teegarden, Dorothy; Zemel, Michael B; German, J Bruce; Van Loan, Marta D

    2011-10-05

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61) were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1) placebo; 2) 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3) 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d) intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy) and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  12. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  13. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Rotllant, J.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and

  14. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  15. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P muscle increased (P meat and in plasma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered (P meat or in plasma. Calpastatin activity was affected by treatments only in the gracilus and vastus intermedius muscles (P muscles and aging periods, calpastatin activity and intensity of troponin-T degradation product were related inversely. Results indicate that supplemental 25-OH D(3) has some influence on muscle characteristics known to improve tenderness, but improved tenderness was not observed.

  16. Blood pressure in relation to dietary calcium intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead, and blood cadmium in female nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizent, A; Jurasovie, J; Telisman, S

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationship of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), age, and body mass index (BMI) to blood pressure was examined in 267 peasant women 40-85 years of age. They were residents of two rural areas in Croatia and differed with regard to dietary Ca intake: 100 women with low Ca intake (approximately 450 mg/day) and 167 women with relatively high Ca intake (approximately 940 mg/day). All of the women were nonsmokers and consumed very little or no alcohol. Median and range BPb values were 74 (29-251) microg/L in women with low Ca intake and 59 (21-263) microg/L in women with high Ca intake (p 0.10). Results of multiple regression showed a significant (p women with low Ca intake), and marginally with BCd, and alcohol consumption (multiple r = 0.38, p women with different Ca intake were subdivided into consumers and nonconsumers of alcohol, BPb was related positively to alcohol consumption and inversely to Ca intake. The highest BPb was found in the subgroup of alcohol consumers with low Ca intake, and the lowest BPb in the subgroup of nonconsumers with high Ca intake: 78 (42-251) microg/L and 51 (22-192) microg/L, respectively (p < 10(-8)). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the former subgroup as compared to the latter: 95 (72-130) mm Hg and 90 (60-120) mm Hg, respectively (p < 0.05). This cannot be explained by age, BMI, or BCd, which were comparable in the two subgroups. The results indicate that alcohol consumption and low Ca intake can increase BPb, which may significantly contribute to an increase in diastolic blood pressure in female nonsmokers even at relatively low-level Pb exposure.

  17. Ki-ras mutation modifies the protective effect of dietary monounsaturated fat and calcium on sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, D; Obrador, A; Moreno, V; Cabeza, E; Canet, R; Benito, E; Bosch, X; Costa, J

    1997-01-01

    The geographic differences in the incidence of colorectal cancer have been mostly attributed to variations in diet. The diversity of the Mediterranean diet and the heterogeneity of acquired genetic alterations in colorectal cancer sets the stage for investigating the possible association between dietary factors and mutations in tumor genes known to play a role in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. With this purpose, we have studied the Ki-ras gene in 108 colorectal cancers using archival tissue and epidemiological data from our previous case-control study. Mutations in exon 1 of the Ki-ras gene were detected by a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism approach. A polychotomous logistic regression model was used to assess the significance of observed differences between wild-type and mutated tumors with respect to population controls in the different categories of nutrient consumption. Multivariate density models were used to adjust the correlation between nutrients and total energy. Our studies show that high consumption of monounsaturated fats, mostly derived from olive oil, is associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of cancer with wild-type Ki-ras genotype but not of Ki-ras mutated cancers. Conversely, we find that high calcium intake is associated with a decreased risk of Ki-ras mutated tumors but not of wild-type tumors. Tumor genotyping can reveal epidemiological associations that are weak or unapparent when cases-control studies are not stratified by tumor genotype.

  18. Efficacy of a Brazilian calcium montmorillonite against toxic effects of dietary aflatoxins on broilers reared to market weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, J C; Santurio, J M; Zanette, R A; Rosa, A P; Scher, A; Dal Pozzo, M; Alves, S H; Ferreiro, L

    2014-01-01

    1. The protective effect of a natural Brazilian calcium montmorillonite (CaMont) against aflatoxins was studied in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 1056-d-old Cobb male broilers were housed in experimental pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. Three levels of CaMont (0, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and two levels of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg) were assayed. Each treatment had 8 replicate pens of 22 broiler chickens each. 3. Of all the chickens tested in the experiment, the ones treated with aflatoxins were the most adversely affected. CaMont treatment at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 g/kg improved body weight of chickens at 42 d of age by 13.3% and 22.7%, increased daily feed intake by 9.7% and 24.7%, and improved the productive efficiency index of chickens by 53% and 66.5%, respectively. 4. Dietary CaMont positively affected parameters such as weight of liver, heart and gizzard; however, serum potassium concentration decreased by 15.3% compared with that of chickens given only the aflatoxin-contaminated diet. 5. CaMont did not cause adverse effects in chickens that did not receive aflatoxins. 6. CaMont at pH 8.5 partially reduced the toxic effects of aflatoxins in broilers when included at levels of 2.5 and 5 g/kg in the diet.

  19. Dietary mannitol increased the absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Sakaguchi, E; Min, X; Kawasaki, K

    2016-08-01

    The effect of mannitol on bone-related mineral absorption and retention and the mechanism was investigated in this study. Fourteen 8-week-old male Wistar rats in experiment 1 and same number and age cecectomized Wistar male rats in experiment 2 were divided into two subgroups of seven animals, respectively, fed diets containing 0 or 4% mannitol for 28 days. Mineral balance tests were determined twice during days 8-12 and days 22-26, and the rats were slaughtered on day 28 both in experiment 1 and experiment 2. The whole caecum and colon were collected with the content to analyse tissue weight, content weight, content's pH and moisture, organic acids' concentration and mineral levels. In experiment 1, Ca absorption and retention and Mg absorption were significantly increased by mannitol feeding during days 8-12. Caecal total weight, tissue weight and content weight were increased, the pH of caecum and colon was reduced, and the concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were modified by mannitol feeding. In experiment 2, during days 8-12 and days 22-26, Ca absorption and retention were significantly lowered by mannitol feeding in cecectomized rats; however, mannitol feeding decreased Mg absorption during days 8-12, but did not impact Mg retention. Colonic total weight, tissue weight and content weight were significantly increased, and colonic pH was reduced by mannitol feeding. In conclusion, dietary mannitol increased the absorption of Ca and Mg and the caecum markedly contributed to this promoting effect of mannitol. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Efecto del calcio dietético vs el citrato de calcio sobre marcadores bioquímicos convencionales en mujeres perimenopáusicas Effect of dietary calcium vs. calcium citrate on conventional biochemical markers in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparación del efecto del citrato de calcio y una dieta con calcio en los alimentos sobre marcadores bioquímicos convencionales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 82 mujeres de 30 a 35 años de edad divididas al azar en tres grupos: grupo control: 23 mujeres sin modificación de sus hábitos alimenticios ni actividad física. Grupo con calcio dietético: 28 mujeres con un régimen de 1 000 mg de calcio más actividad física de 30 minutos tres veces por semana. Grupo con citrato de calcio: 31 mujeres suplementadas con citrato de calcio (600 mg, más 500 mg de calcio dietético, y actividad física de 30 minutos tres veces por semana durante siete meses. Se hizo densitometría ósea de calcáneo para clasificarlas en normal y osteopenia, se determinaron parámetros bioquímicos al inicio y final del estudio: fosfatasa alcalina, magnesio, calcio y fósforo séricos, y relación calcio/creatinina en orina. RESULTADOS: El 34% de las mujeres presentaron osteopenia; éstas tuvieron una reducción significativa en el calcio final en el grupo de citrato de calcio en comparación con el grupo de calcio dietético (p0.05. La relación calcio/creatinina fue normal en todos los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: El grupo con calcio dietético presentó mayor formación ósea que el grupo con citrato de calcio; en ninguno de ellos se observó resorción ósea.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of calcium citrate and a calcium enriched diet on conventional biochemical markers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-two women aged 30 to 35 years were randomized to any of three groups: A control group of 23 women who remained intact in their dietary habits and physical activity; a second group of 28 women who received 1 000 mg of dietary calcium plus physical activity 30 minutes three times per week; and a third group of 31 women who received 600 mg of calcium citrate plus 500 mg of dietary calcium and physical activity three times per week for seven months. Calcaneum

  1. The effect of restriction of dietary calcium on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density in the rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Changsun; Park, Dongho

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate effects of restricted calcium intake on cortical and trabecular bone density in white rats. Low Ca diet was fed for six weeks, and bone density and bone metabolism parameters were assessed in blood. This study was carried out on 12 male white rats aged 12 weeks (Sprague-Dawley; SD). These rats were bred for 1 week and randomly assigned to the standard calcium diet group (SCa group, n = 6) and the low calcium diet group (LCa group; n = 6). The SCa group was give...

  2. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  3. Asian Basic 4 Adaptations. Basic 4 Food Groups. Nutrients for Health. Calcium: A Dietary Mineral. Iron: A Dietary Mineral. Guide to Good Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, JoAnn; And Others

    This package consists of various bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic nutrition skills. Included in the package are translations in English, Vietnamese, and Lao of booklets outlining guidelines for adapting Indochinese dietary habits to incorporate foods available in the United States, including…

  4. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  5. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  6. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  7. Dietary polydextrose increases calcium absorption in normal rats Polidextrose aumenta a absorção de cálcio em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisvânia Freitas dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric surgery is known to cause bone disorders, possibly related to an impaired capacity for the absorption of dietary calcium. AIM: To verify if polydextrose (PDX could stimulate calcium absorption in partially gastrectomized and sham operated rats. METHODS: The rats were laparotomized (sham-operated control or partially gastrectomized (Billroth II, in groups of 20 each. Half in each operated group were fed a control diet (AIN-93M without PDX or the same diet containing (PDX 50g/Kg of diet for eight weeks. The rats were divided into four subgroups: sham-operated and gastrectomized without PDX; sham-operated and gastrectomized with PDX. On the final day of the study, total blood was collected for determination of serum calcium concentration. RESULTS: In the diet with PDX, excretion of calcium in the feces was significantly lower than in the groups not receiving PDX, irrespective of the operation. Apparent calcium absorption and serum calcium was higher in the sham operated PDX fed group than in the control group. In sham operated rats, the calcium concentration in bone was higher in the PDX fed group. CONCLUSION: The polydextrose feeding increased calcium absorption and bone calcium concentration in normal rats, which may be relevant for decreasing the risk of osteoporosis. Partially gastrectomy did not affect the bone calcium concentration in 56 days of experimental period.RACIONAL: A cirurgia gástrica é conhecida por causar desordens ósseas, possivelmente relacionado com a absorção do cálcio na dieta. OBJETIVO: verificar se polidextrose (PDX poderia estimular a absorção de cálcio em ratos parcialmente gastrectomizados e ratos sham operados. MÉTODOS: Os ratos foram laparotomizadas (sham-operados de controle ou parcialmente gastrectomizados (Billroth II, em grupos de 20 animais cada. Metade de cada grupo operado foi alimentada com uma dieta controle (AIN-93M sem PDX ou a mesma dieta contendo (PDX 50g/kg de ração durante

  8. Regression of glomerular and tubulointerstitial injuries by dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

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    Kazi Rafiq

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB plus calcium channel blocker (CCB reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl, NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day, NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day, NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day. Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an ARB plus CCB restores glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in DSS rats.

  9. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  10. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Share Dialog × Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  11. A low dietary cation-anion difference precalving and calcium supplementation postcalving increase plasma calcium but not milk production in a pasture-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Dalley, D; Moate, P; Grainger, C; Rath, M; O'Mara, F

    2003-08-01

    It was hypothesized that a reduction in the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) before calving, combined with an increase in Ca intake after calving, would reduce the incidence of periparturient hypocalcaemia and increase milk production in pasture-based dairy cows. Cows (n = 40) were assigned to one of two DCAD levels before calving (i.e., +7 and +50 mEq/100 g). Each group was then assigned to one of two dietary Ca concentrations after calving (i.e., 1.0 and 0.7%) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The lower DCAD resulted in a nonrespiratory reduction in systemic pH as indicated by a lower urine pH. This acidosis resulted in an increased concentration of Ca in urine before calving. The lower precalving DCAD helped prevent the decline in blood Ca caused by the onset of lactation, even though blood Ca concentration was lower before calving compared with cows receiving a high DCAD. Supplementation of cows with Ca after calving increased plasma Ca concentration on the day of calving and during the subsequent 14 d. Milk production was not affected by pre- or postcalving treatments.

  12. Cadmium accumulation and in vitro analysis of calcium and cadmium transport functions in the gastro-intestinal tract of trout following chronic dietary cadmium and calcium feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Joel S; Ng, Tania Y-T; Wood, Chris M

    2009-09-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets made from Lumbriculus variegatus containing environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd (approximately 0.2 and 12 microg g(-1) dry wt) and/or Ca (1, 10, 20 and 60 mg g(-1) dry wt) for 4 weeks. Ten fish per treatment were removed weekly for tissue metal burden analysis. In all portions of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) (stomach, anterior, mid, and posterior intestine), chronic exposure to elevated dietary Ca decreased Cd tissue accumulation to varying degrees. At week five, the GITs of the remaining fish were subjected to an in vitro gut sac technique. Pre-exposure to the different treatments affected unidirectional uptake and binding rates of Cd and Ca in different manners, dependent on the specific GIT section. Ca and Cd uptake rates were highly correlated within all sections of the GIT, and the loosely binding rate of Cd to the GIT surfaces predicted the rate of new Cd absorption. Overall, this study indicates that elevated dietary Ca is protective against Cd uptake from an environmentally relevant diet, and that Ca and Cd uptake may occur through both common and separate pathways in the GIT.

  13. Influence of dietary calcium on phosphorus absorption and excretion and on phosphorus-33 distribution in laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheideler, S.E.; Sell, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using isotope-dilution and comparative balance techniques to estimate urinary and fecal P excretion of laying hens fed different levels of dietary Ca. Two levels of dietary Ca (3.46 and 4.2%) were fed to eight hens for 30 days. After 30 days, 50 microCi of the radioisotope /sup 33/P was injected intramuscularly to label endogenous P. On the 2nd day after /sup 33/P dosing and at 1 h postoviposition, plasma, liver, kidney, femur bone, whole egg, ileum, ileal digesta, and excreta samples were collected from each hen. Results showed a favorable effect of increasing dietary Ca consumption (2.91 vs 3.57 g/hen per day): femur ash increased (P less than .08), excreta P decreased (P less than .03), and urinary P decreased (P less than .06). The P content of ileal digesta was not affected by dietary Ca intake, but excreta P was greater for hens consuming less Ca, indicating that, during the collection period, excretion of P in urine was increased by the low Ca diet. Endogenous P secretions constituted less than 1% of the P in ileal digesta and excreta samples and this proportion was not changed by dietary Ca consumed.

  14. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

  15. Effects of dietary calcium on growth and oviposition of the African land snail Limicolaria flammea (Pulmonata: Achatinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary I Egonmwan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to elucidate the role of calcium in the life of the edible Achatinid snail, Limicolaria flammea (Müller I investigated short and long term effects of calcium added to the food. The short term experiments lasted for 18, 30 and 32 weeks respectively, while the long term experiment to determine life time utilization of calcium carbonate lasted for 15 months. In the short term experiments, hatchlings were divided into densities of one, ten and 50 snails. In the 10 snail group, there was a positive correlation between calcium provision, body weight (t test, p Estudié el efecto de agregar calcio al alimento sobre el desarrollo del caracol pulmonado africano Limicolaria flammea (Müller. La cantidad de calcio tuvo una correlación positiva con el peso corporal (T de Student, p < 0.01; r = 0.96, p < 0.0001 y la longitud de concha (T de Student, p < 0.01; r = 0.96, p < 0.00001. Los caracoles que no recibieron calcio murieron en gran cantidad y no produjeron huevos. En un experimento a largo plazo, hubo picos de consumo del calcio y el mayor aumento de peso fue en los seis meses iniciales. Los picos de producción de huevos fueron entre los seis y los ocho meses (535 huevos, entre los diez y once meses (350 huevos y en los meses 13 y 14 (310 huevos.

  16. Methane-suppressing effect of myristic acid in sheep as affected by dietary calcium and forage proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmüller, Andrea; Machmüller, Andrea; Soliva, Carla R; Kreuzer, Michael

    2003-09-01

    The efficiency of myristic acid (14 : 0) as a feed additive to suppress CH4 emissions of ruminants was evaluated under different dietary conditions. Six sheep were subjected to a 6 x 6 Latin square arrangement. A supplement of non-esterified 14 : 0 (50 g/kg DM) was added to two basal diets differing in their forage:concentrate values (1 : 1.5 and 1 : 0.5), which were adjusted to dietary Ca contents of 4.2 and 9.0 g/kg DM, respectively. Comparisons were made with the unsupplemented basal diets (4.2 g Ca/kg DM). The 14 : 0 supplementation decreased (P<0.001) total tract CH4 release depending on basal diet type (interaction, P<0.001) and dietary Ca level (P<0.05, post hoc test). In the concentrate-based diet, 14 : 0 suppressed CH4 emission by 58 and 47 % with 4.2 and 9.0 g Ca/kg DM, respectively. The 14 : 0 effect was lower (22 %) in the forage-based diet and became insignificant with additional Ca. Myristic acid inhibited (P<0.05) rumen archaea without significantly altering proportions of individual methanogen orders. Ciliate protozoa concentration was decreased (P<0.05, post hoc test) by 14 : 0 only in combination with 9.0 g Ca/kg DM. Rumen fluid NH3 concentration and acetate:propionate were decreased (P<0.05) and water consumption was lower (P<0.01) with 14 : 0. The use of 14 : 0 had no clear effects on total tract organic matter and fibre digestion; this further illustrates that the suppressed methanogenesis resulted from direct effects against methanogens. The present study demonstrated that 14 : 0 is a potent CH4 inhibitor but, to be effective in CH4 mitigation feeding strategies, interactions with other diet ingredients have to be considered.

  17. Long-Term Low Intake of Dietary Calcium and Fracture Risk in Older Adults With Plant-Based Diet: A Longitudinal Study From the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aiping; Li, Keji; Guo, Meihan; He, Jingjing; Li, He; Shen, Xin; Song, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate long-term associations between low dietary calcium intake and fracture risk in older adults with plant-based diet. Data of self-reported first fracture events of any type from 6210 Chinese men and women, aged 50 years or older and free from fracture at baseline, in a subcohort based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), were analyzed. Diet was repeatedly assessed by a combination of three consecutive 24-hour individual dietary recalls and a weighing and measuring of household food inventory in each round. The older men and women habitually ingested mean (SD) of 415 (147) mg/d and 373 (140) mg/d of calcium from plant-based diet, respectively. During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 127 men (4.34%) and 232 women (7.06%) experienced first fracture events. The crude rates were 4.88, 2.55, and 6.83 per 1000 person-years at risk for men, and 6.72, 7.10, and 11.0 per 1000 person-years at risk for women in the lowest, third, and highest quintile of dietary calcium intake. In nonlinear regressions, an increased risk of fracture was associated with dietary calcium intake more than 778 mg/d (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-4.41) or lower than 275 mg/d (1.74, 95% CI 1.00-3.01) for men and more than 651 mg/d for women (1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38). A nonsignificant trend of increase in fracture risk was found below 248 mg/d (1.00, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) in women using restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A relatively low fracture risk is observed in men with dietary calcium intakes of 275 to 780 mg/d and in women with intakes of 250 to 650 mg/d, and higher intakes may have no further benefit for fracture prevention. The patterns of dietary calcium with fracture risk are U-shaped in men and possibly in women. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets.

  19. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

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    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    Full Text Available Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC, isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA, a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+ concentrations, [Ca(2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+ (SOC channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  20. Stimulating effects of a diet negative in dietary cation-anion difference on calcium absorption from the rumen in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, M R; Praechter, C; Breves, G; Schröder, B

    2016-02-01

    The concept of feeding anionic salts in late gestation is widely used to prevent milk fever in dairy cows. While the effects of these diets on renal Ca excretion and tissue responsiveness towards parathyroid hormone have clearly been demonstrated, data on a potential impact on gastrointestinal Ca absorption are conflicting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of feeding a diet negative in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal mineral concentrations, fermentation products, electrophysiological properties of rumen epithelia and Ca flux rates. For this purpose, sheep were kept for 3 weeks on diets that were either positive or negative in DCAD. The induction of a compensated hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis could be demonstrated by increased plasma Cl and enhanced concentrations of ionised Ca, while plasma concentrations of HCO3- and base excess were decreased with the low DCAD diet. Neither transmural potential differences nor fermentation products were affected, but ruminal concentrations of Cl and Mg as well as the relation of ionised to total Ca were increased. Ussing chamber experiments revealed alterations of electrophysiological parameters and an increase in the electroneutral component of Ca flux rates from the mucosal to the serosal side of rumen epithelium. As plasma calcitriol concentrations were not affected, it can be concluded that the administration of anionic salts results in a vitamin D-independent stimulation of ruminal Ca transport. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Timothy hays differing in dietary cation-anion difference affect the capability of dairy cows to maintain their calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, V S; Tremblay, G F; Oba, M

    2009-01-01

    Forages low in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can be used to decrease the DCAD in prepartum diet but the extent to which DCAD needs to be reduced is of recent interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of timothy hays differing in DCAD at maintaining Ca homeostasis. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay with DCAD values of 4.1 +/- 3.6 (LOW), 14.1 +/- 3.0 (MED), or 25.1 +/- 2.5 (HIGH) mEq per 100 g of DM in a duplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d experimental periods. The LOW and MED hays were produced by fertilizing established timothy fields at a rate of 224 kg CaCl(2) per ha, and HIGH hay was obtained from the same field where LOW hay was produced, but from a section not fertilized with CaCl(2). Experimental diets, containing LOW, MED, or HIGH timothy hay at 71% of dietary DM, had DCAD values of 0.7, 7.3, and 14.4 mEq per 100 g of DM, respectively. Animals were fed at 6% of metabolic body weight, which provided 108% of their daily energy requirement. For each period, after a 12 d diet adaptation, cows were subjected to an EDTA challenge (3 cows each on d 13 and 14). Infusion of EDTA solution into the jugular vein decreases the concentration of blood ionized Ca, and the EDTA challenge protocol determined the resistance time and recovery time: the time required for the blood ionized Ca concentration to decrease to 60%, and the time required to recover to 90% of the prechallenge concentrations, respectively. Urine pH was lower when cows were fed LOW compared with HIGH diet (6.88 vs. 7.83), but urine pH when cows were fed MED diet (7.15) did not differ from that when cows received the LOW or HIGH diet. However, immediately before the EDTA challenge, blood pH was lower when cows were fed LOW or MED compared with HIGH diet (7.44 vs. 7.47). Although the resistance time was not affected by treatments, the recovery time was shorter when cows were

  2. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, M M

    1994-06-01

    The potential value of xylitol in calcium therapy was evaluated by comparing the effect of dietary xylitol (50 g/kg diet) + calcium carbonate with the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on bone repair of young male rats after the rats consumed for 3 wk a calcium-deficient diet (0.2 g Ca/kg diet). After this calcium-depletion period, the rats were fed for 2 wk one of four diets, each containing 5 g Ca/kg diet as one of the four dietary calcium sources. The diet of the control animals was supplemented with CaCO3 (5 g Ca/kg diet) throughout the study. The Ca-deficient rats showed low bone mass, low serum calcium and high serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, parathyroid hormone (1-34 fraction) and osteocalcin concentrations. They also excreted magnesium, phosphate and hydroxyproline in the urine in high concentrations, and had high bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. Most of these changes were reversed by the administered of the calcium salts. The highest recoveries of femoral dry weight, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were observed in the groups receiving xylitol+CaCO3 and calcium lactate. Calcium lactate and calcium citrate caused low serum phosphate concentration compared with rats receiving CaCO3 and with the age-matched Ca-replete controls. Xylitol-treated rats excreted more calcium and magnesium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of these minerals from the gut. These results suggest that dietary xylitol improves the bioavailability of calcium salts.

  3. Does calcium constrain reproductive activity in insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insects are a poor source of dietary calcium and since they are seasonally abundant, it has been suggested that calcium availability may play a significant role in controlling the timing of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in ...

  4. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate degradation and inositol phosphate release in different segments of digestive tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Brady, K; Yu, S; Plumstead, P W

    2017-10-01

    A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3-6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block. Concentrations of IP3-6 in the crop, proventriculus (Prov) plus (+) gizzard (Giz), and distal ileum, as well as the ileal IP6 and P disappearance were determined at 13 d of age. The detrimental impact of Ca on IP6 and P disappearance was observed only in the ileum, where 11% reduction in both IP6 and P disappearance was seen when Ca increased from 0.7 to 1.0% (P  0.05). Inclusion of phytase, at both 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg, resulted in lower IP6 and the accumulation of lower IP ester (IP3-5) concentrations in all GI segments (P 500 and 1,000 FTU phytase/kg inclusion, respectively, resulting in 41 and 64% greater P digestibility, respectively. In conclusion, phytase can effectively degrade IP6 to lower esters and increase P utilization. However, the efficacy of phytase can be affected by diet Ca and PP concentrations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. The influence of dietary and supplemental calcium on postprandial effects of a high-fat meal on lipaemia, glycaemia, C-reactive protein and adiponectin in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da S; Antunes, Vanessa P; Leal, Priscila M; Sanjuliani, Antonio F; Klein, Márcia R S T

    2017-10-01

    Non-fasting hypertriacylglycerolaemia is a risk factor for CVD and the amount of fat in a meal seems to be the main factor influencing postprandial lipaemia. Although several studies suggest that Ca can increase faecal fat excretion, it is not known whether Ca can decrease postprandial TAG. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of dietary Ca (DC) and supplemental Ca (SC) on lipaemia, glucose metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin during postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (approximately 2900 kJ; 48 % fat): high DC (547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (42 mg DC). Blood samples were collected in the fasting period and at minutes 120 and 240 after meals to evaluate total cholesterol and fractions, TAG, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity CRP and adiponectin. Serum levels of TAG and insulin increased significantly after all test meals. Only after HSCM total cholesterol did not present a significant increase and LDL-cholesterol had a significant decrease. Postprandial glucose, HDL-cholesterol, CRP and adiponectin did not present significant changes after the three test meals. The comparative analysis of the effects of the three test meals on serum lipids, glucose, insulin, CRP and adiponectin revealed no significant meal-by-time interaction. These results suggest that in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal DC and SC do not interfere with postprandial lipaemia, glucose metabolism, CRP and adiponectin.

  6. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  7. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  8. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-21

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71-2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331-4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73-782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0-74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of acidic calcium sulfate (Vitoxal) on growth, survival, immune response, and gut microbiota of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary acidifiers have been recognized as beneficial in animal production including aquacultural production of fish where they confer such benefits as improved feed utilization, growth, and resistance to pathogenic organisms. If improvements in growth and immune responses by acidifier supplementat...

  10. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  11. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  12. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  13. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  14. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P parathyroid hormone levels (P animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  15. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  16. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Wijlen, ter H.; Laar, van H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in

  17. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  18. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P digestibility and retention in growing pigs fed

  19. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  20. Influence of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Low Dietary Calcium, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Renal Failure on Circulating Rat PTH Molecular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre D'Amour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats(r with secondary hyperparathyroidism were studied to define the relationship between vitamin D metabolites and rPTH levels measured by 3 different rat ELISAs. Controls and renal failure (RF rats were on a normal diet, while 2 groups on a low-calcium (-Ca or a vitamin D-deficient (-D diet. RF was induced surgically. Mild RF rats had normal calcium and 25(OHD but reduced 1,25(OH2D levels (P<.001 with a 2.5-fold increased in rPTH (P<.001. Severe RF rats and those on a -Ca or -D diet had reduced calcium (P<.01 and 25(OHD levels (P<.05, with rPTH increased by 2 (-Ca diet; P<.05, 4 (-D diet; P<.001, and 20-folds (RF; P<.001 while 1,25(OH2D was high (-Ca diet: P<.001 or low (-D diet, RF: P<.001. 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D were positively and negatively related on the -Ca and -D diets, respectively. rPTH molecular forms behaved as expected in RF and on -Ca diet, but not on -D diet with more C-rPTH fragments when less were expected. This may be related to the short-time course of this study compared to prior studies.

  1. Influence of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Low Dietary Calcium, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Renal Failure on Circulating Rat PTH Molecular Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Rousseau, Louise; Hornyak, Stephen; Yang, Zan; Cantor, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Rats(r) with secondary hyperparathyroidism were studied to define the relationship between vitamin D metabolites and rPTH levels measured by 3 different rat ELISAs. Controls and renal failure (RF) rats were on a normal diet, while 2 groups on a low-calcium (-Ca) or a vitamin D-deficient (-D) diet. RF was induced surgically. Mild RF rats had normal calcium and 25(OH)D but reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D levels (P < .001) with a 2.5-fold increased in rPTH (P < .001). Severe RF rats and those on a -Ca or -D diet had reduced calcium (P < .01) and 25(OH)D levels (P < .05), with rPTH increased by 2 (-Ca diet; P < .05), 4 (-D diet; P < .001), and 20-folds (RF; P < .001) while 1,25(OH)(2)D was high (-Ca diet: P < .001) or low (-D diet, RF: P < .001). 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were positively and negatively related on the -Ca and -D diets, respectively. rPTH molecular forms behaved as expected in RF and on -Ca diet, but not on -D diet with more C-rPTH fragments when less were expected. This may be related to the short-time course of this study compared to prior studies.

  2. The impact of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on the acid-base balance and calcium metabolism of non-lactating, non-pregnant dairy cows fed equal amounts of different anionic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Leonie Loeffler, S; Frömer, Sven; Engel, Maike; Hartmann, Helmut; Männer, Klaus; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated the impact of the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the influence of anionic salts (AS) on the metabolism of dairy cows using a study-design that included control of feed intake. Ten mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant, Holstein-Friesian-crossbreed cows received 2000 mEq of either one of the seven anionic salts tested, two combinations of the anionic salts or water as control via a rumen cannula. Salts and controls were assigned in a 10x10 Latin square design. Whole blood, serum and urine samples were taken during treatment (TP) and washout period. Samples of whole blood were tested for pH, base-excess and bicarbonate concentrations. In urine, pH and net acid-base excretion (NABE) were analysed. Calcium was measured in serum and urine. According to the different batches of hay, five groups of DCAD were created regarding cluster analysis. Changes in urine and blood parameters were statistically analysed for each DCAD group separately. The different DCAD had an impact on the amount of change in acid-base balance (ABB) and calcium metabolism and for how long these changes lasted. In the DCAD group receiving the highest amount of AS (239 mEq/kg dry matter with AS), changes of ABB were only noticeable in urine and these changes only differed from day zero in the first week of TP (Pdiffer significantly (Pdiffered clearly from day zero (Pdifferences were very small and only differed from day zero on a few TP days. We conclude that the DCAD of a dairy cow's diet has an important impact on the effect of AS on ABB and calcium metabolism with respect to the duration and amount of change. The target regions of DCAD should be clearly below 100 mEq/kg dry matter to ensure the desired effect on ABB and calcium metabolism. Extremely negative DCAD should be avoided to minimize the risk of clinical acidosis induced by AS.

  3. Dietary Supplement Use Among U.S. Adults Has Increased Since NHANES III (1988-1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific nutrients consumed through dietary supplement use. Keywords: vitamin D, folic acid, calcium, trends Dietary supplement use in the United States has increased since the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994). Dietary supplement ...

  4. Corn silage versus corn silage:alfalfa hay mixtures for dairy cows: effects of dietary potassium, calcium, and cation-anion difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, R A; Piperova, L S; Kohn, R A

    2011-10-01

    Corn silage (CS) has replaced alfalfa hay (AH) and haylage as the major forage fed to lactating dairy cows, yet many dairy producers believe that inclusion of small amounts of alfalfa hay or haylage improves feed intake and milk production. Alfalfa contains greater concentrations of K and Ca than corn silage and has an inherently higher dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). Supplemental dietary buffers such as NaHCO(3) and K(2)CO(3) increase DCAD and summaries of studies with these buffers showed improved performance in CS-based diets but not in AH-based diets. We speculated that improvements in performance with AH addition to CS-based diets could be due to differences in mineral and DCAD concentrations between the 2 forages. The objective of this experiment was to test the effects of forage (CS vs. AH) and mineral supplementation on production responses using 45 lactating Holstein cows during the first 20 wk postpartum. Dietary treatments included (1) 50:50 mixture of AH and CS as the forage (AHCS); (2) CS as the sole forage; and (3) CS fortified with mineral supplements (CaCO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) to match the Ca and K content of the AHCS diet (CS-DCAD). Feed intake and milk production were equivalent or greater for cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with those fed the AHCS diet. Fat percentage was greater in cows fed the CS compared with the AHCS diet. Fat-corrected milk (FCM; 3.5%) tended to be greater in cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with the AHCS diet. Feed efficiencies measured as FCM/dry matter intake were 1.76, 1.80, and 1.94 for the AHCS, CS, and CS-DCAD diets, respectively. The combined effects of reduced feed intake and increased FCM contributed to increased feed efficiency with the CS-DCAD diet, which contained 1.41% K compared with 1.18% K in the CS diet, and we speculate that this might be the result of added dietary K and DCAD effects on digestive efficiency. These results indicate no advantage to including AH in CS-based diets

  5. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  6. Calcium excretion in feces of ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Foose, T J; Williams, J; Hintz, H F

    1983-01-01

    1. Fecal excretion of calcium was examined in 122 individual ungulates representing 7 species of Equidae, 3 species of Tapiridae, 3 species of Rhinocerotidae, 2 species of Elephantidae, 2 species of Hippopotamidae, 12 species of Bovidae, 2 species of Cervidae, 3 species of Camellidae and 1 species of Giraffidae. 2. Animals were fed timothy hay, a low calcium diet or alfalfa hay, a high calcium diet. 3. In a few cases oat straw or prairie hay was used instead of timothy hay. 4. Samples of feces were obtained from individuals daily for 4 days following a 20 day dietary equilibration period. 5. Feces of equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants had a lower calcium concentration and a lower Ca/P ratio than feces of ruminants when the animals were fed diets of equivalent calcium content. 6. The findings suggest that the non-ruminant ungulate equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants absorb a larger proportion of dietary calcium than ruminants do.

  7. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  8. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bescós García; F. A. Rodríguez Guisado

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the ...

  9. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance

  10. Investigating the effect of dietary calcium levels on ileal endogenous amino acid losses and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in broilers and laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Pescatore, A J; Ford, M J; Ao, T; Jacob, J P

    2017-10-25

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Ca levels (low, 1% and high, 3%) on ileal endogenous amino acid losses (IEAAL) and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) in broilers (BR) and laying hens (LH) fed nitrogen-free diets (NFD) and distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS)-based diets. A total of 384 male Cobb 500 BR and 288 LH were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 16 (BR) or 12 (LH) replicate cages with 6 birds/replicate. IEAAL and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS appropriate for a CRD while SIAAD values were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS appropriate for a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. For BR, IEAAL and N losses (mg/kg of dry matter intake, DMI) were higher (P < 0.05) when NFD with high Ca level was fed (total AA was 39%, N was 35% higher). For most of the AA, AID was higher (P < 0.05) in BR fed DDGS-based diet with high Ca level. High dietary Ca resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for all the AA except for Arg, Lys, Met, Cys, and Tyr. For LH, AID of AA was higher (P < 0.05) for the DDGS diet with high Ca level in 13 of the 18 AA evaluated. There was interaction (P < 0.05) between diet Ca level and correction method on LH SIAAD values for Thr, Asp, Gly, and Ser. The SIAAD values for 8 AA were higher (P < 0.05) in birds on high Ca DDGS diet. Correction with low Ca NFD resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for all the AA. Result from this study showed that high Ca increased total IEAAL in BR by 39% but decreased same by 27% in LH. Finally, SIAAD values were increased in BR fed high Ca DDGS-based diet while SIAAD value in LH was lower when correction was done using values from high Ca-NFD fed birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. De novo assembly and characterization of seabass Lateolabrax japonicus transcriptome and expression of hepatic genes following different dietary phosphorus/calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang-Le; Ji, Zhong-Li; Rahimnejad, Samad; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Ling; Song, Kai

    2017-12-01

    Fish farming seriously influences the aquatic environment because most dietary phosphorus (P) is excreted in the effluent. To increase the P utilization in fish, molecular techniques should be explored given the remarkable development of these techniques. Thus, to identify the candidate genes related to P utilization and molecular alterations following administration of a P-deficient diet in seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, we assessed the de novo pituitary, gill, intestine, liver, kidney, scales and vertebra transcriptomes, and we compared the expression of hepatic genes with three diets varying in P and Ca levels: diet I (0.4% P, 0.3% Ca), diet II (0.8% P, 0.3% Ca), and diet III (0.8% P, 3% Ca). In total, we identified 99,392 unigenes, and 37,086 (37.31%) unigenes were annotated. The results showed that 48 unigenes were significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated, while 55 genes were significantly down-regulated in the liver of group I compared with group II. Offering the P-sufficient and high Ca diet, diet III significantly up-regulated 24 unigenes and down-regulated 46 genes in the liver. There were significant differences in the regulation of 8 unigenes (3 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) between groups II and III. Gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis of differently expressed genes were performed for each pair of groups. The GO analysis showed that a large number of biological processes were significantly altered between P-deficient and P-sufficient treatments (I vs II and I vs III). Comparing group I and group II, seven KEGG terms were enriched significantly: glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, one carbon pool by folate, arginine and proline metabolism, the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid elongation, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, and fatty acid metabolism. There was no significantly enriched KEGG pathway between groups II and III. In conclusion, our study revealed that a P-deficient diet could increase

  12. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; van Laar, H; Verstegen, M W A

    2014-08-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  14. Could the beneficial effects of dietary calcium on obesity and diabetes control be mediated by changes in intestinal microbiota and integrity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J M G; Costa, J A; Alfenas, R C

    2015-12-14

    Evidence from animal and human studies has associated gut microbiota, increased translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and reduced intestinal integrity (II) with the inflammatory state that occurs in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Consumption of Ca may favour body weight reduction and glycaemic control, but its influence on II and gut microbiota is not well understood. Considering the impact of metabolic diseases on public health and the role of Ca on the pathophysiology of these diseases, this review critically discusses possible mechanisms by which high-Ca diets could affect gut microbiota and II. Published studies from 1993 to 2015 about this topic were searched and selected from Medline/PubMed, Scielo and Lilacs databases. High-Ca diets seem to favour the growth of lactobacilli, maintain II (especially in the colon), reduce translocation of LPS and regulate tight-junction gene expression. We conclude that dietary Ca might interfere with gut microbiota and II modulations and it can partly explain the effect of Ca on obesity and T2DM control. However, further research is required to define the supplementation period, the dose and the type of Ca supplement (milk or salt) required for more effective results. As Ca interacts with other components of the diet, these interactions must also be considered in future studies. We believe that more complex mechanisms involving extraintestinal disorders (hormones, cytokines and other biomarkers) also need to be studied.

  15. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o papel nutricional do cálcio e da vitamina D no processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento infanto-juvenil, visando, em especial, a prevenção e o tratamento do atraso de crescimento causado por deficiência nutricional. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos publicados nas 2 últimas décadas, pesquisados nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e MEDLINE, livros técnicos e publicações de organizações internacionais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O crescimento sofre influência de fatores intrínsecos (genéticos e metabólicos e extrínsecos (fatores ambientais, como alimentação, saúde, higiene, habitação, e o acesso aos serviços de saúde. Entre os fatores nutricionais, destacam-se as deficiências de vitaminas e oligoelementos que podem se associar à desnutrição ou depender da absorção insuficiente dos mesmos. Sendo o cálcio um dos principais componentes do tecido mineral ósseo, este é essencial para uma adequada formação óssea e, considerando que a vitamina D desempenha papel importante no metabolismo do cálcio, uma dieta insuficiente nesses nutrientes pode influenciar a formação do esqueleto e o processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento. CONCLUSÕES: A baixa ingestão ou baixa absorção de cálcio e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes pode limitar seu desenvolvimento estatural, sendo necessário fornecer quantidades suficientes de ambos na fase crítica do crescimento.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of dietary calcium and vitamin D in the process of growth and development of children and adolescents, focusing in particular on the prevention and treatment of delayed growth caused by nutritional deficiency. SOURCES: Information was gathered from articles published in the last 2 decades, from searches on the databases SciELO, PubMed and Medline, technical books and publications of international organizations. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Growth is influenced by intrinsic

  16. Dietary cation-anion difference and day length have an effect on milk calcium content and bone accretion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, A; Johan, M; Narcy, A; Boutinaud, M; Lamberton, P; Hurtaud, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of Ca for humans. Recent studies have shown fluctuations in cow milk Ca content during the year in France, with high values in winter and with corn silage diets, and a decrease during May and June and with grass diets. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for this seasonal decrease in milk Ca content by testing the effect of 2 levels of dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD; 0 mEq/kg of dry matter for DCAD 0 and 400 mEq/kg for DCAD 400) and 2 day lengths (8 h of light/d for short days: SD; and 16 h/d for long days: LD) on the Ca balances of dairy cows. The DCAD treatments were designed to mimic diets based either on corn silage or on herbage. The cows were only illuminated by solarium lights providing UVA and UVB. The trial was conducted according to 2 simultaneous replicates of a 4×4 Latin square design using 8 dairy cows averaging 103±44 d in milk with 4 periods of 14 d. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with a model including treatment, cow, and period effects. No significant interaction was found between day length and DCAD treatments. With DCAD 400 compared with DCAD 0, blood pH increased and plasma ionized Ca content decreased, whereas the plasma total Ca content did not differ between treatments. Milk Ca content, however, increased with DCAD 400 compared with DCAD 0, in relation to a decrease in the amount of Ca excreted in urine. The DCAD had no significant effect on protein and casein contents and DCAD 400 tended to decrease milk yield. This illustrates that the udder did not decrease Ca uptake from the blood at high DCAD even though DCAD 400 decreased the mammary availability of Ca by decreasing the proportion of blood ionized Ca. Milk Ca and casein contents were significantly lower with LD compared with SD, whereas day length had no effect on milk yield after 14 d of treatment. Bone accretion of cows increased when the Ca content of milk increased (i.e., with DCAD 400 compared with DCAD 0 and with

  17. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D

    2011-02-01

    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  19. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  20. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and nonphytate phosphorus concentrations in the presence or absence of phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) degradation in different segments of broilers digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Brady, K; Yu, S; Plumstead, P W

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1,440 straight-run Heritage 56M × fast-feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), nonphytate P (NPP) and phytase concentrations on the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) flow through the different parts of gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The experiment was a 2×2×2×3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%), 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%), 2 nPP (0.28 and 0.45%) and 3 phytase (0-, 500-, and 1,000-phytase unit (FTU)/kg) concentrations. The experiment was replicated twice (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (TRT) of 10 birds per block. Concentration of IP6 in crop, proventriculus (PROV) plus (+) gizzard (GIZ) and distal ileum digesta as well as the ileal IP6 disappearance was determined at 13 d of age. In crop, higher IP6 concentration was seen with increased Ca (P < 0.05). Despite the interaction between PP and phytase, higher dietary PP led to greater IP6 concentration (P < 0.05). Similar main effects of PP and phytase were also seen in Prov+Giz and ileum (P < 0.05) without interactions. Interaction between Ca and nPP on IP6 concentration was seen in Prov+Giz (P < 0.05). Decreased ileal IP6 disappearance was found at higher Ca (62.3% at 0.7% Ca vs. 57.5% at 1.0% Ca; P < 0.05). In general, adding phytase improved IP6 degradation but the degree of impact was dependent on nPP and PP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, phytase inclusion significantly reduced IP6 concentration and IP6 disappearance in distal ileum regardless of GIT segments or diet composition, but impacts of dietary Ca, nPP, and PP differed depending on GIT segment examined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  1. New Recommended Daily Amounts of Calcium and Vitamin D | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Osteoporosis New Recommended Daily Amounts of Calcium and Vitamin D Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Life Stage Group Calcium Recommended Dietary Allowance (mg/day) Vitamin D Recommended ...

  2. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemel, Michael B; Thompson, Warren; Milstead, Anita; Morris, Kristin; Campbell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    ...+ influx and, as a consequence, stimulates lipogenesis, suppresses lipolysis, and increases lipid accumulation, whereas increasing dietary calcium inhibits these effects and markedly accelerates fat...

  3. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  4. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  5. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  6. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  7. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  8. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  9. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Bolland, Mark J

    2015-09-29

    To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) in participants aged over 50 with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, total body, or forearm as an outcome. We identified 59 eligible randomised controlled trials: 15 studied dietary sources of calcium (n=1533) and 51 studied calcium supplements (n=12,257). Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources increased BMD by 0.6-1.0% at the total hip and total body at one year and by 0.7-1.8% at these sites and the lumbar spine and femoral neck at two years. There was no effect on BMD in the forearm. Calcium supplements increased BMD by 0.7-1.8% at all five skeletal sites at one, two, and over two and a half years, but the size of the increase in BMD at later time points was similar to the increase at one year. Increases in BMD were similar in trials of dietary sources of calcium and calcium supplements (except at the forearm), in trials of calcium monotherapy versus co-administered calcium and vitamin D, in trials with calcium doses of ≥ 1000 versus 500 mg/day, and in trials where the baseline dietary calcium intake was calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD, which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture. © Tai et al 2015.

  10. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Martha M. Téllez-Rojo

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  11. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  12. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  13. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika; Varenganayil, Muth M; Decho, Alan W; Waltimo, Tuomas; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  14. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer

    Full Text Available Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  15. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  16. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  17. Calcium and phosphorus supplementation in grazing lactating Zebu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with dicalcium phosphate containing 10 g calcium and 8 g phosphorus on plasma total calcium inorganic phosphate, body condition score and milk yield were studied for 42 days, during the dry season of 1997 in forty grazing, lactating Zebu cows, in lringa region, Tanzania.

  18. Influência da diferença cátion-aniônica da dieta sobre o balanço de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio em ovinos Influence of the dietary cation-anion difference on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Gomide

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do balanço cátion-aniônico da dieta (BCAD no balanço macromineral (cálcio, fósforo e magnésio, no pH urinário e fecal, na concentração sérica de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio foi estudado utilizando-se 16 carneiros machos, da raça Santa Inês, por um período de 26 dias, sendo sete de adaptação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos. Para a manipulação do BCAD foram adicionados cloreto de cálcio e bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: -12; +30; +76 e +133mEq/kg MS da ração. Não foram encontradas diferenças (P>0,10 no pH fecal, pH urinário, balanço de fósforo e magnésio. Com o aumento do BCAD houve decréscimo da absorção e retenção de cálcio, e aumento da excreção fecal. A manipulação do BCAD interferiu no metabolismo de macrominerais, principalmente no de cálcio.The dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB effect on the macromineral (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balance, urinary and faecal pH, serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium was studied in 16 Santa Inês adult sheep, during 26 days, being a seven-day-period of adaptation. The experiment consisted in a completely randomized block design with four treatments. Calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate were added to DCAB manipulations to achieve the values: -12; + 30; +76 and +133mEq/kg DM. There was no effect of DCAB (P>0.10 on fecal and urinary pH, and on phosphorus and magnesium balance. The increase in the DCAB corresponded to a decrease in calcium absorption and calcium retention, and an increase in calcium fecal excretion values. The manipulation of the DCAB affected the macromineral metabolism, mainly the calcium metabolism.

  19. Association between CASR Polymorphisms, Calcium Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kyee-Zu Kim; Aesun Shin; Jeongseon Kim; Ji Won Park; Sung Chan Park; Hyo Seong Choi; Hee Jin Chang; Dae Yong Kim; Jae Hwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The current study aimed to assess the effect of dietary calcium intake and possible interactions with calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: A total of 420 colorectal cancer cases and 815 controls were included in the analysis. Calcium intake was investigated using a 103 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CASR, rs10934578, rs12485716, rs2270916, and rs4678174, were...

  20. CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION AS PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST COLON-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; CATS, A; VANDERMEER, R; LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, EGE

    1994-01-01

    Dietary factors are major determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Especially a diet high in fat and low in fiber is recognized to be a risk factor. Dietary calcium has been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer through the binding of intraluminal fatty acids and bile acids. Because of

  1. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5223 - Calcium pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium pyrophosphate. 582.5223 Section 582.5223 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5212 - Calcium pantothenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate. 582.5212 Section 582.5212 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  7. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  9. Protective effects of calcium from nonfat dried milk against colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, B C; Dunn, D M; Zhao, C; Patel, V; Hunter, S; Landers, M

    1996-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the protective effect of dietary calcium against risk for colon cancer. The objective of this experimental study was to test the efficacy of two sources of dietary calcium, elemental calcium in the form of CaCO3 and dairy calcium as nonfat dried milk (NFDM), in colon tumor inhibition. Male weanling F344 rats were fed six test diets containing low (LF, 5%) and high (HF, 20%) levels of corn oil and low (0.5%) and high (1.0%) levels of calcium supplemented as CaCO3 or NFDM in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Tumors were induced with two weekly injections of azoxymethane at 12 mg/kg body wt. After 27 weeks on the test diets, animals were necropsied for tumor analysis. There was no difference in tumor incidence for fat or calcium source main effects, but a significant interaction was seen between fat and calcium source, with the lowest tumor incidence seen in the HF/NFDM group. Calcium compartmentalization studies demonstrated no effects of calcium on serum calcium levels but increased urinary and fecal water calcium in the higher-calcium diets. Increased dietary calcium also decreased fecal bile acid concentrations, but there was no effect on fecal water bile acids. Intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis were not affected by the dietary treatments except for fat effects on carcinogen-induced nuclear aberrations. These results indicate that source of calcium is not critical but that total dietary context may affect efficacy of calcium against colon carcinogenesis.

  10. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  11. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  12. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  13. Efeitos de diferentes níveis de cálcio dietético na cinética de cálcio e fósforo em eqüinos Effects of different levels of dietary calcium on calcium and phosphorus kinetics in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt Vitti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o metabolismo de cálcio (Ca e fósforo (P nos eqüinos em crescimento que receberam diferentes níveis de suplementação de Ca: 0,15; 0,45 e 0,75% na dieta, utilizando-se o modelo determinístico e compartimental. Foram utilizadas informações sobre o estudo de metabolismo e cinética de Ca e P em tecidos, obtidas pela técnica da diluição isotópica. Constatou-se que os níveis dietéticos de Ca tiveram influência na absorção real do Ca, sendo menor para o nível 0,15% (4,97 g Ca/dia. As trocas de Ca entre o sangue e o trato digestivo foram menores para o nível 0,15%. A mobilização entre o sangue e os ossos e sangue e tecidos moles não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos, mas o balanço nos ossos e tecidos foi menor para o nível 0,15%. Os níveis de Ca dietéticos tiveram influência no P eliminado através da urina, sendo este valor maior para o tratamento 0,15% (2,49 g/animal/dia. A absorção real média do P foi de 83%, não havendo diferenças para os tratamentos. Verificou-se deposição óssea média de 9,69 g P/animal/dia, indicando que a quantidade de P fornecida foi adequada em relação à tolerância permissível à amplitude na relação Ca:P para a espécie na categoria animal estudada. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os fluxos de P nos diversos compartimentos, por intermédio do modelo de metabolismo. A ingestão de níveis crescentes de Ca afetou o metabolismo e a cinética deste elemento, entretanto, a proporção Ca:P é o fator predominante para determinar a excreção, retenção e absorção de Ca. A deposição de Ca no osso foi influenciada pela quantidade ingerida deste mineral. O metabolismo de P em eqüinos em crescimento não foi afetado pelos teores de Ca. O fornecimento de 13,4 g P/animal/dia foi suficiente para manter o metabolismo de P nos padrões considerados normais.This experiment was carried out to study calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P kinetics of growing horses fed

  14. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  16. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  17. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  18. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  19. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, pgrowth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

  20. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Results Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, pgrowth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets. PMID:28427257

  1. Calcium use in the management of osteoporosis: continuing questions and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Cory; Camacho, Pauline

    2014-12-01

    Calcium is a vital element in the health and maintenance of growing and mature bone. The amount of calcium recommended for ingestion varies by age, and these requirements can be met by dietary sources or calcium supplementation. This article reviews the role of calcium in the body and the benefits and risks to calcium supplementation. The effects of calcium on fracture risk reduction, bone density, and bone turnover markers as well as the conflicting data on cardiovascular events and increased risk of nephrolithiasis associated with supplementation are discussed.

  2. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  3. Dietary Fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, van der J.W.; Asp, N.G.; Miller Jones, J.; Schaafsma, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this book invited expert scientists of leading research groups all over the world will address the following issues: Definitions, health claims and new challenges, Analytical tools, technological aspects and applications, Health Benefits of dietary fibre, including both authoritative generic

  4. The association of calcium supplementation and incident cardiovascular events in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many US adults use calcium supplements to address inadequate dietary intake and improve bone health. However, recent reports have suggested that use of calcium supplements may elevate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this study, we examined associations between baseline calcium supplement use a...

  5. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Prickets, significant negative correlations were seen between dietary calcium intake and radiological score (r=-0.28; P=0.03) and PTH (r=-0.26; P=0.02). No correlation was found between serum 25OHD level and radiological score or biochemical parameters of rickets. Rickets develops when low dietary calcium intake coexists with a low or borderline vitamin D nutrition status.

  6. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingxing; Li, Zongyao; Ji, Xinqiang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99) and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies. PMID:28665326

  7. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89 for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98 for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24 for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99 and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89. In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88 and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

  8. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  9. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Urszula Krupa-Kozak; Markiewicz, Lidia?H.; Grzegorz Lamparski; Jerzy Juśkiewicz

    2017-01-01

    In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the cond...

  10. Intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium throughout postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Megan R; Alexander, R Todd

    2017-04-01

    Calcium is vital for many physiological functions including bone mineralization. Postnatal deposition of calcium into bone is greatest in infancy and continues through childhood and adolescence until peek mineral density is reached in early adulthood. Thereafter, bone mineral density remains static until it eventually declines in later life. A positive calcium balance, i.e. more calcium absorbed than excreted, is crucial to bone deposition during growth and thus to peek bone mineral density. Dietary calcium is absorbed from the intestine into the blood. It is then filtered by the renal glomerulus and either reabsorbed by the tubule or excreted in the urine. Calcium can be (re)absorbed across intestinal and renal epithelia via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. Current evidence suggests that significant intestinal and renal calcium transport changes occur throughout development. However, the molecular details of these alterations are incompletely delineated. Here we first briefly review the current model of calcium transport in the intestine and renal tubule in the adult. Then, we describe what is known with regard to calcium handling through postnatal development, and how alterations may aid in mediating a positive calcium balance. The role of transcellular and paracellular calcium transport pathways and the contribution of specific intestinal and tubular segments vary with age. However, the current literature highlights knowledge gaps in how specifically intestinal and renal calcium (re)absorption occurs early in postnatal development. Future research should clarify the specific changes in calcium transport throughout early postnatal development including mediators of these alterations enabling appropriate bone mineralization. Impact statement This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge pertaining to the molecules and mechanisms maintaining a positive calcium balance throughout postnatal development. This process is essential to achieving

  11. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, *CEMENTS, * CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, * FERRITES , *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, SUBSTITUTES, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS.

  12. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent certain birth defects in their babies. To take a supplement as safely as possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  13. The importance of dietary calcium consumption in two species of semi-terrestrial grapsoid crabs A importância do consumo de cálcio na dieta de duas espécies de caranguejos grapsóides semi-terrestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia P. Zanotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca is essential for crustaceans, due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 deposition in the new exoskeleton to harden it. The purpose of this work was to study short term Ca balance in terms of dietary Ca ingestion in two phylogenetically related crabs (Superfamily Grapsoidea showing different degrees of terrestrial adaptations: Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 and Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851. Dietary Ca ingestion was studied using purified diets with different Ca concentrations (0, 2.2 and 6.66 % Ca, together with measurements of Ca excretion and Ca hemolymph levels. The results showed that both crabs had the same response to foods containing different levels of Ca, with both species eating more of the high Ca diet. However, S. rectum consumed more per mg body mass at all Ca concentrations (6 mg.g-1 for S. rectum against 3 mg.g-1 for N. granulata. Both species excreted/egested Ca differently: S. rectum excreted Ca proportionally to ingestion, whereas N. granulata maintained constant faecal Ca output at all dietary Ca levels. Moreover, Ca hemolymph levels for crabs fed the different diets were independent of dietary Ca. In conclusion, both S. rectum and N. granulata seem to regulate the consumption of diets containing more Ca, which suggests a fine balance for Ca intake.O cálcio (Ca é essencial para os crustáceos porque cristais de carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3 são depositados no novo exoesqueleto para endurecê-lo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o balanço do Ca em relação à sua ingestão em dois caranguejos filogenéticamente relacionados (Superfamília Grapsoidea, que apresentam diferentes graus de terrestrialidade: Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 e Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851. A ingestão de Ca foi estudada através do uso de dietas purificadas com diferentes quantidades de Ca (0, 2,2 e 6,66 % Ca, juntamente com a excreção de Ca nas fezes e níveis de Ca na hemolinfa. Os resultados mostraram que ambos apresentam a mesma

  14. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights

  15. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  16. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  17. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  18. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...

  19. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  20. Prevention of Fractures in Older People with Calcium and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl A. Nowson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The greatest cause of fracture in older people is osteoporosis which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older people. A number of meta-analyses have been performed assessing the effectiveness of calcium supplementation alone, vitamin D supplementation alone and the combined therapy on bone loss and fracture reduction in older people. The results of these meta-analyses indicate that vitamin D supplementation alone is unlikely to reduce fracture risk, calcium supplementation alone has a modest effect in reducing total fracture risk, but compliance with calcium supplements is poor in the long term. The combination of calcium supplementation with vitamin D supplementation, particularly in those at risk of marginal and low vitamin D status reduces total fractures, including hip fractures. Therefore older people would be recommended to consume adequate dietary calcium (>1100 mg/day together with maintaining adequate vitamin D status (>60 nmol/L 25(OHD to reduce risk of fracture. It is a challenge to consume sufficient dietary calcium from dietary sources, but the increasing range of calcium fortified foods could assist in increasing the dietary calcium intake of older people. In addition to the usual dairy based food sources, vitamin D supplements are likely to be required for older people with reduced mobility and access to sunlight.

  1. CALCIUM AND VITAMIN-D - POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE AGENTS AGAINST COLORECTAL-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional factors are important determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Diets high in fat and/or low in fibre are especially recognised to increase risk. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer. With respect to calcium, its possible effect is

  2. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  3. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community-dwelling women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    residents aged 66+ years. We offered a prevention program consisting of a daily supplement of 1000 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate and 400 IU (10 μg) of vitamin-D3 to a total of 4957 participants. The remaining 5063 participants were offered home safety inspection with dietary and health advice...

  4. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  5. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  6. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Psupplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Psupplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  7. Maternal dietary vitamin D carry-over alters offspring growth, skeletal mineralisation and tissue mRNA expressions of genes related to vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus homoeostasis in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Laura A; Hernandez, Laura L; Laporta, Jimena; Crenshaw, Thomas D

    2016-09-01

    Maternal dietary vitamin D carry-over effects were assessed in young pigs to characterise skeletal abnormalities in a diet-induced model of kyphosis. Bone abnormalities were previously induced and bone mineral density (BMD) reduced in offspring from sows fed diets with inadequate vitamin D3. In a nested design, pigs from sows (n 23) fed diets with 0 (-D), 8·125 (+D) or 43·750 (++D) µg D3/kg from breeding through lactation were weaned and, within litter, fed nursery diets arranged as a 2×2 factorial design with 0 (-D) or 7·0 (+D) µg D3/kg, each with 95 % (95P) or 120 % (120P) of P requirements. Selected pigs were euthanised before colostrum consumption at birth (0 weeks, n 23), weaning (3 weeks, n 22) and after a growth period (8 weeks, n 185) for BMD, bone mechanical tests and tissue mRNA analysis. Pigs produced by +D or ++D sows had increased gain at 3 weeks (Pdietary influence at birth in bone osteocalcin and at weaning in kidney 24-hydroxylase (Pdietary influence on offspring skeletal health.

  8. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  10. Food labeling: health claims; calcium and osteoporosis, and calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its labeling regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to include vitamin D so that, in addition to the claim for calcium and osteoporosis, an additional claim can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim list sex, race, and age as specific risk factors for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim does not state or imply that the risk of osteoporosis is equally applicable to the general U.S. population, and that the claim identify the populations at particular risk for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim identify the mechanism by which calcium reduces the risk of osteoporosis and instead make it optional; eliminate the requirement that the claim include a statement that a total dietary intake greater than 200 percent of the recommended daily intake (2,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium) has no further benefit to bone health when the food contains 400 mg or more of calcium per reference amount customarily consumed or per total daily recommended supplement intake; and allow reference for the need of physical activity in either of the health claims to be optional rather then required. This final rule is, in part, in response to a health claim petition submitted by The Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness, LLC.

  11. Biomarkers for the activation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows: elevation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity by lowering dietary cation-anion difference is associated with the prevention of milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Naito, Yoshihisa; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2007-03-01

    In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the administration of anion salts, which slightly lower the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), in the prepartum period is safe and effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. In the present study, several biomarkers, which might show activation of Ca metabolism, were analyzed using stored samples in the previous study to investigate the mechanism of the preventive effect on milk fever by lowering DCAD. Changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in serum were almost the same among the three groups of multiparous cows with or without the oral administration of anion salts, while the levels of these serum biomarkers in the group of primiparous cows (heifer group) were much higher compared with those in the three multiparous groups throughout the experimental period. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was not a useful biomarker for dairy cows because it hardly changed during the peripartum period in all groups. However, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, which is known as a biomarker of osteoclast activity, was well associated with the administration of anion salts lowering DCAD because among the three multiparous groups, only the group of multiparous cows fed the anion salts (anion group) showed an increased level, which rose to the level in the heifer group, and was markedly higher than those in the other control groups of multiparous cows. The increased activity of serum TRAP in the anion group suggested that Ca in the plasma pool was mobilized smoothly from bone-bound Ca via mature osteoclasts at parturition, which might be due to prior activation under mild acidosis induced by slightly lowering DCAD. Therefore, TRAP was the best biomarker to monitor the activation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows fed anion salts.

  12. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... much do we know about dietary supplements for diabetes? Many studies have investigated dietary supplements, including vitamins, ...

  13. Nutritional aspects of calcium and vitamin D from infancy to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, G; Igli Baroncelli, G

    1995-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient for normal growth and development. Growing individuals must be in positive calcium balance to satisfy their calcium needs. Calcium requirements are higher during infancy and adolescence than childhood and adulthood. The achievement of a higher calcium balance in infancy and adolescence is likely due to the increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration occurring during these periods. The main determinants of calcium balance in infancy are dietary calcium intake and vitamin D. In normal circumstances, breast milk and formulas supply sufficient amounts of calcium. In the post-natal life, the major sources of vitamin D are sunlight exposure and supplemented formulas; in fact, the amount of vitamin D in breast milk, cow's milk, and common foods is poor. Although sunlight exposure should be able to maintain adequate vitamin D stores, a supplement with 400 IU/day of vitamin D from birth to the second year of life is recommended to assure the prophylaxis of rickets in all breast-fed infants. A dose of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is safe and appropriate. During childhood and adolescence, currently recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for calcium might be augmented, as suggested by calcium balance studies. The higher amount of calcium intake may lead to achieve maximal peak bone mass. The main source of vitamin D in children and adolescents is the casual sunlight exposure; therefore, a sistematical vitamin D supplementation is not usually needed. The major sources of calcium are milk and dairy products. However, if calcium intake is reduced, an additional calcium intake to reach the RDA may be provided by calcium supplements.

  14. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  15. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives.

  16. Dietary guidelines for chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, J M; White, G L

    2000-12-01

    In developed nations, diet is related directly or indirectly to the most prevalent chronic diseases. Research has helped clarify diet-disease relationships and enabled the promulgation of dietary recommendations for chronic disease prevention. We reviewed epidemiologic study results, clinical trial data, and general dietary recommendations from various agencies to develop a set of overall dietary guidelines for the prevention of the most common chronic diseases in the United States, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, cancer, and osteoporosis. Intake of monounsaturated fats, fiber, calcium, vegetables and fruits, and whole grains should be promoted. Consumption of saturated and trans fats, sodium, and refined grains should be minimized. Moderation in alcohol and caloric intake should be encouraged. Although research into associations between diet and disease is constantly in flux, our guidelines are based on replicated findings and provide a starting point for assisting patients in improving their diets.

  17. The selection and prevalence of natural and fortified calcium food sources in the diets of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology from 1997 to 2008. Subjects randomly assigned to a high-calcium (HC) diet supplying 1,500 mg calcium/d, or their usual diet (UC). Dietary intake was assessed from 3-day food records and calcium intakes categorized by food source. Food group composites, representing calcium-fortified and dairy food categories, were examined for their relative nutrient contributions. Student t tests were used to evaluate differences in selected nutrient intakes between the 2 study groups. Dairy food contributed 68% of the total mean 1,494 mg calcium/d in the HC group, and calcium-fortified food contributed 304 mg calcium. In the UC group, dairy food contributed 69% of the total mean 765 mg calcium/d and calcium-fortified food contributed 50 mg calcium. Nutrient profiles of the dairy composites differed significantly from the calcium-fortified composites (P source of calcium selected by these adolescent girls; calcium-fortified food augmented calcium intakes. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium Biofortification: Three Pronged Molecular Approaches for Dissecting Complex Trait of Calcium Nutrition in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Devising Strategies of Enrichment of Food Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Jamra, Gautam; Singh, Uma M.; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Calcium is an essential macronutrient for plants and animals and plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling. Low dietary intake of calcium in humans has been epidemiologically linked to various diseases which can have serious health consequences over time. Major staple food-grains are poor source of calcium, however, finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], an orphan crop has an immense potential as a nutritional security crop due to its exceptionally high calcium content. Understanding the existing genetic variation as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport, accumulation of calcium ions (Ca2+) in grains is of utmost importance for development of calcium bio-fortified crops. In this review, we have discussed molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation and transport thoroughly, emphasized the role of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic approaches to understand the intricate mechanism of calcium nutrition in finger millet. The objective is to provide a comprehensive up to date account of molecular mechanisms regulating calcium nutrition and highlight the significance of bio-fortification through identification of potential candidate genes and regulatory elements from finger millet to alleviate calcium malnutrition. Hence, finger millet could be used as a model system for explaining the mechanism of elevated calcium (Ca2+) accumulation in its grains and could pave way for development of nutraceuticals or designer crops. PMID:28144246

  19. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  20. Girls' Calcium Intake Is Associated with Bone Mineral Content During Middle Childhood1

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Laura M.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined longitudinally the association between calcium intake and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in 151 non-Hispanic white girls. Intakes of dairy, energy, and calcium were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls in girls at ages 5, 7, 9, and 11 y. We assessed their total-body bone mineral content with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 9 and11 y. Dairy foods comprised the major contributor (70%) to calcium intake over the 6-y period; 28% of calcium came from other foods,...

  1. Calcium from plant sources is beneficial to lowering the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Moo; Heo, Jumi; Park, Yongsoon

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis, which has become a serious public health concern, is influenced by diet, especially calcium intake. Dairy products are a good source of calcium, but plant calcium may also be important in populations that do not consume a large amount of milk. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that calcium from vegetable sources is associated with osteoporosis risk and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women with osteoporosis and age-matched controls (N = 144). The results of multivariate-adjusted regression analyses indicated that the intake of calcium, plant calcium, potassium, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin B(1), niacin, vitamin E, vitamin C, and vegetables was associated with significantly reduced risk of osteoporosis after adjusting for age, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, and energy intake. In addition, intake of vegetables alone, as well as calcium, plant calcium, potassium, and antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene), which are abundant in vegetables, was significantly and positively associated with bone mineral density. However, in this population of low-dairy consumers, intake of calcium from meat and dairy products was not related to risk of osteoporosis and bone mineral density. Our results suggest that high dietary intake of calcium, especially plant calcium, reduces the risk of osteoporosis and increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women. Vegetables may be an important source of calcium and may also provide vitamins and minerals that exert additional beneficial effects on the bone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  3. A Review of the Impact of Dietary Intakes in Human Pregnancy on Infant Birthweight

    OpenAIRE

    Grieger, Jessica A.; Clifton, Vicki L

    2014-01-01

    Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary ...

  4. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  5. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  6. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  7. Internet program for facilitating dietary modifications limiting kidney stone risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jessica N; Easter, Linda; Amoroso, Robert; Benfield, Debra; Mufarri, Patrick W; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P; Assimos, Dean G

    2013-10-01

    Certain dietary modifications limit the risk of stone recurrence. Compliance is an important component of dietary therapy for stone prevention, and self-efficacy is an important ingredient of compliance. We developed an internet program to facilitate dietary compliance for stone prevention and performed a pilot study to assess its effectiveness. The internet program provides information regarding dietary modifications including increased fluid consumption, limited animal protein, sodium, and oxalate intake, and adequate calcium consumption. Participants record their daily food and fluid intake and receive immediate feedback as to whether they were compliant or not. Five adult calcium stone formers collected three 24 hour urine specimens on self-selected diets, three 24 hour urine specimens while on a stone preventive metabolic diet, and three 24 hour urine specimens after utilizing the internet program for 1 month. Urinary stone risk parameters were measured, and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t test. All participants recorded their meals and snacks for each day and found the program easy to navigate. The mean time in hours from food consumption to log in was 35.25 +/- 70.8 hours. There were no statistically significant differences in stone risk factors between the controlled and internet dietary phases. Oxalate excretion was significantly higher during the self-selected dietary intake (p = 0.03). This pilot study demonstrates that subjects appear to be compliant with utilization of an interactive internet program for stone prevention with dietary modifications. In addition, improvement in certain stone risk parameters occurred.

  8. Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, MJAP; Termont, DSML; Lapre, JA; Kleibeuker, JH; Vonk, RJ; VanderMeer, R

    1996-01-01

    Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats, We non

  9. Evidence mapping: dietary fiber interventions and bone health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass is expected to increase as the United States population ages. High dietary fiber intake has previously been implicated as a risk factor for bone health by binding calcium and thereby reducing its intestinal absorption; however, more recently, interven...

  10. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  11. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  12. Comparison of calcium supplementation or low-fat dairy foods on epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P R; Wolper, C; Moss, S F; Yang, K; Lipkin, M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary calcium and vitamin D intake are inversely related to incidence of colon cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that supplementation of the diet with calcium in the form of calcium tablets or low-fat dairy foods alters colonic epithelial cell proliferation from a higher- to a lower-risk pattern. The present study compared relative effects of administration of calcium carbonate at approximately 900 mg/day (calcium) with those of a low-fat dairy food diet providing about the same amount of calcium (dairy) in a cross-over "head-to-head" study of 40 subjects at risk for colonic neoplasia. Dietary intake of macronutrients was similar in the two study periods, except for a slight increase in protein intake during dairy calcium supplementation. Rectal epithelial cell proliferation was studied in flat endoscopically normal-appearing mucosa at baseline and at the end of each of the two study periods and showed a significant reduction in epithelial crypt cell labeling index from 12.5% to 9.1% (calcium) or 9.3% (dairy) as well as in proliferating cells in the upper 40% of the crypt from 0.09 to 0.03 in the calcium- and low-fat dairy-supplemented intervention groups. No significant changes in two epithelial cell differentiation markers, cytokeratin AE1 and acidic mucins, were found. Furthermore, there were no differences in epithelial cell apoptosis or expression of the proapoptotic gene product BAK. These data indicate that increased dietary calcium given as supplements or in the diet in low-fat dairy foods lowers epithelial cell proliferation indexes from a higher- to a lower-risk pattern. Because supplemental calcium has been shown to reduce the recurrence of colonic adenomatous polyps in patients at increased risk for colonic neoplasia, our data suggest that supplemental low-fat dairy foods may also be effective.

  13. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tao Fan,1 Gonzalo Nocea,2 Ankita Modi,3 Leah Stokes,1 Shuvayu S Sen1 1Global Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 2Department of Outcomes Research, Merck, Sharp and Dohme Spain, Madrid, Spain; 3Global Human Health, Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods: We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Results: Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day, thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day. Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥75 years (120 IU/day and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion: These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with

  14. Phosphate decreases urine calcium and increases calcium balance: A meta-analysis of the osteoporosis acid-ash diet hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasziw Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis posits that increased excretion of "acidic" ions derived from the diet, such as phosphate, contributes to net acidic ion excretion, urine calcium excretion, demineralization of bone, and osteoporosis. The public is advised by various media to follow an alkaline diet to lower their acidic ion intakes. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to quantify the contribution of phosphate to bone loss in healthy adult subjects; specifically, a to assess the effect of supplemental dietary phosphate on urine calcium, calcium balance, and markers of bone metabolism; and to assess whether these affects are altered by the b level of calcium intake, c the degree of protonation of the phosphate. Methods Literature was identified through computerized searches regarding phosphate with surrogate and/or direct markers of bone health, and was assessed for methodological quality. Multiple linear regression analyses, weighted for sample size, were used to combine the study results. Tests of interaction included stratification by calcium intake and degree of protonation of the phosphate supplement. Results Twelve studies including 30 intervention arms manipulated 269 subjects' phosphate intakes. Three studies reported net acid excretion. All of the meta-analyses demonstrated significant decreases in urine calcium excretion in response to phosphate supplements whether the calcium intake was high or low, regardless of the degree of protonation of the phosphate supplement. None of the meta-analyses revealed lower calcium balance in response to increased phosphate intakes, whether the calcium intake was high or low, or the composition of the phosphate supplement. Conclusion All of the findings from this meta-analysis were contrary to the acid ash hypothesis. Higher phosphate intakes were associated with decreased urine calcium and increased calcium retention. This meta-analysis did not find evidence that phosphate intake

  15. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on performance of lactating dairy cows and stability of milk proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Netto, A S; Oliveira, C A F; Santos, M V

    2015-01-01

    .... The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on concentrations of casein subunits, whey proteins, ionic calcium, and milk heat and ethanol stability...

  16. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  17. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles. This complex and highly regulated process is orchestrated by SNAREs and their associated proteins. The triggering signal for regulated exocytosis is usually...... an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...

  18. Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Zamzam K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Lykken, Glenn I; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-04-01

    Calcium balance is decreased by an increased intake of purified proteins, although the effects of common dietary sources of protein (like meat) on calcium economy remain controversial. We compared the effects of several weeks of controlled high and low meat diets on body calcium retention, using sensitive radiotracer and whole body scintillation counting methodology. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 15) consumed diets with similar calcium content (approximately 600 mg), but either low or high in meat (12 vs. 20% of energy as protein) for 8 wk each, in a randomized crossover design. After 4 wk of equilibration of each diet, calcium retention was measured by extrinsically labeling the 2-d menu with (47)Ca, followed by whole body scintillation counting for 28 d. Urinary and blood indicators of bone metabolism were also determined for each diet. Calcium retention was not different during the high and low meat dietary periods (d 28, mean +/- pooled SD: 17.1 and 15.6%, +/-0.6%, respectively; P = 0.09). An initially higher renal acid excretion in subjects consuming the high meat compared with the low meat diet decreased significantly with time. The diets did not affect urinary calcium loss or indicators of bone metabolism. In conclusion, under controlled conditions, a high meat compared with a low meat diet for 8 wk did not affect calcium retention or biomarkers of bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Calcium retention is not reduced when subjects consume a high protein diet from common dietary sources such as meat.

  19. Human dental microwear caused by calcium oxalate phytoliths in prehistoric diet of the lower Pecos region, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D R; Reinhard, K J

    1998-11-01

    Recent research demonstrates that silica phytoliths of dietary origin are associated with microwear of human teeth. Previous research has shown that severe enamel microwear and dental wear characterizes Archaic hunter-gatherers in the lower Pecos region of west Texas. Calcium oxalate crystals are especially common in Archaic coprolites. The vast majority are derived from prickly pear and agave, which were the dietary staples in west Texas for 6,000 years. The calcium oxalate phytoliths are harder than enamel. Therefore, calcium oxalate crystals are the most likely source of previously documented dental microwear and wear in the lower Pecos region.

  20. Diets higher in dairy foods and dietary protein support bone health during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss in overweight and obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Andrea R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Consolidation and maintenance of peak bone mass in young adulthood may be compromised by inactivity, low dietary calcium, and diet-induced weight loss. We aimed to determine whether higher intakes of dairy foods, dietary calcium, and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss affected markers of bone health. Participants included premenopausal overweight and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized into three groups (n = 30 per group): high protein and high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein and medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein and low dairy (APLD), differing in dietary protein (30, 15, or 15% of energy, respectively), dairy foods (15, 7.5, or protein, respectively), and dietary calcium (∼1600, ∼1000, or dietary calcium, and protein with daily exercise, favorably affected important bone health biomarkers vs. diets with less of these bone-supporting nutrients.

  1. Effect of the types of dietary fats and non-dietary oils on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khadiga

    2017-03-04

    Nutrients beyond calcium and vitamin D have a role on bone health, and in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Quality and quantity of dietary fat may have consequences on skeletal health. Diets with highly saturated fat content produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization in growing animals. Conversely, dietary n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in bone metabolism and may help in prevention and treatment of bone disease. Some reports suggest a correlation between the dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone formation. Specific dietary fatty acids were found to modulate prostanoid synthesis in bone tissue and improve bone formation in both animal and clinical trials. The skeletal benefits of dietary isoprenoids are extremely documented. Higher isoprenoids intake may relate to higher bone mineral density. Dietary supplements containing fish oil, individual polyunsaturated fatty acids, and isoprenoids could be used as adjuvant with bone medications in osteoportic conditions but their doses must be considered to avoid detrimental effect of over dosages.

  2. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears ...

  3. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Figuring Out Food Labels What's a Vegetarian? Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Mineral Chart Vitamin D ... Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium Bones, Muscles, and ...

  4. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  5. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  6. Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Nicholson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (< 800 mg/day, 386 (60% had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644 consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

  7. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  8. The influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus on bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of this study it was attempted to obtain a better insight into the possible influence of the diet on the development of human osteoporosis. This disease, which is a consequence of decalcification of the bones, occurs frequently in elderly people, particularly in postmenopausal

  9. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of three levels of crude protein (CP) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) and three levels of Ca and available P (Av. P) (NRC, 15% more than NRC ... There was an interactive effect of CP by Ca and Av. P on the retention of Ca, N and ash of tibia bone.

  10. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  11. Vitamin D deficiency and calcium intake in reference to increased body mass index in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musharaf, Sara; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Yusuf, Deqa S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Moharram, Osama; Yakout, Sobhy; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to several chronic diseases in adults. Studies focusing on children and adolescents, however, are limited. In this randomized cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with childhood obesity and dietary calcium intake among a population of healthy urban Saudi children and adolescents. To achieve this, 331 randomly selected Saudi children (53.8% females and 46.2% males) aged 6-17 years were included. Demographic, medical, and dietary information were collected; anthropometrics were measured. Levels of serum fasting glucose, lipid profile, 25(OH) D, and for albumin corrected calcium were analyzed. Vitamin D deficiency was noted in all subjects, with girls having significantly lower vitamin D levels than boys. Mean calcium intake was found to be 60% of the required dietary allowance (RDA), while the mean vitamin D intake was 23% of RDA. Vitamin D status and calcium intake were comparable in both normal and overweight/obese children and adolescents. Vitamin D status was highest among children who had calcium intake >800 mg/day. In adolescents there was insignificant but decreasing trend in BMI, which was observed to be highest among those whose calcium intake was 800 mg/day. results from this study suggest the importance of vitamin D fortification and increased dietary calcium in the Saudi diet to meet RDA requirements and avoid onset of vitamin D deficiency-related diseases in Saudi children and adolescents.

  12. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  13. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  14. Nutrition myths and healthy dietary advice in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Mazza, Mary Carol; Lucan, Sean C

    2015-05-01

    Healthy dietary intake is important for the maintenance of general health and wellness, the prevention of chronic illness, the optimization of life expectancy, and the clinical management of virtually all disease states. Dietary myths (i.e., concepts about nutrition that are poorly supported or contradicted by scientific evidence) may stand in the way of healthy dietary intake. Dietary myths exist about micronutrients, macronutrients, non-nutrients, and food energy. Representative myths of each type include that patients need to focus on consuming enough calcium to ensure bone health, dietary fat leads to obesity and is detrimental to vascular health, all fiber (whether naturally occurring or artificially added) is beneficial, and food calories translate to pounds of body weight through a linear relationship and simple arithmetic. A common theme for dietary myths is a reductionist view of diet that emphasizes selected food constituents as opposed to whole foods. Healthy dietary advice takes a more holistic view; consistent evidence supports recommendations to limit the consumption of ultraprocessed foods and to eat whole or minimally processed foods, generally in a form that is as close to what occurs in nature as possible. Family physicians can help dispel myths for patients and give sound nutritional advice by focusing on actual foods and broader dietary patterns.

  15. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  16. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Mark J Bolland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled tria...

  17. Calcium-deficiency rickets in a four-year-old boy with milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, M; Levy, Y; Avramovitz, T; Eisenstein, B

    1993-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy was found to have rickets associated with normal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and high serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These findings were thought to be the result of dietary calcium deficiency caused by the prolonged elimination from his diet of cow milk and milk products because of allergy. Adequate intake of calcium resulted in rapid improvement.

  18. Calcium or resistant starch does not affect colonic epithelial cell proliferation throughout the colon in adenoma patients : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Britta A P; Karrenbeld, Arend; van der Sluis, Tineke; Zwart, Nynke; van der Meer, Roelof; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Kleibeuker, Jan H

    2002-01-01

    Patients with a history of sporadic adenomas have increased epithelial cell proliferative activity, an intermediate risk marker for colorectal cancer. Reduction of proliferation by dietary intervention may reflect a decreased colorectal cancer risk. To evaluate whether calcium or resistant starch

  19. The effect of wheat bran fiber and calcium supplementation on rectal mucosal proliferation rates in patients with resected adenomatous colorectal polyps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D S Alberts; J Einspahr; C Ritenbaugh; M Aickin; S Rees-McGee; J Atwood; S Emerson; N Mason-Liddil; L Bettinger; J Patel; S Bellapravalu; P S Ramanujam; J Phelps; L Clark

    1997-01-01

    .... Only a few prospective, randomized clinical trials have been performed to evaluate the potential preventive effects of dietary fiber or calcium in patients with an increased risk for the development...

  20. Supplemental calcium attenuates the colitis-related increase in diarrhea, intestinal permeability, and extracellular matrix breakdown in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepens, M.A.; Schonewille, A.J.; Vink, C.; Schothorst, E.M. van; Kramer, E.; Hendriks, T.; Brummer, R.J.; Keijer, J.; Meer, R. van der; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown in several controlled rat and human infection studies that dietary calcium improves intestinal resistance and strengthens the mucosal barrier. Reinforcement of gut barrier function may alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of supplemental

  1. Supplemental calcium attenuates the Colitis-Related increase in Diarrhea, intestinal Permeability, and Extracellular Matrix Breakdown in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepens, M.A.A.; Schonewille, A.J.; Vink, C.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Kramer, E.H.M.; Hendriks, T.; Brummer, R.J.; Keijer, J.; Meer, van der R.; Bovee - Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown in several controlled rat and human infection studies that dietary calcium improves intestinal resistance and strengthens the mucosal barrier. Reinforcement of gut barrier function may alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of supplemental

  2. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  3. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-12-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  4. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  5. Expression profiling of colorectal cancer cells reveals inhibition of DNA replication licensing by extracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Abhishek; Schulz, Herbert; Manhardt, Teresa; Bilban, Martin; Thakker, Rajesh V; Kallay, Enikö

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in industrialised societies. Epidemiological studies, animal experiments, and randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary factors can influence all stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, from initiation through promotion to progression. Calcium is one of the factors with a chemoprophylactic effect in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of the anti-tumorigenic effects of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o) in colon cancer cells. Gene expression microarray analysis of colon cancer cells treated for 1, 4, and 24h with 2mM [Ca(2+)]o identified significant changes in expression of 1571 probe sets (ANOVA, pcalcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G protein-coupled receptor is a mediator involved in this process. To test whether these results were physiologically relevant, we fed mice with a standard diet containing low (0.04%), intermediate (0.1%), or high (0.9%) levels of dietary calcium. The main molecules regulating replication licensing were inhibited also in vivo, in the colon of mice fed high calcium diet. We show that among the mechanisms behind the chemopreventive effect of [Ca(2+)]o is inhibition of replication licensing, a process often deregulated in neoplastic transformation. Our data suggest that dietary calcium is effective in preventing replicative stress, one of the main drivers of cancer and this process is mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium Signalling: Fishing Out Molecules of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-01-01

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins — MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 — to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport.

  7. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  8. Protective effects of low calcium intake and low calcium absorption vitamin D receptor genotype in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2013-01-01

    High calcium intake is consistently associated with increased prostate cancer risk in epidemiologic studies. We previously reported that the positive association between calcium intake and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CDX-2 binding site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, among African American men. We expanded our previous study to include White men, a population with a higher calcium intake and a higher prevalence of the low absorption allele. We also examined VDR polymorphisms at other loci unrelated to calcium absorption. The study included 1,857 prostate cancer cases (1,140 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 717 with localized stage) and 1,096 controls. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Among both Blacks and Whites, we observed a threshold for calcium intake (604 mg/d) below which prostate cancer risk declined sharply. Low calcium intake was most strongly associated with decreased risk among men with the VDR Cdx2 low calcium absorption genotype (P for interaction = 0.001 and P = 0.06 for Whites and African Americans, respectively). Among all men with this genotype, those in the lowest quartile of calcium intake (≤604 mg/d) had a 50% reduction in risk as compared with those in the upper three quartiles [OR = 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.67]. The association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk was not modified by genotype at other VDR loci. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of calcium absorption influence prostate cancer risk. The differences between African Americans and Whites in calcium absorption and dietary calcium intake may contribute to racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  9. Calcium and vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Cotterchio, Michelle; Green, Roger; Buehler, Sharon; Zhao, Jinhui; Squires, Josh; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Yun; Dicks, Elizabeth; Campbell, Peter T; Mclaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have been suggestive but inconclusive in demonstrating inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D, dairy product intakes with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a large population-based comparison of such associations in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON). A case control study design was used. Colorectal cancer cases were new CRC patients aged 20-74 years. Controls were a sex and age-group matched random sample of the population in each province. 1760 cases and 2481 controls from NL and ON were analyzed. Information on dietary intake and lifestyle was collected using self-administered food frequency and personal history questionnaires. Controls reported higher mean daily intakes of total calcium and total vitamin D than cases in both provinces. In ON, significant reduced CRC risk was associated with intakes of total calcium (OR of highest vs. lowest quintiles was 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.77, p(trend) = 0.03), total vitamin D (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-1.00), dietary calcium (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.97), dietary vitamin D (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.99), total dairy products and milk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.60-1.00), calcium-containing supplements use (OR = 0.76). In NL, the inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D with CRC risk were most pronounced among calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement users (OR = 0.67, 0.68, respectively). Results of this study add to the evidence that total calcium, dietary calcium, total vitamin D, dietary vitamin D, calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement use may reduce the risk of CRC. The inverse associations of CRC risk with intakes of total dairy products and milk may be largely due to calcium and vitamin D.

  10. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  11. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2).Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors.Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk.Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other dairy

  12. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800-1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥ 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis.

  13. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  14. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate...

  15. Is bone equally responsive to calcium and vitamins D intake from food vs. supplements? Use of 41Ca tracer kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few interventions directly compare equivalent calcium and vitamin D from dairy vs. supplements on the same bone outcomes. The radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) holds promise as a tracer method to directly measure changes in bone resorption with differing dietary interventions. Objective: U...

  16. Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    residents aged 66+ years. We offered a prevention program consisting of a daily supplement of 1000 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate and 400 IU (10 μg) of vitamin-D3 to a total of 4957 participants. The remaining 5063 participants were offered home safety inspection with dietary and health advice...

  17. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...... not significant, the same trend was seen at the hip. No significant changes from baseline values were observed at the distal forearm in either the treatment or the placebo group. In conclusion, we found a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion in the treatment group compared with the placebo group...

  18. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  19. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  20. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2016-10-09

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum.

  1. Household dietary diversity and child stunting in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Sumarmi, Sri; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2017-03-01

    More than one-quarter of under-five children in the developing world are stunted, and those with poor nutrient intake are at risk of irreversible cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting in an Indonesian context. Dietary diversity was assessed using a maternal-reported checklist of 12 food groups, summed as a Household Dietary Diversity Score. Stunting was defined as Java, Indonesia. Logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between dietary diversity and child stunting. The prevalence of child stunting was 39.4%, and the percentage of households consuming food groups high in protein and calcium, like dairy products (41%), and meat/poultry, (65%) was lower compared with other food groups. The unadjusted model revealed that higher dietary diversity scores were associated with lower likelihood of child stunting (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.98). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for family size, maternal literacy, food expenditure, breastfeeding, energy, and protein intake (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.99). The dietary diversity score was moderate, with consumption of dairy products and meat/poultry lowest among 12 food groups. Hence, population interventions should focus on promoting food groups currently lacking in maternal and child diet, including those rich in growth-promoting nutrients like dairy, meat/poultry. These results, from an Indonesian context, confirm the widely observed protective relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting.

  2. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  3. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  4. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  5. Dietary determinants of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, p...

  6. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Dagfinn; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah A; Chan, Doris S M; Vieira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Rui; Greenwood, Darren C; Vatten, Lars J; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Dairy product and calcium intakes have been associated with increased prostate cancer risk, but whether specific dairy products or calcium sources are associated with risk is unclear. In the Continuous Update Project, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies on intakes of dairy products and calcium and prostate cancer risk. PubMed and several other databases were searched up to April 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by using a random-effects model. Thirty-two studies were included. Intakes of total dairy products [summary RR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; n = 15) per 400 g/d], total milk [summary RR: 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; n = 14) per 200 g/d], low-fat milk [summary RR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11; n = 6) per 200 g/d], cheese [summary RR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; n = 11) per 50 g/d], and dietary calcium [summary RR: 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09; n = 15) per 400 mg/d] were associated with increased total prostate cancer risk. Total calcium and dairy calcium intakes, but not nondairy calcium or supplemental calcium intakes, were also positively associated with total prostate cancer risk. Supplemental calcium was associated with increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. High intakes of dairy products, milk, low-fat milk, cheese, and total, dietary, and dairy calcium, but not supplemental or nondairy calcium, may increase total prostate cancer risk. The diverging results for types of dairy products and sources of calcium suggest that other components of dairy rather than fat and calcium may increase prostate cancer risk. Any additional studies should report detailed results for subtypes of prostate cancer. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  8. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Aliu, Oluseyi; Griffin, Ian J; Pam, Sunday D; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Imade, Godwin E; Abrams, Steven A

    2009-05-01

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without rickets. Nineteen children with rickets and 15 age-matched control children, aged 2-10 y, were given calcium (600 mg/d) and ergocalciferol (1250 microg/wk). After 6 wk, calcium and zinc absorption were measured in both groups with and without maize porridge using stable isotopes. One week later, absorption measurements were repeated to assess the effects of enzymatic dephytinization and fermentation of the maize porridge. The phytate concentration of maize porridge (3.87 +/- 0.38 g/kg wet weight) was reduced by enzymatic dephytinization (2.83 +/- 0.41 g/kg; P rickets or by fermentation of maize porridge. Calcium absorption was greater with a meal (61.3 +/- 25.1%) than without (27.8 +/- 14.6%; P Rickets was not associated with impaired calcium or zinc absorption. Calcium absorption was enhanced by maize porridge, but zinc absorption was reduced. Enzymatic dephytinization increased zinc absorption. Multiple strategies may be required to optimize calcium and zinc absorption in deficient populations.

  9. Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, M J; Grey, A; Reid, I R

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the highest level of evidence to inform clinical practice. Meta-analyses of large RCTs of calcium and/or vitamin D supplements completed in the last 15 years provide strong evidence for clinical recommendations. These meta-analyses with data for > 50,000 older adults reported that calcium with or without vitamin D has only weak, inconsistent effects on fracture, and that vitamin D without calcium has no effect on fracture. Only one RCT of co-administered calcium and vitamin D in frail, institutionalized, elderly women with low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D levels showed significant reductions in fracture risk. These RCTs have also reported previously unrecognized adverse events of calcium supplements including kidney stones, myocardial infarction, hypercalcemia, and hospitalization with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The small risk of these important adverse effects, together with the moderate risk of minor side-effects such as constipation, probably outweighs any benefits of calcium supplements on fracture. These data suggest the role for calcium and vitamin D supplements in osteoporosis management is very limited. Neither calcium nor vitamin D supplements should be recommended for fracture prevention in community-dwelling adults, although vitamin D should be considered for prevention of osteomalacia in at-risk individuals.

  10. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  11. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  12. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  13. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  14. Calcium and vitamin D requirements for optimal bone mass during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    There remains very strong interest in the calcium and vitamin D requirements of adolescents related to bone health. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released new dietary guidelines in late 2010 for these nutrients. These guidelines were primarily based on literature published in 2009 and earlier and ...

  15. Calcium requirements of growing rats based on bone mass, structure, or biomechanical strength are similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although calcium (Ca) supplementation increases bone density, the increase is small and the impact on bone strength and fracture risk is uncertain. To investigate if bone mass, morphology, and biomechanical properties are affected by deficient to copious dietary Ca concentrations, the long bones (ti...

  16. Role of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose in the absorption of calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Weidauer, T.

    1999-01-01

    The current trends in healthy eating will increase levels of bulk- forming material in the diet, such as dietary fibre and other plant foods. Depending on the complex forming of such material the availability of absorbable calcium and other minerals may be impaired. It seems that non- digestible

  17. Dietary fibre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V

    2003-02-01

    The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research.

  18. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  20. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  1. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  2. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  3. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  4. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  5. The midpoint of sleep is associated with dietary intake and dietary behavior among young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Mito, Natsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Okubo, Hitomi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Sato, Kazuto

    2011-03-01

    How human chronotype is correlated to nutrient and food-group intakes and dietary behavior remains to be elucidated. We cross-sectionally examined the association between the midpoint of sleep and these dietary variables in young Japanese women. A calculated halfway point between bedtime and rise time was used as midpoint of sleep. The subjects were 3304 female Japanese dietetics students aged 18-20years from 53 institutions in Japan. Dietary intake during the previous month was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The midpoint of sleep was calculated using self-reported bedtimes and rise times. Late midpoint of sleep was significantly negatively associated with the percentage of energy from protein and carbohydrates, and the energy-adjusted intake of cholesterol, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6), folate, rice, vegetables, pulses, eggs, and milk and milk products. It was also significantly positively associated with the percentage of energy from alcohol and fat, and the energy-adjusted intake of noodles, confections, fat and oil, and meat. Furthermore, subjects with a later midpoint of sleep tended to begin meals later, eat for a longer time, skip meals more frequently, and watch TV at meals, not only at breakfast but also at lunch and dinner. The midpoint of sleep is significantly associated with dietary intake of certain nutrients and foods and other dietary behaviors in young Japanese women. This finding may contribute to consider the relationships between chronotype and dietary intakes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  7. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzozero, Julien; Scrivener, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate ...

  8. Mixed calcium-magnesium pre-nucleation clusters enrich calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Verch, Andreas; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that magnesium and carbonate ions can form pre-nucleation clusters in analogy to calcium carbonate. If a mixed calcium and magnesium solution is brought in contact with carbonate ions, mixed pre-nucleation clusters form. The equilibrium constants for their formation are reported revealing that over the entire range of possible cation mixing ratios, calcium gets enriched over magnesium in the pre-nucleation clusters. This can explain high magnesium contents in amorphous calc...

  9. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... supplementation by trained athletes seems to have limited benefits. It is important to keep dietary advice individualised considering the complexity in which the endocrine system regulates cell function, the diverse mechanisms that control homeostasis, as well as genetic variability. SA Sports Medicine Vol.16(2) 2004: 33- ...

  10. Biological Reactions to Calcium Phosphate-coated Calcium Carbonate Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tetsunari NISHIKAWA; Kazuya MASUNO; Tomoharu OKAMURA; Kazuya TOMINAGA; Masahiro WATO; Mayu KOKUBU; Koichi IMAI; Shoji TAKEDA; Yoichro TAGUCHI; Masatoshi UEDA; Akio TANAKA

    2010-01-01

    [SYNOPSIS][Objectives]: In order to histopathologically investigate biological reactions to materials used for scaffolds, we examined the cytotoxicity to calcium particles in vitro and bioabsorption in vivo...

  11. Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein ingestion results in higher ratings of satiety than equicaloric amounts of carbohydrates or fat. Their effect on satiety is mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess; this effect is higher with ingestion of specific "incomplete" proteins (vegetal) than with animal proteins. Diet-induced thermogenesis is higher for proteins than for other macronutrients. The increase in energy expenditure is caused by protein and urea synthesis and by gluconeogenesis. This effect is higher with animal proteins containing larger amounts of essential amino acids than with vegetable proteins. Specifically, diet-induced thermogenesis increases after protein ingestion by 20 - 30 %, but by only 5 - 10 % after carbohydrates and 0 - 5 % after ingestion of fat. Consumption of higher amounts of protein during dietary treatment of obesity resulted in greater weight loss than with lower amounts of protein in dietary studies lasting up to one year. During weight loss and decreased caloric intake, a relatively increased protein content of the diet maintained fat-free mass (i. e. muscle mass) and increased calcium balance, resulting in preservation of bone mineral content. This is of particular importance during weight loss after bariatric surgery because these patients are at risk for protein malnutrition. Adequate dietary protein intake in diabetes type 2 is of specific importance since proteins are relatively neutral with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism, and they preserve muscle and bone mass, which may be decreased in subjects with poorly controlled diabetes. Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen

  12. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, D; Cobbold, C; Dimitrakakis, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of calcium supplements for the prevention of complications of osteoporosis has significantly increased during the last years. The effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiovascular events are controversial. Even though transient beneficial effects of calcium supplementation have been reported, especially in women with low dietary calcium intake, their long-term outcomes are inconclusive. Only a very few studies investigating serum lipids in postmenopausal women have been described and these showed significant increases in high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein ratio. With regards to cardiovascular events in this population group adverse effects have been reported on the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke with increased calcium intake by some authors, however, others described no effects or even beneficial outcomes. We present a review of the current literature which provides a balanced summary of the possible beneficial and adverse effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters. Taking into account the modest effect of calcium supplementation in reducing fracture rates, a reassessment of the role, benefits and adverse effects of calcium supplements should be conducted in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low lactase activity in a small-bowel biopsy specimen : Should dietary lactose intake be restricted in children with small intestinal mucosal damage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Gonera-de Jong, GBC; Priebe, MG; Antoine, JM; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ

    Objective. Small intestinal mucosal damage can result in decreased lactase activity (LA). When LA is low in a small-bowel biopsy (SBB) specimen, a reduction of dietary lactose intake is usually advised. This is often done by reducing dietary dairy products, which also reduces the intake of calcium,

  14. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, S.J.; Thomsen, A.R.B.; Pang, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    , however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)D] despite no change in FGF23......, suggesting direct regulation of 1,25(OH)D synthesis by serum phosphorus. Calcium-mediated increases in serum FGF23 required a threshold level of serum phosphorus of about 5 mg/dl. Analogously, phosphorus-elicited increases in FGF23 were markedly blunted if serum calcium was less than 8 mg/dl. The best...

  15. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  16. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  17. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S

    1987-01-01

    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  18. The combination of 1α, 25(OH)2 – Vitamin D3, calcium and acetylsalicyclic acid affects azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Meyer, Otto A.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at various dietary levels of calcium (CaCO(3)) on development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumours in colon were examined in groups of 16 male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane and observed for 16 weeks. Calcium was the most...... potent modulator of ACF development. The total number of ACF increased with low calcium and decreased with high calcium. The number of large ACF decreased with any addition of calcium, acetylsalicylic acid and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3). High levels of calcium alone or in combination with 1alpha,25(OH......)(2)-vitamin D(3) increased the incidence of tumour-bearing animals. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at 5,000 ppm calcium increased the incidence as well....

  19. Effects of a reduced nitrogen diet on calcitriol levels and calcium metabolism in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscher, Alexandra; Huber, Korinna

    2010-07-01

    For monogastric animals, changes in dietary protein content modulate calcium (Ca) metabolism by changing parathyroid hormone and calcitriol concentrations. However, the effects of dietary nitrogen (N) restriction on Ca metabolism are not known in ruminants. Since ruminants express endogenous recycling mechanisms very efficiently to save N, it is known that these recycling mechanisms protect ruminants against N depletion in times of dietary N restriction. Therefore, consequences on Ca metabolism induced by reduction of dietary N supply as observed in monogastric animals should not occur in ruminants. Due to this specific metabolic feature, a reduction of dietary N intake can be used to diminish environmental N pollution. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of a reduced N intake on Ca homeostasis and respective regulatory hormone concentrations in ruminants. Growing goats fed with a reduced N diet showed a decrease in ionised calcium (Ca2+) and total Ca concentrations while bone resorption marker carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen increased in plasma. Unexpectedly, despite hypocalcemia, concentrations of calcitriol were decreased in the animals of the N reduction group whereas calcidiol levels were not affected. From this data, it can be concluded that the Ca metabolism of growing goats can be modulated by changes of dietary N content like in monogastric animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  1. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with calcium carbonate... precipitated calcium carbonate in the United States Pharmacopeia XX (1980). (c) Uses and restrictions. Calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium carbonate. 184.1191 Section 184.1191 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, CAS Reg... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation...

  4. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Joint FDA/WebMD resource Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  5. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as some fruits). Some foods are gas producing (e.g., beans, cabbage, legumes, cauliflower, broccoli, lentils, ... supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical ...

  6. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  7. Calcium signalling: fishing out molecules of mitochondrial calcium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-10-26

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins - MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 - to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation off...

  9. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  10. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97, but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20 nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21 was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  11. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  13. Prevention of recurrent calcium stones: diet versus drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, P

    1994-01-01

    Excessive intakes of meat protein, oxalate and potentially sodium, as well as insufficient intakes of vegetables fibers, calcium and fluid all lead to increased urinary crystallization. Renal stone disease, however, does not have to ensue. The underlying condition in a given patient is of paramount importance to allow 'bad eating habits' to lead to nephrolithiasis. Several of these underlying abnormalities have been detected so far from which we recently derived the powder keg and tinderbox theory. Most of the time, the dietary approach to nephrolithiasis allows recurrence of renal stone formation to be prevented. The pharmacological approach should be reserved for refractory cases.

  14. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

  15. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  16. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  17. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-12-19

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate in fact contains stable prenucleation ion clusters forming even in undersaturated solution. The cluster formation can be characterized by means of equilibrium thermodynamics, applying a multiple-binding model, which allows for structural preformation. Stable clusters are the relevant species in calcium carbonate nucleation. Such mechanisms may also be important for the crystallization of other minerals.

  18. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  19. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyecz, John A

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Calcium and vitamin D utilization in the optimization of bone health is often overlooked by patients and health care providers. In addition, the optimal standard of care for osteoporosis should encompass adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Dietary intake or supplementation with calcium and vitamin D will be reviewed, including recent recommendations for increased vitamin D intake. Compliance to calcium and vitamin D therapy is paramount for effective prevention of osteoporotic fractures. A recently released algorithm (FRAX) estimating absolute fracture risk allows the health care provider to decide when pharmacologic therapy is warranted in addition to calcium and vitamin D. When pharmacologic therapy is advised, continued use of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for optimal fracture risk reduction. A ‘bricks and mortar’ analogy is often helpful when counseling patients and this analogy will be explained. This manuscript reviews relevant data related to calcium and vitamin D use for patients at risk for fracture due to bone loss. PMID:19209265

  20. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training.

  1. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  2. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  3. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and sodium bridging between osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Soo; Choi, Soo Beom; Rhee, Yumie; Chung, Jai Won; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Deok Won

    2015-05-01

    The coexistence of osteoporosis and hypertension, which are considered distinct diseases, has been widely reported. In addition, daily intake of calcium and sodium, as well as parathyroid hormone levels (PTH), is known to be associated with osteoporosis and hypertension. This study aimed to determine the association of low calcium intake, high sodium intake, and PTH levels with osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women. Data for postmenopausal Korean women aged 50 years or older were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Osteoporosis was diagnosed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, while hypertension was diagnosed using blood pressure data. The odds ratios for osteoporosis and hypertension were calculated using logistic regression analysis for quartiles of the daily calcium intake, daily sodium intake, and PTH levels. Women with hypertension had a high coexistence of osteoporosis (43.6 vs. 36.5 %; P = 0.022), and vice versa (21.1 vs. 16.6 %; P = 0.022). PTH was significantly associated with osteoporosis and hypertension, and a high intake of calcium was strongly correlated with a low incidence of osteoporosis. This is the first study to report the characteristics of postmenopausal Korean women who have high dietary sodium intake and low dietary calcium intake, in association with the incidence of osteoporosis and hypertension. Osteoporosis and hypertension were strongly associated with each other, and PTH appears to be a key mediator of both diseases, suggesting a possible pathogenic link.

  4. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level.

  5. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Krupa-Kozak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In coeliac disease (CD, the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD, the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca, especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant (p < 0.05 luminal acidification, decrease in ammonia concentration and stimulation of short chain fatty acids formation indicated inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption.

  6. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Markiewicz, Lidia H; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2017-07-06

    In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant (p inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption.

  7. Calcium supplementation commencing before or early in pregnancy, or food fortification with calcium, for preventing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Manyame, Sarah

    2017-09-26

    Pre-eclampsia is considerably more prevalent in low- than high-income countries. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is dietary differences, particularly calcium deficiency. Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy reduces the serious consequences of pre-eclampsia and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for women with low dietary calcium intake, but has limited effect on the overall risk of pre-eclampsia. It is important to establish whether calcium supplementation before and in early pregnancy has added benefit. Such evidence would be justification for population-level fortification of staple foods with calcium. To determine the effect of calcium supplementation or food fortification with calcium, commenced before or early in pregnancy and continued at least until mid-pregnancy, on pre-eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register (10 August 2017), PubMed (29 June 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (10 August 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of calcium supplementation or food fortification which include women of child bearing age not yet pregnant, or in early pregnancy. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and trials published in abstract form only would have been eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. Cross-over designs are not appropriate for this intervention.The scope of this review is to consider interventions including calcium supplementation with or without additional supplements or treatments, compared with placebo or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. This review is based on one RCT (involving 60 women) which looked at calcium plus additional supplements

  8. Calcium metabolism & hypercalcemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Motta, R; Cecchin, D; Ave, S; Camozzi, V; Basso, S M M; Luisetto, G

    2011-01-01

    Calcium is essential for many metabolic process, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. The metabolic pathways that contribute to maintain serum calcium levels are bone remodeling processes, intestinal absorption and secretion, and renal handling, but hypercalcemia occurs when at least 2 of these 3 metabolic pathways are altered. Calcium metabolism mainly depends on the activity of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Its secretion is strictly controlled by the ionized serum calcium levels through a negative feed-back, which is achieved by the activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) mainly expressed on the surface of the parathyroid cells. The PTH receptor in bone and kidney is now referred as PTHR1. The balance of PTH, calcitonin, and vitamin D has long been considered the main regulator of calcium metabolism, but the function of other actors, such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), Klotho, and TPRV5 should be considered. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common causes of hypercalcemia, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia may cause renal impairment, both temporary (alteration of renal tubular function) and progressive (relapsing nephrolithiasis), leading to a progressive loss of renal function, as well as severe bone diseases, and heart damages. Advances in the understanding of all actors of calcium homeostasis will be crucial, having several practical consequences in the treatment and prevention of hypercalcemia. This would allow to move from a support therapy, sometimes ineffective, to a specific and addressed therapy, especially in patients with chronic hypercalcemic conditions unsuitable for surgery.

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a pandemic of obesity and associated chronic diseases. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have many extra-skeletal roles in human health. In this review we have summarized the current understanding of their influence on human energy balance by examining the epidemiological, clinical, animal, cellular and molecular evidence. We opine that while calcium and vitamin D are functional nutrients in the battle against obesity, there is a need for prospective human trials to tilt the balance of evidence in favour of these nutrients.

  10. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duyff RL. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons; 2012:140. Rosen HN. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index. ...

  11. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in Martian meteorite EETA79001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Chips of glassy Lithology C of EETA79001 were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the mineralogy and petrogenesis of the glass that was shown by others to contain trapped Mars-like gases. Calcium carbonite was identified as massive to acicular crystals for which Ca, C, and O were the major elements. Calcium sulfate was identified as prismatic-acicular crystals with Ca and S as the major elements.

  12. Could molecular assessment of calcium metabolism be a useful tool to early screen patients at risk for pre-eclampsia complicated pregnancy? Proposal and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Cosmi, Erich; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Plebani, Mario

    2015-06-01

    One of the most frequent causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity is represented by hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Women at high risk must be subjected to a more intensive antenatal surveillance and prophylactic treatments. Many genetic risk factors, clinical features and biomarkers have been proposed but none of these seems able to prevent pre-eclampsia onset. English literature review of manuscripts focused on calcium intake and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was performed. We performed a critical analysis of evidences about maternal calcium metabolism pattern in pregnancy analyzing all possible bias affecting studies. Calcium supplementation seems to give beneficial effects on women with low calcium intake. Some evidence reported that calcium supplementation may drastically reduce the percentage of pre-eclampsia onset consequently improving the neonatal outcome. Starting from this evidence, it is intuitive that investigations on maternal calcium metabolism pattern in first trimester of pregnancy could represent a low cost, large scale tool to screen pregnant women and to identify those at increased risk of pre-eclampsia onset. We propose a biochemical screening of maternal calcium metabolism pattern in first trimester of pregnancy to discriminate patients who potentially may benefit from calcium supplementation. In a second step we propose to randomly allocate the sub-cohort of patients with calcium metabolism disorders in a treatment group (calcium supplementation) or in a control group (placebo) to define if calcium supplementation may represent a dietary mean to reduce pre-eclampsia onset and to improve pregnancy outcome.

  13. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know The majority of adults in the United States take one or more dietary supplements either every day or occasionally. Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, ...

  14. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  15. [Dietary factors associated with stroke: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, L; Silva-Sieger, F; Gamboa-Delgado, E

    2016-09-01

    The stroke is a chronic non-transmissible disease of high impact that is caused by different factors, among which are those related to lifestyles, that dietary factors are part. To review the evidence in relation to dietary factors associated with stroke. We conducted a literature review of the dietary factors and stroke. Research shows a decrease risk stroke, according to the recommended intake: 39% for Mediterranean diet, 19% for DASH diet, 10% for nuts, 26% for fruits and vegetables, 31% for fish, 26% for total protein, 9% for low-fat dairy, and 18% for calcium. On the other hand an increase in the risk of up to 58% to Western diet, 13% for processed meat and 23% for salt; in relation to the intake of legumes, eggs and whole milk, the results are heterogeneous. The intake nuts, fruits and vegetables, fish, total protein, low-fat dairy, calcium and high adherence to Mediterranean and DASH diet could to have protective effects on stroke. While the Western diet and high consumption of red meat and processed meat, salt could to be a risk factor. Further investigation in relation to consumption of legumes, eggs, whole milk, rice, potatoes and soft drink is also necessary.

  16. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  17. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Bandera, Elisa V; Moore, Dirk F; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2008-04-01

    In response to a recent ecologic study of UV exposure and endometrial cancer incidence, we present the epidemiologic evidence on the relation between intake of vitamin D and its metabolically related nutrient, calcium, and the occurrence of endometrial cancer. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of vitamin D and calcium in relation to endometrial cancer, including peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to May 2007. Random and fixed effects summary estimates were computed. Pooled analyses of the three case-control studies of dietary vitamin D and endometrial cancer uncovered heterogeneous results that were not significant in random or fixed effects analyses. Cut-points for the highest vitamin D intakes ranged from >244 to >476 IU/day. Qualitatively similar findings were observed for dietary calcium. Only two studies provided estimates for calcium supplements (random effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99; fixed effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93, for top vs. bottom category, p for heterogeneity=0.25). The limited epidemiological evidence suggests no relation between endometrial cancer in the ranges of dietary vitamin D examined, and suggests a possible inverse association for calcium from supplements. Prospective studies, ideally including plasma 25(OH) D to estimate vitamin D input from diet and sun exposure, are needed to further explore these hypotheses.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Calcium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control...

  19. Extracellular and Intracellular Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bronner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An organism with an internal skeleton must accumulate calcium while maintaining body fluids at a well-regulated, constant calcium concentration. Neither calcium absorption nor excretion plays a significant regulatory role. Instead, isoionic calcium uptake and release by bone surfaces causes plasma calcium to be well regulated. Very rapid shape changes of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in response to hormonal signals, modulate the available bone surfaces so that plasma calcium can increase when more low-affinity bone calcium binding sites are made available and can decrease when more high-affinity binding sites are exposed. The intracellular free calcium concentration of body cells is also regulated, but because cells are bathed by fluids with vastly higher calcium concentration, their major regulatory mechanism is severe entry restriction. All cells have a calcium-sensing receptor that modulates cell function via its response to extracellular calcium. In duodenal cells, the apical calcium entry structure functions as both transporter and a vitamin D–responsive channel. The channel upregulates calcium entry, with intracellular transport mediated by the mobile, vitamin D–dependent buffer, calbindin D9K, which binds and transports more than 90% of the transcellular calcium flux. Fixed intracellular calcium binding sites can, like the body's skeleton, take up and release calcium that has entered the cell, but the principal regulatory tool of the cell is restricted entry.

  20. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  1. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Armijo, Francisco; Moreno Aznar, Luis; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people) and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40- 159.68 mg/L). In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L). Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  3. Polysulfide calcium as multyfunctional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abramova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified method of producing of polysulfide calcium, the influence of various factors on the degree of polysulfide of product, as well as possible directions for its use as a multifunctional compound were considered.

  4. [Calcium metabolism after the menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanovitch, D; Klotz, H P

    1976-02-16

    The authors recall the antagonism between estradiol and parathormone. Estradiol tends to lower serum calcium and fix calcium in the bones as shown by one of us 25 years ago. The mechanism of this action of estrogen on calcium metabolism has been determined by numerous authors but some points are still not clear, e.g. the interferences between estrogen and calcitonin. Classically, parathormone is known to increase bony reabsorption and raise serum calcium. After the menopause the gradual reduction in estradiol secretion leads to post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is better to administer estrogens prophylactically to women after the menopause provided a cervical smear and mammography have been carried out to eliminate latent carcinoma of the breast or uterine cervix.

  5. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  6. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  7. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  8. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Nutrition > Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ... variety of iron-rich foods so that, eventually, supplementation won't be necessary. Additional Information ... & Nutrition Tips: Your 2-Year-Old Vitamin D Deficiency ...

  9. Dietary fats and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    The present review addresses the evidence for a possible link between dietary fat and cancer. International comparisons suggest that a high-fat diet may increase cancer risk, and this hypothesis is supported by animal experiments. However, epidemiological studies within populations show little or

  10. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pills (15.9 percent), and ginseng (14.1 percent). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data ... 53 percent of American adults took at least one dietary supplement, most commonly multivitamin/multimineral supplements (taken by 39 percent of all adults). Women were more likely than ...

  11. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaishali B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.

  12. Dietary fiber, source foods and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kazuhiro; Kono, Suminori; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Nagano, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-10-01

    Despite much evidence from laboratory work, epidemiological evidence remains elusive regarding the role of dietary fiber in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated associations of dietary fiber and source foods with colorectal cancer risk in the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, a community-based case-control study. The study subjects were 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Nutrient and food intakes were estimated on the basis of a computer-assisted interview regarding 148 dietary items. Odds ratios of colorectal cancer according to quintile categories of energy-adjusted intakes of dietary fiber and food groups were obtained with adjustment for non-dietary factors and dietary intakes of calcium and n-3 fatty acids. Total, soluble and insoluble dietary fibers were not measurably associated with overall risk or subsite-specific risk of colorectal cancer. By contrast, rice consumption was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (trend p = 0.03), particularly of distal colon and rectal cancer (trend p = 0.02), and high intake of non-rice cereals tended to be related to an increased risk of colon cancer (trend p = 0.07). There was no association between vegetable consumption and colorectal cancer, whereas individuals with the lowest intake of fruits tended to have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The present study did not corroborate a protective association between dietary fiber and colorectal cancer, but suggested a decreased risk of distal colorectal cancer associated with rice consumption.

  13. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  14. A systematic review of behavioural interventions to increase maternal calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Stork, Matthew J; Stapleton, Jessica; Bourne, Jessica E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are a time when adequate calcium consumption is essential for the development of the fetus and to ensure the health of the mother. Over 50% of Canadian women of childbearing and rearing age fail to meet the recommended daily intake of calcium. Identification of effective behavioural intervention strategies for increasing calcium intake is needed within this specific population. This paper brings together all published behavioural interventions designed to increase calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating or post-partum mothers in a systematic review. Relevant studies were obtained through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library with no date restrictions. Studies were evaluated using previously published criteria for evaluating calcium behaviour change interventions. This systematic literature review identified five behavioural calcium interventions conducted within this population. Three interventions aimed to improve overall dietary behaviours, the fourth aimed to promote breastfeeding (including increasing calcium consumption) and the fifth aimed to increase daily servings of yoghurt. Only one of the five interventions yielded large effect sizes, with a mean change of 954 mg of calcium per day post-intervention. The number of behavioural change techniques did not appear to be related to intervention efficacy. Only one study used a theoretical framework to guide the intervention. This review highlights the lack of research examining behaviour change interventions aimed at increasing calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating and post-partum women and provides practical suggestions for researchers wishing to intervene with this population in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could...... influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  16. The effect of different diets on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hesse, Albrecht

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of defined diet modifications on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. Ten healthy male volunteers consumed a self-selected diet (SD) for 14 days, and three different standard diets for a period of 5 days each. Whereas the western-type diet (WD) is representative of the usual dietary habits, the normal mixed diet (ND) and the ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (VD) were calculated according to the requirements. The risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation, calculated as relative supersaturation (EQUIL2) from urine composition, was highest during ingestion of diets SD and WD. The intake of diet ND resulted in a significant decrease in relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate by 58% (p<0.05) compared with diet WD, due to a significant decline in urinary calcium and uric acid excretion and a significant increase in urinary volume, pH-value and citrate excretion. In spite of an increase in urinary pH, citrate and magnesium excretion and a decline in calcium excretion, no further significant decrease in the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation was observed on diet VD, due to a significant increase in urinary oxalate by 30% (p<0.05) on average. The change of usual dietary habits for a normal mixed diet significantly reduces the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. With a vegetarian diet a similar decline in urinary supersaturation with calcium oxalate can be achieved compared to a normal mixed diet. Since urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly, a vegetarian diet without adequate intake of calcium may not be recommended to patients with mild hyperoxaluria.

  17. OPG Treatment Prevents Bone Loss During Lactation But Does Not Affect Milk Production or Maternal Calcium Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Laleh; Dumitru, Cristina; Dann, Pamela; Sterpka, John; VanHouten, Joshua; Kim, Wonnam; Kostenuik, Paul; Wysolmerski, John

    2015-08-01

    Lactation is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, which liberates skeletal calcium used for milk production. Previous studies suggested that an increase in the skeletal expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL) coupled with a decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels likely triggered bone loss during lactation. In this study, we treated lactating mice with recombinant OPG to determine whether bone loss during lactation was dependent on RANKL signaling and whether resorption of the maternal skeleton was required to support milk production. OPG treatment lowered bone resorption rates and completely prevented bone loss during lactation but, surprisingly, did not decrease osteoclast numbers. In contrast, OPG was quite effective at lowering osteoblast numbers and inhibiting bone formation in lactating mice. Furthermore, treatment with OPG during lactation prevented the usual anabolic response associated with reversal of lactational bone loss after weaning. Preventing bone loss had no appreciable effect on milk production, milk calcium levels, or maternal calcium homeostasis when mice were on a standard diet. However, when dietary calcium was restricted, treatment with OPG caused maternal hypocalcemia, maternal death, and decreased milk production. These studies demonstrate that RANKL signaling is a requirement for bone loss during lactation, and suggest that osteoclast activity may be required to increase osteoblast numbers during lactation in preparation for the recovery of bone mass after weaning. These data also demonstrate that maternal bone loss is not absolutely required to supply calcium for milk production unless dietary calcium intake is inadequate.

  18. The Surface Properties of Teeth Treated with Resin Infiltration or Amorphous Calcium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    carious teeth . The tenets of this philosophy are to preserve intact tooth structure reducing trauma to the pulp tissue, and to decrease risk for future...non-cavitated lesion and on eliminating the bacterial risk factors through counseling on dietary practices, tooth brushing , and topical application...The Surface Properties of Teeth Treated with Resin Infiltration or Amorphous Calcium Phosphate A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The

  19. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and nutritional correlates in free-living elderly Brazilians: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Michelle A; Carlos, Jackeline V; Lopes, Raíssa C V; Januário, Bruna L; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with nutrient intake and to describe the foods that contribute to dietary GI and GL in elderly subjects. This is a cross-sectional population-based survey performed in 2003, which enrolled 804 free-living Brazilian subjects aged 60 years or older. Dietary intake was measured by a single 24-hour dietary recall applied at the subjects' homes. The usual dietary GI and GL as well as the usual energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using external variance components. Dietary GI and GL were categorized in tertiles and the usual mean of nutrient intake was described accordingly. Linear association between dietary GI and GL and nutrient intake was investigated before and after energy adjustment. Foods that contributed with at least 1% of dietary GI and GL were described. Dietary GI was positively associated with starch, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and inversely associated with total sugar, protein, fiber, and calcium. Dietary GL was strongly and positively associated with total and available carbohydrates, starch, and total sugar and inversely associated with protein, total fat, MUFA, PUFA, and cholesterol. White breads and white rice were the major contributors to dietary GI and GL in the studied population. Dietary GI and GL are important indicators of overall quality and quantity of carbohydrates from elderly Brazilians diet and are also associated with other macronutrients such as protein, fat, and fiber. The overall dietary GI and GL reflects other dietary aspects, such as composition of the diet and combination of foods consumed.

  20. Influence of calcium lactate on the fate of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jui-Yueh; Hoogetoorn, Ellis; Chen, Jinru

    2004-07-01

    Calcium lactate is used by the beverage industry as a source of calcium to fortify fruit juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various concentrations of calcium lactate on the fate of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in orange juice. Commercial nonfortified orange juice was supplemented with calcium lactate at a concentration equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% dietary reference intake. The pH of each fortified juice was adjusted to 3.6 or 4.1. The prepared juice samples were inoculated separately with a three-strain mixture of salmonellae, a three-strain mixture of spoilage yeasts, and three single strains of spoilage bacteria including Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sake. The contaminated juice was stored at 4 and 10 degrees C, respectively, for 6 to 7 weeks and assayed once a week for populations of salmonellae, spoilage yeasts, or spoilage bacteria. The results indicated that A. acidoterrestris was inhibited in all juice stored at 4 degrees C and low-pH juice stored at 10 degrees C. The bacterium, however, was able to grow at 10 degrees C in the high-pH juice with calcium lactate concentrations equivalent to 0 and 5% dietary reference intake. The cells of L. sake declined and eventually died off in low-pH juice stored at 4 and 10 degrees C and in high pH stored at 4 degrees C. But the organism flourished at 10 degrees C in the high-pH juice containing 0, 10, and 20% dietary reference intake of calcium lactate. The populations of L. plantarum remained approximately stable in low- as well as in high-pH juice stored at both 4 and 10 degrees C. While inhibited at 4 degrees C, the spoilage yeasts grew at 10 degrees C. Salmonellae died off in all juice stored at 4 degrees C and in low-pH juice stored at 10 degrees C. However, they persisted in the high-pH juice stored at 10 degrees C except in the samples that contained 20 to 30% dietary reference intake of calcium lactate.

  1. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  2. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  3. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. CONCEIÇÃO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  4. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  5. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xixi; Yang, Qian; Lin, Jiaping; Fu, Nanyan; Wang, Shaoyun

    2017-03-29

    Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  6. Dietary fiber intake increases the risk of zinc deficiency in healthy and diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Karra, Michelle; Picone, Tegan; Chu, Anna; Hancock, Dale P; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Phytic acid is a major determinant of zinc bioavailability. Little is known about phytic acid intakes or indices of zinc bioavailability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), a condition that predisposes to zinc deficiency. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure and explore the relationships among phytic acid intake, zinc bioavailability, and molecular markers of zinc homeostasis in 20 women with DM compared to 20 healthy women. The phytate/zinc, (calcium)(phytate)/zinc, and (calcium + magnesium)(phytate)/zinc molar ratios were used to indicate zinc bioavailability. Plasma zinc concentrations and zinc transporter (ZnT1, ZnT8, and Zip1) gene expression in mononuclear cells were measured. Participants with DM consumed 1,194 ± 824 mg/day (mean ± SD) phytic acid, an amount similar to the intake of healthy women (1,316 ± 708 mg/day). Bread products and breakfast cereals contributed more than 40 % of the phytic acid intake in each group. A positive relationship was observed in all participants between phytic acid and dietary fiber (r = 0.6, P dietary fiber and the (calcium)(phytate)/zinc ratio (r = 0.5, P diabetic women consume phytic acid in amounts that are likely to decrease the bioavailability of dietary zinc. Recommendations to consume greater amounts of dietary fiber, much of which is associated with phytate, increase the risk of zinc deficiency.

  7. Supplementation with dairy calcium and/or flaxseed fibers in conjunction with orlistat augments fecal fat excretion without altering ratings of gastrointestinal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Juul, Signe Rømer; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor which reduced absorption of dietary fat by ~30% thereby inducing a weight loss; however, side effects occur as a consequence of increased colonic fat content. To test the hypothesis that most gastrointestinal side events induced by treatment with orlistat...... could be prevented/ameliorated by concomitant use of natural dietary components, flaxseed fiber (FF) and/or dairy calcium (Ca), binding liquid fats to more solid complexes. METHODS: A randomized controlled dietary intervention study. Thirty-eight obese adults completed a 1-week run-in period, where all...... participants were treated with orlistat (60 mg t.i.d) and were hereafter randomized to 12 weeks dietary supplementation with/without 5 g FF (FF+/FF-) and/or 1200 mg dairy calcium (Ca+/Ca-) in conjunction with orlistat. All feces were collected for 3 days, and diet was recorded for 5 days, during run...

  8. Calcium availability influences litter size and sex ratio in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available The production of offspring typically requires investment of resources derived from both the environment and maternal somatic reserves. As such, the availability of either of these types of resources has the potential to limit the degree to which resources are allocated to reproduction. Theory and empirical studies have argued that mothers modify reproductive performance relative to exogenous resource availability and maternal condition by adjusting size, number or sex of offspring produced. These relationships have classically been defined relative to availability of energy sources; however, in vertebrates, calcium also plays a critical role in offspring production, as a considerable amount of calcium is required to support the development of offspring skeleton(s. We tested whether the availability of calcium influences reproductive output by providing female white-footed mice with a low-calcium or standard diet from reproductive maturity to senescence. We then compared maternal skeletal condition and reproductive output, based on offspring mass, offspring number and litter sex ratio, between dietary treatments. Mothers on the low-calcium diet exhibited diminished skeletal condition at senescence and produced smaller and strongly female-biased litters. We show that skeletal condition and calcium intake can influence sex ratio and reproductive output following general theoretical models of resource partitioning during reproduction.

  9. Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Madani, Farzaneh; Mir, Elham; Larijani, Bagher

    2006-10-01

    Poor maternal vitamin D status affects fetal and infant skeletal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between newborn outcomes and maternal calcium and vitamin D intakes. Four hundred and forty-nine pregnant women, healthy at the point of delivery, and their newborns were enrolled in the study, which was performed in three university hospitals in Tehran in March 2004. Maternal anthropometric data and energy, protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes were collected, and newborn outcomes (weight, length, head circumference and 1-min Apgar score) were determined. Almost two-thirds of the mothers (64.3%) took no supplements during pregnancy. Only one-third of the mothers (33.8%) had adequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D (from supplements and foods) compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Mean length at birth and 1-min Apgar score were higher in newborns whose mothers had adequate calcium and vitamin D intake than in newborns whose mothers had inadequate intake (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Significant correlations were found between adequate maternal calcium and vitamin D intake and both appropriate birth weight and 1-min Apgar score of newborns and weight gain of mothers during pregnancy. Informing mothers of the critical importance of consuming adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D seems necessary.

  10. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  11. Calcium: the molecular basis of calcium action in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pochet, Roland; Donato, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    ... of Calcium Calcium Signalling in Excitable Cells Ca2+ Release in Muscle Cells by N. Macrez and J. Mironneau Calcium Signalling in Neurons Exemplified by Rat Sympathetic Ganglion Cells by S.J. M...

  12. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (Pethnic groups. Milk and dairy products in the Berber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (PEthnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  13. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  14. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizel, Raquel; Godois, Allan da Mata; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar de Paula; Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne de Faria

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  15. Dietary intake after treatment in child cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer; Wakefield, Claire E; Fleming, Catharine A K; Gawthorne, Rebecca; Tapsell, Linda C; Cohn, Richard J

    2012-05-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of complications such as obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis which have the potential to, in part, be controlled with dietary interventions. To allow the development of appropriate dietary interventions for younger cancer survivors data on their dietary intake as well as information on parental nutrition views and practices need to be assessed. Dietary intake of 50 CCS was assessed with a 3-day food diary (parent report). Parent child feeding practices were assessed with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Historical and anthropometric data was extracted from medical records. Survivors were less than 13 years old and less than 5 years after treatment completion. Twenty percent of participating CCS was overweight or obese and 54% were consuming above their estimated energy requirements. Fifty, 32% and 44% of children did not meet requirements for folate, calcium, and iron respectively. There was a significant trend for increasing BMI percentiles from diagnosis to time of assessment (56.29 vs. 67.17, P = 0.01). Results from the CFQ showed that parents were more likely to monitor (3.99) and use a restrictive form of parenting (3.43) to control their child's food intake rather than pressure their child to eat (2.77) (P = 0.001). This group displayed excessive energy intake (kilojoules) and poor dietary habits. Parents' restrictive feeding style may be contributing to these habits. Early interventions targeting the dietary intake of young survivors and associated parent feeding practices may prevent some of the deleterious long-term effects associated with childhood cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX....... Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon...... appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than 1 s...

  17. [Dietary life style of Japanese college students: relationship between dietary life, mental health and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yuji; Nouchi, Rui; Takano, Haruka; Kojima, Akiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    A scale was constructed to investigate the dietary life style of Japanese college students relating to dietary life, mental health, and eating disorders. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors, termed "dietary mood," "dietary regulation," "dietary stress avoidance behavior," and "food safety." Cluster analysis revealed four typical dietary habits of Japanese college students: "deprecating food safety," "dietary regulation oriented and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior," "deprecating dietary moods," and "frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior." Regarding eating disorders, a high percentage of the moderate eating disorder group exhibited frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. Regarding mental health, a high percentage of the healthy group showed dietary regulation orientation and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. A high percentage of the neurotic-level participants deprecated dietary moods. These results suggest that dietary regulation and deprecatory mood and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior lead to college students having a healthy dietary life.

  18. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  19. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  20. [The role of natural dietary compounds in colorectal cancer chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Anna; Tomczyk, Joanna; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-04-07

    This review discusses the preventive and therapeutic potential of natural dietary compounds against colorectal cancer. The chemopreventive properties of many natural food matrices and purified bioactive compounds have been evaluated. Prominent among the dietary constituents that are the focus of interest in colorectal cancer chemoprevention are dietary fiber, probiotics and prebiotics, methionine and folate, vitamins D and E, calcium and selenium, anthocyanins, procyanidins, phytoestrogens, isothiocyanates, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, and resveratrol. Laboratory studies provide strong evidence for the antitumor potential of these dietary agents. The mechanisms of their chemopreventive action are associated with, for example, the modulation of gene expression involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and the suppression of metastasis and angiogenesis. The anti-carcinogenic properties of these food compounds are also related to inhibition of many inflammatory agents, including the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. In vitro and animal studies showed that most of them can protect against various carcinogens mediating colon cancer and suggest that they can also sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiation. Although experimental studies have clearly demonstrated their anticancer activity, not many clinical trials have provided satisfying results, not only because of the lack of efficiency of the chemopreventive agents, but also due to the lack of precise biomarkers monitoring their effects on colon cancer. Despite the lack of strong evidence for the anticancer potential of natural food compounds, clinicians have high hopes for using these factors in colon cancer chemoprevention and decreasing the incidence of this common malignancy in the future.

  1. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  2. Parabrachial lesions in rats disrupt sodium appetite induced by furosemide but not by calcium deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigson, P.S.; Colechio, E.M.; Power, M.L.; Schulkin, J.; Norgren, R.

    2015-01-01

    An appetite for CaCl2 and NaCl occurs in young rats after they are fed a diet lacking Ca or Na, respectively. Bilateral lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) disrupt normal taste aversion learning and essentially eliminate the expression of sodium appetite. Here we tested whether similar lesions of the PBN would disrupt the calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2 or NaCl. Controls and rats with PBN lesions failed to exhibit a calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2. Nevertheless, both groups did exhibit a significant calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for 0.5 M NaCl. Thus, while damage to the second central gustatory relay in the PBN disrupts the appetite for 0.5 M NaCl induced by furosemide, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and polyethylene glycol, the sodium appetite induced by dietary CaCl2 depletion remains intact. PMID:25540931

  3. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  4. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  5. Calcium and available phosphorus levels for laying hens in second production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the effect of four calcium (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5% and four available phosphorus levels (0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40% in the diet of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting. Hisex Brown® layers between 90 and 108 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement with 16 treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. mortality, egg production, feed intake, egg mass, average egg weight, calcium and phosphorus intake, feed conversion ratio (per dozen eggs and per kg eggs, eggshell percentage and thickness, eggshell strength, eggshell weight per surface area (ESWSA, yolk percentage and color, albumen percentage, albumen and yolk heights, and blood and excreta calcium and phosphorus concentrations. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between dietary Ca and avP for any of the studied parameters. There were linear increases in Ca intake (P0.05 by dietary Ca and avP levels. The diet containing 4.5% calcium improved feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and eggshell quality. The lowest avP level fed (0.25% is sufficient to maintain the performance and the egg quality of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting.

  6. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  7. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlates of Dietary Intake in Youth with Diabetes: Results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortsov, Andrey; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore demographic, socioeconomic, diabetes-related, and behavioral correlates of dietary intake of dairy, fruit, vegetables, sweetened soda, fiber, calcium, and saturated fat in youth with diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of youth 10-22 years old with type 1 (T1DM, n = 2,176) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, n = 365). Association…

  9. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Moen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and lactation. We used data on dietary digestibility, protein, calcium and phosphorus content, and seasonal patterns in body mass to predict the energy, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances of a "generic" male and female caribou. Antler growth in males increased energy requirements during antler growth by 8 to 16%, depending on the efficiency with which energy was used for antler growth. Female energy requirements for antler growth were proportionately much smaller because of the smaller size of female antlers. Protein requirements for antler growth in both males and females were met by forage intake. Calcium and phosphorus must be resorbed from bone during peak antler growth in males, when > 25 g/day of calcium and > 12 g/day of phosphorus are being deposited in antlers. Females are capable of meeting calcium needs during antler growth without bone resorption, but phosphorus was resorbed from bone during the final stages of antler mineralization. After energy, phosphorus was most likely to limit growth of antlers for both males and females in our simulations. Input parameters can be easily changed to represent caribou from specific geographic regions in which dietary nutrient content or body mass patterns differ from those in our "generic" caribou. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the evolutionary basis for development of antlers in female caribou, and the relationship between body mass and antler size in the Cervidae.

  10. [Regulatory mechanism of calcium metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi

    It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. PTH binds to the G protein coupling receptor, PTH1R, and increases intracellular cAMP levels. Impirement in the PTH signalling causes many diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis with hormone resistance. Vitamin D is activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]by two steps of hydroxylation which occurs in the Liver and Kidney. Then, 1,25(OH)2D binds to vitamin D receptor(VDR), which works as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia are caused by various disorders including abnormal regulation of PTH and vitamin D production and their signal transduction.

  11. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium regulation of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szent-Györgyi, A G

    1975-07-01

    Calcium triggers contraction by reaction with regulatory proteins that in the absence of calcium prevent interaction of actin and myosin. Two different regulatory systems are found in different muscles. In actin-linked regulation troponin and tropomyosin regulate actin by blocking sites on actin required for complex formation with myosin; in myosin-linked regulation sites on myosin are blocked in the absence of calcium. The major features of actin control are as follows: there is a requirement for tropomyosin and for a troponin complex having three different subunits with different functions; the actin displays a cooperative behavior; and a movement of tropomyosin occurs controlled by the calcium binding on troponin. Myosin regulation is controlled by a regulatory subunit that can be dissociated in scallop myosin reversibly by removing divalent cations with EDTA. Myosin control can function with pure actin in the absence of tropomyosin. Calcium binding and regulation of molluscan myosins depend on the presence of regulatory light chains. It is proposed that the light chains function by sterically blocking myosin sites in the absence of calcium, and that the "off" state of myosin requires cooperation between the two myosin heads. Both myosin control and actin control are widely distributed in different organisms. Many invertebrates have muscles with both types of regulation. Actin control is absent in the muscles of molluscs and in several minor phyla that lack troponin. Myosin control is not found in striated vertebrate muscles and in the fast muscles of crustacean decapods, although regulatory light chains are present. While in vivo myosin control may not be excluded from vertebrate striated muscles, myosin control may be absent as a result of mutations of the myosin heavy chain.

  13. Can total cardiac calcium predict the coronary calcium score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Crudu, Vitalie; Parameswaran-Chandrika, Anoop; Romero-Corral, Abel; Purushottam, Bhaskar; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2011-01-21

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) shares the same risk factors as atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease as well as cardiovascular events. However, sensitivity and positive predictive value are low. We hypothesized that a global echocardiographic calcium score would better predict coronary atherosclerotic burden, as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), than MAC alone. An echocardiographic score was devised to measure global cardiac calcification in a semi-quantitative manner; this included calcification in the aortic valve and root, the mitral valve and annulus, and the sub-mitral apparatus. This score, and a simplified version, were compared with a similar calcification score by CT scan, as well as the CAC. There was a good correlation between the two global calcification scores; the echocardiographic score also correlated with CAC. Using CAC >400 as a measure of severe coronary atherosclerosis, an echocardiographic score ≥5 had a positive predictive value of 60%. Importantly, the simplified score performed equally well (≥3 had a positive predictive value of 62%). Global cardiac calcification, assessed by CT scan or echocardiography, correlates with the extent of coronary calcium. A semi-quantitative calcium score can be easily applied during routine echocardiographic interpretation and can alert the reader to the possibility of severe coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stoichiometric quantities of aqueous solutions of calcium maleate, iron(III) maleate and maleic acid. The reaction mixture was concentrated on a water bath until a brown coloured product formed after the addition of excess of acetone. The complex was vacuum dried and its identity was established by chemical analysis.

  15. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of ...

  16. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  17. Dietary phosphorus overload aggravates the phenotype of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Eiji; Yoshida, Mizuko; Kojima, Yoriko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Shiozuka, Masataka; Date, Munehiro; Higashi, Tetsuo; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.

  18. Nutrient intake and use of dietary supplements among US adults with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Andrade, Flavia

    2015-04-01

    Physical, mental, social, and financial hurdles in adults with disabilities may limit their access to adequate nutrition. To examine the impact of dietary supplement use on daily total nutrient intake levels among US adults 20 years and older with disabilities. Study sample came from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey. Disability was classified into 5 categories using standardized indices. Nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements were calculated from 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Two-sample proportion tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the adherence rates to the recommended daily nutrient intake levels between dietary supplement users and nonusers in each disability category. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplement use was assessed using multiple logistic regressions, accounting for complex survey design. A substantial proportion of the US adult population with disabilities failed to meet dietary guidelines, with insufficient intakes of multiple nutrients. Over half of the US adults with disabilities used dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use was associated with higher adherence rates for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc intake among adults with disabilities. Women, non-Hispanic Whites, older age, higher education, and higher household income were found to predict dietary supplement use. Proper use of dietary supplements under the guidance of health care providers may improve the nutritional status among adults with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High dietary selenium intake is associated with less insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Lin, Meiju; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Du, Jianling; Vikram, Chandurkar; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2017-01-01

    As an essential nutrient, Selenium (Se) is involved in many metabolic activities including mimicking insulin function. Data on Se in various biological samples and insulin resistance are contradictory, moreover there is no large study available regarding the relationship of dietary Se intake with insulin resistance in the general population. To investigate the association between dietary Se intake and variation of insulin resistance in a large population based study, a total of 2420 subjects without diabetes from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary Se intake was evaluated from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were used for the measurement of glucose and insulin. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of covariance showed that high HOMA-IR groups in both males and females had the lowest dietary Se intake (μg/kg/day) (p < 0.01), being 18% and 11% lower than low HOMA-IR groups respectively. Insulin resistance decreased with the increase of dietary Se intake in females but not in males after controlling for age, total calorie intake, physical activity level, serum calcium, serum magnesium, and body fat percentage (p < 0.01). Partial correlation analysis showed that dietary Se intake was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for the Se confounding factors in subjects whose dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day (r = -0.121 for males and -0.153 for females, p < 0.05). However, the negative correlation was no longer significant when dietary Se intake was above 1.6 μg/kg/day. Our findings suggest that higher dietary Se intake is beneficially correlated with lower insulin resistance when total dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day. Above this cutoff, this beneficial effect disappears.

  20. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  1. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  2. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  3. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  5. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  6. Health effects of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Ozgoz, Selin

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fibres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fibres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous beneficial effects on human health. Dietary fibre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fibers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fibers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  7. Gluten-free diet survey: are Americans with coeliac disease consuming recommended amounts of fibre, iron, calcium and grain foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T; Dennis, M; Higgins, L A; Lee, A R; Sharrett, M K

    2005-06-01

    This survey was conducted to assess nutrient intakes and food consumption patterns of adults with coeliac disease who adhere to a strict gluten-free diet. Three-day estimated self-reported food records were used to assess daily intakes of calories, percent daily calories from carbohydrates, dietary fibre, iron, calcium and grain food servings. Volunteers for this survey were recruited through notices placed in coeliac disease support group newsletters, as well as a national magazine for persons with coeliac disease. Forty-seven volunteers met all criteria for participation and returned useable food records. Group mean daily intake of nutrients by gender: Males (n = 8): 2882 calories; 55% carbohydrate; 24.3 g dietary fibre; 14.7 mg iron; 1288.8 mg calcium; 6.6 grain food servings. Females (n = 39): 1900 calories; 52% carbohydrate; 20.2 g dietary fibre; 11.0 mg iron; 884.7 mg calcium; 4.6 grain food servings. Recommended amounts of fibre, iron and calcium were consumed by 46, 44 and 31% of women and 88, 100 and 63% of men, respectively. Nutrition therapy for coeliac disease has centred around food allowed/not allowed on a gluten-free diet. Emphasis also should be placed on the nutritional quality of the gluten-free diet, particularly as it concerns the iron, calcium and fibre consumption of women. The use of the estimated food record as the dietary survey method may have resulted in the under-reporting of energy intake. Due to the small sample size and possible bias of survey participants, the findings of this survey may not be representative of the larger coeliac community.

  8. Calcium intake of rural Gambian infants: a quantitative study of the relative contributions of breast milk and complementary foods at 3 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjou, L M A; Goldberg, G R; Coward, W A; Prentice, A

    2012-06-01

    There is a paucity of information from developing countries on total calcium intake during infancy, and potential consequences for growth and bone development. Observational longitudinal study of rural Gambian infants (13 males and 17 females) at 3 and 12 months of age. Breast-milk intake and calcium concentration, weighed dietary intake, anthropometry, midshaft radius bone mineral content (BMC) and bone width (BW). At 3 and 12 months (mean ± s.d.) calcium intake from breast milk was 179 ± 53 and 117 ± 38, and from other foods 12 ± 38 and 73 ± 105 mg/day. There was no difference in total calcium intake; 94% and 62% of calcium came from breast milk. At 3 and 12 months, weight s.d.-scores were -0.441 ± 1.07 and -1.967 ± 1.06; length s.d.-scores were -0.511 ± 1.04 and -1.469 ± 1.13. Breast-milk calcium intake positively predicted weight (P = 0.0002, P ≤ 0.0001) and length (P = 0.056, P = 0.001). These relationships were not independent of breast-milk intake, which positively predicted weight (P ≤ 0.002) and length (P = 0.06, P = 0.004). At 3, but not 12 months, weight and length correlated with total calcium intake. There were no relationships between total calcium intake and breast-milk intake with BW or BMC. The combination of low calcium intake from breast milk and complementary foods resulted in a low total calcium intake close to the estimated biological requirement for bone mineral accretion. Relationships between calcium intake and growth were largely accounted for by breast-milk intake, suggesting that low calcium intake per se was not the limiting factor in the poor growth. These findings have potential implications for deriving calcium requirements in developing countries.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food...

  10. Bioactive and Hemocompatible Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña-Gutiérrez, Iván Omar; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Saldívar-Ramírez, Mirna María Guadalupe; Reséndiz-Hernández, Perla Janet; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sulphoaluminate cement (CSAC) is an attractive candidate for biomedical applications due to its appropriate mechanical properties and high calcium content. In vitro bioactivity and hemocompatibility of calcium sulphoaluminate cement were assessed. The cement was prepared from a mixture of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) clinker, gypsum and water. Cement samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for different periods of time (7, 14 and 21 days). The analyses of these...

  11. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Spiegel, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balan...

  12. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  13. Electrochemical Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yang; Song, Bingnan; Weijden, van der Renata D.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms and cannot be replaced or substituted. In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient membrane free electrochemical system for P removal and recovery as calcium phosphate (CaP). This method relies on in situ formation of hydroxide

  14. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  16. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    When there is an extracellular change, cells get the message either by introduction of calcium ions into ... as it precipitates phosphate, the established energy currency of cells. Prolonged high intracellular calcium ... trigger proteins upon binding with free calcium ion(s) change their confirmation to modulate enzymes and ion ...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.1191 Section 582.1191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Supplements 1 § 582.5191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.5191 Section 582.5191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  19. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  20. Mitochondrial Calcium Sparkles Light Up Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Brian A; Ko, Rebecca W Y

    2017-02-27

    Discrete calcium signals in the fine processes of astrocytes are a recent discovery and a new mystery. In a recent issue of Neuron, Agarwal et al. (2017) report that calcium efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) contribute to calcium microdomains. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Calcium supplementation to prevent pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Calcium supplementation to prevent pre-eclampsia - a systematic review. G J Hofmeyr, A Roodt, A N Atallah, L Duley. Background. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may prevent high blood pressure and preterm labour. Objective. To assess the effects of calcium supplementation.

  4. Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells.

  5. [The effect of different food forms on the urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, R; Hesse, A

    1993-03-01

    The aim of this 17-day study was to examine the influence of four different diets on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation in 10 healthy male subjects. In the course of phase 0, the subjects were on their individual diet for 2 days. In the following phases I, II, and III the subjects received three different standard diets for a duration of 5 days each. Whereas DIET 1 (normal mixed diet) corresponded to the dietary habits of men aged 19 to 35 years, DIET 2 (balanced mixed diet) and DIET 3 (ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet) were calculated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition (DGE) for the same age-group. The risk of calcium oxalate stone formation, calculated by the computer program EQUIL of FINLAYSON, was highest on the self-selected diet and on DIET 1, but declined significantly on the intake of DIET 2 by 50% on average compared to DIET 1 and by 61% compared to phase 0. On DIET 3 no further significant decline in the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation was observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the change of usual dietary habits into a balanced mixed diet significantly reduces the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. With a vegetarian diet a comparable decline in urine supersaturation of calcium oxalate can be achieved with respect to a mixed diet according to requirements. Since urinary oxalic acid excretion increased significantly, a vegetarian diet is not recommend for calcium oxalate stone patients with absorptive hyperoxaluria.

  6. Race and region have independent and synergistic effects on dietary intakes in black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K; Noel, Sabrina E; Grant, Rachael; Judd, Suzanne; Shikany, James M; Ard, Jamy

    2012-04-13

    Few studies have examined the effects of race and region on dietary intakes and the evidence on racial and regional disparities among women is limited. We aimed to examine whether race and region were associated with nutrient intakes among black and white women living in the Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, and Other regions in the United States. We hypothesized that significant differences would be observed among population sub-groups and that the effects of race on dietary intakes would vary across regions. This study included dietary data from 12,105 women from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (United States). Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Blacks consumed 1.05% lower energy from saturated fat (95% CI: -0.95, -1.16), and intakes were also lower in the Buckle (β = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.32) and Belt (β = -0.35; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.46) compared to the Other regions. Within each region, sodium, potassium, and magnesium intakes were all lower among black women compared to white women (P women in the Other regions consumed the lowest dietary cholesterol and calcium while black women in the Belt consumed the lowest trans fat. Race and region were significantly associated with nutrient intakes in a large study of black and non-Hispanic white women in the United States. Intakes of trans fat, calcium, and cholesterol among black and white women differed across regions. Race and region thus interact to impact dietary intakes, and their effects may be mediated by such factors as the broader food environment and food availability as well as food customs and culture. Race, region, and their correlates should therefore be considered together when examining diet and disease associations and planning dietary advice for population sub-groups.

  7. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Christel L; Johansson, Gunnar K

    2002-07-01

    Adolescents sometimes become vegetarian for ethical rather than health reasons. This may result in health problems caused by lack of interest in and knowledge of nutrition. We compared the dietary intake and nutritional status of young Swedish vegans and omnivores. The dietary intakes of 30 vegans (15 males and 15 females; mean age: 17.5 +/- 1.0 y) and 30 sex-, age-, and height-matched omnivores were assessed with the use of a diet-history interview and validated by the doubly labeled water method and by measuring nitrogen, sodium, and potassium excretion in urine. Iron status and serum vitamin B-12 and folate concentrations were measured in blood samples. The diet-history method underestimated energy intake by 13% and potassium intake by 7% compared with the doubly labeled water method and 24-h urine excretion, respectively. Reported dietary nitrogen and sodium intakes agreed with the 24-h urinary excretion measure. Vegans had higher intakes of vegetables, legumes, and dietary supplements and lower intakes of cake and cookies and candy and chocolate than did omnivores. Vegans had dietary intakes lower than the average requirements of riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and selenium. Intakes of calcium and selenium remained low even with the inclusion of dietary supplements. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of low iron status among vegans (20%) and omnivores (23%). Two vegans with low intakes of vitamin B-12 had low serum concentrations. The dietary habits of the vegans varied considerably and did not comply with the average requirements for some essential nutrients.

  8. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  9. Effects on anionic salts in a pre-partum dairy ration on calcium metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Van Dijk

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of anionic salts in the transition diet on serum and urine calcium at calving and on peripartal health, subsequent milk production and fertility performance were studied in a well-managed, high-producing Friesland dairy herd. Over a period of a year, approximately 21 days before the expected date of calving, 28 pre-partum heifers and 44 multiparous dry cows were randomly allocated within parity to 1 of 2 transition diets, designated control and experimental anionic diets. The anionic diet contained the same quantities of the basic transition ration fed to the control group as well as a standard anionic salt mixture containing 118 g NH4Cl, 36 g (NH42SO4 and 68 g MgSO4 (total 222 g per animal per day. This reduced the DCAD to -11.68 mEq/100 g dietary dry matter compared to +13.57 for the control diet. Blood and urine were randomly sampled from 7 to 8 animals within each category within 3 hours post-partum. Serum calcium (total and ionised and creatinine, urine calcium and creatinine and the fractional clearance of calcium were assessed. Relevant clinical, milk production, and fertility data were collected. The total serum calcium (2.07 versus 1.60 mmol/ , serum ionised calcium (1.12 vs 1.02 mmol/ , urine calcium (0.92 vs 0.10 mmol/ and the fractional clearance of calcium (1.88 vs 0.09 % were significantly higher (P <0.01 at calving for multiparous cows fed the anionic diet compared to those fed the control diet. In the primiparous cows there were no significant differences in serumcalcium levels. However, the urine calcium (1.07 vs 0.43 mmol/ and the fractional clearance of calcium was higher (1.75 vs 0.45 % in cows fed the anionic diet (P <0.05 and 0.01 respectively. These results illustrated that there were benefits, although no differences were demonstrated with respect to health, milk production or fertility. The supplementation of diets with anionic salts in the last 2-3 weeks before calving has the potential to significantly

  10. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  11. Dairy foods are an important source of calcium and vitamin D among Canadian-born and Asian-born Chinese in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana R; Willows, Noreen D

    2012-03-01

    Low intakes of calcium and vitamin D increase the risk for osteoporosis, bone fracture, and other health problems. This study aimed to examine the calcium and vitamin D intakes of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) in Edmonton, Canada, and to identify usual food sources of these nutrients. We hypothesized that CBC would have higher intakes of calcium and vitamin D than ABC and that the food sources of these nutrients would differ by region of birth (Canada vs Asia). Two in-person multipass 24-hour dietary recalls were administered for 1 weekday and weekend day for 81 healthy ethnically Chinese aged 18 to 58 years. The risks for calcium and vitamin D inadequacy were calculated as were the contributions of specific foods to calcium and vitamin D intakes. Calcium intake was 781 ± 337 mg/d for CBC and 809 ± 369 mg/d for ABC (P = .737). Vitamin D intake was 3.8 ± 3.4 μg/d for CBC and 5.0 ± 3.9 μg/d for ABC (P = .158). Respective risks for calcium and vitamin D inadequacy were 36% and 98% for men and 78% and 100% for women. Dairy contributed most to the calcium (43%) and vitamin D (52%) intake of participants. For ABC, soybean products contributed to 8.1% of calcium, whereas fatty fish contributed to 16.7% of vitamin D. For CBC, red meats contributed to 11.1% of vitamin D. Dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D need to be increased in Chinese Canadians through the promotion of dairy and culturally relevant sources of these nutrients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphological Investigation of Calcium Carbonate during Ammonification-Carbonization Process of Low Concentration Calcium Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Huaigang Cheng; Xiaoxi Zhang; Huiping Song

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine calcium carbonate is a widely used cheap additive. The research is conducted in low degree supersaturation solution in order to study the polymorphic phases’ change and its factors of the calcium carbonate precipitate in the ammonification-carbonization process of the solution with calcium. Fine particles of calcium carbonate are made in the solution containing 0.015 mol/L of Ca2+. Over 98% of the calcium carbonate precipitate without ammonification resembles the morphology of calci...

  13. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  14. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  15. Relationship between milk and calcium intake and lipid metabolism in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju; Chang, Namsoo; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Calcium carbonate obstructive urolithiasis in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana M; Gamble, Kathryn C; Corner, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    A 6-yr-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented for a history of inappetance, abnormal behavior, and unconfirmed elimination for 6 hr prior to presentation. Based on abdominal ultrasound, abdominocentesis, and cystocentesis, a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction with uroabdomen and hydronephrosis was reached. Abdominal radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination confirmed a urinary bladder rupture secondary to urethral obstruction by a single urethrolith. Bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were identified and determined to be a result of bilateral ureteroliths. Urolith analysis revealed a composition of 100% calcium carbonate. A dietary analysis was performed, implicating an increased Ca:P ratio from a food preparation miscommunication as a contributing factor. Appropriate husbandry changes were made, and mob surveillance procedures were performed, which resolved the urolithiasis risk for the remaining five animals.

  17. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-08-22

    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dietary ingredient, the possibility of contamination (by pesticides, heavy metals such as lead, bacteria, etc.), and the improper packaging and labeling of a product. What methods are used to evaluate the health benefits and safety of a botanical dietary supplement? Like ...

  19. Dietary patterns and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, P; Clarys, P; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2010-03-01

    To test a socioeconomic hypothesis on three dietary patterns and to describe the relation between three commonly used methods to determine dietary patterns, namely Healthy Eating Index, Mediterranean Diet Score and principal component analysis. Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the food consumption frequency was recorded. The correlation coefficients between the three dietary patterns varied between 0.43 and 0.62. The highest correlation was found between Healthy Eating Index and Healthy Dietary Pattern (principal components analysis). Cohen's kappa coefficient of agreement varied between 0.10 and 0.20. After age-adjustment, education and income remained associated with the most healthy dietary pattern. Even when both socioeconomic indicators were used together in one model, higher income and education were associated with higher scores for Healthy Eating Index, Mediterranean Diet Score and Healthy Dietary Pattern. The least healthy quintiles of dietary pattern as measured by the three methods were associated with a clustering of unhealthy behaviors, that is, smoking, low physical activity, highest intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids, and low intakes of fruits and vegetables. The three dietary patterns used indicated that the most healthy patterns were associated with a higher socioeconomic position, while lower patterns were associated with several unhealthy behaviors.

  20. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.