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Sample records for calcium carbonate deposition

  1. Studies on structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits in algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits is studied in species of Halimeda, Udotea, Neomeris (Chlorophyta) and Padina (Phaeophyta). It was found that in Halimeda aragonite deposition takes place outside the cell wall...

  2. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  3. Amorphous calcium carbonate associated with biofilms in hot spring deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-08-01

    Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are intimately associated with crystalline calcite and aragonite in the Eryuan, Gongxiaoshe, and Zhuyuan hot springs (water temperature > 75 °C), which are located in Yunnan Province, China. The nanoparticles, springs, the ACC is always found under, in, or on top of biofilms, commonly in close proximity to crystalline calcite and/or aragonite. Textural evidence indicates that the ACC probably developed in microdomains that develop in the complex biofilm hydrogels. Critically, there is no evidence to support the notion that the nanoparticles are calcified nannobacteria. In the Chinese springs, ACC appears to play a formative role in the development of wheat-sheaf arrays of aragonite crystals and some of the calcite crystals. Hollow cores in some of the aragonite bundles probably formed as ACC was dissolved and many of the aragonite crystals appear to have developed as ACC recrystallized. Similarly, layers of ACC that coat the surfaces of some calcite crystals could be diagenetically transformed into calcite. The development of ACC in hot spring systems may be widespread and may play a critical but transitory role in the development of crystalline CaCO3 in these high temperature environments.

  4. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  5. Chitosan Derivatives/Calcium Carbonate Composite Capsules Prepared by the Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell capsules composed of calcium carbonate whisker core (rod-like shape and chitosan/chitosansulfate shell were prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. Two chitosan samples of different molecular weights (Mw=9.7×104 and 1.09×106g·mol-1 were used as original materials. Hollow capsules were also obtained by dissolution of the core in hydrochloric acid. Electron microscopy revealed that the surface of the shell is rather ragged associated with some agglomerates. The shell thickness l obeys a linear relation with respect to the number of deposited layers m as l=md+a(a>0. The values of d (thickness per layer were 4.0 and 1.0 nm for the higher and lower Mw chitosan materials, respectively, both of which are greater than the thickness of the monolayer. The results suggest that the feature of the deposition does not obey an ideal homogeneous monolayer-by-monolayer deposition mechanism. Shell crosslinked capsules were also prepared via photodimerization reaction of cinnamoyl groups after a deposition of cinnamoyl chitosan to the calcium carbonate whisker core. The degree of crosslink was not enough to stabilize the shell structure, and hollow capsule was not obtained.

  6. Electrochemically assisted co-deposition of calcium phosphate/collagen coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xueni [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hu Tao [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Li Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Chen Mengdi; Cao Sheng; Zhang Leilei [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hou Xianghui [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)/collagen coatings were prepared on the surface of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by electrochemically assisted co-deposition technique. The effects of collagen concentration in the electrolyte on morphology, structure and composition of the coatings were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesive strength of the coatings was also evaluated by scratch tests and tensile bond tests. It was demonstrated that the coatings of three-dimensional collagen network structure was formed on the C/C composites from the electrolyte containing collagen. The surface of the collagen network was covered by uniform CaP aggregates. The coatings were actually composites of CaP and collagen. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was a favorable composition in the coatings with the increase of the collagen concentration in the electrolyte. The formed collagen network increased the cohesive and adhesive strength of the coatings. The adhesive strength between the coatings and substrates increased as the collagen concentration in the electrolyte increased. The coatings prepared at the collagen concentration of 500 mg/L in the electrolyte were not scraped off until the applied load reached 32.0 {+-} 2.2 N and the average tensile adhesive strength of the coatings was 4.83 {+-} 0.71 MPa. After C/C coated with composite coatings (500 mg/L) being immersed in a 10{sup -3} M Ca (OH){sub 2} solution at 30-33 deg. C for 96 h, nano-structured HA/collagen coatings similar to the natural human bone were obtained on the C/C.

  7. Deposition of calcium carbonate into postglacial reefs: a test on a 'coral reef hypothesis'. Kohyoki no sangosho eno tansan calcium taiseki sokudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayanne, H [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-06-15

    This paper describes the following matters on changes in rates of deposition of calcium carbonate into postglacial coral reefs: Estimation was made on change in CaCO3 deposition in four coral reefs the data of which relating to all cross sections down to reef base have been acquired by drilling; the main deposition periods in the coral reefs formed in the postglacial period were five to six thousand years ago; the maximum deposition rate is estimated to be 2.7 [times] 10[sup 14] gC per one thousand years under an assumption that the total deposition amount in postglacial coral reefs is 1.2 [times] 10[sup 18] gC (converted to carbon amount); the recent deposition rate is (1/7.5) that of the former rate; from information obtained on submerged coral reefs, deposition amounts in coral reefs before 10,000 years ago are judged to have been smaller than those thereafter; and the above knowledges do not support the 'coral reef hypothesis' by Berger et al. that deposition of calcium carbonate into postglacial coral reefs has occurred from 15,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  9. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanotubes as Biomimetic Nanoreactors for Calcium Carbonate Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Möhwald, Helmuth; Li, Junbai

    2009-09-17

    Enzyme-loaded magnetic polyelectrolyte multilayer nanotubes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly combined with the porous template could be used as biomimetic nanoreactors. It is demonstrated that calcium carbonate can be biomimetically synthesized inside the cavities of the polyelectrolyte nanotubes by the catalysis of urease, and the size of the calcium carbonate precipitates was controlled by the cavity dimensions. The metastable structure of the calcium carbonate precipitates inside the nanotubes was protected by the outer shell of the polyelectrolyte multilayers. These features may allow polyelectrolyte nanotubes to be applied in the fields of nanomaterials synthesis, controlled release, and drug delivery. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Study of the effect of magnesium concentration on the deposit of allotropic forms of calcium carbonate and related carbon steel interface behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Amor, Y.; Bousselmi, L.; Tribollet, B.; Triki, E.

    2010-01-01

    Different allotropic forms of calcium carbonate scales were electrochemically deposited on a carbon steel surface in artificial underground Tunisian water at -0.95 V SCE and various Mg 2+ concentrations. Because of the importance of the diffusion process, the rotating disk electrode was used. The deposition kinetics were analyzed by chronoamperometry measurements and the calcareous layers were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical model proposed by Gabrielli was used to analyze the EIS measurements. Independent of the deposited allotropic form of calcium carbonate, the measurements showed that the oxygen reduction occurs in the pores formed between the CaCO 3 crystals and the metallic surface.

  11. Electromigration and Deposition of Micro-Scale Calcium Carbonate Structures with Controlled Morphology and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    precipitation of calcium carbonate in structured templates including microporous polycarbonate membranes and polyethylene foams. Para- meters...polyethylene foam). Microporous polycarbonate membranes and Medium-Density PolyEthylene (MDPE) foam specimens were used as the porous organic...voids in hardened concrete. DOI:10.1520/C624-06. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International . www.astm.org. Bersa, L., and M. Liu. 2007. A review on

  12. CRACK2 - Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solution in cracks in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    2003-03-01

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description of the model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. The cementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migrating ions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results. Leaching behavior of sodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porosity calcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant for conventional uses of concrete. (au)

  13. Formation of Calcium Carbonate Deposition in the Cotyledons during he Germination of Justicia procumbens L. (Acanthaceae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ling Lin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During seed germination of Justicia procumbens, the formation of lithocysts, trichomes and diacytic stomata in the epidermis of cotyledons was following a specific distribution pattern. During the first 1-3 days, many young stomata and trichome initial cells were formed sporadically in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, but no lithocyst was found. Three to five days after seed sawing, two cotyledons were exposed to light and then opened. In the meantime, some lithocysts were recognized on both adaxial and abaxial epidermises. The lithocysts on the adaxial epidermis occurred in the radially arranged cells located between the central area and the margin. However on the abaxial epidermis, they were found only in the marginal cell layer and their axes were along the margin of cotyledons. The total number of lithocysts in a cotyledon at this stage was 32.2 ± 4.3 and the cystolith inside the lithocyst was spindle in shape and 48.2 ± 21.1 μm in length. Three weeks after seed sowing, the cotyledons were mature and the total number of lithocysts in a cotyledon was 112.2 ± 10.1 and the cystolith in the lithocyst was enlarged to be 119.8 ± 27.8 μm in length. The cystolith was extracellularly formed in the cell wall of lithocyst. Its surface was with many protuberances and surrounded by a cystolith sheath connecting to cytoplasmic strands. The core of cystolith was surrounded by concentrically stratified fibrils and the calcium carbonate was concentrically accumulated. The waved stratified fibrils were also deposited in the protuberances. The EDX spectra showed that the main mineral elemental compositions of cystoliths were Ca and P. Ca was deposited more in the central part of cystolith than in the marginal area.

  14. Depositional environments inferred from variations of calcium carbonate, organic carbon, and sulfide sulfur: a core from southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Iyer, S.D.; Chauhan, O.S.; PrakashBabu, C.

    Pleistocene has been inferred. The higher contents of organic carbon and sulfide sulfur and their negative relationship clearly establish the existence of a reducing environment below 65 cm subbottom depth. The occurrence of pyrite framboids and crystals...

  15. Calcium carbonate scaling kinetics determined from radiotracer experiments with calcium-47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Smith, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    The deposition rate of calcium carbonate on a heat-transfer surface has been measured using a calcium-47 radiotracer and compared to the measured rate of thermal fouling. The crystalline phase of calcium carbonate that precipitates depends on the degree of supersaturation at the heat-transfer surface, with aragonite precipitating at higher supersaturations and calcite precipitating at lower supersaturations. Whereas the mass deposition rates were constant with time, the thermal fouling rates decreased throughout the course of each experiment as a result of densification of the deposit. It is proposed that the densification was driven by the temperature gradient across the deposit together with the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate. The temperature dependence of the deposition rate yielded an activation energy of 79 ± 4 kJ/mol for the precipitation of calcium carbonate on a heat-transfer surface. (author)

  16. Effect of Ultrasound on Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagterveld, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling comprises the formation of hard mineral deposits on process or membrane equipment and calcium carbonate is the most common scaling salt. Especially in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems, scale formation has always been a serious limitation, causing flux decline, membrane degradation, loss

  17. Real-time monitoring of calcium carbonate and cationic peptide deposition on carboxylate-SAM using a microfluidic SAW biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pohl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A microfluidic biosensor with surface acoustic wave technology was used in this study to monitor the interaction of calcium carbonate with standard carboxylate self-assembled monolayer sensor chips. Different fluids, with and without biomolecular components, were investigated. The pH-dependent surface interactions of two bio-inspired cationic peptides, AS8 and ES9, which are similar to an extracellular domain of the chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation, were also investigated in a biological buffer system. A range of experimental conditions are described that are suitable to study non-covalent molecular interactions in the presence of ionic substances, such as, mineral precursors below the solubility equilibrium. The peptide ES9, equal to the mollusc chitin synthase epitope, is less sensitive to changes in pH than its counterpart AS8 with a penta-lysine core, which lacks the flanking acidic residues. This study demonstrates the extraordinary potential of microfluidic surface acoustic wave biosensors to significantly expand our experimental capabilities for studying the principles underlying biomineralization in vitro.

  18. Real-time monitoring of calcium carbonate and cationic peptide deposition on carboxylate-SAM using a microfluidic SAW biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic biosensor with surface acoustic wave technology was used in this study to monitor the interaction of calcium carbonate with standard carboxylate self-assembled monolayer sensor chips. Different fluids, with and without biomolecular components, were investigated. The pH-dependent surface interactions of two bio-inspired cationic peptides, AS8 and ES9, which are similar to an extracellular domain of the chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation, were also investigated in a biological buffer system. A range of experimental conditions are described that are suitable to study non-covalent molecular interactions in the presence of ionic substances, such as, mineral precursors below the solubility equilibrium. The peptide ES9, equal to the mollusc chitin synthase epitope, is less sensitive to changes in pH than its counterpart AS8 with a penta-lysine core, which lacks the flanking acidic residues. This study demonstrates the extraordinary potential of microfluidic surface acoustic wave biosensors to significantly expand our experimental capabilities for studying the principles underlying biomineralization in vitro.

  19. Calcium carbonate concretions in caves : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewelt, M.; Ek, C.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific work of the last twenty years on calcium carbonate cave deposits (dripstones and flowstones) is presented. Recent studies on speleothems composition, growth, age and paleoclimatic environment are examined. Main new results are related with the development of isotopic and radiometric dating methods. Increasing numbers of dates allow for statistical speleothem repartition studies which could be related with paleoclimates. Two new frequency curves of U-series ages data of speleothems are given. (M.C.B.)

  20. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M.; Martin, Berdine R.; Wastney, Meryl; McCabe, George P.; Moe, Sharon M.; Weaver, Connie M.; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus and reduce phosphorus retention, and to prevent negative calcium balance. Data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance in CKD to support this. The aim of this study was to determine calcium and phosphorus balance and calcium kinetics with and without calcium carbonate in CKD patients. Eight stage 3/4 CKD patients, eGFR 36 mL/min, participated in two 3-week balances in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of calcium carbonate (1500 mg/d calcium). Calcium and phosphorus balance were determined on a controlled diet. Oral and intravenous 45calcium with blood sampling and urine and fecal collections were used for calcium kinetics. Fasting blood and urine were collected at baseline and end of each week of each balance period for biochemical analyses. Results showed that patients were in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on placebo. Calcium carbonate produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance suggesting tissue deposition. Fasting biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. If they can be extrapolated to effects of chronic therapy, these data caution against the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder. PMID:23254903

  1. Magnetically responsive calcium carbonate microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Bikmullin, Aidar G; Nurgaliev, Danis K

    2009-09-01

    Here we report the fabrication of magnetically responsive calcium carbonate microcrystals produced by coprecipitation of calcium carbonate in the presence of citrate-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the calcite microcrystals obtained possess superparamagnetic properties due to incorporated magnetite nanoparticles and can be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The microcrystals doped with magnetic nanoparticles were utilized as templates for the fabrication of hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules, which retain the magnetic properties of the sacrificial cores and might be spatially manipulated using a permanent magnet, thus providing the magnetic-field-facilitated delivery and separation of materials templated on magnetically responsive calcite microcrystals.

  2. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  3. Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells ons biomimetically and electrolytically deposited calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; de Boer, Jan; de Groot, K.

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetic and electrolytic deposition are versatile methods to prepare calcium phosphate coatings. In this article, we compared the effects of biomimetically deposited octacalcium phosphate and carbonate apatite coatings as well as electrolytically deposited carbonate apatite coating on the

  4. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  5. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  6. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  7. Enzymatic pH Control for Biomimetic Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.; Reza Nejadnik, M.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; te Riet, J.; Habibovic, Pamela; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Yubao, L.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study has focused on enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of Calcium Phospate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  8. Enzymatic pH control for biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.G.; Nejadnik, M.R.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Riet, J. te; Habibovic, P.; Tahmasebi Birgani, Z.; Li, Y.; Bomans, P.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  9. Rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Protz, R.

    1988-01-01

    Mean annual rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils in a subarctic climate estimated from data on two chronosequences of calcareous storm ridges, appeared to be relatively constant through time. Concentrations of dissolved calcium carbonate in the soil solution in the study sites calculated

  10. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teir, Sebastian; Eloneva, Sanni; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating 200 kt of carbon dioxide emissions per year, considering only the PCC used in the pulp and paper industry. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility to produce PCC from calcium silicates and the potential to replace calcium carbonate as the raw material was made. Calcium carbonate can be manufactured from calcium silicates by various methods, but only a few have been experimentally verified. The possibility and feasibility of these methods as a replacement for the current PCC production process was studied by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using HSC software and process modelling using Aspen Plus[reg]. The results from the process modelling showed that a process that uses acetic acid for extraction of the calcium ions is a high potential option for sequestering carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation. The main obstacle seems to be the limited availability and relatively high price of wollastonite, which is a mineral with high calcium silicate content. An alternative is to use the more common, but also more complex, basalt rock instead

  11. Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD disease is an arthropathy caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP crystal deposits in articular tissues, most commonly fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. According to EULAR, four different clinical presentations can be observed: 1 asymptomatic CPPD; 2 osteoarthritis (OA with CPPD; 3 acute CPP crystal arthritis; 4 chronic CPP inflammatory crystal arthritis. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is characterized by sudden onset of pain, swelling and tenderness with overlying erythema, usually in a large joint, most often the knee, wrist, shoulder, and hip. Occasionally, ligaments, tendons, bursae, bone and the spine can be involved. CPPD of the atlanto-occipital joint (crowned dens syndrome can cause periodic acute cervico-occipital pain with fever, neck stiffness and laboratory inflammatory syndrome. Chronic inflammatory arthritis is characterized by joint swelling, morning stiffness, pain, and high ESR and CRP. The relationship between OA and CPPD is still unclear. The main problem is whether such crystals are directly involved in the pathogenesis of OA or if they are the result of joint degeneration. Diagnosis is based on evaluation of history and clinical features, conventional radiology, and synovial fluid examination. Non-polarized light microscopy should be used initially to screen for CPPD crystals based upon their characteristic morphology, and compensated polarized light microscopy, showing the crystals to be weakly positive birefringent, is recommended for definitive identification, although this last pattern only occurs in about 20% of samples. The main goals of CPPD therapy are control of the acute or chronic inflammatory reaction and prevention of further episodes.

  12. Obtainment of calcium carbonate from mussels shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamester, M.R.R.; Becker, D.

    2010-01-01

    The mussels and oyster shell are discarded at environment, and this accumulation is causing negative consequences to ecosystem. Calcium carbonate is main constituent of the shell chemical composition. Aiming to reduce environmental aggression and generate income to shellfish producer, there was the possibility of using these shells as an alternative to commercial calcium carbonate. For this physics, chemicals and thermal properties were evaluated, using X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, size distribution, abrasiveness and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that mussels shells have an initial degradation temperature higher than commercial calcium carbonate e same lost weight behavior and 95% of shell chemical composition is calcium carbonate. The sample size distribution was influenced by grinding condition and time as well as its abrasiveness. (author)

  13. Isolation and characterization of biogenic calcium carbonate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biogenic calcium carbonate/phosphate were isolated and characterized from oral bacteria (CPOB). The crystalline nature ... XRD analysis revealed the cubic phase of ... subjected to identify upto genus level according to Bergey's. Manual of ...

  14. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Mikhailova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical and chemical properties. To obtain a product of prescribed quality the process of calcium carbonate deposition was performed of still waste liquid, that is the waste of calcium carbonate production and contain significant amount of calcium ions, and excessive production of the purified stock solution of sodium bicarbonate, which is composed of carbonate and hydrocarbonate ions. Results: The dependence of bulk density and specific surface area of calcium carbonate sediments and degree of deposition from such technological parameters are established: method of mixing the stock solutions, the concentration and molar ratio of reactants, temperature and reaction time. Conclusions: The optimal mode of deposition process is determined and the concept of production of calcium carbonate is developed. The quality of calcium carbonate meets the modern requirements of high dispersion, low bulk density and evolved specific surface of the product.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of calcium oxide and calcium hafnium oxide films using calcium cyclopentadienyl precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukli, Kaupo; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Haenninen, Timo; Leskelae, Markku

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxide and calcium hafnium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on borosilicate glass and silicon substrates in the temperature range of 205-300 o C. The calcium oxide films were grown from novel calcium cyclopentadienyl precursor and water. Calcium oxide films possessed refractive index 1.75-1.80. Calcium oxide films grown without Al 2 O 3 capping layer occurred hygroscopic and converted to Ca(OH) 2 after exposure to air. As-deposited CaO films were (200)-oriented. CaO covered with Al 2 O 3 capping layers contained relatively low amounts of hydrogen and re-oriented into (111) direction upon annealing at 900 o C. In order to examine the application of CaO in high-permittivity dielectric layers, mixtures of Ca and Hf oxides were grown by alternate CaO and HfO 2 growth cycles at 230 and 300 o C. HfCl 4 was used as a hafnium precursor. When grown at 230 o C, the films were amorphous with equal amounts of Ca and Hf constituents (15 at.%). These films crystallized upon annealing at 750 o C, showing X-ray diffraction peaks characteristic of hafnium-rich phases such as Ca 2 Hf 7 O 16 or Ca 6 Hf 19 O 44 . At 300 o C, the relative Ca content remained below 8 at.%. The crystallized phase well matched with rhombohedral Ca 2 Hf 7 O 16 . The dielectric films grown on Si(100) substrates possessed effective permittivity values in the range of 12.8-14.2

  16. Deposition of strontium and calcium in snail shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Jr, G M; Nelson, D J; Gardiner, D A

    1965-07-03

    The relative effects of strontium and calcium concentrations in the environment on their uptake and incorporation into snail shell were investigated. /sup 45/Ca and /sup 85/Sr were used as tracers and specific activities were used to determine deposition. Data are presented in tables and graphs. Deposition of both calcium and strontium in the snail shell depended primarily on the respective concentrations of these elements in the immediate environment. A slight effect of strontium on calcium deposition was observed. There was found to be a minimum strontium deposition for various combinations of strontium and calcium in the environment. It was concluded that strontium uptake is more closely associated with environmental strontium concentrations than with calcium concentrations.

  17. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  18. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  19. Biocompatibility of bio based calcium carbonate nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance ...

  20. Influence of variable rates of neritic carbonate deposition on atmospheric carbon dioxide and pelagic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C.; Opdyke, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Short-term imbalances in the global cycle of shallow water calcium carbonate deposition and dissolution may be responsible for much of the observed Pleistocene change in atmospheric carbon dioxide content. However, any proposed changes in the alkalinity balance of the ocean must be reconciled with the sedimentary record of deep-sea carbonates. The possible magnitude of the effect of shallow water carbonate deposition on the dissolution of pelagic carbonate can be tested using numerical simulations of the global carbon cycle. Boundary conditions can be defined by using extant shallow water carbonate accumulation data and pelagic carbonate deposition/dissolution data. On timescales of thousands of years carbonate deposition versus dissolution is rarely out of equilibrium by more than 1.5 x 10(13) mole yr-1. Results indicate that the carbonate chemistry of the ocean is rarely at equilibrium on timescales less than 10 ka. This disequilibrium is probably due to sea level-induced changes in shallow water calcium carbonate deposition/dissolution, an interpretation that does not conflict with pelagic sedimentary data from the central Pacific.

  1. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  2. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Mikhailova; V.O. Panasenko; N.B. Markova

    2016-01-01

    A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical a...

  3. Carbonation of calcium aluminate cement pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Carrasco, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the results from accelerated tests intended to investigate the ways the different curing methods affect the carbonation of calcium aluminate cements pastes (CAC. The research was focused on the mineralogical composition of hydrated and carbonated samples. The compressive strengths and the porosity of the samples have been determined. Results point out that vaterite and aragonite are formed as a result of carbonation of both cubic and hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates. The polymorph of calcium carbonate formed does not depend on the curing process. Carbonation rates is higher in hexagonal than in cubic hydrates. Results obtained through this study evidence that, as a consequence of the carbonation process of CAC pastes, in test conditions, an increase of the mechanical strengths occurs.

    En el presente trabajo se discuten los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos acelerados llevados a cabo para investigar los efectos de diferentes métodos de curado sobre la carbonatacion de pastas del cemento de aluminato de calcio (CAC. Se estudió la composición mineralógica de las muestras hidratadas y carbonatadas. Además, se determinaron las resistencias mecánicas a compresión y la porosidad de las probetas. Los resultados indican que la vaterita y el aragonito son las polimorfías del CaCO3 que se forman al carbonatar los aluminatos cálcicos hidratos, tanto los de naturaleza hexagonal como cúbica. El polimorfo del carbonato cálcico formado no depende del proceso de curado. La velocidad de carbonatación de los hidratos hexagonales es mayor que la de los cúbicos. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente trabajo han evidenciado que como consecuencia del proceso de carbonatación sobre pastas de CAC, en las condiciones realizadas, se produce un incremento en las resistencias mecánicas.

  4. Link between the early calcium deposition in placenta and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Physiological calcification occurs in bone when the soft extra-cellular matrix is converted into a rigid material capable of sustaining mechanical force. Pathological calcification may occur in different soft tissues that are not associated with calcium deposition for their physiological functions. Moreover, this pathological ...

  5. Multi-Functions of Carbonated Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite (CDHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan

    Natural bone is a complex composite mainly constituted of inorganic minerals and organic collagen molecules. Calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been proposed as the predominant bone substitute for bone tissue engineering applications due to their chemical similarity to bone mineral. Amorphous carbonated calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) is an important compound among CaP materials because of the amorphous crystallite structure. The presence of extra ions in its lattice structure not only influences cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts, but also helps in bone metabolism. Biomimetic coating approach is the most widely used approach to produce CDHA coatings to implant. It is a process using simulated body fluid (SBF) to deposit bone-like CDHA coating to various material surfaces. The CDHA formation mechanism, SBF compositions and reacting conditions of biomimetic coating have already been sufficiently studied and compared in the past 20 years. It is an attempt in this thesis to explore new applications of SBF in biomedical research, focusing on different biomaterial applications: 1) based on the low temperature reaction condition of SBF, bisphosphonate incorporated CDHA coatings were deposited onto Ti6Al4V surface for the treatment of osteoporosis; 2) amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres with extra elements in the lattice structure were prepared by a novel microwave assisted approach, providing a new potential of CaP materials production; 3) CDHA particles formed in SBF can be used as great fillers with biopolymers for preparing biocomposites for biomedical applications; 4) based on the high activity of CDHA amorphous structure and the stabilization ability of ethanol, yttrium and europium doped calcium phosphates were prepared using CDHA as a sacrificing template. In the end, future work based on these observations in the thesis is addressed, including areas of drug delivery, biocomposite fabrication and preparation of functionalized

  6. Carbon isotope fractionation between amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite in earthworm-produced calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Black, S.; Hodson, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigate carbon isotope fractionation during the crystallization of biogenic calcium carbonate. Several species of earthworm including Lumbricus terrestris secrete CaCO_3. Initially a milky fluid comprising micro-spherules of amorphous CaCO_3 (ACC) is secreted into pouches of the earthworm calciferous gland. The micro-spherules coalesce and crystalize to form millimetre scale granules, largely comprising calcite. These are secreted into the earthworm intestine and from there into the soil. L. terrestris were cultured for 28 days in two different soils, moistened with three different mineral waters at 10, 16 and 20 °C. The milky fluid in the calciferous glands, granules in the pouches of the calciferous glands and granules excreted into the soil were collected and analysed by FTIR spectroscopy to determine the form of CaCO_3 present and by IRMS to determine δ"1"3C values. The milky fluid was ACC. Granules removed from the pouches and soil were largely calcite; the granules removed from the pouches contained more residual ACC than those recovered from the soil. The δ"1"3C values of milky fluid and pouch granules became significantly more negative with increasing temperature (p ≤ 0.001). For samples from each temperature treatment, δ"1"3C values became significantly (p ≤ 0.001) more negative from the milky fluid to the pouch granules to the soil granules (−13.77, −14.69 and −15.00 respectively at 10 °C; −14.37, −15.07 and −15.18 respectively at 16 °C and −14.89, −15.41 and −15.65 respectively at 20 °C). Fractionation of C isotopes occurred as the ACC recrystallized to form calcite with the fractionation factor ε_c_a_l_c_i_t_e_-_A_C_C = −1.20 ± 0.52‰. This is consistent with the crystallization involving dissolution and reprecipitation rather than a solid state rearrangement. Although C isotopic fractionation has previously been described between different species of dissolved inorganic carbon

  7. Carbon deposition and hydrogen retention in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The results of measurements on co-deposition of hydrogen isotopes and wall materials, hydrogen retention, redeposition of carbon and deposition of hydrogen on PMI of JT-60U are described. From above results, selection of plasma facing material and ability of carbon wall is discussed. Selection of plasma facing materials in fusion reactor, characteristics of carbon materials as the plasma facing materials, erosion, transport and deposition of carbon impurity, deposition of tritium in JET, results of PMI in JT-60, application of carbon materials to PFM of ITER, and future problems are stated. Tritium co-deposition in ITER, erosion and transport of carbon in tokamak, distribution of tritium deposition on graphite tile used as bumper limiter of TFTR, and measurement results of deposition of tritium on the Mark-IIA divertor tile and comparison between them are described. (S.Y.)

  8. Influence of deposition parameters on morphological properties of biomedical calcium phosphate coatings prepared using electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Schoonman, J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In order to deposit biomedical calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a defined surface morphology, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used since this technique offers the possibility to deposit ceramic coatings with a variety of surface morphologies. A scanning electron microscopical study was performed in order to investigate the influence of several deposition parameters on the final morphology of the deposited coatings. The chemical characteristics of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Regarding the chemical coating properties, the results showed that the coatings can be described as crystalline carbonate apatite coatings, a crystal phase which is similar to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. The morphology of CaP coatings, deposited using the ESD technique, was strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. By changing the nozzle-to-substrate distance, the precursor liquid flow rate and the deposition temperature, coating morphologies were deposited, which varied from dense to highly porous, reticular morphologies. The formation of various morphologies was the result of an equilibrium between the relative rates of CaP solute precipitation/reaction, solvent evaporation and droplet spreading onto the substrate surface

  9. Hydrophobic Calcium Carbonate for Cement Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi B. Atla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a novel way to generate a highly effective hydrophobic cement surface via a carbonation route using sodium stearate. Carbonation reaction was carried out at different temperatures to investigate the hydrophobicity and morphology of the calcium carbonate formed with this process. With increasing temperatures, the particles changed from irregular shapes to more uniform rod-like structures and then aggregated to form a plate-like formation. The contact angle against water was found to increase with increasing temperature; after 90 °C there was no further increase. The maximum contact angle of 129° was obtained at the temperature of 60 °C. It was also found that carbonation increased the micro hardness of the cement material. The micro hardness was found to be dependent on the morphology of the CaCO3 particles. The rod like structures which caused increased mineral filler produced a material with enhanced strength. The 13C cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra gave plausible explanation of the interaction of organic-inorganic moieties.

  10. Interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsyuk, A.P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Karabanov, V.P.; Lebedeva, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Thermographic, thermodynamic and X-ray phase studies have been made into the interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite. Examined among other things was the effect of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the interaction between alkali metal nitrates and kyanite. The chemical mechanism of the occurring processes has been established. The interaction with calcium carbonates results in the formation of alkali metal carbonates and calcium oxide with liberation of nitrogen oxide and oxygen. The products of the interaction with kyanite are shown to be identical with the compounds forming when alkali metal carbonates are used

  11. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  12. Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, F; Blumenthal, N C; Posner, A S; Becker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1975-06-01

    The radial distribution function calculated from x-ray diffraction of mineralized cytoplasmic structures isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is very similar to that previously found for synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. Both types of mineral apparently have only short-range atomic order, represented as a neutral ion cluster of about 10 A in longest dimension, whose probable composition is expressed by the formula Ca9(PO4)6. The minor differences observed are attributed to the presence in the biological mineral of significant amounts of Mg-2+ and ATP. Synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate in contact with a solution containing an amount of ATP equivalent to that of the biological mineral failed to undergo conversion to the thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite. The amorphous calcium phosphate of the cytoplasmic mineral granules is similarly stable, and does not undergo conversion to hydroxyapatite, presumably owing to the presence of ATP and Mg-2+, known in inhibitors of the conversion process. The physiological implications of mineral deposits consisting of stabilized calcium phosphate ion clusters are discussed.

  13. The skeletal organic matrix from Mediterranean coral Balanophyllia europaea influences calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Vergni, Patrizia; Reggi, Michela; Caroselli, Erik; Sparla, Francesca; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM) of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions.

  14. The Skeletal Organic Matrix from Mediterranean Coral Balanophyllia europaea Influences Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Vergni, Patrizia; Reggi, Michela; Caroselli, Erik; Sparla, Francesca; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM) of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions. PMID:21799830

  15. Synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Minh, Doan; Lyczko, Nathalie; Sebei, Haroun; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Calcium hydroxyapatite was synthesized from CaCO 3 and four orthophosphates. ► Only H 3 PO 4 led to the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. ► H 3 PO 4 was also the most efficient for calcium dissolution. ► Reaction pathway was dissolution-precipitation accompanied by agglomeration step. - Abstract: The synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) starting from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources, including orthophosphoric acid, potassium, sodium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphates, was investigated under ambient conditions. The reaction started with calcium carbonate dissolution in an acid medium, followed by rapid precipitation of calcium cations with orthophosphate species to form calcium phosphate based particles which were in the size range of 0.4–1 μm. These particles then agglomerated into much larger ones, up to 350 μm in diameter (aggregates). These aggregates possessed an unstable porous structure which was responsible for the porosity of the final products. The highest specific surface area and pore volume were obtained with potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. On the other hand, orthophosphoric acid led to the highest dissolution of calcium carbonate and the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. Under ambient conditions, calcium phosphate based solid products of low crystallinity were formed. Different intermediates were identified and a reaction pathway proposed.

  16. Behaviour of calcium carbonate in sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P.E.

    1962-01-01

    Anomalies in the behaviour of calcium carbonate in natural solutions diminish when considered in context. Best values found by traditional oceanographie methods for the apparent solubility product constant K'CaCO3 in sea water at atmospheric pressure are consistent mineralogically-at 36 parts per thousand salinity and T-25??C, K'aragonlte is estimated as 1.12 ?? 10-6 and K'calcite as 0.61 ?? 10-6. At 30??C the corresponding values are 0.98 ?? 10-6 for aragonite and 0.53 ?? 10-6 for calcite. Because the K' computations do not compensate for ionic activity, however, they cannot give thermodynamically satisfactory results. It is of interest, therefore, that approximate methods and information now available permit the estimation from the same basic data of an activity product constant KCaCO3 close to that found in solutions to which Debye-Hu??ckel theory applies. Such methods indicate approximate Karagonite 7.8 ?? 10-9 for surface sea water at 29??C; Kcalcite would be proportionately lower. Field data and experimental results indicate that the mineralogy of precipitated CaCO3 depends primarily on degree of supersaturation, thus also on kinetic or biologic factors that facilitate or inhibit a high degree of supersaturation. The shallow, generally hypersaline bank waters west of Andros Island yield aragonitic sediments with O18 O16 ratios that imply precipitation mainly during the warmer months, when the combination of a high rate of evaporation, increasing salinity (and ionic strength), maximal temperatures and photosynthetic removal of CO2 result in high apparent supersaturation. The usual precipitate from solutions of low ionic strength is calcite, except where the aragonite level of supersaturation is reached as a result of diffusion phenomena (e.g. dripstones), gradual and marked evaporation, or biologic intervention. Published data also suggest the possibility of distinct chemical milieus for crystallographic variations in skeletal calcium carbonate. It appears

  17. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  18. Calcium content of different compositions of gallstones and pathogenesis of calcium carbonate gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kuen Yu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From our study, we found chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions and low-grade GB wall inflammation lead to GB epithelium hydrogen secretion dysfunction. Increased calcium ion efflux into the GB lumen combined with increased carbonate anion presence increases SI_CaCO3 from 1 to 22.4. Thus, in an alkaline milieu with pH 7.8, calcium carbonate begins to aggregate and precipitate.

  19. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what

  20. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  1. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian

    2014-07-15

    Tracers are perhaps the most direct way of diagnosing subsurface fluid flow pathways for ground water decontamination and for natural gas and oil production. Nanoparticle tracers could be particularly effective because they do not diffuse away from the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles are not retained in the porous media as the result of aggregation or sticking to mineral surfaces. By screening eight nanoparticles (3-100 nm in diameter) for retention when passed through calcium carbonate packed laboratory columns in artificial oil field brine solutions of variable ionic strength we show that the nanoparticles with the least retention are 3 nm in diameter, nearly uncharged, and decorated with highly hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The details of these column experiments and the tri-modal distribution of zeta potential of the calcite sand particles in the brine used in our tests suggests that parts of the calcite surface have positive zeta potential and the retention of negatively charged nanoparticles occurs at these sites. Only neutral nanoparticles are immune to at least some retention. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  2. Carbonate rock depositional models: A microfacies approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonate rocks contain more than 50% by weight carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, and siderite. Understanding how these rocks form can lead to more efficient methods of petroleum exploration. Micofacies analysis techniques can be used as a method of predicting models of sedimentation for carbonate rocks. Micofacies in carbonate rocks can be seen clearly only in thin sections under a microscope. This section analysis of carbonate rocks is a tool that can be used to understand depositional environments, diagenetic evolution of carbonate rocks, and the formation of porosity and permeability in carbonate rocks. The use of micofacies analysis techniques is applied to understanding the origin and formation of carbonate ramps, carbonate platforms, and carbonate slopes and basins. This book will be of interest to students and professionals concerned with the disciplines of sedimentary petrology, sedimentology, petroleum geology, and palentology.

  3. Kinetics of the Carbonate Leaching for Calcium Metavanadate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyang Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sodium salt roasting process was widely used for extracting vanadium due to its high yield rate of vanadium. However, the serious pollution was a problem. The calcium roasting process was environmentally friendly, but the yield rate of vanadium was relatively lower. Focusing on the calcium metavanadate produced in the calcium roasting process of vanadium minerals, the mechanism of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate and its leaching kinetics of calcium metavanadate were studied. With the increase of the leaching agent content, the decrease of the particle size, the increase of the temperature and the increase of the reaction time, the leaching rate of vanadium increased, and the constant of reaction rate increased. In the carbonate leaching process, the calcium carbonate was globular and attached to the surface of calcium metavanadate. In the solution containing bicarbonate radical, lots of cracks formed in the dissolution process. However, the cracks were relatively fewer in the solution containing carbonate. In the present study, the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate was controlled by diffusion, the activation energy reached maximum and minimum in the sodium bicarbonate and the sodium carbonate solution, respectively. The activation energy value in the ammonium bicarbonate solution was between those two solutions. The kinetic equations of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate were as follows: 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 4.39[Na2CO3]0.75/r0 × exp(−2527.06/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 7.89[NaHCO3]0.53/r0 × exp(−2530.67/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 6.78[NH4HCO3]0.69/r0 × exp(−2459.71/Tt.

  4. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed.

  5. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by controlling its particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nudelman, F.; Sonmezler, E.; Bomans, P.H.H.; With, de G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nanoparticles of different size are prepared using a flow system. Post-synthesis stabilization with a layer of poly[(a,ß)-DL-aspartic acid] leads to stabilization of the ACC, but only for particles

  6. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  7. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordi, Gunnvor A.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for b1%. On an annual basis the POC export fromthe euphotic...

  8. Definition and Reliability Assessment of Elementary Ultrasonographic Findings in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippou, Georgios; Scirè, Carlo A; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the ultrasonographic characteristics of calcium pyrophosphate crystal (CPP) deposits in joints and periarticular tissues and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of expert ultrasonographers in the assessment of CPP deposition disease (CPPD) according to the ne...

  9. Preparation, physical-chemical characterisation and cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cements

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, Christèle; Miao, Baoji; Bareille, Reine; Rey, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of calcium carbonate cements involving the recrystallisation of metastable calcium carbonate varieties has been demonstrated. Calcium carbonate cement compositions presented in this paper can be prepared straightforwardly by simply mixing water (liquid phase) with two calcium carbonate phases (solid phase) which can be easily obtained by precipitation. An original cement composition was obtained by mixing amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite with an aqueous medium. The cem...

  10. Solubility and bioavailability of stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oren E; Bar-David, Elad; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Shechter, Assaf; Stepensky, David; Berman, Amir; Sagi, Amir

    2011-02-01

    Since its role in the prevention of osteoporosis in humans was proven some 30 years ago, calcium bioavailability has been the subject of numerous scientific studies. Recent technology allowing the production of a stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) now enables a bioavailability analysis of this unique form of calcium. This study thus compares the solubility and fractional absorption of ACC, ACC with chitosan (ACC-C), and crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC). Solubility was evaluated by dissolving these preparations in dilute phosphoric acid. The results demonstrated that both ACC and ACC-C are more soluble than CCC. Fractional absorption was evaluated by intrinsically labeling calcium carbonate preparations with (45)Ca, orally administrated to rats using gelatin capsules. Fractional absorption was determined by evaluating the percentage of the administrated radioactive dose per milliliter that was measured in the serum, calcium absorption in the femur, and whole-body retention over a 34-hour period. Calcium serum analysis revealed that calcium absorption from ACC and ACC-C preparations was up to 40% higher than from CCC, whereas retention of ACC and ACC-C was up to 26.5% higher than CCC. Absorbed calcium in the femurs of ACC-administrated rats was 30% higher than in CCC-treated animals, whereas 15% more calcium was absorbed following ACC-C treatment than following CCC treatment. This study demonstrates the enhanced solubility and bioavailability of ACC over CCC. The use of stable ACC as a highly bioavailable dietary source for calcium is proposed based on the findings of this study. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Hypoparathyroidism: what is the best calcium carbonate supplementation intake form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollino, Loraine; Biagioni, Maria Fernanda Giovanetti; Sabatini, Nathalia Regina; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Corrente, José Eduardo; Paiva, Sérgio Alberto Rupp de; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2017-11-15

    In hypoparathyroidism, calcium supplementation using calcium carbonate is necessary for the hypocalcemia control. The best calcium carbonate intake form is unknown, be it associated with feeding, juice or in fasting. The objective was to evaluate the calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product serum levels of hypoparathyroidism women after total thyroidectomy, following calcium carbonate intake in three different forms. A crossover study was carried out with patients presenting definitive hypoparathyroidism, assessed in different situations (fasting, with water, orange juice, breakfast with a one-week washout). Through the review of clinical data records of tertiary hospital patients from 1994 to 2010, 12 adult women (18 50 years old) were identified and diagnosed with definitive post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism. The laboratory results of calcium and phosphorus serum levels dosed before and every 30min were assessed, for 5h, after calcium carbonate intake (elementary calcium 500mg). The maximum peak average values for calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product were 8.63mg/dL (water), 8.77mg/dL (orange juice) and 8.95mg/dL (breakfast); 4.04mg/dL (water), 4.03mg/dL (orange juice) and 4.12mg/dL (breakfast); 34.3mg 2 /dL 2 (water), 35.8mg 2 /dL 2 (orange juice) and 34.5mg 2 /dL 2 (breakfast), respectively, and the area under the curve 2433mg/dLmin (water), 2577mg/dLmin (orange juice) and 2506mg/dLmin (breakfast), 1203mg/dLmin (water), 1052mg/dLmin (orange juice) and 1128mg/dLmin (breakfast), respectively. There was no significant difference among the three different tests (p>0.05). The calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product serum levels evolved in a similar fashion in the three calcium carbonate intake forms. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of a Calcium Carbonate Aerogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Plank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a facile method for the preparation of a calcium carbonate aerogel consisting of aggregated secondary vaterite particles with an approximate average diameter of 50 nm. It was synthesized via a sol-gel process by reacting calcium oxide with carbon dioxide in methanol and subsequent supercritical drying of the alcogel with carbon dioxide. The resulting monolith was opaque, brittle and had overall dimensions of 6×2×1 cm. It was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen adsorption method (BET, and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. [Does carbonate originate from carbonate-calcium crystal component of the human urinary calculus?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Masayuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Kumamaru, Takatoshi; Nukui, Akinori; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Minoru; Sugaya, Yasuhiro; Morita, Tatsuo

    2008-09-01

    It gives important information in selecting the appropriate treatment for urolithiasis to confirm the component of urinary calculus. Presently component analysis of the urinary calculus is generally performed by infrared spectroscopy which is employed by companies providing laboratory testing services in Japan. The infrared spectroscopy determines the molecular components from the absorption spectra in consequence of atomic vibrations. It has the drawback that an accurate crystal structure cannot be analyzed compared with the X-ray diffraction method which analyzes the crystal constituent based on the diffraction of X-rays on crystal lattice. The components of the urinary calculus including carbonate are carbonate apatite and calcium carbonate such as calcite. Although the latter is reported to be very rare component in human urinary calculus, the results by infrared spectroscopy often show that calcium carbonate is included in calculus. The infrared spectroscopy can confirm the existence of carbonate but cannot determine whether carbonate is originated from carbonate apatite or calcium carbonate. Thus, it is not clear whether calcium carbonate is included in human urinary calculus component in Japan. In this study, we examined human urinary calculus including carbonate by use of X-ray structural analysis in order to elucidate the origin of carbonate in human urinary calculus. We examined 17 human calculi which were reported to contain calcium carbonate by infrared spectroscopy performed in the clinical laboratory. Fifteen calculi were obtained from urinary tract, and two were from gall bladder. The stones were analyzed by X-ray powder method after crushed finely. The reports from the clinical laboratory showed that all urinary culculi consisted of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, while the gallstones consisted of calcium carbonate. But the components of all urinary calculi were revealed to be carbonate apatite by X-ray diffraction. The components of

  14. Chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arendse, CJ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available , effective, more versatile and easily scalable to large substrate sizes. In this paper, we present a design of the hot-wire CVD system constructed at the CSIR for the deposition of CNTs. Additionally, we will report on the structure of CNTs deposited... exhibit exceptional chemical and physical properties related to toughness, chemical inertness, magnetism, and electrical and thermal conductivity. A variety of preparation methods to synthesise CNTs are known, e.g. carbon-arc discharge, laser ablation...

  15. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  16. Effect of substrate nature on the electrochemical deposition of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrón-Reyes, A. F.; Domínguez-Vélez, V.; Morales-Morales, J. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates were obtained by reducing nitrate ions to produce hydroxide ions on TiO2/stainless steel and TiO2/titanium electrodes. TiO2 coatings on metallic substrates were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The morphology of deposits was observed by FESEM. Chemical nature of calcium phosphate deposits was identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy and FESEM/EDS microanalysis. Electrochemical behavior of nitrate and nitrite reduction on stainless steel and titanium electrodes was studied by linear sweep voltammetry. In addition, voltammetric study of the calcium phosphate electrodeposition on both electrodes was performed. From these measurements was selected the potential to form a calcium phosphate. A catalytic current associated to nitrate reduction reaction was obtained for stainless steel electrode, leading to significant deposition of calcium phosphate. Ca/P ratio for both substrates was less than 1.67. The formation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Effect of substrate nature on the electrochemical deposition of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdrón-Reyes, A F; Cabanzo, R; Meléndez, A M; Domínguez-Vélez, V; Morales-Morales, J A

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates were obtained by reducing nitrate ions to produce hydroxide ions on TiO 2 /stainless steel and TiO 2 /titanium electrodes. TiO 2 coatings on metallic substrates were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The morphology of deposits was observed by FESEM. Chemical nature of calcium phosphate deposits was identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy and FESEM/EDS microanalysis. Electrochemical behavior of nitrate and nitrite reduction on stainless steel and titanium electrodes was studied by linear sweep voltammetry. In addition, voltammetric study of the calcium phosphate electrodeposition on both electrodes was performed. From these measurements was selected the potential to form a calcium phosphate. A catalytic current associated to nitrate reduction reaction was obtained for stainless steel electrode, leading to significant deposition of calcium phosphate. Ca/P ratio for both substrates was less than 1.67. The formation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  18. Calcium carbonate crystallisation at the microscopic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Phillip Stephen

    2001-01-01

    The primary concern of this thesis is the investigation of crystal nucleation and growth processes, and the effect of foreign substrates on the rate, extent and mechanism of crystallisation, with particular emphasis on the calcium carbonate system. A methodology, based on the in-line mixing of two stable solutions, which permits the continuous delivery of a solution with a constant, known supersaturation, has been developed and characterised. This has been used to induce CaCO 3 crystallisation in experimental systems involving the channel flow and wall jet techniques. The channel flow method has been adapted to facilitate the study of crystal growth at a single calcite crystal. Ca 2+ ion selective electrodes have been employed as a means of monitoring depletion of the supersaturated solution, downstream of the crystal substrate. The data obtained suggested a growth rate constant of 3x10 -12 mol cm -2 s -1 (and a reaction order of 1.52 on supersaturation). The ex-situ techniques of optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to visualise changes in the calcite surface topography resulting from exposure to the growth solution. A technique based on an impinging jet of supersaturated solution was developed and characterised as a method for inducing crystal growth on foreign substrates under defined hydrodynamic control. When used in conjunction with the ex-situ techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy, the role of substrate and supersaturation on the morphology and polymorphology of the CaCOs microcrystals was determined. The technique also proved to be a powerful tool for the evaluation of scale inhibiting surface coatings. The combination of the impinging jet method with thin transparent substrates allowed in-situ observation, through optical microscopy, of the induction and growth of CaCO 3 microcrystals on foreign substrates. A number of substrates, displaying various surface energies

  19. CALCIUM CARBONATE DISSOLUTION RATE IN LIMESTONE CONTACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of carbonate mineral dissolution from limestone was studied using a rotating disk apparatus and samples of limestone of varied composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of limestone composition on the kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution. Th...

  20. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...

  1. Magnesium sulphate’s influence on calcium carbonate minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mia Rohde

    The purpose of this PhD thesis was to explore the influence of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 (aq)) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals and what role the MgSO40 ion pair had. CaCO3 minerals are abundant and widespread on Earth, particularly in marine environments, and have been so throughout Earth...

  2. Micro and colloidal stickie pacification with precipitated calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Roland L. Gleisner; Marguerite S. Sykes

    2002-01-01

    Colloidal stickies that build up in mill process water during pulping are problematic and difficult to remove. We examined precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) as a means to ameliorate process water stickies. The effectiveness of PCC added directly into a slurry of deinked pulp was compared with in situ precipitation of PCC by the fiber loading method. We found that...

  3. Calcium carbonate microspheres as carriers for the anticancer drug camptothecin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Neng [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bio-pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu ,610065 (China); Yin, Huabing, E-mail: huabing.yin@glasgow.ac.uk [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Ji, Bozhi; Klauke, Norbert; Glidle, Andrew [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yongkui; Song, Hang [Department of Bio-pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu ,610065 (China); Cai, Lulu; Ma, Liang; Wang, Guangcheng [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuan17@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Wenwen [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic calcium carbonate has come to the attention of many researchers as a promising drug delivery system due to its safety, pH sensitivity and the large volume of information already in existence on its medical use. In this study, we employed bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an additive to synthesize a series of porous calcium carbonate microspheres (CCMS). These spheres, identified as vaterite, are stable both in aqueous solutions and organic solvents. Camptothecin, an effective anticancer agent, was loaded into the CCMS by simple diffusion and adsorption. The camptothecin loaded CCMS showed sustained cell growth inhibitory activity and a pH dependent release of camptothecin. With a few hours, the release is negligible under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) but almost complete at pH 4 to 6 (i.e. pHs found in lysosomes and solid tumor tissue respectively). These findings suggest that porous, biogenic calcium carbonate microspheres could be promising carriers for the safe and efficient delivery of anticancer drugs of low aqueous solubility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BSA-doped calcium carbonate microspheres with porous structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Camptothecin was encapsulated in the spherical microparticles with encapsulation efficiency up to 11%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The release of encapsulated camptothecin is pH dependent Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro studies showed an effective anticancer activity of the camptothecin- microspheres.

  4. Neutralization of acid-mine water with calcium-carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Lime is used for the neutralization of acidic effluents. Calcium carbonate should be considered as an alternative because of considerations such as lower cost, low solubility at pH values greater than 7 and simple dosing system...

  5. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction

  6. Calcific tendinitis of the shoulder in basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Mazzilli, M.P.; Orzincolo, C.

    1986-01-01

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition can lead to periarticular collections associated with typical radiographic findings, most frequently observed in the shoulder. Moreover, these deposits may be revealed in other articular sites (i.e.,wrist, hand, foot, elbow, hip, etc.). Initially, the calcium deposits may appear poorly defined (cloudlike); sequently, they may reveal different patterns (linear, triangular or circular areas), changing in size, configuration and site. Adjacent bone may be normal, altough osteoporosis, cystic lesions and reactive sclerosis are reported. The radiographic appearance of calcifications will depend upon the exact location of the deposits in the specific tendon of the rotator cuff, the adjacent bursae and the soft tissues

  7. Preparation, physical-chemical characterisation and cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, C; Miao, Baoji; Bareille, Reine; Rey, Christian

    2006-03-01

    The feasibility of calcium carbonate cements involving the recrystallisation of metastable calcium carbonate varieties has been demonstrated. Calcium carbonate cement compositions presented in this paper can be prepared straightforwardly by simply mixing water (liquid phase) with two calcium carbonate phases (solid phase) which can be easily obtained by precipitation. An original cement composition was obtained by mixing amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite with an aqueous medium. The cement set and hardened within 2h at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere saturated with water and the final composition of the cement consisted mostly of aragonite. The hardened cement was microporous and showed poor mechanical properties. Cytotoxicity tests revealed excellent cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cement compositions. Calcium carbonates with a higher solubility than the apatite formed for most of the marketed calcium phosphate cements might be of interest to increase biomedical cement resorption rates and to favour its replacement by bone tissue.

  8. Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron M, A.; Ramos B, S.; Camargo R, C.; Uribe, R. M.; Gomez V, V.; Kobayashi, K.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses, for the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. The irradiation doses with the electron beam were from 0.015 to 9 MGy, and with Carbon beam from 1.5 kGy to 8 kGy. High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. The response of one of the radicals decreased with the dose. These measurements are reproducible; the preparation of the sample is simple and inexpensive; and the signal is stable for several months. The response curves show that the dosimeter tends to saturate at 10 MGy. Based on these properties, we propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation. (author)

  9. Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negron M, A.; Ramos B, S.; Camargo R, C. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Uribe, R. M. [Kent State University, College of Technology, Kent OH (United States); Gomez V, V. [UNAM, Instituto de Quimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kobayashi, K., E-mail: negron@nucleares.unam.mx [Yokohama National University (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses, for the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. The irradiation doses with the electron beam were from 0.015 to 9 MGy, and with Carbon beam from 1.5 kGy to 8 kGy. High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. The response of one of the radicals decreased with the dose. These measurements are reproducible; the preparation of the sample is simple and inexpensive; and the signal is stable for several months. The response curves show that the dosimeter tends to saturate at 10 MGy. Based on these properties, we propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation. (author)

  10. Silver deposition on chemically treated carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zoran M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monolith was treated with HNO3, KOH and H2O2. Effects of these treatments on the surface functional groups and on the amount of silver deposited on the CM surface were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. As a result of chemical treatment there was an increase in the amount of surface oxygen complexes. The increase in the amount of silver deposit is proportional to the amount of surface groups that produce CO under decomposition. However, the high amount of CO groups, decomposing above 600°C, induces the smaller Ag crystallite size. Therefore, the high temperature CO evolving oxides are, most likely, the initial centers for Ag deposition.

  11. Precipitation of calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions in presence of ethylene glycol and dodecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsi, Panagiota D.; Rokidi, Stamatia; Koutsoukos, Petros G.

    2015-04-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in aqueous supersaturated solutions has been intensively studied over the past decades, because of its significance for a number of processes of industrial and environmental interest. In the oil and gas production industry the deposition of calcium carbonate affects adversely the productivity of the wells. Calcium carbonate scale deposits formation causes serious problems in water desalination, CO2 sequestration in subsoil wells, in geothermal systems and in heat exchangers because of the low thermal coefficient of the salt. Amelioration of the operational conditions is possible only when the mechanisms underlying nucleation and crystal growth of calcium carbonate in the aqueous fluids is clarified. Given the fact that in oil production processes water miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons are present the changes of the dielectric constant of the fluid phase has serious impact in the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation, which remains largely unknown. The problem becomes even more complicated if polymorphism exhibited by calcium carbonate is also taken into consideration. In the present work, the stability of aqueous solutions supersaturated with respect to all calcium carbonate polymorphs and the subsequent kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation were measured. The measurements included aqueous solutions and solutions in the presence of water miscible (ethylene glycol, MEG) and water immiscible organics (n-dodecane). All measurements were done at conditions of sustained supersaturation using the glass/ Ag/AgCl combination electrode as a probe of the precipitation and pH as the master variable for the addition of titrant solutions with appropriate concentration needed to maintenance the solution supersaturation. Initially, the metastable zone width was determined from measurements of the effect of the solution supersaturation on the induction time preceding the onset of precipitation at free-drift conditions. The

  12. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  13. Bone response adjacent to calcium phosphate electrostatic spray deposition coated implants: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, P.J.D.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new technique to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates has been developed recently. This electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique seems to be very promising. It appears to have clinical advantages such as an inexpensive and simple set-up, high

  14. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 adsorption by calcium zirconate was explored at pre- and post- combustion temperature condition. The several samples of the calcium zirconate were prepared by different methods such as sol-gel, solid-solid fusion, template and micro-emulsion. The samples of the calcium zirconate were characterized by measurement of surface area, alkalinity/acidity, and recording the XRD patterns and SEM images. The CO2 adsorptions by samples of the calcium zirconate were studied in the temperature range 100 to 850 oC and the CO2 adsorptions were observed in the ranges of 6.88 to 40.6 wt % at 600 0C and 8 to 16.82 wt% at in between the temperatures 200 to 300 oC. The effect of Ca/Zr mol ratio in the samples of the calcium zirconate on the CO2 adsorption and alkalinity were discussed. The adsorbed moisture by the samples of the calcium zirconate was found to be useful for the CO2 adsorption. The promoted the samples of the calcium zirconate by K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, Ag+ and La3+ showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The exposure time of CO2 on the samples of the calcium zirconate showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The samples of the calcium zirconate were found to be regenerable and reusable several times for the adsorption of CO2 for at the post- and pre-combustion temperature condition. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC Undip. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd June 2012, Revised: 28th August 2012, Accepted: 30th August 2012[How to Cite: K. B. Kale, R. Y. Raskar, V. H. Rane and A. G.  Gaikwad (2012. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 124-136. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136 ] | View in 

  15. Precipitation diagram of calcium carbonate polymorphs: its construction and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Jun; Shimobayashi, Norimasa; Miyake, Akira; Kitamura, Masao

    2009-01-01

    In order to interpret the formation mechanism of calcium carbonate polymorphs, we propose and construct a new 'precipitation diagram', which has two variables: the driving force for nucleation and temperature. The precipitation experiments were carried out by mixing calcium chloride and sodium carbonate aqueous solutions. As a result, a calcite-vaterite co-precipitation zone, a vaterite precipitation zone, a vaterite-aragonite co-precipitation zone and an aragonite precipitation zone can be defined. Theoretical considerations suggest that the steady state nucleation theory can explain well the appearance of these four zones, and the first-order importance of the temperature dependency of surface free energy in the nucleation of aragonite. Furthermore, the addition of an impurity will likely result in the change of these energies, and this precipitation diagram gives a new basis for interpreting the nature of the polymorphs precipitated in both inorganic and biological environments.

  16. Determination of cholesterol, calcium carbonate and bilirubinate of gallstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Y.; Nazneen, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    Gallstones of seven patients were collected from different parts of North West Frontier and Punjab provinces. These stones were analyzed using Liebermann-Burchard method, estimation technique and Microlab-200 for cholesterol, calcium carbonate (CaCO/sub 3/) and bilirubinate respectively. The levels of cholesterol bilirubinate and CaCO/sub 3/ were found in the ranges of 50-81, 12-40 and 7-19% respectively. All of the stones were found to be mixed type stones that contain cholesterol, bilirubinate and calcium carbonate. The structures of the stones are also shown in the picture, which confirm our analysis data. Possible reasons, which cause formation of gallstones, are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. On Calcium Carbonates: from Fundamental Research to Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brečević, Ljerka; Kralj, Damir

    2007-01-01

    Appearance of a solid phase from aqueous solution, known as precipitation, is responsible for the formation of numerous natural materials and technological products. Therefore, the knowledge on mechanisms of elementary processes involved in precipitation should be considered in the areas such as geology, oceanology, biomineralization, medicine, basic chemical and pharmaceutical industries, analytical and materials chemistry in particular. Calcium carbonates are a very suitable model system fo...

  18. Mechanical properties of polypropylene/calcium carbonate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in both tensile and impact mechanical properties of a polypropylene homopolymer. Four compositions of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites were prepared in a co-rotational twin screw extruder machine with calcium carbonate content of 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt. (% The tests included SEM analyzes together with EDS analyzer and FTIR spectroscopy for calcium carbonate, tensile and impact tests for PP and the nanocomposites. The results showed an increase in PP elastic modulus and a little increase in yield stress. Brittle-to-ductile transition temperature was reduced and the impact resistance increased with the addition of nanoparticles. From the stress-strain curves we determined the occurrence of debonding process before yielding leading to stress softening. Debonding stress was determined from stress-strain curves corresponding to stress in 1% strain. We concluded that the tensile properties depend on the surface contact area of nanoparticles and on their dispersion. Finally we believe that the toughening was due to the formation of diffuse shear because of debonding process.

  19. Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Toptygina, G.M.; Soklakova, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions was studied, using methods of potentiometry, isothermal solubility and physicochemical computer simulating. The Gibb's energy value for crystal indium trihydroxide formation was calculated on the basis of experimental data on In(OH) 3 solubility. The value obtained was used for estimating equilibrium composition of InCl 3 -HCl-CaCO 3 -CO 2 -H 2 O system at a temperature of 25 deg C and carbon dioxide partial pressure of 0.05 to 1 at

  20. Homogeneous calcium carbonate coating obtained by electrodeposition: in situ atomic force microscope observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavez, Jorge; Silva, Juan F.; Melo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the first stages of the crystallization of an electrochemically deposited calcium carbonate on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode has been investigated. The electrodeposition was driven applying a constant negative potential to a NaHCO 3 and CaCl 2 solution saturated with molecular oxygen. By this way, novel data about the kinetics of the crystal growth of CaCO 3 were collected from the AFM images. The results show that at the solution supersaturation levels used, the crystal growth occurred by a uniform surface nucleation mechanism. During the growth of the initial nuclei, the surface of the electrode was covered progressively by the growth of flat multilayers having triangular faces. The height of these structures ranged from one to several molecular layers of calcium carbonate. At the end of the crystallization process, the roughness of the electrode surface is reduced in average to two monolayers. Thus, our method provides a useful way to electrodeposit a nearly uniform layer of calcium carbonate on a variety of surfaces of potential applications

  1. Surface Modification and Planar Defects of Calcium Carbonates by Magnetic Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh MS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Powdery calcium carbonates, predominantly calcite and aragonite, with planar defects and cation–anion mixed surfaces as deposited on low-carbon steel by magnetic water treatment (MWT were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and vibration spectroscopy. Calcite were found to form faceted nanoparticles having 3x ( commensurate superstructure and with well-developed { } and { } surfaces to exhibit preferred orientations. Aragonite occurred as laths having 3x ( commensurate superstructure and with well-developed ( surface extending along [100] direction up to micrometers in length. The (hkil-specific coalescence of calcite and rapid lath growth of aragonite under the combined effects of Lorentz force and a precondensation event account for a beneficial larger particulate/colony size for the removal of the carbonate scale from the steel substrate. The coexisting magnetite particles have well-developed {011} surfaces regardless of MWT.

  2. The Effect of Cell Immobilization by Calcium Alginate on Bacterially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Seifan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially induced mineral precipitation is recognized as a widespread phenomenon in nature. A diverse range of minerals including carbonate, sulphides, silicates, and phosphates can be produced through biomineralization. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is one of the most common substances used in various industries and is mostly extracted by mining. In recent years, production of CaCO3 by bacteria has drawn much attention because it is an environmentally- and health-friendly pathway. Although CaCO3 can be produced by some genera of bacteria through autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways, the possibility of producing CaCO3 in different environmental conditions has remained a challenge to determine. In this study, calcium alginate was proposed as a protective carrier to increase the bacterial tolerance to extreme environmental conditions. The model showed that the highest concentration of CaCO3 is achieved when the bacterial cells are immobilized in the calcium alginate beads fabricated using 1.38% w/v Na-alginate and 0.13 M CaCl2.

  3. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  4. Study of Factors Related to Magnetic Treatment of Calcium Carbonate Saturated Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    ..., calcium carbonate concentration and number of magnetic device attached. XRD of crystals gave relative proportions of calcite and aragonite present and XRF measured transition metals and elements known to substitute for calcium in scale...

  5. Single particle composition measurements of artificial Calcium Carbonate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, S. R.; Mentel, T. F.; Schwinger, T.; Croteau, P. L.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Trimborn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust, with an estimated total source from natural and anthropogenic emissions of up to 2800 Tg/yr, is one of the two largest contributors to total aerosol mass, with only Sea salt having a similar source strength (up to 2600 Tg/yr). The composition of dust particles varies strongly depending on the production process and, most importantly, the source location. Therefore, the composition of single dust particles can be used both to trace source regions of air masses as well as to identify chemical aging processes. Here we present results of laboratory studies on generating artificial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, a model compound for carbonaceous mineral dust particles. Particles were generated by atomizing an aqueous hydrogen carbonate solution. Water was removed using a silica diffusion dryer., then the particles were processed in an oven at temperatures up to 900°C, converting the hydrogen carbonate to its anhydrous form. The resulting aerosol was analyzed using an on-line single particle laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF). The results confirm the conversion to calcium carbonate, and validate that the produced particles indeed can be used as a model compound for carbonaceous dust aerosols.

  6. Effect of calcium carbonate on hardening, physicochemical properties, and in vitro degradation of injectable calcium phosphate cements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariibrahimoglu, K.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main disadvantage of apatitic calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is their slow degradation rate, which limits complete bone regeneration. Carbonate (CO(3)(2)(-)) is the common constituent of bone and it can be used to improve the degradability of the apatitic calcium phosphate ceramics. This study

  7. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...

  8. Drug loading into porous calcium carbonate microparticles by solvent evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisig, Daniel; Haid, David; Varum, Felipe J O; Bravo, Roberto; Alles, Rainer; Huwyler, Jörg; Puchkov, Maxim

    2014-08-01

    Drug loading into porous carriers may improve drug release of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, the widely used impregnation method based on adsorption lacks reproducibility and efficiency for certain compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate a drug-loading method based on solvent evaporation and crystallization, and to investigate the underlying drug-loading mechanisms. Functionalized calcium carbonate (FCC) microparticles and four drugs with different solubility and permeability properties were selected as model substances to investigate drug loading. Ibuprofen, nifedipine, losartan potassium, and metronidazole benzoate were dissolved in acetone or methanol. After dispersion of FCC, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. For each model drug, a series of drug loads were produced ranging from 25% to 50% (w/w) in steps of 5% (w/w). Loading efficiency was qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the presence of agglomerates and drug crystals as indicators of poor loading efficiency. The particles were further characterized by mercury porosimetry, specific surface area measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and USP2 dissolution. Drug concentration was determined by HPLC. FCC-drug mixtures containing equivalent drug fractions but without specific loading strategy served as reference samples. SEM analysis revealed high efficiency of pore filling up to a drug load of 40% (w/w). Above this, agglomerates and separate crystals were significantly increased, indicating that the maximum capacity of drug loading was reached. Intraparticle porosity and specific surface area were decreased after drug loading because of pore filling and crystallization on the pore surface. HPLC quantification of drugs taken up by FCC showed only minor drug loss. Dissolution rate of FCC loaded with metronidazole benzoate and nifedipine was faster than the corresponding FCC-drug mixtures, mainly due to surface enlargement, because only small

  9. Gas analysis during the chemical vapor deposition of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, M.L.; Noles, G.T.

    1973-01-01

    Gas chromatographic analyses were performed during the chemical vapor deposition of carbon in both isothermal and thermal gradient systems. Such data offer insight into the gas phase processes which occur during deposition and the interrelations which exist between gas composition, deposition rate, and resultant structure of the deposit. The results support a carbon CVD model presented previously. The application of chromatographic analysis to research, development, and full-scale facilities is shown. (U.S.)

  10. Calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate mixed cement compositions for bone reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, C; Bareille, R; Rey, C

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of making calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate (CaCO(3)-CaP) mixed cements, comprising at least 40% (w/w) CaCO(3) in the dry powder ingredients, has been demonstrated. Several original cement compositions were obtained by mixing metastable crystalline CaCO(3) phases with metastable amorphous or crystalline CaP powders in aqueous medium. The cements set within at most 1 h at 37 degrees C in atmosphere saturated with water. The hardened cement is microporous and exhibits weak compressive strength. The setting reaction appeared to be essentially related to the formation of a highly carbonated nanocrystalline apatite phase by reaction of the metastable CaP phase with part or almost all of the metastable CaCO(3) phase. The recrystallization of metastable CaP varieties led to a final cement consisting of a highly carbonated poorly crystalline apatite analogous to bone mineral associated with various amounts of vaterite and/or aragonite. The presence of controlled amounts of CaCO(3) with a higher solubility than that of the apatite formed in the well-developed CaP cements might be of interest to increase resorption rates in biomedical cement and favors its replacement by bone tissue. Cytotoxicity testing revealed excellent cytocompatibility of CaCO(3)-CaP mixed cement compositions.

  11. Role of calcium-depositing bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its influence on corrosion of different engineering metals used in cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Selvi, Adikesavan; Gobinath, Rajagopalan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-12-01

    The present investigation deals with the role of calcium-depositing bacterial community on corrosion of various engineering metals, namely, brass alloy (BS), copper (Cu), stainless steel (SS) and mild steel (MS). Based on the corrosion behavior, Agrobacterium tumefaciens EN13, an aerobic bacterium is identified as calcium-depositing bacteria on engineering metals. The results of the study are supported with biochemical characterization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, calcium quantification, weight loss, electrochemical (impedance and polarization) and surface analysis (XRD and FTIR) studies. The calcium quantification study showed carbonate precipitation in abiotic system/biotic system as 50 and 700 ppm, respectively. FTIR results too confirmed the accumulation of calcium deposits from the environment on the metal surface by EN13. Electrochemical studies too supported the corrosion mechanism by showing a significant increase in the charge transfer resistance ( R ct ) of abiotic system (44, 33.6, 45, 29.6 Ω cm 2 ) than compared to biotic system (41, 10.1 29 and 25 Ω cm 2 ). Hence, the outcome of the present study confirmed the enhanced bioaccumulation behavior of calcium by the strain, EN13.

  12. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of cellular influences caused by calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Fujita, Katsuhide; Nakamura, Ayako; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-05

    The cellular effects of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) nanoparticles were evaluated. Three kinds of CaCO₃ nanoparticles were employed in our examinations. One of the types of CaCO₃ nanoparticles was highly soluble. And solubility of another type of CaCO₃ nanoparticle was lower. A stable CaCO₃ nanoparticle medium dispersion was prepared and applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Then, mitochondrial activity, cell membrane damage, colony formation ability, DNA injury, induction of oxidative stress, and apoptosis were evaluated. Although the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles on mitochondrial activity and cell membrane damage were small, "soluble" CaCO₃ nanoparticles exerted some cellular influences. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles also induced a cell morphological change. Colony formation was inhibited by CaCO₃ nanoparticle exposure. In particular, soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles completely inhibited colony formation. The influence on intracellular the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was small. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles caused an increase in C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, CaCO₃ exposure increased intracellular the Ca²⁺ level and activated calpain. These results suggest that cellular the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles are mainly caused by intracellular calcium release and subsequently disrupt the effect of calcium signaling. In conclusion, there is possibility that soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles induce cellular influences such as a cell morphological change. Cellular influence of CaCO₃ nanoparticles is caused by intracellular calcium release. If inhaled CaCO₃ nanoparticles have the potential to influence cellular events. However, the effect might be not severe because calcium is omnipresent element in cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coaxial carbon plasma gun deposition of amorphous carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, D. M.; Gulino, D. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique plasma gun employing coaxial carbon electrodes was used in an attempt to deposit thin films of amorphous diamond-like carbon. A number of different structural, compositional, and electrical characterization techniques were used to characterize these films. These included scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and absorption, spectrographic analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were also performed. The films were determined to be primarily amorphous, with poor adhesion to fused silica substrates. Many inclusions of particulates were found to be present as well. Analysis of these particulates revealed the presence of trace impurities, such as Fe and Cu, which were also found in the graphite electrode material. The electrodes were the source of these impurities. No evidence of diamond-like crystallite structure was found in any of the film samples. Details of the apparatus, experimental procedure, and film characteristics are presented.

  15. Coaxial carbon plasma gun deposition of amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sater, D.M.; Gulino, D.A.

    1984-03-01

    A unique plasma gun employing coaxial carbon electrodes was used in an attempt to deposit thin films of amorphous diamond-like carbon. A number of different structural, compositional, and electrical characterization techniques were used to characterize these films. These included scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and absorption, spectrographic analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were also performed. The films were determined to be primarily amorphous, with poor adhesion to fused silica substrates. Many inclusions of particulates were found to be present as well. Analysis of these particulates revealed the presence of trace impurities, such as Fe and Cu, which were also found in the graphite electrode material. The electrodes were the source of these impurities. No evidence of diamond-like crystallite structure was found in any of the film samples. Details of the apparatus, experimental procedure, and film characteristics are presented

  16. Nacre-like calcium carbonate controlled by ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chengli; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying

    2015-06-01

    Nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures have been mediated by an ionic liquid (IL)-graphene oxide (GO) composite template. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) or graphene oxide can act as a soft template for calcium carbonate formation with unusual morphologies. Based on the time-dependent morphology changes of calcium carbonate particles, it is concluded that nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures can be formed gradually utilizing [BMIM]BF4/GO composite template. During the process of calcium carbonate formation, [BMIM]BF4 acted not only as solvents but also as morphology templates for the fabrication of calcium carbonate materials with nacre-like morphology. Based on the observations, the possible mechanisms were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sintesa Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) dari Cangkang Kerang Darah (Anadara Granosa) dengan Variasi Ukuran Partikel dan Waktu Karbonasi

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Lucy; Amri, Amun; Zultiniar, Zultiniar; Yelmida, Yelmida

    2015-01-01

    Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) is a product of the processing of natural materials containing calcium carbonate resulting from the precipitation process with high purity. Bloodcockle shell can be used as a source of calcium for precipitated Calcium Carbonate. The purpose of this study to produce PCC of waste shells blood with carbonation method and determine the particle size of the PCC and the best carbonation time. Synthesis performed using carbonation method by adding nitric acid to ...

  18. Effects of temperature during the irradiation of calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negron M, A.; Camargo R, C.; Ramos B, S. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez V, V. [UNAM, Instituto de Quimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Uribe, R. M., E-mail: negron@nucleares.unam.mx [Kent State University, College of Technology, Kent 44240 Ohio (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The gamma irradiation of calcium carbonate at different doses (0 to 309 kGy) and temperature regimes (77 K to 298 K) was carried out to study the effects of irradiation temperature. The changes were followed by EPR spectroscopy. We observed the formation of a composite EPR spectrum even at low radiation doses and temperature. There is a strong effect on the evaluation of the radicals formed as a function of irradiation temperature, probably due to the diffusion in the frozen powder. Response curves show that this system tends to saturate at 10 MGy at 298 K. (Author)

  19. Effects of temperature during the irradiation of calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron M, A.; Camargo R, C.; Ramos B, S.; Gomez V, V.; Uribe, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    The gamma irradiation of calcium carbonate at different doses (0 to 309 kGy) and temperature regimes (77 K to 298 K) was carried out to study the effects of irradiation temperature. The changes were followed by EPR spectroscopy. We observed the formation of a composite EPR spectrum even at low radiation doses and temperature. There is a strong effect on the evaluation of the radicals formed as a function of irradiation temperature, probably due to the diffusion in the frozen powder. Response curves show that this system tends to saturate at 10 MGy at 298 K. (Author)

  20. The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available -step) process was tested. Although only a low-grade CaCO3 product (86-88 mass% as CaCO3) could be produced, experimental results on the characteristics of CaS in the presence of CO2 in the CaS-H2O-CO2 system showed that the reaction proceeded in two distinct... stages. In the first stage, CaS dissolution took place, with H2S stripping occurring in the second stage. Calcium carbonation and the resulting precipitation of CaCO3 were concurrent with the CaS dissolution and the H2S stripping reactions. Because...

  1. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Co-precipitation of mineral based salts in scaling is still not well understood and/or thermodynamically well defined in the water industry. This study focuses on investigating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sulfate mixed precipitation in scaling which is commonly observed in industrial water treatment processes including seawater desalination either by thermal-based or membrane-based processes. Co-precipitation kinetics were studied carefully by monitoring several parameters simultaneously measured, including: pH, calcium and alkalinity concentrations as well as quartz microbalance responses. The CaCO3 germination in mixed precipitation was found to be different than that of simple precipitation. Indeed, the co-precipitation of CaCO3 germination time was not anymore related to supersaturation as in a simple homogenous precipitation, but was significantly reduced when the gypsum crystals appeared first. On the other hand, the calcium sulfate crystals appear to reduce the energetic barrier of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the nature of scales structures. Gypsum was found to be the dominant precipitate while calcite and especially vaterite were found at lower proportions. These analyses showed also that gypsum crystals promote calcite crystallization to the detriment of other forms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Carbon nanopipettes characterize calcium release pathways in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrlau, Michael G; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J; Patel, Sandip; Gogotsi, Yury; Bau, Haim H

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-based nanoprobes are attractive for minimally invasive cell interrogation but their application in cell physiology has thus far been limited. We have developed carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with nanoscopic tips and used them to inject calcium-mobilizing messengers into cells without compromising cell viability. We identify pathways sensitive to cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPr) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) in breast carcinoma cells. Our findings demonstrate the superior utility of CNPs for intracellular delivery of impermeant molecules and, more generally, for cell physiology studies. The CNPs do not appear to cause any lasting damage to cells. Their advantages over commonly used glass pipettes include smaller size, breakage and clogging resistance, and potential for multifunctionality such as in concurrent injection and electrical measurements

  3. Carbon nanopipettes characterize calcium release pathways in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrlau, Michael G [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J [Department of Pharmacology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Patel, Sandip [Department of Physiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gogotsi, Yury [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bau, Haim H [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, 229 Towne Building, 220 S. 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: mschrlau@seas.upenn.edu, E-mail: ebrailou@temple.edu, E-mail: patel.s@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: yg36@drexel.edu, E-mail: ndun@temple.edu, E-mail: bau@seas.upenn.edu

    2008-08-13

    Carbon-based nanoprobes are attractive for minimally invasive cell interrogation but their application in cell physiology has thus far been limited. We have developed carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with nanoscopic tips and used them to inject calcium-mobilizing messengers into cells without compromising cell viability. We identify pathways sensitive to cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPr) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) in breast carcinoma cells. Our findings demonstrate the superior utility of CNPs for intracellular delivery of impermeant molecules and, more generally, for cell physiology studies. The CNPs do not appear to cause any lasting damage to cells. Their advantages over commonly used glass pipettes include smaller size, breakage and clogging resistance, and potential for multifunctionality such as in concurrent injection and electrical measurements.

  4. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO 2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14 CO 2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH) 2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH) 2 . Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  5. Intensified Vegetation Water Use due to Soil Calcium Leaching under Acid Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, M.; Wang, L.; Scanlon, T. M.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Adams, M. B.; Epstein, H. E.; Druckenbrod, D.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the important role vegetation plays in the global water cycle, the exact controls of vegetation water use, especially the role of soil biogeochemistry, remain elusive. Nitrate and sulfate deposition from fossil fuel burning has caused significant soil acidification, leading to the leaching of soil base cations. From a physiological perspective, plants require various soil cations as signaling and regulatory ions as well as integral parts of structural molecules; a depletion of soil cations can cause reduced productivity and abnormal responses to environmental change. A deficiency in calcium could also potentially prolong stomatal opening, leading to increased transpiration until enough calcium had been acquired to stimulate stomatal closure. Based on the plant physiology and the nature of acidic deposition, we hypothesize that depletion of the soil calcium supply, induced by acid deposition, would intensify vegetation water use at the watershed scale. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a long-term and unique data set (1989-2012) of soil lysimeter data along with stream flow and evapotranspiration data at the Fernow Experimental Forest. We show that depletion of soil calcium by acid deposition can intensify vegetation water use ( 10% increase in evapotranspiration and depletion in soil water) for the first time. These results are critical to understanding future water availability, biogeochemical cycles, and surficial energy flux and may help reduce uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere models.

  6. Calcium carbonate solubility: a reappraisal of scale formation and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, J Y; Bollinger, J C; Tolosa, H; Gache, N

    1996-09-01

    Considerable disparity exists in the published thermodynamic data for selected species in the Ca(2+) /CO(2)/H(2)O system near 25 degrees C and 1 atm pressure. Some authors doubt the significance of CaCO(3)(0)aq) complexes although there is experimental evidence of their occurrence. Evaluation of all the published experimental and estimated data for aqueous calcium carbonate species confirms that the consistent set of constants given by Plummer and Busenberg in 1982 is the best available, and suggests a formation constant log beta = 3.22 for CaCO(3)(0)(aq). This value was confirmed by additional experimental data and calculations using a specially developed computer program. The solubility s and solubility product K(s) are critically evaluated for each solid polymorph (amorphous CaCO(3), ikaite, vaterite, aragonite and calcite) using a hydrated ion pair model and we give coherent explanations for the calcium carbonate precipitation/dissolution process and the existence of supersaturated waters. The practical cases of scale formation and its inhibition by phosphonate-type compounds are discussed and explained with the same model, taking into account the CaCO(3)(0)(aq) species.

  7. Protein mapping of calcium carbonate biominerals by immunogold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Frédéric; Pokroy, Boaz; Luquet, Gilles; Layrolle, Pierre; De Groot, Klaas

    2007-05-01

    The construction of metazoan calcium carbonate skeletons is finely regulated by a proteinaceous extracellular matrix, which remains embedded within the exoskeleton. In spite of numerous biochemical studies, the precise localization of skeletal proteins has remained for a long time as an elusive goal. In this paper, we describe a technique for visualizing shell matrix proteins on the surface of calcium carbonate crystals or within the biominerals. The technique is as follows: freshly broken pieces of biominerals or NaOCl then EDTA-etched polished surfaces are incubated with an antibody elicited against one matrix protein, then with a secondary gold-coupled antibody. After silver enhancement, the samples are subsequently observed with scanning electron microscopy by using back-scattered electron mode. In the present case, the technique is applied to a particular example, the calcitic prisms that compose the outer shell layer of the mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis. One major soluble protein, caspartin, which was identified recently, was partly de novo sequenced after enzymatic digestions. A polyclonal antibody raised against caspartin was used for its localization within and on the prisms. The immunogold localization indicated that caspartin surrounds the calcitic prisms, but is also dispersed within the biominerals. This example illustrates the deep impact of the technique on the definition of intracrystalline versus intercrystalline matrix proteins. Furthermore, it is an important tool for assigning a putative function to a matrix protein of interest.

  8. Hereditary deafness with hydrops and anomalous calcium phosphate deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, L.G.; Rouse, R.C.; Hawkins, J.E. Jr.; Kingsley, T.C.; Wright, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The temporal bones from a 58-year-old white woman who had had hereditary congenital deafness were examined with the techniques of microdissection and surface preparations followed by sectioning of the modiolus. There was bilateral, almost total sensorineural degeneration, which also involved the saccule. The degeneration of the distal processes of the cochlear neurons in the osseous spiral lamina was almost complete, whereas numerous ganglion cells and proximal processes remained in the modiolus and the internal auditory canal. Severe cochleo-saccular hydrops was present in the left ear with Reissner's membrane bulging into the horizontal canal. X-ray diffraction and electron probe analysis were used to study the abnormal crystalline deposits in both ears. On the left side the saccular otoconia were composed of calcite, but the utricular macula was covered by a crust of apatite spherulites. More apatite occurred around the maculae and in the scala media. The cupulae were composed of apatite and octacalcium phosphate. On the right side the utricular otoconia were of normal calcite, but there was a deposit of apatite on the macula sacculi. The upper part of the scala media was completely filled by a deposit of apatite and octacalcium phosphate

  9. Hereditary deafness with hydrops and anomalous calcium phosphate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, L.G.; Rouse, R.C.; Hawkins, J.E. Jr.; Kingsley, T.C.; Wright, C.G.

    1981-11-01

    The temporal bones from a 58-year-old white woman who had had hereditary congenital deafness were examined with the techniques of microdissection and surface preparations followed by sectioning of the modiolus. There was bilateral, almost total sensorineural degeneration, which also involved the saccule. The degeneration of the distal processes of the cochlear neurons in the osseous spiral lamina was almost complete, whereas numerous ganglion cells and proximal processes remained in the modiolus and the internal auditory canal. Severe cochleo-saccular hydrops was present in the left ear with Reissner's membrane bulging into the horizontal canal. X-ray diffraction and electron probe analysis were used to study the abnormal crystalline deposits in both ears. On the left side the saccular otoconia were composed of calcite, but the utricular macula was covered by a crust of apatite spherulites. More apatite occurred around the maculae and in the scala media. The cupulae were composed of apatite and octacalcium phosphate. On the right side the utricular otoconia were of normal calcite, but there was a deposit of apatite on the macula sacculi. The upper part of the scala media was completely filled by a deposit of apatite and octacalcium phosphate.

  10. DECOMPOSITION STUDY OF CALCIUM CARBONATE IN COCKLE SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAKIMAH MOHAMED

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxide (CaO is recognized as an efficient carbon dioxide (CO2 adsorbent and separation of CO2 from gas stream using CaO based adsorbent is widely applied in gas purification process especially at high temperature reaction. CaO is normally been produced via thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 sources such as limestone which is obtained through mining and quarrying limestone hill. Yet, this study able to exploit the vast availability of waste resources in Malaysia which is cockle shell, as the potential biomass resources for CaCO3 and CaO. In addition, effect of particle size towards decomposition process is put under study using four particle sizes which are 0.125-0.25 mm, 0.25-0.5 mm, 1-2 mm, and 2-4 mm. Decomposition reactivity is conducted using Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA at heating rate of 20°C/minutes in inert (Nitrogen atmosphere. Chemical property analysis using x-ray fluorescence (XRF, shows cockle shell is made up of 97% Calcium (Ca element and CaO is produced after decomposition is conducted, as been analyzed by x-ray diffusivity (XRD analyzer. Besides, smallest particle size exhibits the highest decomposition rate and the process was observed to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy, E, of the process was found to vary from 179.38 to 232.67 kJ/mol. From Arrhenius plot, E increased when the particle size is larger. To conclude, cockle shell is a promising source for CaO and based on four different particles sizes used, sample at 0.125-0.25 mm offers the highest decomposition rate.

  11. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2018-06-15

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermodynamics of calcium-isotope-exchange reactions. 1. Exchange between isotopic calcium carbonates and aqueous calcium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.S.; Nash, C.P.; Rock, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the authors results for the direct experimental determination of the equilibrium constant for the calcium-isotope-exchange reaction 40 CaCO 3 (s) + 44 CaCl 2 (aq) reversible 44 CaCO 2 (s) + 40 CaCl 2 (aq). The reaction was studied in electrochemical double cells without liquid junction of the type shown in eq 2. The experimental value of the equilibrium constant at 295 +/- 2 K is K = 1.08 +/- 0.02. The experimental value for K is compared with the values of K calculated for various model reactions according to the statistical thermodynamic theory of isotope effects. The isotopic solid carbonates were modeled according to both the Debye and Kieffer theories. No structured models of solvated isotopic aqueous calcium ions yield calculated equilibrium constants in agreement with their experimental results. This conclusion is in agreement with published molecular dynamics calculations which show that the aqueous solvation of Ca 2 =(aq) is essentially unstructured

  13. Effects of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate on toxicity in ICR mice and on bone mineral density in an ovariectomized mice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Sherry; Chen, Jin Ching; Hsu, Chin Wei; Chang, Walter H, E-mail: whchang@cycu.edu.t [Center for Nano Bioengineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-16

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In the present study, we examined whether the bioavailability of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate can be improved by reducing the particle size. The morphology of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate was characterized by dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurements obtained from DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were comparable. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests were performed to establish the safety of these products after oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate were 1.3 and 2.3 g kg{sup -1} body weight, respectively. The results of our in vivo studies indicate that administering nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate can enhance the serum calcium concentration and maintain the whole-body bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice. These data suggest that nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate are more bioavailable than micro calcium carbonate and micro calcium citrate, respectively.

  14. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram Keshari

    2017-01-01

    enzymatically with CaCO3 , Mg-enriched CaCO3 and magnesium carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Hydrogels loaded with the enzyme urease were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing urea and different ratios of calcium and magnesium ions. Increasing...

  15. Calcium carbonate nucleation in an alkaline lake surface water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Hoch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Calcium concentration and calcite supersaturation (Ω) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water were determined during August of 1997, 2000, and 2001. PL surface water has Ω values of 10-16. Notwithstanding high Ω, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface water for several months. However, calcium solution addition to PL surface-water samples caused reproducible calcium carbonate mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Mean PL surface-water calcium concentration at nucleation was 2.33 mM (n = 10), a value about nine times higher than the ambient PL surface-water calcium concentration (0.26 mM); mean Ω at nucleation (109 with a standard deviation of 8) is about eight times the PL surface-water Ω. Calcium concentration and Ω regulated the calcium carbonate formation in PL nucleation experiments and surface water. Unfiltered samples nucleated at lower Ω than filtered samples. Calcium concentration and Ω at nucleation for experiments in the presence of added particles were within one standard deviation of the mean for all samples. Calcium carbonate formation rates followed a simple rate expression of the form, rate (mM/min) = A (Ω) + B. The best fit rate equation "Rate (Δ mM/Δ min) = -0.0026 Ω + 0.0175 (r = 0.904, n = 10)" was statistically significant at greater than the 0.01 confidence level and gives, after rearrangement, Ω at zero rate of 6.7. Nucleation in PL surface water and morphology of calcium carbonate particles formed in PL nucleation experiments and in PL surface-water samples suggest crystal growth inhibition by multiple substances present in PL surface water mediates PL calcium carbonate formation, but there is insufficient information to determine the chemical nature of all inhibitors.

  16. Calcium carbonate precipitation in the Cueva di Watapana on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer Mohr, van der C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitates as low Mg-calcite and aragonite in slightly brackish water in a cave in the Pleistocene Middle Terrace of southern Bonaire. The calcium carbonate precipitates at the atmosphere-water interface forming floating calcite scales (calcite ice). Aragonite crystals frequently

  17. Preparation of Ultra-fine Calcium Carbonate by a Solvent-free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate under solvent-free conditions with a supersonic airflow and at a low heating temperature leads to the synthesis of ultra-fine calcium carbonate. The reaction not only involves mild conditions, a simple operation, and high yields but also gives a high conversion rate.

  18. Evaluating the Contributions of Atmospheric Deposition of Carbon and Other Nutrients to Nitrification in Alpine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, K. M.; Mladenov, N.; Williams, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range of the Rocky Mountains contains undeveloped, barren soils, yet in this environment there is strong evidence for a microbial role in increased nitrogen (N) export. Barren soils in alpine environments are severely carbon-limited, which is the main energy source for microbial activity and sustenance of life. It has been shown that atmospheric deposition can contain high amounts of organic carbon (C). Atmospheric pollutants, dust events, and biological aerosols, such as bacteria, may be important contributors to the atmospheric organic C load. In this stage of the research we evaluated seasonal trends in the chemical composition and optical spectroscopic (fluorescence and UV-vis absorbance) signatures of snow, wet deposition, and dry deposition in an alpine environment at Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to obtain a better understanding of the sources and chemical character of atmospheric deposition. Our results reveal a positive trend between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and calcium, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in wet and dry deposition, which may be derived from such sources as dust and urban air pollution. We also observed the presence of seasonally-variable fluorescent components that may be attributed to fluorescent pigments in bacteria. These results are relevant because atmospheric inputs of carbon and other nutrients may influence nitrification in barren, alpine soils and, ultimately, the export of nitrate to alpine watersheds.

  19. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.; Bammi, A.; Barger-Lux, M.J.; Heaney, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Whole milk, chocolate milk, yogurt, imitation milk (prepared from dairy and nondairy products), cheese, and calcium carbonate were labeled with 45 Ca and administered as a series of test meals to 10 healthy postmenopausal women. Carrier Ca content of the test meals was held constant at 250 mg and subjects fasted before each meal. The absorbability of Ca from the six sources was compared by measuring fractional absorption by the double isotope method. The mean absorption values for all six sources were tightly clustered between 21 and 26% and none was significantly different from the others using one-way analysis of variance. We conclude that none of the sources was significantly superior or inferior to the others

  20. Electrophoretic deposition of calcium silicate-reduced graphene oxide composites on titanium substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mehdi; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Talebian, Sepehr

    2016-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS)/graphene coatings have been used to improve the biological and mechanical fixation of metallic prosthesis. Among the extraordinary features of graphene is its very high mechanical strength, which makes it an attractive nanoreinforcement material for composites. Calcium...... silicate-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO) composites were synthesized, using an in situ hydrothermal method. CS nanowires were uniformly decorated on the rGO, with an appropriate interfacial bonding. The CS-rGO composites behaved like hybrid composites when deposited on a titanium substrate by cathodic...

  1. No Calcium-Fluoride-Like Deposits Detected in Plaque Shortly after a Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinse

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, G.L.; Tenuta, L.M.A.; Schumacher, G.E.; Chow, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Plaque ‘calcium-fluoride-like’ (CaF2-like) and fluoride deposits held by biological/bacterial calcium fluoride (Ca-F) bonds appear to be the source of cariostatic concentrations of fluoride in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of plaque fluoride held in these reservoirs after a sodium fluoride rinse. 30 and 60 min after a 228 μg/g fluoride rinse, plaque samples were collected from 11 volunteers. Each sample was homogenized, split into 2 aliquots (aliquots 1 and 2...

  2. Carbonate deposition, Pyramid Lake subbasin, Nevada: 1. Sequence of formation and elevational distribution of carbonate deposits (Tufas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.

    1994-01-01

    During the late Quarternary, the elevation of terrace cutting and carbonate deposition in the Pyramid Lake subbasin were controlled by constancy of lake level imposed by spill to adjoining subbasins. Sill elevations are 1177-1183 m (Mud Lake Slough Sill), 1207 m (Emerson Pass Sill), and 1265 m (Darwin Pass Sill). Carbonate deposition was favored by: (1) hydrologic closure, (2) proximity to a source of calcium, (3) elevated water temperature, and (4) a solid substrate. The thickness and aspect of tufa are a function oflake-level dynamics. Relatively thin sheets and pendant sheets were deposited during a rising or falling lake. The upper parts of thick reef-form tufas have a horizontal aspect and were deposited in a lake which was stabilized by spill to the Carson Desert subbasin. The lower parts of the reef-form tufas are thinner and their outer surface has a vertical aspect, indicating that the lower part formed in a receding lake. The thickest and most complete sequences of tufa are mounds that border the Pyramid Lake shore. The tops of the tallest mounds reach the elevation of the Darwin Pass Sill and many mounds have been eroded to the elevations of the Mud Lake Slough Sill of the Emerson Pass Sill. The sequence of tufa formation (from oldest to youngest) displayed in these mounds is: (1) a beachrock containing carbonate-cemented volcanic cobbles, (2) broken and eroded old spheroids that contain thinolitic tufa and an outer rind of dense laminated tufa, (3) large cylindrical (tubular) tufas capped by (4) coatings of old dense tufas, and (5) several generations of old branching tufa commonly associated with thin, platy tufas and coatings of thinolitic tufa, (6) young spheroids that contain poorly oriented young thinolitic tufa in the center and several generations of radially oriented young thinolitic tufas near the outer edge, (7) a transitional thinolite-to-branching tufa, (8) two or more layers of young branching tufa, (9) a 0.5-cm-thick layer of fine

  3. On the structure of amorphous calcium carbonate--a detailed study by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Holger; Neumann, Markus; Mayer, Christian; Epple, Matthias

    2008-09-01

    The calcium carbonate phases calcite, aragonite, vaterite, monohydrocalcite (calcium carbonate monohydrate), and ikaite (calcium carbonate hexahydrate) were studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy ( (1)H and (13)C). Further model compounds were sodium hydrogencarbonate, potassium hydrogencarbonate, and calcium hydroxide. With the help of these data, the structure of synthetically prepared additive-free amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was analyzed. ACC contains molecular water (as H 2O), a small amount of mobile hydroxide, and no hydrogencarbonate. This supports the concept of ACC as a transient precursor in the formation of calcium carbonate biominerals.

  4. Granule fraction inhomogeneity of calcium carbonate/sorbitol in roller compacted granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Charlotte; Olsen, P.M.; Bertelsen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The granule fraction inhomogeneity of roller compacted granules was examined on mixtures of three different morphologic forms of calcium carbonate and three particle sizes of sorbitol. The granule fraction inhomogeneity was determined by the distribution of the calcium carbonate in each of the 10...... size fractions between 0 and 2000 µm and by calculating the demixing potential. Significant inhomogeneous occurrence of calcium carbonate in the size fractions was demonstrated, depending mostly on the particles sizes of sorbitol but also on the morphological forms of calcium carbonate......, the ability of the powder to agglomerate in the roller compactor was demonstrated to be related to the ability of the powder to be compacted into a tablet, thus the most compactable calcium carbonate and the smallest sized sorbitol improved the homogeneity by decreasing the demixing potential....

  5. No calcium-fluoride-like deposits detected in plaque shortly after a sodium fluoride mouthrinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, G L; Tenuta, L M A; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C

    2010-01-01

    Plaque 'calcium-fluoride-like' (CaF(2)-like) and fluoride deposits held by biological/bacterial calcium fluoride (Ca-F) bonds appear to be the source of cariostatic concentrations of fluoride in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of plaque fluoride held in these reservoirs after a sodium fluoride rinse. 30 and 60 min after a 228 microg/g fluoride rinse, plaque samples were collected from 11 volunteers. Each sample was homogenized, split into 2 aliquots (aliquots 1 and 2), centrifuged, and the recovered plaque fluid combined and analyzed using microelectrodes. The plaque mass from aliquot 1 was retained. The plaque mass from aliquot 2 was extracted several times with a solution having the same fluoride, calcium and pH as the plaque fluid in order to extract the plaque CaF(2)-like deposits. The total fluoride in both aliquots was then determined. In a second experiment, the extraction completeness was examined by applying the above procedure to in vitro precipitates containing known amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits. Nearly identical fluoride concentrations were found in both plaque aliquots. The extraction of the CaF(2)-like precipitates formed in vitro removed more than 80% of these deposits. The results suggest that either CaF(2)-like deposits were not formed in plaque or, if these deposits had been formed, they were rapidly lost. The inability to form persistent amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits in plaque may account for the relatively rapid loss of plaque fluid fluoride after the use of conventional fluoride dentifrices or rinses. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Nickel deposition effects on the growth of carbon nanofibers on carbon paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celebi, S.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth has been achieved on carbon paper fibers via two nickel deposition routes: i. nickel nanoparticle-ethanol suspension casting, and ii. homogenous deposition precipitation (HDP) of nickel onto carbon paper. Nickel nanoparticles created regular tubular CNF whereas HDP of

  7. Influences of ambient gases on the structure and the composition of calcium phosphate films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Lee; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Joon; Lee, Won-Jun; Han, Jung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    Calcium phosphate films were prepared by using a pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) method with a hydroxyapatite target in various ambient gases, such as Ar, O 2 and H 2 O. The influence of the ambient gas on the properties of the deposited films was investigated. The chamber pressure and the substrate temperature were fixed at 0.25 Torr and 600 .deg. C, respectively. Calcium-rich amorphous calcium phosphate films were deposited with a low density in Ar due to the preferential resputtering of phosphorus from the growing film. In an O 2 ambient, the density and the Ca/P ratio of the films were similar to those of the target. However, the deposited film was amorphous calcium phosphate and did not contain OH - groups. Polycrystalline hydroxyapatite films can be deposited in a H 2 O ambient because a sufficient supply of OH - groups from the ambient gas is essential for the growth of a hydroxyapatite film.

  8. Spectrophotometric measurement of calcium carbonate saturation states in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Regina A; Patsavas, Mark C; Byrne, Robert H; Liu, Xuewu; Feely, Richard A; Mathis, Jeremy T

    2013-02-05

    Measurements of ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations in the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans were used to determine calcium carbonate saturation states (Ω(CaCO(3))) from spectrophotometric methods alone. Total carbonate ion concentrations, [CO(3)(2-)](T), were for the first time at sea directly measured using Pb(II) UV absorbance spectra. The basis of the method is given by the following: [formula see text] where (CO(3))β(1) is the PbCO(3)(0) formation constant, e(i) are molar absorptivity ratios, and R = (250)A/(234)A (ratio of absorbances measured at 250 and 234 nm). On the basis of shipboard and laboratory Pb(II) data and complementary carbon-system measurements, the experimental parameters were determined to be (25 °C) the following: [formula see text]. The resulting mean difference between the shipboard spectrophotometric and conventional determinations of [CO(3)(2-)](T) was ±2.03 μmol kg(-1). The shipboard analytical precision of the Pb(II) method was ∼1.71 μmol kg(-1) (2.28%). Spectrophotometric [CO(3)(2-)](T) and pH(T) were then combined to calculate Ω(CaCO(3)). For the case of aragonite, 95% of the spectrophotometric aragonite saturation states (Ω(Aspec)) were within ±0.06 of the conventionally calculated values (Ω(Acalc)) when 0.5 ≤ Ω(A) ≤ 2.0. When Ω(A) > 2.0, 95% of the Ω(Aspec) values were within ±0.18 of Ω(Acalc). Our shipboard experience indicates that spectrophotometric determinations of [CO(3)(2-)](T) and Ω(CaCO(3)) are straightforward, fast, and precise. The method yields high-quality measurements of two important, rapidly changing aspects of ocean chemistry and offers capabilities suitable for long-term automated in situ monitoring.

  9. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Mendes, Ana C; der Voort, Pascal Van; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Plis, Agnieszka; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Skirtach, Andre G

    2017-12-01

    Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials is considered desirable to improve their suitability as materials for bone regeneration. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) has been successfully applied as a bone regeneration material, but hydrogel-CaCO 3 composites have received less attention. Magnesium (Mg) has been used as a component of calcium phosphate biomaterials to stimulate bone-forming cell adhesion and proliferation and bone regeneration in vivo, but its effect as a component of carbonate-based biomaterials remains uninvestigated. In the present study, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized enzymatically with CaCO 3 , Mg-enriched CaCO 3 and magnesium carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Hydrogels loaded with the enzyme urease were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing urea and different ratios of calcium and magnesium ions. Increasing the magnesium concentration decreased mineral crystallinity. At low magnesium concentrations calcite was formed, while at higher concentrations magnesian calcite was formed. Hydromagnesite (Mg 5 (CO 3 ) 4 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O) formed at high magnesium concentration in the absence of calcium. The amount of mineral formed and compressive strength decreased with increasing magnesium concentration in the mineralization medium. The calcium:magnesium elemental ratio in the mineral formed was higher than in the respective mineralization media. Mineralization of hydrogels with calcite or magnesian calcite promoted adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells. Hydrogels mineralized with hydromagnesite displayed higher cytotoxicity. In conclusion, enzymatic mineralization of GG hydrogels with CaCO 3 in the form of calcite successfully reinforced hydrogels and promoted osteoblast-like cell adhesion and growth, but magnesium enrichment had no definitive positive effect. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Crystalline and amorphous carbon nitride films produced by high-energy shock plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursilll, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Gurarie, V.N.; Orlov, A.V.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    High-energy shock plasma deposition techniques are used to produce carbon-nitride films containing both crystalline and amorphous components. The structures are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, parallel-electron-energy loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The crystalline phase appears to be face-centered cubic with unit cell parameter approx. a=0.63nm and it may be stabilized by calcium and oxygen at about 1-2 at % levels. The carbon atoms appear to have both trigonal and tetrahedral bonding for the crystalline phase. There is PEELS evidence that a significant fraction of the nitrogen atoms have sp 2 trigonal bonds in the crystalline phase. The amorphous carbon-nitride film component varies from essentially graphite, containing virtually no nitrogen, to amorphous carbon-nitride containing up to 10 at % N, where the fraction of sp 3 bonds is significant. 15 refs., 5 figs

  11. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  12. Size controlled hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate particles: synthesis and their application as templates for SERS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakhonskiy, B V; Svenskaya, Yu I; Yashchenok, A М; Fattah, H A; Inozemtseva, O A; Tessarolo, F; Antolini, R; Gorin, D A

    2014-06-01

    An elegant route for hydroxyapatite (HA) particle synthesis via ionic exchange reaction is reported. Calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3) were recrystallized into HA beads in water solution with phosphate ions. The size of initial CaCO3 particles was controlled upon the synthesis by varying the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous solution. The average size of HA beads ranged from 0.6±0.1 to 4.3±1.1μm. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of HA and CaCO3 particles via silver mirror reaction. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of silver functionalized beads was demonstrated by detecting Rhodamine B. CaCO3 and HA particles have a great potential for design of carrier which can provide diagnostic and therapeutic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pinsonneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms, and thereby modifying the oceanic carbon and alkalinity cycles. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. At the same time, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 emissions will ultimately increase or decrease pelagic calcification rates. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (ΩCaCO3 in an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of several variants of this dependence on global ocean carbon cycling between 1800 and 3500 under two different CO2 emissions scenarios. Introducing a calcification-saturation state dependence has a significant effect on the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients, as well as on the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These changes result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ΩCaCO3 (of up to 270 Pg C, compared to the case where calcification does not depend on acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500. Different versions of the model produced varying results, and narrowing this range of uncertainty will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Nevertheless, our results suggest that alkalinity observations can be used

  14. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth by pulsed laser deposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jung Inn; Nam, Chunghee; Lee, Seonghoon

    2002-01-01

    We have grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the various substrates such as a planar p-type Si(1 0 0) wafer, porous Si wafer, SiO 2 , Si 3 N 4 , Al 2 O 3 , and Cr by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 800 deg.C, using C 2 H 2 gas as a carbon source and Fe catalyst films deposited by a pulsed laser on the substrates. The Fe films were deposited for 5 min by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The advantage of Fe deposition by PLD over other deposition methods lies in the superior adhesion of Fe to a Si substrate due to high kinetic energies of the generated Fe species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that vertically well-aligned carbon nanotubes are grown on Fe nanoparticles formed from the thermal annealing of the Fe film deposited by PLD on the various substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show that the Fe film annealed at 800 deg.C is broken to Fe nanoparticles of 10-50 nm in size. We show that the appropriate density of Fe nanoparticles formed from the thermal annealing of the film deposited by PLD is crucial in growing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Using a PLD and a lift-off method, we developed the selective growth of carbon nanotubes on a patterned Fe-coated Si substrate

  15. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  16. Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, FR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ablation of graphite, carbon-arc discharge and chemical vapour deposition (CVD). However, some of these techniques have been shown to be expensive due to high deposition temperatures and are not easily controllable. Recently hot-wire chemical vapour...

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get decent amounts of calcium from baked beans, navy beans, white beans, and others. Canned fish. You're in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. Working Calcium Into Your ...

  18. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of calcium-rich and magnesium-rich carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Villar, Susana E Jorge; Jehlicka, Jan; Munshi, Tasnim

    2005-08-01

    Calcium and magnesium carbonates are important minerals found in sedimentary environments. Although sandstones are the most common rock colonized by endolith organisms, the production of calcium and magnesium carbonates is important in survival strategies of organisms and as a source for the removal of oxalate ions. Extremophile organisms in some situations may convert or destroy carbonates of calcium and magnesium, which gives important information about the conditions under which these organisms can survive. The identification on the surface of Mars of 'White Rock' formations, in Juventae Chasma or Sabaea Terra, as possibly carbonate rocks makes the study of these minerals a prerequisite of remote Martian exploration. Here, we show the protocol for the identification by Raman spectroscopy of different calcium and magnesium carbonates and we present a database of relevance in the search for life, extinct or extant, on Mars; this will be useful for the assessment of data obtained from remote, miniaturized Raman spectrometers now proposed for Mars exploration.

  19. Catalyst deposition for the preparation of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    patterned surface is configured to ensure that no more than a single island of catalyst is formed on each plateau, so that a sub sequent growth of carbon nanotubes from the deposited islands result in that no more than a single carbon nanotube is grown from each plateau....

  20. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon next deposit after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salancon, E.; Durbeck, T.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W.

    2006-01-01

    One of the main safety problems in the ITER tokamak project is the tritium adsorption in the reactor walls and in particular the deposits which appear after the plasma discharge. These deposits are amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, type polymer (soft a-C:H). The heating of these deposits with a pulse laser is a proposed solution for the tritium desorption. Meanwhile, Gibson and al show that in experimental conditions, products are deposed on the walls before entering the mass spectrometer. The authors present thermo-desorption spectra of different amorphous carbon films. (A.L.B.)

  1. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum and manganese deposition in bones and CNS of rats fed calcium-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Iwata, Shiro.

    1994-01-01

    The long term intake of unbalanced mineral diets has been reported to be one of the pathogenetic factors of central nervous system (CNS) degeneration, and the unbalanced mineral distribution in the bones clinically is expressed as a metabolic bone disorder or deposition of neurotoxic minerals/metals. The unbalanced mineral or metal diets in animals provoke the unbalanced mineral distribution in bones and soft tissues. In this study, the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) contents in the CNS and the bones of rats maintained on unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed to investigate the roles of bone on CNS degeneration. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn contents were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, lumbar spine and femur using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for Ca, Mg and Zn, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for Al and Mn. Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the abnormal distribution of metals or minerals in the bones and in the CNS. These results illustrate that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the irregular deposition of Al and Mn in the bones and ultimately in the CNS, thus inducing CNS degeneration. (author)

  2. Experimental kinetic study and modeling of calcium oxide carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouchon, L.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, major contributors to the greenhouse effect, are considered as the main cause of global warming. So, decrease of CO 2 emitted by large industrial combustion sources or power plants, is an important scientific goal. One of the approaches is based on CO 2 separation and capture from flue gas, followed by sequestration in a wide range of geological formations. In this aim, CO 2 is captured by sorbents like calcium oxide (CaO) in multi-cycle process of carbonation/de-carbonation. However, it was shown that the most important limitations of such process are related to the reversibility of reaction. CaO rapidly loses activity towards CO 2 , so the maximum extent of carbonation decreases as long as the number of cycles increases. In order to well understand the processes and parameters influencing the capture capacity of CaO-based sorbents, it appears important to get details on the kinetic law governing the reaction, which have not been really studied up to now. To investigate this reaction, CaO carbonation kinetics was followed by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on divided materials. Special care was given to the validation of the usual kinetic assumptions such as steady state and rate-determining step assumptions. The aim was to obtain a model describing the reaction in order to explain the influence of intensive variables such as carbonation temperature and CO 2 partial pressure. TGA curves obtained under isothermal and isobaric conditions showed an induction period linked to the nucleation process and a strong slowing down of the reaction rate once a given fractional conversion was reached. Both phenomena were observed to depend on carbonation temperature and CO 2 partial pressure. To explain these results, the evolution of texture and microstructure of the solid during the reaction was regarded as essential. Reaction at the grain scale induces a volume increase from CaO to CaCO 3 which causes a change in the

  3. RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate targets for biomedical implant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Prosolov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from biphasic targets of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, sintered at different mass % ratios. According to Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction data, the deposited hydroxyapatite coatings have a disordered structure. High-temperature treatment of the coatings in air leads to a transformation of the quasi-amorphous structure into a crystalline one. A correlation has been observed between the increase in the Ca content in the coatings and a subsequent decrease in Ca in the biphasic targets after a series of deposition processes. It was proposed that the addition of tricalcium phosphate to the targets would led to a finer coating's surface topography with the average size of 78 nm for the structural elements.

  4. Polyaniline-deposited porous carbon electrode for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-C.; Wen, T.-C.; Teng, H.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated by depositing polyaniline (PANI) on high surface area carbons. The chemical composition of the PANI-deposited carbon electrode was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the electrochemical properties of electrodes. An equivalent circuit was proposed to successfully fit the EIS data, and the significant contribution of pseudocapacitance from PANI was thus identified. A comparative analysis on the electrochemical properties of bare-carbon electrodes was also conducted under similar conditions. The performance of the capacitors equipped with the resulting electrodes in 1 M H 2 SO 4 was evaluated by constant current charge-discharge cycling within a potential range from 0 to 0.6 V. The PANI-deposited electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 180 F/g, in comparison with a value of 92 F/g for the bare-carbon electrode

  5. Study of tokamaks carbon deposits after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richou, M.; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Delhaes, P.; Couzi, M.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problem of tokamak is the interaction plasma-wall. The wall component is the graphite. Meanwhile it is submitted to erosion phenomena, deposition and co-deposition with the hydrogen. This carbon deposits have been studied and show an oval shape. In order to obtain more information on the structure and the growth of these deposits, the authors heated them till 2500 C. Raman spectroscopy, transmission microscopy, magnetic and density measurements have been realized and compared for two types of samples: from Tore Supra and from Textor. (A.L.B.)

  6. The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-10

    Dec 10, 2011 ... The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ... Furthermore, since the middle lamella contains high levels of calcium, it was thought that it may play an important ..... Processing of the pectate lyase PelI by ...

  7. Physical properties of chemical vapour deposited nanostructured carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, D.B.; Shinde, S.S.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: In the present paper, nanostructured carbon films are grown using a natural precursor 'turpentine oil (C 10 H 16 )' as a carbon source in the simple thermal chemical vapour deposition method. The influence of substrate surface topography (viz. stainless steel, fluorine doped tin oxide coated quartz) and temperature on the evolution of carbon allotropes surfaces topography/microstructural and structural properties are investigated and discussed. - Abstract: A simple thermal chemical vapour deposition technique is employed for the deposition of carbon films by pyrolysing the natural precursor 'turpentine oil' on to the stainless steel (SS) and FTO coated quartz substrates at higher temperatures (700-1100 deg. C). In this work, we have studied the influence of substrate and deposition temperature on the evolution of structural and morphological properties of nanostructured carbon films. The films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD study reveals that the films are polycrystalline exhibiting hexagonal and face-centered cubic structures on SS and FTO coated glass substrates respectively. SEM images show the porous and agglomerated surface of the films. Deposited carbon films show the hydrophobic nature. FTIR study displays C-H and O-H stretching vibration modes in the films. Raman analysis shows that, high ID/IG for FTO substrate confirms the dominance of sp 3 bonds with diamond phase and less for SS shows graphitization effect with dominant sp 2 bonds. It reveals the difference in local microstructure of carbon deposits leading to variation in contact angle and hardness, which is ascribed to difference in the packing density of carbon films, as observed also by Raman.

  8. Tribological properties of nanosized calcium carbonate filled polyamide 66 nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Kaito [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Nishitani, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, T.G.M. 275, Zlin, 767 72 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Eguchi, Kenichiro [Shiraishi Central Laboratories, 4-78 Motohama,Amagasaki,Hyogo,660-0085 Japan (Japan)

    2016-03-09

    For the purpose of developing high performance tribomaterials for mechanical sliding parts such as gears, bearings and so on, nanosized calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) filled polyamide 66 (PA66) nanocomposites were investigated. The nano-CaCO{sub 3} was a kind of precipitated (colloid typed) CaCO{sub 3}, and its average particle size was 40, 80 and 150 nm. Surface treatment was performed by fatty acid on the nano-CaCO{sub 3} and its volume fraction in the nanocomposite was varied from 1 to 20vol.%. These nanocomposites were melt-mixed by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Tribological properties were measured by two types of sliding wear testers such as ring-on-plate type and ball-on-plate type one under dry condition. The counterface, worn surface and wear debris were observed by digital microscope and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the nano-CaCO{sub 3} has a good effect on the tribological properties, although the effect on the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate is differed by the volume fraction and the type of sliding wear modes. This is attributed to the change of wear mechanisms, which is the change of form of the transfer films on the counterface and the size of wear debris. It follows from these results that PA66/nano-CaCO{sub 3} nanocomposites may be possible to be the high performance tribomaterials.

  9. Hyaluronan and calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for colorectal cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinghui; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid drug delivery system (DDS) composed of hyaluronan and calcium carbonate (CC) was developed. By taking advantage of the tumor-targeting ability of hyaluronan and the drug-loading property of CC, the well-formed hyaluronan-CC nanoparticles were able to serve as a DDS targeting colorectal cancer with a decent drug loading content, which is beneficial in the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. In this study, hyaluronan-CC nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm were successfully developed to load the wide-range anti-cancer drug adriamycin (Adr) to construct hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles. On the other hand, we also found that hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles can possibly increase the uptake ratio of Adr into HT29 colorectal cancer cells when compared with hyaluronan-free nanoparticles (CC/Adr) via the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis via competitive uptake and in vivo imaging assays. Note that both in vitro (CCK-8 assay on HT29 cells) and in vivo (anti-cancer assay on HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice model) experiments revealed that hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles exhibited stronger anti-cancer activity than free Adr or CC/Adr nanoparticles with minimized toxic side effects and preferable cancer-suppression potential.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles from Cockle Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Nurul Islam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and low-cost method for the synthesis of calcium carbonate nanoparticles from cockle shells was described. Polymorphically, the synthesized nanoparticles were aragonites which are biocompatible and thus frequently used in the repair of fractured bone and development of advanced drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and anticarcinogenic drugs. The rod-shaped and pure aragonite particles of 30±5 nm in diameter were reproducibly synthesized when micron-sized cockle shells powders were mechanically stirred for 90 min at room temperature in presence of a nontoxic and nonhazardous biomineralization catalyst, dodecyl dimethyl betaine (BS-12. The findings were verified using a combination of analytical techniques such as variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, and energy dispersive X-ray analyser (EDX. The reproducibility and low cost of the method suggested that it could be used in industry for the large scale synthesis of aragonite nanoparticles from cockle shells, a low cost and easily available natural resource.

  11. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  12. Biomaterial-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Enteric Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Render

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral drug delivery systems provide the most convenient, noninvasive, readily acceptable alternatives to parenteral systems. In the current work, eggshell-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3 nanoparticles were used to develop enteric drug delivery system in the form of tablets. CaCO3 nanoparticles were manufactured using top-down ball-milling method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and loaded with 5-fluorouracil as a model drug. Tablets with varying CaCO3 core and binder compositions were fabricated and coated with Eudragit S100 or Eudragit L100. Suitability for enteric delivery of the tablets was tested by oral administration to rabbits and radiography. Radiograph images showed that the tablet remained in the stomach of the rabbit for up to 3 hours. Further modifications of these biomaterial-derived nanoparticles and the coatings will enable manufacturing of stable formulations for slow or controlled release of pharmaceuticals for enteric delivery.

  13. Structure of hydrated calcium carbonates: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichelis, Raffaella; Raiteri, Paolo; Gale, Julian D.

    2014-09-01

    The structures of both ikaite (CaCO3 · 6H2 O) and monohydrocalcite (CaCO3 ·H2 O) were computed at the PBE0 level of theory, using all electron Gaussian type basis sets. Correction for the long-range dispersion contribution was included for the oxygen-oxygen interactions by using an additive pairwise term with the atomic coefficients fitted against the calcite vs aragonite enthalpy difference. The potential chirality of monohydrocalcite is discussed, as well as the helical motifs created by the three-fold rototranslational axes parallel to the [001] direction. These elements represent a significant link between monohydrocalcite and vaterite, both appearing as intermediate species during CaCO3 crystallization from amorphous calcium carbonate. The hydrogen bond pattern, never fully discussed for monohydrocalcite, is here described and compared to the available experimental data. Both phases are characterized by the presence of hydrogen bonds of moderate to high strength. Water molecules in monohydrocalcite interact quite strongly with 2 CO32- units through such hydrogen bonds, whereas their interaction with each other is minor. On the contrary, water molecules in ikaite create a complex network of hydrogen bonds, where each water molecule is strongly hydrogen bonded to one CO32- anion and to one or two other water molecules.

  14. Coprecipitation of alkali metal ions with calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Minoru; Kitano, Yasushi

    1986-01-01

    The coprecipitation of alkali metal ions Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + with calcium carbonate has been studied experimentally and the following results have been obtained: (1) Alkali metal ions are more easily coprecipitated with aragonite than with calcite. (2) The relationship between the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with aragonite and their ionic radii shows a parabolic curve with a peak located at Na + which has approximately the same ionic radius as Ca 2+ . (3) However, the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with calcite decrease with increasing ionic radius of alkali metals. (4) Our results support the hypothesis that (a) alkali metals are in interstitial positions in the crystal structure of calcite and do not substitute for Ca 2+ in the lattice, but (b) in aragonite, alkali metals substitute for Ca 2+ in the crystal structure. (5) Magnesium ions in the parent solution increase the amounts of alkali metal ions (Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + ) coprecipitated with calcite but decrease those with aragonite. (6) Sodium-bearing aragonite decreases the incorporation of other alkali metal ions (Li + , K + and Rb + ) into the aragonite. (author)

  15. Weight Percentage of Calcium Carbonate for 17 Equatorial Pacific Cores from Brown University

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weight percentages of calcium carbonate in this file were compiled by J. Farrell and W. L. Prell of Brown University for 17 equatorial Pacific Ocean sediment cores....

  16. Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in silk fibroin/sodium alginate hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

    2014-01-01

    As known, silk fibroin-like protein plays a pivotal role during the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals in the nacre sheets. Here, we have prepared silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels to serve as templates for calcium carbonate mineralization. In this experiment, we report an interesting finding of calcium carbonate crystal growth in the silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels by the vapor diffusion method. The experimental results indicate calcium carbonate crystals obtained from nanofiber hydrogels with different proportions of silk fibroin/sodium alginate are mixture of calcite and vaterite with unusual morphologies. Time-dependent growth study was carried out to investigate the crystallization process. It is believed that nanofiber hydrogels play an important role in the process of crystallization. This study would help in understanding the function of organic polymers in natural mineralization, and provide a novel pathway in the design and synthesis of new materials related unique morphology and structure.

  17. Buy coal. Deposit markets prevent carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harstad, Baard [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Kellogg School of Management

    2010-03-15

    If a coalition of countries implements climate policies, nonparticipants tend to consume more, pollute more, and invest too little in renewable energy sources. In response, the coalition's equilibrium policy distorts trade and it is not time consistent. By adding a market for the right to exploit fossil fuel deposits, I show that these problems vanish and the first best is implemented. When the market for deposits clears, the coalition relies entirely on supply-side policies, which is simple to implement in practice. The result illustrates that efficiency can be obtained without Coasian negotiations ex post, if key inputs are tradable ex ante. (orig.)

  18. Microorganisms in the deposits of cold carbon mineral waters of the Russian Far East and their habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitina, E. G.; Kharitonova, N. A.; Kuzmina, T. V.; Chelnokov, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Study of the chemical composition of carbon mineral waters has shown the prevalence of calcium, magnesium and sodium among the cations, sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions among the anions, and ferric iron, strontium and manganese in the microelement composition. Results of the microbiological studies have revealed that carbon mineral waters contain various microorganisms that can transform the physical and chemical composition of mineral waters by interfering with geochemical cycles. The sanitary and microbiological properties of carbon mineral waters have been evaluated thus proving that the waters of Medvezhii (Shmakovskoe deposit) are microbiologically clean.

  19. Effet de l'amendement au carbonate de calcium (mikhart) de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2017 ... control substratum, SCa10 (S0 + 10 % powder of calcium carbonate), SCa20 (S0 + 20 % powder of calcium carbonate), SCa30 (S0 ..... puis montés sur un microscope électronique FEG Supra. 40 VP Zeiss à balayage et pression variable. Dès lors, ..... substrats amendés d'un apport en quantité et en qualité.

  20. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  1. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  2. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Ren [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Department of Biology, College of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin Changjian, E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol{sup -1} was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  3. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ren; Lin Changjian; Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol -1 was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  4. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  5. Nacre-like calcium carbonate controlled by ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Chengli [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Xie, Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Shen, Yuhua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures have been mediated by an ionic liquid (IL)-graphene oxide (GO) composite template. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF{sub 4}) or graphene oxide can act as a soft template for calcium carbonate formation with unusual morphologies. Based on the time-dependent morphology changes of calcium carbonate particles, it is concluded that nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures can be formed gradually utilizing [BMIM]BF{sub 4}/GO composite template. During the process of calcium carbonate formation, [BMIM]BF{sub 4} acted not only as solvents but also as morphology templates for the fabrication of calcium carbonate materials with nacre-like morphology. Based on the observations, the possible mechanisms were also discussed. - Highlights: • Nacre-like CaCO{sub 3}/GO were prepared by gas diffusion. • Ionic liquid/GO served as composite templates. • The interaction of Ca{sup 2+} ions and GO played a very important role in the formation of nacre-like CaCO{sub 3}.

  6. Exaggerated levothyroxine malabsorption due to calcium carbonate supplementation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csako, G; McGriff, N J; Rotman-Pikielny, P; Sarlis, N J; Pucino, F

    2001-12-01

    To describe a patient with primary hypothyroidism in whom ingestion of levothyroxine with calcium carbonate led to markedly elevated serum thyrotropin concentrations. A 61-year-old white woman with primary hypothyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus, celiac disease, and history of Whipple resection for pancreatic cancer was euthyroid with levothyroxine 175-188 micrograms/d. After taking a high dose of calcium carbonate (1250 mg three times daily) with levothyroxine, she developed biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism (thyrotropin up to 41.4 mU/L) while remaining clinically euthyroid. Delaying calcium carbonate administration by four hours returned her serum thyrotropin to a borderline high concentration (5.7 mU/L) within a month. Serum concentrations of unbound and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine tended to decrease, but remained borderline low to normal while the patient concomitantly received levothyroxine and calcium carbonate. Concomitant administration of levothyroxine and calcium carbonate often results in levothyroxine malabsorption. While in most patients the clinical consequences of this interaction, even with prolonged exposure, are relatively small, overt hypothyrodism may develop in patients with preexisting malabsorption disorders. However, as the current case illustrates, the clinical manifestations of the initial levothyroxine deficit may not always be apparent and, of all usual laboratory thyroid function tests, only thyrotropin measurement will reliably uncover the exaggerated levothyroxine malabsorption. Decreased absorption of levothyroxine when given with calcium carbonate may be particularly pronounced in patients with preexisting malabsorption disorders. Once recognized, a change in drug administration schedule usually minimizes or eliminates this interaction.

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes on a carbon fiber surface with different index graphitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.C.; Baldan, M.R.; Ferreira, N.G.; Edwards, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to examine the electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes powder on carbon fibers, produced at different heat treatments temperatures. Besides, a systematic study of the effects of graphitization index from substrate on the structure and morphology of CNTs has been available. Carbon fibers were produced from polyacrylonitrile at three different heat treatments temperatures, 1000, 1500 and 2000 deg C. The carbon fibers microstructure or its graphitization index may be controlled by the heat treatments temperatures. The electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes was obtained with the powder of carbon nanotubes dispersed in water by ultrasonication to obtain dispersions of 0.05 mg/mL. The carbon fibers were immersed in the nanotube dispersion, and a positive potential of 10 V/cm was applied. Morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers were obtained by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (author)

  8. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease presenting as a pseudotumor of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, A.; Teruel, J.; Pont, J.; Velayos, A.; Trull, J.; Lopez, E.

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old white woman with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. The patient related a 2-month history of swelling with tenderness over the left pre-auricular region. A CT scan suggested a synovial chondromatosis. Surgical removal was done and histologic study showed CPPD crystals. This disease rarely involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported in the literature. (orig.)

  9. Gitelman syndrome disclosed by calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: early diagnosis by ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zabotti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gitelman’s syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive tubular disorder characterized by hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria associated to hypokalemia. The clinical spectrum is wide and usually characterized by chronic fatigue, cramps, muscle weakness and paresthesiae. We describe a case of a 43 year-old male patient with early onset of knee arthritis and no other symptoms. Ultrasound revealed diffuse and confluent hyperechoic deposits in cartilage, fibrocartilage of the menisci and synovium and calcium pyrophosphate crystals were observed in the synovial fluid of the knee. The concomitant presence of hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria and hypokalemia made clear the diagnosis of Gitelman’s syndrome associated with chondrocalcinosis.

  10. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite with the use of calcium carbonate as of the biological precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.S.; Di Lello, B.C.; Queiroz, F.; Campos, N.C.; Campos, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of hydroxyapatite from calcium from biological materials such as shells carbonate. In the syntheses performed, the calcium carbonate of biological origin was used as the precursor and through a precipitation reaction with phosphoric acid, was converted into calcium hydroxide. Sequentially, the precipitate was aged, filtered, washed, dried and calcined, and then transformed into hydroxyapatite. The characterization of the powders was performed by X-DR (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). DR-X as determined hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate phase calcium. SEM revealed a morphology of finely divided particles. The method B.E.T. showed values of specific area and volume of micropores consistent with the literature. The results of the characterizations proved feasible to use for obtaining biological hydroxyapatite materials used in the reaction conditions.(author)

  11. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  12. Electrochemical Metal Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Shinohara, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 427-435 ISSN 1344-9931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * electrodeposition * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2001

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Esconjauregui, S.; Zhang, C.; Fouquet, M.; Hofmann, S. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    We review the growth mechanisms of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, in terms of what controls the growth rate and control of the catalyst lifetime. We also review the production of very high-density forests, in terms of increasing the catalyst particle density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Esconjauregui, S.; Zhang, C.; Fouquet, M.; Hofmann, S.

    2012-01-01

    We review the growth mechanisms of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, in terms of what controls the growth rate and control of the catalyst lifetime. We also review the production of very high-density forests, in terms of increasing the catalyst particle density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Lifetimes of carbon foils deposited on etched substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, J.O. Jr.; Bashkin, S.; Hartog, P.D.; Thomas, G.; Yntema, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The methods currently in use for producing long-lived carbon foils are listed. The possible common factors which are important in making long lasting foils are a) making a strong, coherent, continuous layer, b) making a foil slack, loose, or baggy, and c) making a foil whose molecular structure minimizes shrinkage. The behavior of foils deposited on etched substrates is compared with foils deposited upon conventional microscope slides

  16. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  17. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite using Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) from Limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhani, Sri; Isnaini Azkiya, Noor; Triandi Tjahjanto, Rachmat

    2018-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a material that widely applied in bone and teeth implant due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. This material can be prepared from PCC by precipitation method using CaO and H3PO4 in ethanol. In this work, variations of phosphoric acid amount and aging time were investigated. The synthesized HAp was characterized by FT-IR, AAS, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, PSA, SEM, and powder XRD. The results showed that the high concentration of calcium in PCC gives better yields in which PCC obtained from carbonation method has higher yield than that of caustic soda method. The determination of optimum phosphoric acid addition based on targeted Ca/P ratio (1.67) from HAp was obtained on the addition of 0.1271 mol phosphoric acid with Ca/P ratio of 1.66. The aging time gave significant effect to the particle size of synthesised HAp. The smallest particle size was obtained in aging time for 48 hours as high as 49.25 μm. FTIR spectra of the synthesized HAp show the presence of hydroxyl (-OH) group at 3438.8 cm-1, PO4 3- at 557.39 and 1035.7 cm-1, and CaO at 1413.72 cm-1. The synthesized HAp forms agglomeration solid based on the SEM analysis. The powder XRD data shows three highest peaks at 2θ i.e. 27.8296; 31.1037; and 34.3578 which corresponds to β-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) in accordance with JCPDS no.09-0169. The characteristic 2θ peak of hydroxyapatite with low intensity is observed from the synthesized HAp refer to the JCPDS data no. 09-0432.

  18. Theoretical modelling of carbon deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.R.; Norfolk, D.J.; Skinner, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Work based on capsule experiments in the BNL Gamma Facility, aimed at elucidating the chemistry involved in the formation of carbonaceous deposit on CAGR fuel pin surfaces is described. Using a data-base derived from capsule experiments together with literature values for the kinetics of the fundamental reactions, a chemical model of the gas-phase processes has been developed. This model successfully reproduces the capsule results, whilst preliminary application to the WAGR coolant circuit indicates the likely concentration profiles of various radical species within the fuel channels. (author)

  19. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal deposition on kidneys of urolithiatic rats by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikangbam, Reena; Damayanti Devi, M

    2012-06-01

    The present study aims at systematic evaluation of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa to establish its scientific validity for anti-urolithiatic property using ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria model in male albino rats. Administration of a mixture of 0.75% ethylene glycol and 2% ammonium chloride resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. The decrease in the serum calcium concentration indicates an increased calcium oxalate formation. Supplementation of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa at different doses (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) significantly lowered the deposition of stone-forming constituents in the kidneys and serum of urolithiatic rats. These findings have been confirmed through histological investigations. Results of in vivo genotoxicity testing showed no significant chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of ethylene glycol-induced rats. The plant extracts at the doses investigated induced neither toxic nor lethal effects and are safe. It can be concluded that the calyces of H. sabdariffa are endowed with anti-urolithiatic activity and do not have genotoxic effects. Thus, it can be introduced in clinical practices and medicine in the form of orally administered syrup after further investigations and clinical trials.

  20. Electrophoretic deposition and field emission properties of patterned carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Song Hang; Li Zhiming; Yuan Guang; Jin Yixin

    2005-01-01

    Patterned carbon nanotubes on silicon substrates were obtained using electrophoretic method. The carbon nanotubes migrated towards the patterned silicon electrode in the electrophoresis suspension under the applied voltage. The carbon nanotubes arrays adhered well on the silicon substrates. The surface images of carbon nanotubes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The field emission properties of the patterned carbon nanotubes were tested in a diode structure under a vacuum pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa. The measured emission area was about 1.0 mm 2 . The emission current density up to 30 mA/cm 2 at an electric field of 8 V/μm has been obtained. The deposition of patterned carbon nanotubes by electrophoresis is an alternative method to prepare field emission arrays

  1. Performance of Separation Processes for Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Produced with an Innovative Method from Steelmaking Slag and Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teir, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.teir@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Espoo (Finland); Auvinen, Toni [Outotec Dewatering Technology Center, Lappeenranta (Finland); Said, Arshe [Department of Energy Technology, School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Kotiranta, Tuukka; Peltola, Heljä [Outotec Research Center, Pori (Finland)

    2016-02-22

    In this work, experiments were performed to determine the filterability of calcium carbonate produced with an alternative calcium carbonate production concept. The concept uses steelmaking slag as raw material and has potential to fix CO{sub 2} emissions and utilize steelmaking slag, simultaneously. As calcium carbonate is precipitated in a solution containing ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, and ammonia, the product needs to be washed and hence filtered. In this work, different separation processes, including washing, filtering, and drying, were tested on two calcium carbonate slurries produced from steel converter slag and CO{sub 2} by a laboratory-scale pilot facility, with the aim of obtaining a solid product with a low chloride content using a minimum amount of washing water. The order of maximum filtration rates achievable of the calcium carbonate slurries was determined by experimental work. The tests included pressure filtration and vacuum filtration and the test series contained altogether 21 different filtration cycles with varying combinations of filtering, washing, and drying steps. The filtered cakes were analyzed by their residual moisture content, chloride content, and conductivity, and the filtrates by their residual solids content, chloride content, and conductivity. Pressure filtration gave a high capacity (400–460 kg/m{sup 2}h) and a low cake residual moisture content (12–14 wt-%). Vacuum filtration gave slightly higher filtration rates (500–610 kg/m{sup 2}h at the lowest residual chloride contents of the cakes), but the cake residual moisture also stayed higher (25–26 wt-%). As the vacuum filtration tests used a filter cloth with higher permeability than that of the pressure filtration tests, a slightly higher filtration rate was expected. However, both filtration technologies seem suitable for filtering and washing calcium carbonate prepared with the studied method as a residual chloride content as low as 10 ppm of the filtered

  2. Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E.M.; Fenton, M.; Meredith, M.P.; Clargo, N.M.; Ossebaar, S.; Ducklow, H.W.; Venables, H.J.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Ω) for two biologically-important calcium

  3. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess...

  4. Molecular dynamics study of the solvation of calcium carbonate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneval, Fabien; Donadio, Davide; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-10-25

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of diluted solutions of calcium carbonate in water. To this end, we combined and tested previous polarizable models. The carbonate anion forms long-living hydrogen bonds with water and shows an amphiphilic character, in which the water molecules are expelled in a region close to its C(3) symmetry axis. The calcium cation forms a strongly bound ion pair with the carbonate. The first hydration shell around the CaCO(3) pair is found to be very similar to the location of the water molecules surrounding CaCO(3) in ikaite, the hydrated mineral.

  5. Preliminary assessment of a method utilizing carbon dioxide and steelmaking slags to produce precipitated calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloneva, Sanni; Said, Arshe; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An NH 4 -salt-based method utilizes CO 2 and steelmaking slags to produce pure CaCO 3 . ► It was determined if its economic potential warrants moving forward. ► Despite small solvent losses, the method was found to have economical potential. ► The method has significant CO 2 emissions reduction potential. ► Scaling up the reactor will allow for a more detailed design for the process. -- Abstract: One of the options that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions for climate change mitigation is the so-called CO 2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, or CO 2 mineral sequestration. Steel manufacturing could benefit from this option by utilizing its own by-products, i.e. steelmaking slags to combine with CO 2 . We have recently studied a method, where aqueous solution of ammonium salt (e.g. ammonium acetate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride) is used to extract calcium selectively from the steel converter slag, followed by precipitation of pure calcium carbonate by bubbling CO 2 through the produced solution. The ammonium salt solution is recovered and re-used. The purpose of this research was to determine if the economic potential of the method warrants moving forward to large-scale application. Despite the small solvent losses, the method was found to have economical potential. In addition, it has significant CO 2 emission reduction potential as well. Scaling up the reactor from the small laboratory scale will allow more detailed design for the process to be made followed by a full economical evaluation including all of the important operational and capital investment costs.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of dielectrics for carbon-based electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J., E-mail: jiyoung.kim@utdallas.edu; Jandhyala, S.

    2013-11-01

    Carbon based nanomaterials like nanotubes and graphene have emerged as future generation electronic materials for device applications because of their interesting properties such as high-mobility and ability to carry high-current densities compared to conventional semiconductor materials like silicon. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques to integrate robust gate dielectrics with high-quality interfaces for these materials in order to attain maximum performance. To date, a variety of methods including physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition (ALD), physical assembly among others have been employed in order to integrate dielectrics for carbon nanotube and graphene based field-effect transistors. Owing to the difficulty in wetting pristine surfaces of nanotubes and graphene, most of the ALD methods require a seeding technique involving non-covalent functionalization of their surfaces in order to nucleate dielectric growth while maintaining their intrinsic properties. A comprehensive review regarding the various dielectric integration schemes for emerging devices and their limitations with respect to ALD based methods along with a future outlook is provided. - Highlights: • We introduce various dielectric integration schemes for carbon-based devices. • Physical vapor deposition methods tend to degrade device performance. • Atomic layer deposition on pristine surfaces of graphene and nanotube is difficult. • We review different seeding techniques for atomic layer deposition of dielectrics. • Compare the performance of graphene top-gate devices with different dielectrics.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of dielectrics for carbon-based electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Jandhyala, S.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon based nanomaterials like nanotubes and graphene have emerged as future generation electronic materials for device applications because of their interesting properties such as high-mobility and ability to carry high-current densities compared to conventional semiconductor materials like silicon. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques to integrate robust gate dielectrics with high-quality interfaces for these materials in order to attain maximum performance. To date, a variety of methods including physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition (ALD), physical assembly among others have been employed in order to integrate dielectrics for carbon nanotube and graphene based field-effect transistors. Owing to the difficulty in wetting pristine surfaces of nanotubes and graphene, most of the ALD methods require a seeding technique involving non-covalent functionalization of their surfaces in order to nucleate dielectric growth while maintaining their intrinsic properties. A comprehensive review regarding the various dielectric integration schemes for emerging devices and their limitations with respect to ALD based methods along with a future outlook is provided. - Highlights: • We introduce various dielectric integration schemes for carbon-based devices. • Physical vapor deposition methods tend to degrade device performance. • Atomic layer deposition on pristine surfaces of graphene and nanotube is difficult. • We review different seeding techniques for atomic layer deposition of dielectrics. • Compare the performance of graphene top-gate devices with different dielectrics

  8. Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, ...

  9. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Seligson, F.H.; Hughes, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    We measured the effect of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on whole-body retention of zinc-65 in 11 and iron-59 in 13 healthy, postmenopausal women. In a single-blind, controlled, crossover study, each subject, on three occasions, ingested a standard test meal supplemented with iron-59 or zinc-65 and capsules containing placebo or 500 mg elemental calcium as calcium carbonate or hydroxyapatite. Whole-body countings were performed prior to, 30 min after, and 2 wk after each meal. Mean (SEM) zinc retention was 18.1 +/- 1.0% with placebo (control) and did not vary significantly with calcium carbonate (110.0 +/- 8.6% of control) or hydroxyapatite (106.0 +/- 7.9% of control). Iron retention, 6.3 +/- 2.0% with placebo, was significantly reduced with both calcium carbonate (43.3 +/- 8.8% of control, p = 0.002) and hydroxyapatite (45.9 +/- 10.0% of control, p = 0.003). Iron absorption may be significantly reduced when calcium supplements are taken with meals

  10. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Soil Carbon Dynamics in Temperate Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginzburg Ozeri, Shimon

    Soils contain the largest fraction of terrestrial carbon (C). Understanding the factors regulating the decomposition and storage of soil organic matter (SOM) is essential for predictions of the C sink strength of the terrestrial environment in the light of global change. Elevated long-term nitrog...... implications for modelling the carbon sink-strength of temperate forests under global change.......Soils contain the largest fraction of terrestrial carbon (C). Understanding the factors regulating the decomposition and storage of soil organic matter (SOM) is essential for predictions of the C sink strength of the terrestrial environment in the light of global change. Elevated long-term nitrogen...... (N) deposition into forest ecosystems has been increasing globally and was hypothesized to raise soil organic C (SOC) stocks by increasing forest productivity and by reducing SOM decomposition. Yet, these effects of N deposition on forest SOC stocks are uncertain and largely based on observations...

  11. Effects of Montmorillonite on the Mineralization and Cementing Properties of Microbiologically Induced Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate mineralization microbe is a microorganism capable of decomposing the substrate in the metabolic process to produce the carbonate, which then forms calcium carbonate with calcium ions. By taking advantage of this process, contaminative uranium tailings can transform to solid cement, where calcium carbonate plays the role of a binder. In this paper, we have studied the morphology of mineralized crystals by controlling the mineralization time and adding different concentrations of montmorillonite (MMT. At the same time, we also studied the effect of carbonate mineralized cementation uranium tailings by controlling the amount of MMT. The results showed that MMT can regulate the crystal morphology of calcium carbonate. What is more, MMT can balance the acidity and ions in the uranium tailings; it also can reduce the toxicity of uranium ions on microorganisms. In addition, MMT filling in the gap between the uranium tailings made the cement body more stable. When the amount of MMT is 6%, the maximum strength of the cement body reached 2.18 MPa, which increased by 47.66% compared with that the sample without MMT. Therefore, it is reasonable and feasible to use the MMT to regulate the biocalcium carbonate cemented uranium tailings.

  12. Adhesion property of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-based adhesives containing calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion property (i.e. viscosity, loop tack and peel strength of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 25 and ENR 50 grade-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied in the presence of calcium carbonate. The range of calcium carbonate loaded was from 10 to 50 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr. Coumarone-indene resin was used as the tackifier and its concentration was fixed at 80 phr. Toluene was chosen as the solvent throughout the investigation. The substrates (PET film/paper were coated with the adhesive using a SHEEN hand coater at a coating thickness of 60 µm. Viscosity of the adhesive was measured by a HAAKE Rotary Viscometer whereas loop tack and peel strength were determined by a Llyod Adhesion Tester operating at 30 cm/min. Results show that viscosity of ENR-based adhesives increases gradually with increase in calcium carbonate loading due to the concentration effect of the filler. However, for loop tack and peel strength, it passes through a maximum at 30 phr calcium carbonate, an observation which is attributed to the optimum wettability of adhesive on the substrate at this adhesive composition. ENR 25-based adhesive consistently exhibits higher adhesion property than ENR 50 for all calcium carbonate loadings studied.

  13. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Dongni; Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH{sub 2} and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH{sub 2} and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  14. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Dongni; Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling

    2010-01-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH 2 and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH 2 and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  15. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongni; Li, Zhuo; Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling

    2010-10-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  16. Chromium-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by dual-pulsed laser deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písařík, Petr; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zezulová, M.; Remsa, Jan; Jurek, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-88 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond like carbon * chromium * contact angle * surface free energy * dual laser deposition * zeta potential Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2014

  17. Capillary assisted deposition of carbon nanotube film for strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zida; Xue, Xufeng; Lin, Feng; Wang, Yize; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Advances in stretchable electronics offer the possibility of developing skin-like motion sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their superior electrical properties, have great potential for applications in such sensors. In this paper, we report a method for deposition and patterning of CNTs on soft, elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using capillary action. Micropillar arrays were generated on PDMS surfaces before treatment with plasma to render them hydrophilic. Capillary force enabled by the micropillar array spreads CNT solution evenly on PDMS surfaces. Solvent evaporation leaves a uniform deposition and patterning of CNTs on PDMS surfaces. We studied the effect of the CNT concentration and micropillar gap size on CNT coating uniformity, film conductivity, and piezoresistivity. Leveraging the piezoresistivity of deposited CNT films, we further designed and characterized a device for the contraction force measurement. Our capillary assisted deposition method of CNT films showed great application potential in fabrication of flexible CNT thin films for strain sensing.

  18. Viral lysis of photosynthesizing microbes as a mechanism for calcium carbonate nucleation in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Removal of carbon through the precipitation and burial of calcium carbonate in marine sediments constitutes over 70% of the total carbon on Earth and is partitioned between coastal and pelagic zones. The precipitation of authigenic calcium carbonate in seawater, however, has been hotly debated because despite being in a supersaturated state, there is an absence of persistent precipitation. One of the explanations for this paradox is the geochemical conditions in seawater cannot overcome the activation energy barrier for the first step in any precipitation reaction; nucleation. Here we show that virally induced rupturing of photosynthetic cyanobacterial cells releases cytoplasmic-associated bicarbonate at concentrations ~23-fold greater than in the surrounding seawater, thereby shifting the carbonate chemistry toward the homogenous nucleation of one or more of the calcium carbonate polymorphs. Using geochemical reaction energetics, we show the saturation states (Ω) in typical seawater for calcite (Ω = 4.3), aragonite (Ω = 3.1), and vaterite (Ω = 1.2) are significantly elevated following the release and diffusion of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate (Ωcalcite = 95.7; Ωaragonite = 68.5; Ωvaterite = 25.9). These increases in Ω significantly reduce the activation energy for nuclei formation thresholds for all three polymorphs, but only vaterite nucleation is energetically favored. In the post-lysis seawater, vaterite's nuclei formation activation energy is significantly reduced from 1.85 × 10−17 J to 3.85 × 10−20 J, which increases the nuclei formation rate from highly improbable (nucleation of calcium carbonate in seawater describes a mechanism through which the initial step in the production of carbonate sediments may proceed. It also presents an additional role of photosynthesizing microbes and their viruses in marine carbon cycles and reveals these microorganisms are a collective repository for concentrated and reactive dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC

  19. Influences of ambient gases on the structure and the composition of calcium phosphate films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Lee; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Joon; Lee, Won-Jun [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jung-Suk [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    Calcium phosphate films were prepared by using a pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) method with a hydroxyapatite target in various ambient gases, such as Ar, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The influence of the ambient gas on the properties of the deposited films was investigated. The chamber pressure and the substrate temperature were fixed at 0.25 Torr and 600 .deg. C, respectively. Calcium-rich amorphous calcium phosphate films were deposited with a low density in Ar due to the preferential resputtering of phosphorus from the growing film. In an O{sub 2} ambient, the density and the Ca/P ratio of the films were similar to those of the target. However, the deposited film was amorphous calcium phosphate and did not contain OH{sup -} groups. Polycrystalline hydroxyapatite films can be deposited in a H{sub 2}O ambient because a sufficient supply of OH{sup -} groups from the ambient gas is essential for the growth of a hydroxyapatite film.

  20. Summary of ENDF/B-V evaluations for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and ENDF/B-V Revision 2 for calcium and iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y

    1982-09-01

    This report, together with documents already published, describes the ENDF/B-V evaluations of the neutron and gamma-ray-production cross sections for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and the ENDF/B-V Revision 2 evaluations for calcium and iron.

  1. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  2. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  3. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fupo; Ren, Weiwei; Tian, Xiumei; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  4. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fupo, E-mail: fphebm@126.com [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Weiwei [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tian, Xiumei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmchenw@126.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  5. Relative influence of deposition and diagenesis on carbonate reservoir layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Emmanuelle [Total E and P, Courbevoie (France); Javaux, Catherine [Total E and P, Pointe Noire (Congo)

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  6. The co-effect of collagen and magnesium ions on calcium carbonate biomineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yunfeng; Feng Qingling; Li Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    The process of calcium carbonate biomineralization in the solution containing collagen and magnesium ions was studied in this paper. The results were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect rules were obtained by the cooperation of collagen and magnesium ions in different concentration. The experiment results showed that in the presence of both collagen and magnesium ions, aragonite and vaterite were precipitated at low Mg/Ca ion concentration ratio, while only aragonite with regular spherical morphology was precipitated at high Mg/Ca ion concentration ratio. It indicated that collagen has a promotional effect on magnesium ions in controlling the polymorph of calcium carbonate crystal. A much wider range of calcium carbonate morphologies was observed in the presence of both collagen and magnesium ions. The experiments suggested that collagen acts in combination with magnesium ions to inhibit calcite crystal growth, while favoring the formation of aragonite crystals

  7. Presence and dehydration of ikaite, calcium carbonate hexahydrate, in frozen shrimp shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, A; Andersen, A B; Engelsen, S B; Hansen, H C; Larsen, O; Skibsted, L H

    1999-03-01

    Ikaite, calcium carbonate hexahydrate, has by means of X-ray diffraction analyses of frozen samples been identified as the mineral component of the white spots formed in the shell of frozen shrimp during storage. When the shrimp thaw and the shell material is dried and kept at room temperature, ikaite rapidly transforms into a mixture of anhydrous calcium carbonate forms. X-ray diffraction analyses and Raman spectra of synthetic ikaite as well as the dehydration product confirm the assignments, and the rate constant for dehydration is approximately 7 x 10(-)(4) s(-)(1) at ambient temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that dehydration of synthetic ikaite is an entropy-driven, athermal process and confirms that a single first-order reaction is rate-determining. Ikaite is found to be stable in aqueous solution at temperatures below 5 degrees C and in the shell of frozen shrimps but decomposes on thawing to form anhydrous calcium carbonates.

  8. Effect of Sr2+AND Mg2+ IONS on electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, M.B.; Gualberto Junior, J.P.; Macedo, M.C.S.S.; Resende, C.X.; Santos, E.A. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The incorporation of Sr2+ and Mg2+ ions into apatite favors the mineralization process of the bone, besides it to prevent the osteoporosis. In this work, it was evaluated the individual effect of Sr2+ and Mg2+ ions in the electrochemical deposition process of calcium phosphate on metallic substrate. The electrodeposition was performed using a conventional three- electrode cell. The titanium sheets were immersed in the electrolyte containing Ca(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 and a potential of -0. 8 V was applied. The coatings were characterized by SEM and XRD. By XRD analysis was possible to identify octacalcium phosphate in the control sample. However, after the addition of Mg2+ ions the OCP becomes the secondary phase while the brushite showed as majoritary phase. On the other hand, the incorporation of Sr2+ ions stabilized the OCP phase. (author)

  9. Unravelling the depositional origins and diagenetic alteration of carbonate breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Robert H. C.; Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Mihaljević, Morana; Pandolfi, John M.; Welsh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Carbonate breccias dissociated from their platform top counterparts are little studied despite their potential to reveal the nature of past shallow-water carbonate systems and the sequential alteration of such systems. A petrographic and stable isotopic study allowed evaluation of the sedimentological and diagenetic variability of the Cenozoic Batu Gading Limestone breccia of Borneo. Sixteen lithofacies representing six facies groups have been identified mainly from the breccia clasts on the basis of shared textural and compositional features. Clasts of the breccia are representative of shallow carbonate platform top and associated flank to basinal deposits. Dominant inputs are from rocky (karstic) shorelines or localised seagrass environments, coral patch reef and larger foraminiferal-rich deposits. Early, pre-brecciation alteration (including micritisation, rare dissolution of bioclasts, minor syntaxial overgrowth cementation, pervasive neomorphism and calcitisation of bioclasts and matrix) was mainly associated with marine fluids in a near surface to shallow burial environment. The final stages of pre-brecciation diagenesis include mechanical compaction and cementation of open porosity in a shallow to moderate depth burial environment. Post-brecciation diagenesis took place at increasingly moderate to deep burial depths under the influence of dominantly marine burial fluids. Extensive compaction, circum-clast dissolution seams and stylolites have resulted in a tightly fitted breccia fabric, with some development of fractures and calcite cements. A degree of facies-specific controls are evident for the pre-brecciation diagenesis. Pervasive mineralogical stabilisation and cementation have, however, led to a broad similarity of diagenetic features in the breccia clasts thereby effectively preserving depositional features of near-original platform top and margin environments. There is little intra-clast alteration overprint associated with subsequent clast reworking

  10. A study of calcium carbonate/multiwalled-carbon nanotubes/chitosan composite coatings on Ti–6Al–4V alloy for orthopedic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rasha A., E-mail: rashaauf@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Forensic Chemistry Laboratories, Medico Legal Department, Ministry of Justice, Cairo (Egypt); Fekry, Amany M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Farghali, R.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2013-11-15

    In an attempt to increase the stability, bioactivity and corrosion resistance of Ti–6Al–4V alloy, chitosan (CS) biocomposite coatings reinforced with multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) for surface modification were utilized by electroless deposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveals the formation of a compact and highly crosslinked coatings. Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the coats stability and resistivity for orthopedic implants in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that E{sub st} value is more positive in the following order: CaCO{sub 3}/MWCNTs/CS > CS/MWCNTs > CS > MWCNTs. The calculated i{sub corr} was 0.02 nA cm{sup −2} for CaCO{sub 3}/MWCNTs/CS which suggested a high corrosion resistance.

  11. Physical and chemical protection of soil organic carbon in three agricultural soils with different contents of calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A.; Skjemstad, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of organic carbon physically protected by entrapment within aggregates and through polyvalent cation organic matter bridging was determined on non-calcareous and calcareous soils. The composition of organic carbon in whole soils and 13 C NMR analysis. High energy photo-oxidation was carried out on <53 μm fractions and results from the NMR spectra showed 17-40% of organic carbon was in a condensed aromatic form, most likely charcoal (char). The concept that organic material remaining after photo-oxidation may be physically protected within aggregates was investigated by treating soils with a mild acid prior to photo-oxidation. More organic material was protected in the calcareous than the non-calcareous soils, regardless of whether the calcium occurred naturally or was an amendment. Acid treatment indicated that the presence of exchangeable calcium reduced losses of organic material upon photo-oxidation by about 7% due to calcium bridging. These results have implications for N fertiliser recommendations based upon organic carbon content. Firstly, calcium does not impact upon degradability of organic material to an extent likely to affect N fertiliser recommendations. Secondly, standard assessment techniques overestimate active organic carbon content in soils with high char content. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Publishing

  12. Calcium Isotope Systematics of Diagenetically Altered Carbonates: Example from the Proterozoic Carbonates of Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Jacobsen, S.; Frauenstein, F.; Veizer, J.

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed mass-dependent (δ44/40Ca) and radiogenic (ɛCa) calcium isotope variations of diagenetically altered carbonates collected from the Duitschland Formation (~2.45 Ga) of the Transvaal Supergroup in a vicinity of the younger Bushveld Igneous Complex (Frauenstein, 2005, PhD Thesis, Ruhr Univ. Bochum). Textural, trace element and isotope data measured on these samples provide convincing evidence for extensive post-depositional alteration and diagenetic resetting. Samples selected for the Ca isotope study have Mn/Sr ratios from 0.8 to 33, 87Sr/86Sr from 0.704 to 0.719 and their δ18O and δ18C scatter from -20 to -2.8‰ and from 9.7 to -1.1‰, respectively. The δ44/40Ca (NIST) of carbonates range from 0.3 to 1.3‰ and their ɛCa indicate no radiogenic 40Ca excesses larger than the analytical uncertainty of ~1.5 ɛ-unit, confirming that the δ44/40Ca variation is exclusively due to mass-dependent fractionation. There is a difference between δ44/40Ca of limestones and dolostones, the former range from ~0.3 to 1.2‰ and the latter cluster tightly around 1.1. Using Mn/Sr as an index for diagenetic alteration (Brand and Veizer, 1980, J. Sed. Petrol., 50, 1219-1236) the δ44/40Ca of limestones becomes progressively heavier with an increasing degree of alteration (δ44/40Ca vs. Mn/Sr, r = .84, p element data. Finally, we propose that in a suite of coeval marine limestones, samples with the lowest δ44/40Ca, Mn/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr should, in most cases, represent the least altered components.

  13. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, A. V. [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Forbes, Tori Z. [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Killian, Christopher E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Gilbert, P.U.P.A [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC → less metastable hydrated ACC→anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC→vaterite → aragonite → calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO₂ sequestration.

  14. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial byproduct slags; Saostetun kalsiumkarbonaatin tuotanto karbonaattivapaista kuonatuotteista (SLAG2PCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.; Teir, S.; Eloneva, S.; Savolahti, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    2006-12-19

    Production of precipitate calcium carbonate from industrial by- product slags-project, 'SLAG2PCC', is a spin-off from ClimBus technology programme CO{sub 2} Nordic Plus-project, financed by the Finnish Technology Agency Tekes and the Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee. 'SLAG2PCC'-project is financed by Tekes, Ruukki Productions, UPM Kymmene and Waertsilae Finland. The possibility to produce precipitated calcium carbonate, PCC, from carbonate free industrial by-products (slags), combined with binding of carbon dioxide for climate change mitigation is studied in this project. The suitability of a process found from the literature, in which calcium used for carbonation is dissolved from calcium silicates using acetic acid as a solvent, is investigated for the carbonation of slags from the steel industry. During the calcium extraction experiments performed in the CO2 Nordic Plus - project it was found out that calcium is rapidly extracted from blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace slags. Atmospheric carbonation of the solution containing the dissolved slag and acetic acid directly has not succeeded yet due to low pH of the solution. Addition of NaOH, to increase of the solution pH, resulted in calcium carbonate precipitate in atmospheric pressure. The future goal of the project is to optimize process conditions so that the formed calcium carbonate is suitable for use as PCC. (orig.)

  15. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte......Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid...

  16. Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in the Presence of Urea at 293 K and 343 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białowicz Katarzyna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a waste post-distillation liquid (DS and a sodium bicarbonate saturated solution – both from the Solvay method – in the presence of urea are presented. The investigation was carried out at 293 K and 343 K. Reagent dosage times of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, and urea concentrations of 5, 6 and 10 mol/dm3 were applied. The granulometric composition, the values of bulk and packing densities and the absorptiveness sorption of water and paraffin oil from the obtained calcium carbonate were investigated.

  17. Tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease with bone destruction in the shoulder. CT an MR findings in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ohba, S.; Sasaki, S.; Ando, K.; Mizutani, M.; Matsushita, Y.; Ohtsuka, T.; Terazawa, T.; Ijima, S.

    1998-01-01

    We report on specific CT and MR features in two cases of tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease in the shoulder with unusually large tumors. CT revealed features that were specific to the disease. MR was useful for detecting the extent of the mass and for obtaining information on adjacent soft-tissue and bone-marrow changes. (orig.)

  18. DEPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF A LITTLE-ORIENTED PYROLYTIC CARBON; Deposition et proprietes d'un carbone pyrolytique peu oriente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappeneau, J; Bocquet, M; Yvars, M; David, C; Auriol, A

    1963-06-15

    Pyrolytic carbon obtained by thermal decomposition of acetylene, at partial pressures of 0.02 to 0.1 atm, on walls heated to between 1550 and 1650 deg C, is characterized by its low density (1.35) and a not very marked preferred orientation of the crystallites. The latter property is expressed by an absence of laminar structure in the deposit and by its good compatibility with an artiticial graphite substrate. Following a description of the method of deposition and an outline of the structural properties, certain physical and chemical properties of the substance are examined. (auth)

  19. CT Imaging for Evaluation of Calcium Crystal Deposition in the Knee: Initial Experience from The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Devyani; Guermazi, Ali; Sieren, Jered P.; Lynch, John; Torner, James; Neogi, Tuhina; Felson, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Role of intra-articular calcium crystals in osteoarthritis (OA) is unclear. Imaging modalities used to date for its evaluation have limitations in their ability to fully characterize intra-articular crystal deposition. Since Computed Tomography (CT) imaging provides excellent visualization of bones and calcified tissue, in this pilot project we evaluated the utility of CT scan in describing intra-articular calcium crystal deposition in the knees. Method We included 12 subjects with and 4 subjects without radiographic chondrocalcinosis in the most recent visit from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) study, which is a longitudinal cohort of community-dwelling older adults with or at risk for knee OA. All subjects underwent CT scans of bilateral knees. Each knee was divided into 25 subregions and each subregion was read for presence of calcium crystals by a musculoskeletal radiologist. To assess reliability, readings were repeated 4 weeks later. Results CT images permitted visualization of 25 subregions with calcification within and around the tibio-femoral and patello-femoral joints in all 24 knees with radiographic chondrocalcinosis. Intra-articular calcification was seen universally including meniscal cartilage (most common site involved in 21/24 knees), hyaline cartilage, cruciate ligaments, medial collateral ligament and joint capsule. Readings showed good agreement for specific tissues involved with calcium deposition (kappa: 0.70, 95% CI 0.62–0.80). Conclusion We found CT scan to be a useful and reliable tool for describing calcium crystal deposition in the knee and therefore potentially for studying role of calcium crystals in OA. We also confirmed that “chondrocalcinosis” is a misnomer because calcification is present ubiquitously. PMID:25451303

  20. Production of carbon molecular sieves from palm shell through carbon deposition from methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Maedeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of production of carbon molecular sieve (CMS from palm shell as a waste lignocellulosic biomass was investigated. CMS samples were prepared through heat treatment processes including carbonization, physiochemical activation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD from methane. Methane was pyrolyzed to deposit fine carbon on the pore mouth of palm shell-based activated carbon to yield CMS. All the deposition experiments were performed at 800 ºC, while the methane flow rate (100, 200, 300 mL min-1 CH4 diluted in 500 mL min-1 N2 and deposition time (30 to 60 min were the investigated parameters. The textural characteristics of the CMSs were assessed by N2 adsorption. The largest BET surface area (752 m2 g-1, micropore surface area (902.2 m2 g-1 and micropore volume (0.3466 cm3 g-1 was obtained at the CH4 flow rate of 200 mL min-1 and deposition time of 30 min. However, prolonging the deposition time to 45 min yielded in a micropouros CMS with a narrow pore size distribution.

  1. The Investigation of E-beam Deposited Titanium Dioxide and Calcium Titanate Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina BOČKUTĖ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin titanium dioxide and calcium titanate films were deposited using electron beam evaporation technique. The substrate temperature during the deposition was changed from room temperature to 600 °C to test its influence on TiO2 film formation and optical properties. The properties of CaTiO3 were investigated also. For the evaluation of the structural properties the formed thin ceramic films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Optical properties of thin TiO2 ceramics were investigated using optical spectroscope and the experimental data were collected in the ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared ranges with a step width of 1 nm. Electrical properties were investigated by impedance spectroscopy.It was found that substrate temperature has influence on the formed thin films density. The density increased when the substrate temperature increased. Substrate temperature had influence on the crystallographic, structural and optical properties also. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.1805

  2. Hyaline cartilage involvement in patients with gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. An ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippucci, E; Riveros, M Gutierrez; Georgescu, D; Salaffi, F; Grassi, W

    2009-02-01

    The main aim of the present study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in detecting monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals deposits at knee cartilage level using clinical definite diagnosis as standard reference. A total of 32 patients with a diagnosis of gout and 48 patients with pyrophosphate arthropathy were included in the study. Fifty-two patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis or osteoarthritis (OA) were recruited as disease controls. All diagnoses were made using an international clinical criterion. US examinations were performed by an experienced sonographer, blind to clinical and laboratory data. Hyaline cartilage was assessed to detect two US findings recently indicated as indicative of crystal deposits: hyperechoic enhancement of the superficial margin of the hyaline cartilage and hyperechoic spots within the cartilage layer not generating a posterior acoustic shadow. Hyperechoic enhancement of the chondrosynovial margin was found in at least one knee of 14 out of 32 (43.7%) patients with gout and in a single knee of only one patient affected by pyrophosphate arthropathy (specificity=99%). Intra-cartilaginous hyperechoic spots were detected in at least one knee of 33 out of 48 (68.7%) patients with pyrophosphate arthropathy and in two disease controls one with OA and the second with RA (specificity=97.6%). The results of the present study indicate that US may play a relevant role in distinguishing cartilage involvement in patients with crystal-related arthropathy. The selected US findings were found to be highly specific.

  3. Fractionation behavior of chromium isotopes during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenviro......Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track...

  4. Preparation of ultra-fine calcium carbonate by a solvent-free reaction using supersonic airflow and low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yan-Hua; Ma, Dong-Mei; Peng, Ru-Fang; Chu, Shi-Jin

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate under solvent-free conditions with a supersonic airflow and at a low heating temperature leads to the synthesis of ultra-fine calcium carbonate. The reaction not only involves mild conditions, a simple operation, and high yields but also gives a high conversion rate.

  5. Purifications of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, AMoRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-01-01

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is going to use calcium molybdate crystals to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100 Mo isotope. In order to make the crystal, we use calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders as raw materials. Therefore it is highly necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th in the powders. In this talk, we will present our studies for purification of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders

  6. Boron erosion and carbon deposition due to simultaneous bombardment with deuterium and carbon ions in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, K.; Kawata, J.; Wienhold, P.; Karduck, P.; Rubel, M.; Seggern, J. von

    1999-01-01

    Erosion of boron out of a thin film exposed to deuterium edge plasmas and the simultaneous carbon deposition have been investigated in the tokamak TEXTOR-94 and simulated by means of a dynamic Monte Carlo code. The calculated results are compared with some observations (colorimetry, spectroscopy and AES) during and after the exposures. The implantation of carbon impurities strongly changes the effective boron sputtering yield of the film, which results into a lowering of the film erosion and a formation of thick carbon deposits. A strong decrease in the observed BII line emission around a surface location far from the plasma edge can be explained by a carbon deposition on the film. The calculated carbon depth profiles in the film, depending on the distance of the exposed surface from the plasma edge, are in reasonable agreement with measurements by AES after the exposures. Although simultaneous surface erosion and carbon deposition can be simulated, the calculated erosion rate is larger, by a factor of 2, than the observations by colorimetry at the early stage of the exposure

  7. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J., E-mail: jacobo.hernandez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Manso-Silvan, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  8. Electron microscopy studies of octa-calcium phosphate thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliescu, Monica; Nelea, V.; Werckmann, J.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Socol, G.; Bigi, Adriana; Bracci, Barbara

    2004-04-01

    Octa-calcium phosphate (OCP), Ca{sub 8}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, is present as transient compound in the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA) and biological apatites. Because of these characteristics, OCP plays a crucial role in the in-vivo mineralization of human bones and teeth. The use of OCP in developing new generations of bone prosthesis stands therefore for an innovative challenge. This paper reports studies of OCP structures grown in the form of thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with emphasis on electron microscopy investigations. OCP films were grown on etched Ti substrates, using an UV KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda}=248 nm, {tau}{>=}20 ns). Films were deposited in low-pressure (50 Pa) water vapors environment on substrates heated at 20-180 deg. C. We performed annealing treatments in water vapors and ambient pressure at substrate temperatures identical to those used during deposition. Comprehensive structural and morphological investigations were carried out with different based-electron microscopy procedures. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and white light confocal microscopy were also applied to characterize the films. Ca/P atomic ratio of films was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained films generally exhibit an amorphous structure, as evidenced by GIXRD. Nevertheless, cross-section transmission electron microscopy investigations provide supplementary information about the film characteristics and material crystallization in small domains. OCP nanoparticles coalesce and grow perpendicular to the substrate in a tree-like structure, comparable to a coral reef.

  9. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J.; Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J.P.; Manso-Silvan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  10. Synthesis of porous poly(acrylamide hydrogels using calcium carbonate and its application for slow release of potassium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous poly(acrylamide was synthesized using calcium carbonate microparticles and subsequent acid treatment to remove the calcium carbonate. Methylenebisacrylamide and ammonium persulfate/sodium metabisulfite were used as crosslinking agent and redox initiator, respectively. The porous structure of resulted hydrogels was confirmed using SEM micrographs. The effect of methylenebisacrylamide concentration and calcium carbonate amount on the swelling of the hydrogels was investigated. The results showed that the effect of methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate variables on the swelling is reverse. The hydrogels were subsequently utilized for the loading of potassium nitrate. Potassium nitrate as active agent was loaded into hydrogels and subsequently the release of this active agent was investigated. In these series of investigation, the effect of content of loading, methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate amount on the release of potassium nitrate from hydrogels was investigated.

  11. Factors Controlling Black Carbon Deposition in Snow in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) concentration in snow in the Arctic to BC emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging efficiency using a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by meteorological field GEOS-5. With all improvements, simulated median BC concentration in snow agrees with observation (19.2 ng g-1) within 10%, down from -40% in the default GEOS-Chem. When the previously missed gas flaring emissions (mainly located in Russia) are included, the total BC emission in the Arctic increases by 70%. The simulated BC in snow increases by 1-7 ng g-1, with the largest improvement in Russia. The discrepancy of median BC in snow in the whole Arctic reduces from -40% to -20%. In addition, recent measurements of BC dry deposition velocity suggest that the constant deposition velocity of 0.03 cm s-1 over snow and ice used in the GEOS-Chem is too low. So we apply resistance-in-series method to calculate the dry deposition velocity over snow and ice and the resulted dry deposition velocity ranges from 0.03 to 0.24 cm s-1. However, the simulated total BC deposition flux in the Arctic and BC in snow does not change, because the increased dry deposition flux has been compensated by decreased wet deposition flux. However, the fraction of dry deposition to total deposition increases from 16% to 25%. This may affect the mixing of BC and snow particles and further affect the radative forcing of BC deposited in snow. Finally, we reduced the scavenging efficiency of BC in mixed-phase clouds to account for the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process based on recent observations. The simulated BC concentration in snow increases by 10-100%, with the largest increase in Greenland (100%), Tromsø (50%), Alaska (40%), and Canadian Arctic (30%). Annual BC loading in the Arctic increases from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2 and the lifetime of BC increases from 9.2 to 16.3 days. This indicates that BC simulation in the Arctic is really sensitive to

  12. Factors affecting the precipitation of pure calcium carbonate during the direct aqueous carbonation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyungsun; Jang, Young-Nam; Kim, Wonbaek; Lee, Myung Gyu; Shin, Dongbok; Bang, Jun-Hwan; Jeon, Chi Wan; Chae, Soo Chun

    2014-01-01

    The mineral carbonation of FGD (flue gas desulfurization) gypsum was carried out through CO 2 sorption into ammonia solution containing FGD gypsum. High-purity calcium carbonate was precipitated from DCC (dissolved calcium carbonate) solution which was extracted during the induction period. The factors affecting the preparation of pure calcium carbonate were examined under the following conditions: CO 2 flow rate (1–3 L/min), ammonia content (4–12%), and S/L (solid-to-liquid) ratio (5–300 g/L). X-Ray diffraction study revealed that the PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) was round-shaped vaterite. The induction time for PCC decreased as the CO 2 flow rate increased. The maximum formation efficiency for pure PCC was seen to increase linearly with the ammonia content. The formation efficiency for pure PCC was the highest (90%) for S/L ratio of 5 g/L but it decreased as S/L ratio increased. On the other hand, S/L ratio didn't affect the maximum solubility limit of DCC. It is believed that the pure PCC would add an economic value to the FGD gypsum carbonation for industrial CO 2 sequestration. - Highlights: • Pure and white CaCO 3 was synthesized using induction period during direct carbonation of FGD gypsum. • Its formation efficiency was increased with ammonia content but decreased with solid-to-liquid ratio. • This method is expected to extend to other industrial CO 2 sequestration for the enhanced economic value of precipitated CaCO 3

  13. Viral lysis of photosynthesizing microbes as a mechanism for calcium carbonate nucleation in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Removal of carbon through the precipitation and burial of calcium carbonate in marine sediments constitutes over 70% of the total carbon on Earth and is partitioned between coastal and pelagic zones. The precipitation of authigenic calcium carbonate in seawater, however, has been hotly debated because despite being in a supersaturated state, there is an absence of persistent precipitation. One of the explanations for this paradox is the geochemical conditions in seawater cannot overcome the activation energy barrier for the first step in any precipitation reaction; nucleation. Here we show that virally induced rupturing of photosynthetic cyanobacterial cells releases cytoplasmic-associated bicarbonate at concentrations ~23-fold greater than in the surrounding seawater, thereby shifting the carbonate chemistry toward the homogenous nucleation of one or more of the calcium carbonate polymorphs. Using geochemical reaction energetics, we show the saturation states (Ω) in typical seawater for calcite (Ω = 4.3), aragonite (Ω = 3.1), and vaterite (Ω = 1.2) are significantly elevated following the release and diffusion of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate (Ωcalcite = 95.7; Ωaragonite = 68.5; Ωvaterite = 25.9). These increases in Ω significantly reduce the activation energy for nuclei formation thresholds for all three polymorphs, but only vaterite nucleation is energetically favored. In the post-lysis seawater, vaterite's nuclei formation activation energy is significantly reduced from 1.85 × 10−17 J to 3.85 × 10−20 J, which increases the nuclei formation rate from highly improbable (seawater describes a mechanism through which the initial step in the production of carbonate sediments may proceed. It also presents an additional role of photosynthesizing microbes and their viruses in marine carbon cycles and reveals these microorganisms are a collective repository for concentrated and reactive dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) that is currently not accounted for

  14. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement sampled near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, and eolian material has 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain

  15. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition of Horizontally Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Cole

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor has been developed to synthesis horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes. The width of the aligning sheath was modelled based on a collisionless, quasi-neutral, Child’s law ion sheath where these estimates were empirically validated by direct Langmuir probe measurements, thereby confirming the proposed reactors ability to extend the existing sheath fields by up to 7 mm. A 7 mbar growth atmosphere combined with a 25 W plasma permitted the concurrent growth and alignment of carbon nanotubes with electric fields of the order of 0.04 V μm−1 with linear packing densities of up to ~5 × 104 cm−1. These results open up the potential for multi-directional in situ alignment of carbon nanotubes providing one viable route to the fabrication of many novel optoelectronic devices.

  16. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement samples near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain. 7 refs., 5 figs

  17. Climatically driven loss of calcium in steppe soil as a sink for atmospheric carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Lapenis; G.B. Lawrence; S.W. Bailey; B.F. Aparin; A.I. Shiklomanov; N.A. Speranskaya; M.S. Torn; M. Calef

    2008-01-01

    During the last several thousand years the semi-arid, cold climate of the Russian steppe formed highly fertile soils rich in organic carbon and calcium (classified as Chernozems in the Russian system). Analysis of archived soil samples collected in Kemannaya Steppe Preserve in 1920, 1947, 1970, and fresh samples collected in 1998 indicated that the native steppe...

  18. Food-grade Pickering stabilisation of foams by in situ hydrophobisation of calcium carbonate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binks, Bernard P.; Muijlwijk, K.; Koman, Henriëtte; Poortinga, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of stabilising foam bubbles in water by adsorption of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Because CaCO3 is hydrophilic and not surface-active, particles were hydrophobised in situ with several emulsifiers. The used emulsifiers were food-grade

  19. Food-grade pickering stabilisation of foams by in situ hydrophobisation of calcium carbonate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binks, B.P.; Muijlwijk, K.; Koman, H.; Poortinga, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of stabilising foam bubbles in water by adsorption of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Because CaCO3 is hydrophilic and not surface-active, particles were hydrophobised in situ with several emulsifiers. The used emulsifiers were food-grade

  20. Calcium carbonate growth in the presence of water soluble cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengju; Yang Xinguo; Tian Fei

    2009-01-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitation was performed in the presence of methyl cellulose (MC) and two kinds of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC FD-10000, HEC FD-30000). The results demonstrated that the final product morphology and structure of CaCO 3 crystals are highly sensitive to the concentration of the cellulose ethers aqueous solution. By precisely controlling their concentrations, all these three cellulose ethers solutions have the ability of protecting metastable vaterite from thermodynamically transforming into stable calcite. The intermediate products investigation showed to some extent the phase transformation of calcium carbonate in its growing process from metastable vaterite to calcite and indicated that the calcium carbonate crystal growth in HEC solutions occurs through dissolution and reprecipitation process. Calcium carbonate growth in both presence of HEC and ethanol or Mg 2+ was also examined. This work demonstrates the potential of water soluble cellulose ethers in controlling biominerals crystallization and growth. The results are revelatory for biomineralization and fabricating new organic-inorganic hybrids based on cellulose derivatives.

  1. Capillary Structured Suspensions from in Situ Hydrophobized Calcium Carbonate Particles Suspended in a Polar Liquid Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstan, Timothy S.; Das, Anupam A.K.; Starck, Pierre; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Paunov, Vesselin N.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that capillary suspensions can be formed from hydrophilic calcium carbonate particles suspended in a polar continuous media and connected by capillary bridges formed of minute amounts of an immiscible secondary liquid phase. This was achieved in two different polar continuous phases,

  2. Fractionated-combustion analysis of carbonate-containing phases in composite materials of the hydroxyapatite-calcium carbonate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M. A.; Shibaeva, T. V.; Smirnov, V. V.; Kutsev, S. V.; Barinov, S. M.; Grigorovich, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Materials in the hydroxyapatite (HA)-calcium carbonate (CC) system were synthesized by a precipitation method from aqueous solutions. According to the data of X-ray phase analysis and IR spectroscopy, the powders consisted of CC and AB-type carbonate-substituted HA (CHA). In order to determine the content of carbonate-containing phases in materials, the temperature-temporal mode of fractionated-combustion analysis of carbon was developed. The quantitative phase ratios and the degree of substitution of carbonate groups in CHA were determined. It was shown that the degree of substitution of carbonate groups in CHA increased from 2.47 to 5.31 wt % as the CC content increased from 13.50 to 88.33 wt %.

  3. Carbon dioxide transport in molten calcium carbonate occurs through an oxo-Grotthuss mechanism via a pyrocarbonate anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-05-01

    The reactivity, speciation and solvation structure of CO2 in carbonate melts are relevant for both the fate of carbon in deep geological formations and for its electroreduction to CO (to be used as fuel) when solvated in a molten carbonate electrolyte. In particular, the high solubility of CO2 in carbonate melts has been tentatively attributed to the formation of the pyrocarbonate anion, C2O5(2-). Here we study, by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, the behaviour of CO2 in molten calcium carbonate. We find that pyrocarbonate forms spontaneously and the identity of the CO2 molecule is quickly lost through O(2-) exchange. The transport of CO2 in this molten carbonate thus occurs in a fashion similar to the Grotthuss mechanism in water, and is three times faster than molecular diffusion. This shows that Grotthuss-like transport is more general than previously thought.

  4. Evidence for Late Permian-Upper Triassic ocean acidification from calcium isotopes in carbonate of the Kamura section in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, F.; Zhao, L., Sr.; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Calcium and carbon cycles are tightly related in the ocean, for example, through continental weathering and deposition of carbonate, thus, very important for exploring evolutions of marine environment during the earth history. The end-Permian mass extinction is the biggest biological disaster in the Phanerozoic and there are several studies talking about variations of calcium isotopes across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). However, these studies are all from the Tethys regions (Payne et al., 2010; Hinojosa et al., 2012), while the Panthalassic Ocean is still unknown to people. Moreover, evolutions of the calcium isotopes during the Early to Late Triassic is also poorly studied (Blattler et al., 2012). Here, we studied an Uppermost Permian to Upper Triassic shallow water successions (Kamura section, Southwest Japan) in the Central Panthalassic Ocean. The Kamura section is far away from the continent without any clastic pollution, therefore, could preserved reliable δ44/40Cacarb signals. Conodont zonation and carbonate carbon isotope also provide precious time framework which is necessary for the explaining of the δ44/40Cacarb profile. In Kamura, δ44/40Cacarb and δ13Ccarb both exhibit negative excursions across the PTB, the δ44/40Cacarb value in the end-Permian is 1.0398‰ then abrupt decrease to the minimum value of 0.1524‰. CO2-driven global ocean acidification best explains the coincidence of the δ44/40Cacarb excursion with negative excursions in the δ13Ccarb of carbonates until the Early Smithian(N1a, N1b, N1c, P1, N2, P2). In the Middle and the Late Triassic, the δ44/40 Cacarb average approximately 1.1‰. During the Middle and Late Triassic, strong relationships between δ44/40Cacarb and δ13Ccarb are collapsed, indicating a normal pH values of the seawater in those time. The Siberian Trap volcanism probably played a significant role on the δ44/40Cacarb until the late Early Triassic. After that, δ44/40Cacarb was mostly controlled by carbonate

  5. The effects of synthetic human secretin on calcium carbonate solubility in human bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyrim, K; Vakil, N

    1990-11-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of synthetic human secretin on ionized calcium and carbonate concentrations in human hepatic bile. Five patients with a nasobiliary drain in the right hepatic duct were studied. Three basal samples of bile were collected, each over a 15-minute period. Synthetic human secretin was then infused IV at 0.05 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 for 45 minutes followed by 0.5 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 for 45 minutes. Bile was sampled over 15-minute periods. To document return to baseline conditions, two further samples of bile were obtained over 15-minute periods 2 hours after the infusion was terminated. Bile acid concentration was determined by an enzymatic method; pH and PCO2 were measured with an automated analyzer. Total calcium was determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and ionized calcium by an ion-specific electrode. Bicarbonate and carbonate concentrations were calculated using Henry's law and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The fraction of bile sampled by the catheter was determined by Indocyanin Green recovery at the end of the experiment. Secretin caused an increase in bile flow and bicarbonate output. Bicarbonate concentrations increased from 26 +/- 3 mmol/L to 41 +/- 3 mmol/L (P less than 0.05), and chloride concentrations decreased. Mean bile acid concentrations declined significantly from 14.6 +/- 2 mmol/L to 4.7 +/- 1 mmol/L (P less than 0.05). Ionized calcium concentrations decreased from 0.7 +/- 0.005 mmol/L to 0.5 +/- 0.02 mmol/L (P less than 0.05) while pH increased significantly from 7.44 +/- 0.06 to 7.6 +/- 0.04 (P less than 0.05). Carbonate concentrations increased significantly from 0.15 +/- 0.02 mmol/L to 0.26 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, and the ion product for calcium carbonate increased significantly from 0.099 +/- 0.002 (mmol/L)2 to 0.135 +/- 0.015 (mmol/L)2 (P less than 0.05). Synthetic human secretin augments the ion product of calcium and carbonate in human hepatic bile, increasing the tendency for

  6. Valorization of Calcium Carbonate-Based Solid Wastes for the Treatment of Hydrogen Sulfide from the Gas Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Xuan , Huynh; Pham Minh , Doan; Galera Martinez , Marta; Nzihou , Ange; Sharrock , Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on the valorization of calcium carbonate-based solid wastes for theremoval of hydrogen sulfide from gas phase. Two solid wastes taken from industrial sites for theproduction of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate by the Solvay process® were analyzedby different physico-chemical methods. Calcium carbonate was found as the main component ofboth the solid wastes. Trace amounts of other elements such as Mg, Al, Fe, Si, Cl, Na etc. werealso present in...

  7. Preparation of calcium-doped boron nitride by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Atsushi; Fuchigami, Masayo; Yamanaka, Shoji; Inumaru, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ca-doped boron nitride was prepared by pulsed laser deposition. ► The films do not have long range order structure in terms of XRD. ► But the films had short-range order structure of h-BN sheets. ► Ca-free films had the same optical band gap as crystalline bulk h-BN (5.8 eV.) ► Ca-doping brought about decreases of the optical band gap by ca. 0.4 eV. -- Abstract: Calcium-doped BN thin films Ca x BN y (x = 0.05–0.1, y = 0.7–0.9) were grown on α-Al 2 O 3 (0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using h-BN and Ca 3 N 2 disks as the targets under nitrogen radical irradiation. Infrared ATR spectra demonstrated the formation of short range ordered structure of BN hexagonal sheets, while X-ray diffraction gave no peak indicating the absence of long-range order structure in the films. It was notable that Ca-doped film had 5.45–5.55 eV of optical band gap, while the band gap of Ca-free films was 5.80–5.85 eV. This change in the band gap is ascribed to interaction of Ca with the BN sheets; first principle calculations on h-BN structure indicated that variation of inter-plane distance between the BN layers did not affect the band gap. This study highlights that PLD could prepare BN having short-range structure of h-BN sheets and being doped with electropositive cation which varies the optical band gap of the films.

  8. Properties of electrophoretically deposited single wall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Junyoung; Jalali, Maryam; Campbell, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes techniques for rapidly producing a carbon nanotube thin film by electrophoretic deposition at room temperature and determines the film mass density and electrical/mechanical properties of such films. The mechanism of electrophoretic deposition of thin layers is explained with experimental data. Also, film thickness is measured as a function of time, electrical field and suspension concentration. We use Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy to determine the film mass density. Films created in this manner have a resistivity of 2.14 × 10 −3 Ω·cm, a mass density that varies with thickness from 0.12 to 0.54 g/cm 3 , and a Young's modulus between 4.72 and 5.67 GPa. The latter was found to be independent of thickness from 77 to 134 nm. We also report on fabricating free-standing films by removing the metal seed layer under the CNT film, and selectively etching a sacrificial layer. This method could be extended to flexible photovoltaic devices or high frequency RF MEMS devices. - Highlights: • We explain the electrophoretic deposition process and mechanism of thin SWCNT film deposition. • Characterization of the SWCNT film properties including density, resistivity, transmittance, and Young's modulus. • The film density and resistivity are found to be a function of the film thickness. • Techniques developed to create free standing layers of SW-CNTs for flexible electronics and mechanical actuators

  9. Nanoscale analysis of the morphology and surface stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkal, W.; Zaoui, A.

    2013-04-01

    Under earth surface conditions, in ocean and natural water, calcium carbonate is ubiquitous, forming anhydrous and hydrous minerals. These hydrous phases are of considerable interest for their role as precursors to stable carbonate minerals. Atomistic simulation techniques have been employed here to perform a comprehensive and quantitative study of the structural and energetic stability of dry and hydrous surfaces of calcium carbonate polymorphs using two recently developed forcefields. Results show that the dry forms are prone to ductility; while hydrous phases are found to be brittle. The (001) surface of monohydrocalcite appears to be the most stable (0.99 J/m2) whereas for the ikaite phase, the (001) surface is the most stable. The corresponding value is 0.2 J/m2, i.e. even lower than the surface energy of the Beautiful computed morphology pictures are obtained with Xiao's model and are very similar to the observed SEM images.

  10. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  11. Apparatus and process for deposition of hard carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaiesh, Ali R.; Garwin, Edward L.

    1989-01-03

    A process and an apparatus for depositing thin, amorphous carbon films having extreme hardness on a substrate is described. An enclosed chamber maintained at less than atmospheric pressure houses the substrate and plasma producing elements. A first electrode is comprised of a cavity enclosed within an RF coil which excites the plasma. A substrate located on a second electrode is excited by radio frequency power applied to the substrate. A magnetic field confines the plasma produced by the first electrode to the area away from the walls of the chamber and focuses the plasma onto the substrate thereby yielding film deposits having higher purity and having more rapid buildup than other methods of the prior art.

  12. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  13. A probabilistic assessment of calcium carbonate export and dissolution in the modern ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglia Gianna; Steinacher Marco; Joos Fortunat

    2016-01-01

    The marine cycle of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is an important element of the carbon cycle and co-governs the distribution of carbon and alkalinity within the ocean. However, CaCO3 export fluxes and mechanisms governing CaCO3 dissolution are highly uncertain. We present an observationally constrained, probabilistic assessment of the global and regional CaCO3 budgets. Parameters governing pelagic CaCO3 export fluxes and dissolution rates are sampled using a Monte Carlo sche...

  14. Complexation/encapsulation of green tea polyphenols in mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate micro-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier P; Ouali, Lahoussine

    2011-01-01

    We used a double-jet mixer to encapsulate water-soluble polyphenols, green tea extract (GTE), with calcium-based inorganic materials. The device mixed calcium chloride solutions with a solution of carbonate and phosphate in the presence of a GTE solution, and formed micro-particles which capture the GTE molecules. The micro-particles were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the encapsulation yield and loading of the different GTE components. We established correlations between (1) the efficiency of the GTE encapsulation and the composition of the mixed anion solutions and (2) the protonation degree of the ions and the molar ratio of calcium cations and carbonate/phosphate anions. An optimal and reproducible GTE loading of about 40% with an encapsulation yield of 65% was observed for a carbonate/phosphate molar composition of 4 : 1. In addition, our experimental results showed that the process is selective and favours the encapsulation of gallated species which form stronger complexes with calcium cations.

  15. Influence of substrate mineralogy on bacterial mineralization of calcium carbonate: implications for stone conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2012-06-01

    The influence of mineral substrate composition and structure on bacterial calcium carbonate productivity and polymorph selection was studied. Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation occurred on calcitic (Iceland spar single crystals, marble, and porous limestone) and silicate (glass coverslips, porous sintered glass, and quartz sandstone) substrates following culturing in liquid medium (M-3P) inoculated with different types of bacteria (Myxococcus xanthus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and a carbonatogenic bacterial community isolated from porous calcarenite stone in a historical building) and direct application of sterile M-3P medium to limestone and sandstone with their own bacterial communities. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 2-dimensional XRD (2D-XRD) analyses revealed that abundant highly oriented calcite crystals formed homoepitaxially on the calcitic substrates, irrespective of the bacterial type. Conversely, scattered spheroidal vaterite entombing bacterial cells formed on the silicate substrates. These results show that carbonate phase selection is not strain specific and that under equal culture conditions, the substrate type is the overruling factor for calcium carbonate polymorph selection. Furthermore, carbonate productivity is strongly dependent on the mineralogy of the substrate. Calcitic substrates offer a higher affinity for bacterial attachment than silicate substrates, thereby fostering bacterial growth and metabolic activity, resulting in higher production of calcium carbonate cement. Bacterial calcite grows coherently over the calcitic substrate and is therefore more chemically and mechanically stable than metastable vaterite, which formed incoherently on the silicate substrates. The implications of these results for technological applications of bacterial carbonatogenesis, including building stone conservation, are discussed.

  16. Ellipsometric study of nanostructured carbon films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznai, M.; Budai, J.; Hanyecz, I.; Kopniczky, J.; Veres, M.; Koos, M.; Toth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    When depositing carbon films by plasma processes the resulting structure and bonding nature strongly depends on the plasma energy and background gas pressure. To produce different energy plasma, glassy carbon targets were ablated by laser pulses of different excimer lasers: KrF (248 nm) and ArF (193 nm). To modify plume characteristics argon atmosphere was applied. The laser plume was directed onto Si substrates, where the films were grown. To evaluate ellipsometric measurements first a combination of the Tauc-Lorentz oscillator and the Sellmeier formula (TL/S) was applied. Effective Medium Approximation models were also used to investigate film properties. Applying argon pressures above 10 Pa the deposits became nanostructured as indicated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Above ∼ 100 and ∼ 20 Pa films could not be deposited by KrF and ArF laser, respectively. Our ellipsometric investigations showed, that with increasing pressure the maximal refractive index of both series decreased, while the optical band gap starts with a decrease, but shows a non monotonous course. Correlation between the size of the nanostructures, bonding structure, which was followed by Raman spectroscopy and optical properties were also investigated.

  17. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Application of a novel calcium looping process for production of heat and carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Shah, Kalpit; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The greenhouse calcium looping process was developed by ASPEN Plus simulator. • In this process, the carbonation reaction provides required heat during night time. • The calcination reaction provides required carbon dioxide during day time. • This novel process saves up to 72% energy compared to the fossil fuel burners. • The process thermodynamically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. - Abstract: Greenhouses typically employ conventional burner systems to suffice heat and carbon dioxide required for plant growth. The energy requirement and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burner are generally high. As an alternative, this paper describes a novel greenhouse calcium looping process which is expected to decrease the energy requirements and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The conceptual design of greenhouse calcium looping process is carried out in the ASPEN Plus v 7.3 simulator. In a greenhouse calcium looping process, the calcination reaction is considered to take place during day time in order to provide the required optimum carbon dioxide between 1000 and 2000 ppm, while the carbonation reaction is occurred during night time to provide required heat. The process simulations carried out in ASPEN indicates that greenhouse calcium looping process theoretically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. Moreover, in a scenario modelling study compared to the conventional natural gas burner system, the heat duty requirements in the greenhouse calcium looping process were found to reduce by as high as 72%

  19. Hierarchical porous carbon derived from Allium cepa for supercapacitors through direct carbonization method with the assist of calcium acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jinhui; Zhang, Wenli; Hou, Dianxun; Huang, Weimin; Lin, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a direction carbonization method was used to prepare porous carbon from Allium cepa for supercapacitor applications. In this method, calcium acetate was used to assist carbonization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption method were used to characterize the morphology, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore size distribution of porous carbon derived from Allium cepa (onion derived porous carbon, OPC). OPC is of hierarchical porous structure with high specific surface area and relatively high specific capacitance. OPC possesses relatively high specific surface area of 533.5 m2/g. What’s more, OPC possesses a specific capacitance of 133.5 F/g at scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  20. Hierarchical porous carbon derived from Allium cepa for supercapacitors through direct carbonization method with the assist of calcium acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jinhui

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, a direction carbonization method was used to prepare porous carbon from Allium cepa for supercapacitor applications. In this method, calcium acetate was used to assist carbonization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption method were used to characterize the morphology, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore size distribution of porous carbon derived from Allium cepa (onion derived porous carbon, OPC). OPC is of hierarchical porous structure with high specific surface area and relatively high specific capacitance. OPC possesses relatively high specific surface area of 533.5 m2/g. What’s more, OPC possesses a specific capacitance of 133.5 F/g at scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  1. Exploring Soil Organic Carbon Deposits in a Bavarian Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Stefanie; Hobley, Eleanor; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    The distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the landscape is not homogeneous, but shows high variability from the molecular to the landscape scale. The aims of our work are 1.) to detect hot spots of SOC storage within different positions in a landscape; 2.) to outline differences (or similarities) between SOC characteristics of erosional and accumulative landscape positions; and 3.) to determine whether localised SOC deposits are dominated by fresh and labile organic matter (OM) or old and presumably stable OM. These findings are crucial for the evaluation of the landscapés vulnerability towards SOC losses caused by management or natural disturbances such as erosional rainfall events. Sampling sites of our study are located in a catchment at the foothills of the Bavarian Forest in south-east Germany. Within this area three landform positions were chosen for sampling: a) a slope with both erosional depletion and old colluvial deposits, b) a foothill with recent colluvial deposits and c) a floodplain with alluvial deposits. In order to consider both heterogeneity within a single landform position and between landforms several soil profiles were sampled at every position. Samples were taken to a maximal depth of 150 cm, depending on the presence of rocks or ground-water level, and analysed for bulk density, total carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon (IC) and texture. SOC densities and stocks were calculated. A two-step physical density fractionation using Sodium-Polytungstate (1.8 g/cm3 and 2.4 g/cm3) was applied to determine the contribution of the different soil organic matter fractions to the detected SOC deposits. Literature assumes deep buried SOC to be particularly old and stable, so we applied Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Radiocarbon Dating (AMS 14C) to bulk soil samples in order to verify this hypothesis. The results show that the floodplain soils contain higher amounts of SOC compared with slopes and foothills. Heterogeneity within the sites was smaller

  2. Microbially-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ser Ku; Roh, Yul

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of carbonate minerals using microorganisms (Wu Do-1) enriched from rhodoliths. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that Wu Do-1 mainly contained Proteus mirabilis. The pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.3 over the first 4 days of incubation due to microbial oxidation of organic acids, after which it increased to 7.8 over the remaining incubation period. XRD analysis showed that the precipitates were Mg-rich cal- cite (MgxCa(1-x)CO3), whereas no precipitates were formed without the addition of Wu Do-1 in D-1 medium. SEM-EDS analyses showed that the Mg-rich calcite had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of Ca, Si and Mg with an extracelluar polymeric substance (EPS). In addition, TEM-EDS analyses revealed they were hexagon in shape, 500-700 nm in size, and composed of Ca, Mg, C, and O. These results indicated that Wu Do-1 induced precipitation of Mg-rich calcite on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Ca and/or Mg ions. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate nanoparticles may play an important role in metal and carbon biogeochemistry, as well as in carbon sequestration in natural environments.

  3. Evaluation of polymer efficiency on the inhibition of calcium carbonate scale in synthetic brines; Avaliacao da acao de polimeros sobre a inibicao de incrustacoes de carbonato de calcio em salmouras sinteticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Juliana M.; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Loureiro, Tatiana S.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Spinelli, Luciana S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: julianamatos@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The inorganic scale results in serious problems for oil production. This scale results from the incompatibility between the chemical compositions of formation water and injection, and the changes of thermodynamic system. These deposits consist mainly of calcium carbonate and barium sulfate. In order to prevent the formation of these deposits, the petroleum industry has made use of chemicals that act as scale inhibitors. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two types of polymeric inhibitors prevent the formation of calcium carbonate from brines of different compositions with high concentrations of calcium. The inhibitors were tested at varying concentrations and at fixed conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and time. The estimated effectiveness of each inhibitor was measured by complexometric titration. The inhibitor carboxylic acid-based (poly (maleic acid)) was more efficient at relatively low concentrations, which is important both economically and environmentally. (author)

  4. DEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON CARBON FIBRES BY GALVANIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Štefánik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of coating parameters in quasi-static coating of Ni layer on carbon fibre tow by galvanic method is presented. The tow of fibres was immersed in typical galvanic bath based on NiSO4, NiCl2, Na2SO4 and H3BO3 and current to carbon fibres was supplied by two leading metal rolls which are parts of continuous coating apparatus. The main parameters were current of 1 A, electrolyte temperature of 50 °C and the distance from power contacts to level of galvanic bath (8 or 13 cm. The amount and structure of deposited Ni layer at coating time 15 and 90 seconds of exposure in electrolyte and depth of immersion of tow into bath were discussed.

  5. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on polycarbonates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.T. [Department of Computer and Communication, Diwan College of Management, 72141 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctguo@dwu.edu.tw

    2008-04-30

    Diamond-like carbon films were coated on optical polycarbonate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gases was utilized to reduce the internal compressive stress of the deposited films. The structure of the DLC films was characterized as a function of film thickness using Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio of I{sub D}/I{sub G} on the DLC film thicknesses was analyzed in detail. Other studies involving atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectrometry, and three adhesion tests were conducted. Good transparency in the visible region, and good adhesion between diamond-like carbon films and polycarbonate were demonstrated. One-time recordings before and after a DLC film was coated on compact rewritable disc substrates were analyzed as a case study. The results reveal that the diamond-like carbon film overcoating the optical polycarbonates effectively protects the storage media.

  6. One-pot Synthesis of Bio-inspired Layered Materials of 3D Graphene Network/Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; FU Zhengyi; YAO Bin; PING Hang; YU Hongjian; ZHANG Fan; ZHANG Jinyong; WANG Yucheng; WANG Hao; WANG Weimin

    2017-01-01

    A bio-inspired layered material of reduced graphene oxide (RGOs) and calcium carbonate was synthesized via a one-pot strategy in DMF/H2O mixed solvent. The experimental results show that the product is a layered material of wrinkled RGOs networks and micron-sized calcium carbonate particles with uniform granular diameter and homogeneous morphology, which are distributed between the layered gallery of the graphene scaffold. The polymorph and the morphology of the in-situ produced calcium carbonate particles can be manipulated by simply changing the temperature scheme. Besides, the graphene oxide was reduced to a certain extent, and the hierarchical wrinkles were generated in the RGOs layer by the in-situ formation of the calcium carbonate particles. This work provides a facile and controllable strategy for synthesizing layered material of RGOs and carbonates, and also presents a platform for making three-dimensional porous wrinkled RGOs networks.

  7. Chromium isotope fractionation during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    The chromium (Cr) isotopic composition of carbonates can potentially be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during the Ar...... et al., 2007, Water Air Soil Poll. 179, 381-390. [2] Sánchez-Pastor et al., 2011, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 3081-3089.......The chromium (Cr) isotopic composition of carbonates can potentially be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during...... the Archaean and Protoerozoic, needs careful assessment of the signal robustness and necessitates a thorough understanding of the Cr cycle in Earth system processes. We conducted experiments testing the incorporation and isotopic fractionation of chromate into the calcite lattice. Our experiments indicate...

  8. Development of a new foil compounded from carbon nanotubes and sputter-deposition carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Hasebe; Hironori Kuboki; Hiroki Okuno; Isao Yamane; Hiroshi Imao; Nobuhisa Fukunishi; Masayuki Kase; Osamu Kamigaito

    2014-01-01

    New carbon-nanotube-sputter-deposition-carbon (CNT-SDC) foils were developed and used in the U beam time at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) from October to December 2011. The lifetimes of these new foils were drastically extended, and stable, high-intensity U beams were successfully provided to users. The lifetime of the CNT-SDC foils was 2-5 C, which was 100 times longer than those of static C-foils previously used. The qualitative analysis of the CNT-SDC foils clearly showed that the CNT structure and bundles were broken by beam irradiation. In addition, it was found that CNT bundles in the CNT-SDC foil were grown after the carbon deposition procedure. This structure was considered to be the reason that the CNT-SDC foils maintain advantages of both CNT and SDC foils. (author)

  9. Study of calcium forms and their effect in carbon stabilization in fertile soils by FTIR and XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.R.; Assis, K.L.S.; Calil, V.L.; Souza, K.R.; Beltrao, M.S.S.; Sena, L.A.; Archanjo, B.S.; Achete, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Organic matter or black carbon atoms of Terra Preta de Indio (Amazonian Dark Earth) soils are composed of oxidized carbon groups as phenols, epoxide, carbonyl and carboxyl groups in their surface. At the pH of soil, carboxylate groups are deprotonated generating carboxylate anions leaving the surface of these soils with negative charges. Calcium cations can interact with oxidized carbon groups by chemisorption interactions lowering the total system energy. In this work, Terra Preta de Indio was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy in order to correlate its organic fraction rich in calcium with calcium containing samples. (author)

  10. Study of calcium forms and their effect in carbon stabilization in fertile soils by FTIR and XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, J.R.; Assis, K.L.S.; Calil, V.L.; Souza, K.R.; Beltrao, M.S.S.; Sena, L.A.; Archanjo, B.S.; Achete, C.A., E-mail: jraraujo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Materiais e Metrologia

    2013-07-01

    Organic matter or black carbon atoms of Terra Preta de Indio (Amazonian Dark Earth) soils are composed of oxidized carbon groups as phenols, epoxide, carbonyl and carboxyl groups in their surface. At the pH of soil, carboxylate groups are deprotonated generating carboxylate anions leaving the surface of these soils with negative charges. Calcium cations can interact with oxidized carbon groups by chemisorption interactions lowering the total system energy. In this work, Terra Preta de Indio was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy in order to correlate its organic fraction rich in calcium with calcium containing samples. (author)

  11. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-15

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup

  12. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

  13. Effects of deposition conditions on the properties of pyrolytic carbon deposited in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowden, Richard Andrew; Hunn, John D.; Nunn, Stephen D.; Kercher, Andrew K.; Price, Jeffery R.; Jellison, Gerald Earle Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The high-density, isotropic pyrolytic carbon layer beneath the silicon carbide (IPyC) plays a key role in the irradiation performance of coated particle fuel. The IPyC layer protects the kernel from reactions with chlorine during deposition of the SiC layer, provides structural support for the SiC layer, and protects the SiC from fission products and carbon monoxide. The process conditions used by the Germans to deposit the IPyC coating produced a highly isotropic, but somewhat permeable IPyC coating. The permeability of the IPyC coating was acceptable for use with the dense German UO 2 kernels, but may not be suitable when coating UCO kernels. The UCO kernels are typically more porous and thus have a larger surface area than UO 2 kernels. The lower density and the higher surface area of UCO kernels could make them more susceptible to attack by HCl gas during the silicon carbide (SiC) coating process, which could result in heavy metal dispersion into the buffer and IPyC coatings and a higher level of as-manufactured SiC defects. The relationship between IPyC deposition conditions, permeability, and anisotropy must be understood and the appropriate combination of anisotropy and permeability for particle fuel containing UCO kernels selected. A reference set of processing conditions have been determined from review of historical information and results of earlier coating experiments employing 350 and 500 (micro)m UO 2 kernels. It was decided that a limited study would be conducted, in which only coating gas fraction (CGF) and temperature would be varied. Coatings would be deposited at different rates and with a range of microstructures. Thickness, density, porosity and anisotropy would be measured and permeability evaluated using a chlorine leach test. The results would be used to select the best IPyC coating conditions for use with the available natural enrichment uranium carbide/uranium oxide (NUCO) kernels. The response plots from the investigation of the

  14. Separation and determination of radiostrontium in calcium carbonate matrices of biological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    Radiostrontium is concentrated in the shells of mollusks and other animals due to the isomorphic substitution of strontium for calcium in the calcium carbonate shell matrix. Radiochemical separation of strontium from such matrices is difficult because of the chemical similarity between strontium and calcium. This paper describes a technique using a commercially-available, solid-phase extractant to separate Sr-89 and Sr-90 from high concentrations of Ca 2+ . The extractant removes Sr(NO 3 ) 2 from acidic nitrate media, and strontium activities are determined via conventional β-counting techniques. This method has been used to process mollusk shells collected from contaminated reactor cooling ponds at the Savannah River Site and Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Ossifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff after arthroscopic excision of calcium deposits: report of two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dave, Arpit C; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Ossifying tendinitis (OT) is a type of heterotopic ossification, characterized by deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in a histologic pattern of mature lamellar bone. It is usually associated with surgical intervention or trauma and is more commonly seen in Achilles or distal biceps tendons, and also in the gluteus maximus tendon. To our knowledge, there is no description of OT as a complication of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. In this report, we describe two cases in which the patients developed an OT of the supraspinatus after arthroscopic removal of calcium deposits. The related literature is reviewed.

  16. Mesozoic authigenic carbonate deposition in the Arctic: Do glendonites record gas hydrate destabilization during the Jurassic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Chloe; Suan, Guillaume; Wierzbowski, Hubert; Rogov, Mikhail; Teichert, Barbara; Kienhuis, Michiel V. M.; Polerecky, Lubos; Middelburg, Jack B. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; van de Schootbrugge, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Glendonites are calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite, an unstable hydrated calcium carbonate mineral. Because present-day ikaite occurs predominantly in sub-polar environments and is unstable at warm temperatures, glendonites have been used as an indicator of near-freezing conditions throughout Earth history. Ikaite has also been observed in cold deep-sea environments like the Gulf of Mexico, the Japan Trench, and the Zaire Fan where their formation is possibly governed by other parameters. The description of glendonites in Paleocene-Eocene sediments of Svalbard, and Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) deposits of northern Germany, however questions the role of temperature on ikaite precipitation (Spielhagen and Tripati, 2009; Teichert and Luppold, 2013). Anomalously low carbon isotope values of Jurassic glendonites point to the involvement of methane as a possible carbon source for ikaite/glendonite formation. Terrestrial organic matter degradation is also frequently evoked as a potential source of carbon. The involved bio- and geochemical processes remains thus not well constrained. Here we present new geochemical data of a large number of glendonites specimens from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northern Siberia and the Lena river middle flows (Bajocian, Bathonian, Pliensbachian). Carbon and oxygen isotopic values show comparable trends between the different sections. Bulk glendonites δ13C and δ18O values vary from 0.0 to -44.5o and -15.0 to -0.8 respectively and show a negative correlation. Some samples display similar low δ13C values as the Pliensbachian glendonites of Germany (Teichert and Luppold, 2013), suggesting thermogenic and/or biogenic methane sources. The range of carbon isotope values is comparable to those observed at other methane seeps deposits. Further investigations are needed to better constrain the carbon cycle in these particular environmental conditions. The role of microbial communities into ikaite/glendonite formation equally needs to be

  17. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands.

  18. Calcium carbonate scaling in seawater desalination by ammonia-carbon dioxide forward osmosis: Mechanism and implications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2015-02-07

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotically driven membrane process, where the membrane separates a draw solution (DS) with high salinity from a feed solution (FS) with low salinity. There can be a counter direction flow of salt (i.e., salt leakage) that may interact with the water flux through the FO membrane. For the first time reported, this study describes a new calcium carbonate scaling phenomenon in the seawater FO desalination process using ammonium bicarbonate as the DS. The scaling on the membrane surface at the feed side is caused by the interaction between an anion reversely diffused from the DS and a cation present in the FS, causing a significant decline of the water flux. The composition of the scaling layer is dominated by the solubility (represented as solubility product constant, Ksp) of salt formed by the paired anion and cation. Membrane surface morphology plays a crucial role in the reversibility of the scaling. If the scaling occurs on the active layer of the FO membrane, hydraulic cleaning (increasing crossflow velocity) efficiency to restore the water flux is up to 82%. When scaling occurs on the support layer of the FO membrane, the hydraulic cleaning efficiency is strongly reduced, with only 36% of the water flux recovered. The present study reveals the risk of scaling induced by the interaction of feed solute and draw solute, which is different from the scaling caused by the supersaturation in reverse osmosis and other FO studies reported. The scaling investigated in this study can occur with a very low solute concentration at an early stage of the FO process. This finding provides an important implication for selection of draw solution and development of new membranes in the FO process.

  19. Calcification in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystalline deposits in the knee: anatomic, radiographic, MR imaging, and histologic study in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, M.; Chung, C.B.; Lima, J.E. de; Trudell, D. [Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Johnson, K.; Terkeltaub, R.; Resnick, D. [Department of Rheumatology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Pe, S. [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States)

    2004-07-01

    To demonstrate and determine the frequency and location of calcification within cadaveric knees with or without calcification typical of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), utilizing histologic, radiographic and MR imaging techniques. Ten cadaveric knees of elderly individuals that demonstrated no radiographic evidence of prior surgery or trauma were studied with MR imaging and subsequently sectioned in planes corresponding to those obtained with MR imaging. The slices were imaged with high-resolution radiography. Two musculoskeletal radiologists correlated the anatomic, MR and radiographic findings. Three of the knees, which did not demonstrate calcifications, were utilized as controls. Histologic sections were obtained from four knees that contained calcifications and from the three controls, and analyzed with special histologic stains that demonstrate phosphorus and calcium. Radiographic imaging and histologic analysis demonstrated widespread CPPD crystal deposition in four of the 10 knee specimens (40%). MR imaging demonstrated some calcifications only within the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles in three of the four (75%) specimens that had CPPD deposits. In all four specimens radiographs and histologic analysis were more sensitive than MR imaging. Histologic analysis demonstrated no evidence of CPPD crystals in the control specimens. MR imaging is insensitive to the presence of CPPD deposits in the knee, even when such deposits are widespread. Our study suggests that the sensitivity of MR imaging was significantly better in detecting CPPD deposits in the hyaline cartilage of the femoral condyles when compared with other internal structures, even when such structures contained a higher amount of calcification. (orig.)

  20. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankar, V.; Rajkumar, S.; Murugesh, S.; Darchen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The carbonization of Tamarind fruit shell improved its defluoridation efficiency. ► Calcium carbonate particles were involved in the defluoridation process. ► Adsorbent dose, pH, and fluoride concentration showed significant effects. ► Maximum adsorption of fluoride was achieved at pH 7–8. ► Prepared carbons were efficient in treating three natural waters. - Abstract: Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations

  2. Calcium Carbonate Crystal Growth in Porous Media, in the presence of Water Miscible and Non-Miscible Organic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaho, Sofia; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of sparingly soluble salts (scaling) within porous media is a major problem encountered in many industrial and environmental applications. In the oil industry scaling causes severe operational malfunctions and, therefore, increasing the total operating and maintenance cost [1]. The most common types of sparingly soluble salts located in oil fields include carbonate and sulfate salts of calcium, strondium and barium[1,2]. Multiple phase flow and tubing surface properties are some of the factors affecting scale formation [3]. The main purpose of the present work was the investigation of the precipitation mechanisms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) through in situ mixing of two soluble salt solutions in a flow granular medium, in the presence of water miscible organic fluid (ethylene glycol) or non-miscible organic fluid (n-dodecane). All series of experiments were carried out in a two dimensional porous medium made of Plexiglas. For all solutions used in the experiments, the contact angles with the surface of the porous medium and the interfacial tensions were measured. During the experiments, the calcium carbonate crystal growth was continuously monitored and recorded through an optical microscope equipped with a digital programmed video camera. The snap-shots were taken within specific time intervals and their detailed procession gave information concerning the crystal growth rate and kinetics. The pH of the effluent was measured and fluids samples were collected for calcium analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). In all experiments effluent calcium concentration decreased as a function of time, suggesting that CaCO3 precipitation took place inside the porous medium. Crystals of the precipitated salt were identified using Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and the morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The induction time for precipitation of CaCO3 crystals in the presence of n-dodecane was significantly

  3. Carbonation acceleration of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles: induced by yeast fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Zornoza-Indart, Ainara

    2015-09-01

    Carbonation of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles and consolidation of limestone are accelerated by high humidity and a yeast fermentation system that supplies a saturated atmosphere on CO2, H2O vapor and ethanol during 28 days. Nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses with thermogravimetry. Spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy analyses, and hydric and mechanical tests were also performed in stones specimens. Samples exposed to the yeast environment achieve 100 % relative CaCO3 yield, whereas at high humidity but without the yeast and under laboratory environment, relative yields of 95 % CaCO3 and 15 % CaCO3 are, respectively, reached, with white crusts and glazing left on the stone surfaces when the nanoparticles are applied at a concentration of 25 g/l. The largest increase in the drilling resistance and surface hardness values with slight increase in the capillarity absorption and desorption coefficients and with lesser stone color changes are produced at a concentration of 5 g/l, in the yeast system environment. This especially happens in stone specimens initially with bimodal pore size distributions, more amounts of pores with diameters between 0.1 and 1 µm, higher open porosity values and faster capillary coefficients. An inexpensive and reliable method based on water and yeast-sugar solution is presented to speed up carbonation of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles used as a consolidating product to improve the mechanical properties of decayed limestone from archaeological and architectural heritage.

  4. Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Gerhard S.; Nehrke, Gernot; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Kennedy, Hilary; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Thomas, David N.

    2008-04-01

    We report on the discovery of the mineral ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in sea-ice from the Southern Ocean. The precipitation of CaCO3 during the freezing of seawater has previously been predicted from thermodynamic modelling, indirect measurements, and has been documented in artificial sea ice during laboratory experiments but has not been reported for natural sea-ice. It is assumed that CaCO3 formation in sea ice may be important for a sea ice-driven carbon pump in ice-covered oceanic waters. Without direct evidence of CaCO3 precipitation in sea ice, its role in this and other processes has remained speculative. The discovery of CaCO3.6H2O crystals in natural sea ice provides the necessary evidence for the evaluation of previous assumptions and lays the foundation for further studies to help elucidate the role of ikaite in the carbon cycle of the seasonally sea ice-covered regions

  5. Deposition of metallic nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes via a fast evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Guoqiang; Xing Yangchuan

    2006-01-01

    A new technique was developed for the deposition of colloidal metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. It involves fast evaporation of a suspension containing sonochemically functionalized carbon nanotubes and colloidal nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles with different sizes and concentrations can be deposited on the carbon nanotubes with only a few agglomerates. The technique does not seem to be limited by what the nanoparticles are, and therefore would be applicable to the deposition of other nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. PtPd and CoPt 3 alloy nanoparticles were used to demonstrate the deposition process. It was found that the surfactants used to disperse the nanoparticles can hinder the nanoparticle deposition. When the nanoparticles were washed with ethanol, they could be well deposited on the carbon nanotubes. The obtained carbon nanotube supported metal nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry

  6. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  7. The influence of pore-water advection, benthic photosynthesis, and respiration on calcium carbonate dynamics in reef sands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, A.M.F.; Polerecky, L.; Ionescu, D.; Meysman, F.J.R.; de-Beer, D.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate diel calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dynamics in permeable coral reef sands, we measured pore-water profiles and fluxes of oxygen (O2), nutrients, pH, calcium (Ca2+), and alkalinity (TA) across the sediment-water interface in sands of different permeability

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in patients with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabban, Abdou S; Kamel, Shereen R; Abo Omar, Hanaa A S; El-Sherif, Ashraf M H; Abdel-Magied, Rasha A

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the study were to detect the frequency of involvement of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in patients with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) by high-frequency gray-scale ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler sonography (PDS) and to correlate these findings with demographic and clinical data. Two groups of patients were enrolled: group I (38 patients with CPPD) and group II (22 patients with knee OA). US/PDS examination of the heels was performed to both groups. In the CPPD group, US/PDS examination of the Achilles tendon revealed: calcification in 57.9%, enthesophytosis in 57.9%, enthesopathy in 23.7%, vascular sign in 21%, bursitis in 13.2%, and cortical bone irregularity in 10.5%. US/PDS examination of plantar fascia in the CPPD group revealed: calcification in 15.8%, cortical bone irregularity in 78.9%, enthesophytosis in 60.5%, and planter fasciitis in 42.1%. In patients with CPPD, age was significantly correlated with enthesophytosis and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). Heel tenderness and posterior talalgia were significantly correlated with Achilles tendon enthesopathy, vascular sign, and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p = 0.0001 for each). Inferior talalgia was significantly correlated with plantar fasciitis (p = 0.0001). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of calcifications in Achilles tendon and plantar fascia was 57.9% and 15.8%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for both. To conclude, ultrasonographic Achilles tendon and plantar fascia calcifications are frequent findings in patients with CPPD. These calcifications have a high specificity and can be used as a useful indirect sign of CPPD.

  9. Scaling of Calcium Carbonate at Heated Surfaces in a Continuous System

    OpenAIRE

    Nergaard, Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    Scaling is the precipitation of a mineral layer on a surface. Sparingly soluble salts with inverse solubility, which calcium carbonate exhibits, will prefer precipitation at heated surfaces, making heat exchangers a target for scale formation. A continuous setup was used to study scale formation, the nature of the scale formed and scaling rate. An internally heated U-shaped tube was inserted into a continuously stirred tank, giving the same conditions for all scaling points. The experimental ...

  10. Ni-YSZ Substrate Degradation during Carbon Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinšek, Marjan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon deposition on various Ni-YSZ catalytic composites with average Ni particle size from 0.44 mm to 0.98 μm was studied under dry CH4-Ar and humidified CH4-Ar conditions. The change in the catalytic activity was monitored both as a mass gain due to carbon deposition and hydrogen evolution due to CH4 dehydrogenation on Ni-YSZ. Regarding the start of methane decomposition and subsequent catalyst deactivation rate, composites with smaller Ni-grains were much more active in comparison to those with relatively large grains. Dry methane conditions always caused coking of the catalyst substrate with substantial activity loss. In contrast, under humidified methane atmosphere conditions with a steam to carbon (S/C ratio of 0.82, catalytic activity of the Ni-YSZ composites remained nearly undiminished after 2,000 minutes at chosen deposition temperatures (600–800 °C. On the catalyst surface, some encapsulation of Ni with the deposited carbon was noticed while carbon filaments grew inside the treated samples. The dimensions of C-filaments were influenced by treatment conditions and Ni-YSZ substrate morphology.

    La deposición de carbón en diferentes compuestos catalizadores Ni-YSZ con un tamaño promedio de partícula Ni de 0.44 mm a 0.98 μm fue estudiado bajo condiciones secas: CH4-Ar y húmedas: CH4-Ar. El cambio de la actividad catalítica fue monitoreado tanto como una ganancia de masa debida a la deposición de carbón y una evolución de hidrógeno debido a la deshidrogenación de CH4 en Ni-YSZ. En cuanto al comienzo de descomposición del metano y a la subsiguiente desactivación del catalizador, aquellos compuestos con granos Ni menores fueron mucho más activos en comparación a aquellos con granos relativamente mayores. Las condiciones secas del metano siempre causaron coquificación del sustrato del catalizador con una sustancial pérdida de actividad. Por el

  11. Think positive : phase separation enables a positively charged additive to induce dramatic changes in calcium carbonate morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantaert, B.; Kim, Y.; Ludwig, H.; Nudelman, F.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Meldrum, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble macromolecules are essential to Nature's control over biomineral formation. Following early studies where macromolecules rich in aspartic and glutamic acid were extracted from nacre, research has focused on the use of negatively charged additives to control calcium carbonate precipitation.

  12. Obtainment of calcium carbonate from mussels shell; Obtencao de carbonato de calcio a partir de conchas de mariscos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamester, M.R.R.; Becker, D., E-mail: michele.rosa@sociesc.org.b [Sociedade Educacional de Santa Catarina (SOCIESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Mestrado Profissional em Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    The mussels and oyster shell are discarded at environment, and this accumulation is causing negative consequences to ecosystem. Calcium carbonate is main constituent of the shell chemical composition. Aiming to reduce environmental aggression and generate income to shellfish producer, there was the possibility of using these shells as an alternative to commercial calcium carbonate. For this physics, chemicals and thermal properties were evaluated, using X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, size distribution, abrasiveness and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that mussels shells have an initial degradation temperature higher than commercial calcium carbonate e same lost weight behavior and 95% of shell chemical composition is calcium carbonate. The sample size distribution was influenced by grinding condition and time as well as its abrasiveness. (author)

  13. Potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis (NCEI Accession 0157223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis. Effects of...

  14. Hydration Effects on the Stability of Calcium Carbonate Pre-Nucleation Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Burgos-Cara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence and computer modeling have shown that the crystallization of a range of minerals does not necessarily follow classical models and theories. In several systems, liquid precursors, stable pre-nucleation clusters and amorphous phases precede the nucleation and growth of stable mineral phases. However, little is known on the effect of background ionic species on the formation and stability of pre-nucleation species formed in aqueous solutions. Here, we present a systematic study on the effect of a range of background ions on the crystallization of solid phases in the CaCO3-H2O system, which has been thoroughly studied due to its technical and mineralogical importance, and is known to undergo non-classical crystallization pathways. The induction time for the onset of calcium carbonate nucleation and effective critical supersaturation are systematically higher in the presence of background ions with decreasing ionic radii. We propose that the stabilization of water molecules in the pre-nucleation clusters by background ions can explain these results. The stabilization of solvation water hinders cluster dehydration, which is an essential step for precipitation. This hypothesis is corroborated by the observed correlation between parameters such as the macroscopic equilibrium constant for the formation of calcium/carbonate ion associates, the induction time, and the ionic radius of the background ions in the solution. Overall, these results provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis that pre-nucleation cluster dehydration is the rate-controlling step for calcium carbonate precipitation.

  15. Why to synthesize vaterite polymorph of calcium carbonate on the cellulose matrix via sonochemistry process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lian-Hua; Dong, Yan-Yan; Ma, Ming-Guo; Yue, Wen; Sun, Shao-Long; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-09-01

    Vaterite is an important biomedical material due to its features such as high specific surface area, high solubility, high dispersion, and small specific gravity. The purposes of this article were to explore the growth mechanism of vaterite on the cellulose matrix via sonochmistry process. In the work reported herein, the influences of experimental parameters on the polymorph of calcium carbonate were investigated in detail. The calcium carbonate crystals on the cellulose matrix were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results revealed that all the reactants, solvent, and synthesis method played an important role in the polymorph of calcium carbonate. The pure phase of vaterite polymorph was obtained using Na2CO3 as reactant in ethylene glycol on the cellulose matrix via sonochmistry process. Based on the experimental results, one can conclude that the synthesis of vaterite polymorph is a system process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of seeds to control precipitation of calcium carbonate and determination of seed nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Marcel; Bowen, Paul; Jongen, Nathalie; Lemaître, Jacques; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2005-01-04

    Understanding and controlling precipitation reactions is a major challenge for industrial crystallization. Calcium carbonate is a widely studied system: more than 3000 papers have been devoted to the subject over the past 10 years. The first step of the precipitation of calcium carbonate, from relatively concentrated solutions (0.01 mol/L), involves the formation of an initial gel phase which later transforms into calcite, vaterite, or a mixture of both phases. Our work aimed at controlling this first step. Nanosized seeds (8 nm), formed in situ, were used in order to control the often chaotic nucleation step which normally leads to poor phase selection and broad particle size distributions. Seeding has often been used to avoid spontaneous nucleation in metastable solutions for growth mechanism investigations of single-crystal calcium carbonate. Here the ability of a seeding method to control the precipitation reaction evolution even in the case of high supersaturation is demonstrated. The seeds and the presence of a polymeric additive (poly(acrylic acid)) allow the control of the precipitated polymorph and the specific surface area, while maintaining a narrow particle size distribution in the submicron range. Direct characterization methods did not succeed in identifying these nanoseeds; indirect methods using solubility calculations are used to demonstrate their existence and quantify size and number density of the nanosized seeds.

  17. Bacillus megaterium mediated mineralization of calcium carbonate as biogenic surface treatment of green building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is a biomineralization process that has various applications in remediation and restoration of range of building materials. In the present study, calcifying bacteria, Bacillus megaterium SS3 isolated from calcareous soil was applied as biosealant to enhance the durability of low energy, green building materials (soil-cement blocks). This bacterial isolate produced high amounts of urease, carbonic anhydrase, extra polymeric substances and biofilm. The calcium carbonate polymorphs produced by B. megaterium SS3 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy. These results suggested that calcite is the most predominant carbonate formed by this bacteria followed by vaterite. Application of B. megaterium SS3 as biogenic surface treatment led to 40 % decrease in water absorption, 31 % decrease in porosity and 18 % increase in compressive strength of low energy building materials. From the present investigation, it is clear that surface treatment of building materials by B. megaterium SS3 is very effective and eco friendly way of biodeposition of coherent carbonates that enhances the durability of building materials.

  18. Growth rate and calcium carbonate accumulation of Halimeda macrolobaDecaisne (Chlorophyta: Halimedaceae in Thai waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Mayakun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Halimeda macroloba Decaisne can utilize the CO2 used for carbon fixation in photosynthesis and use bicarbonate as the main carbon source for calcification. Although Halimeda has been recognized as a carbon sink species, the calcium accumulation of Halimeda species in Thai waters remain poorly understood. In this study, the highest density of H. macroloba was 26 thalli/m2 and Halimeda quickly produced 1-2 new segments/thallus/day or 20.1 mg dry weight/thallus/day. Its calcium carbonate accumulation rate was 16.6 mg CaCO3 /thallus/day, or 82.46 % per thallus. In Thailand, however, only three scientific papers of growth rate and CaCO3 accumulation rate of H. macroloba have been found and collected. Of these records, the mean density was 26-104 thalli/m2 . The growth rate of H. macroloba was around 1-2 mg dry weight/day and the CaCO3 accumulation rate varied around 41-91%. Thus, Halimeda has a great potential to decrease the carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean.

  19. Evaluation of the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblast on a calcium carbonate coating on titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yi; Jiang Tao; Zhou Yi; Zhang Zhen; Wang Zhejun [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering, Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Tong Hua; Shen Xinyu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang Yining, E-mail: wang.yn@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering, Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-07-20

    Titanium has been reported to have some limitations in dental and orthopaedic clinical application. This study described a coating process using a simple chemical method to prepare calcium carbonate coatings on smooth titanium (STi) and sandblasted and acid-etched titanium (SATi), and evaluated the biological response of the materials in vitro. The surfaces of STi, SATi, calcium carbonate coated STi (CC-STi) and calcium carbonate coated SATi (CC-SATi) were characterized for surface roughness, contact angles, surface morphology and surface chemistry. The morphology of MG63 cells cultured on the surfaces was observed by SEM and Immuno-fluorescence staining. Cell attachment/proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, and cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. MG63 was found to attach favorably to calcium carbonate crystals with longer cytoplasmic extensions on CC-STi and CC-SATi, resulting in lower cell proliferation but higher ALP activity when compared to STi and SATi respectively. Moreover, CC-SATi is more favorable than CC-STi in terms of biological response. In conclusion, the calcium carbonate coatings on titanium were supposed to improve the osteointegration process and stimulate osteoblast differentiation, especially in early stage. And this method could possibly be a feasible alternative option for future clinical application. Highlights: {yields} Calcium carbonate coatings were prepared on titanium substrates. {yields} The coating process is simple and cost-effective. {yields} Calcium carbonate coating could induce differentiation toward an osteoblastic phenotype. {yields} Calcium carbonate coating could enhance the osteointegration process especially in early stage.

  20. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na 2 CO 3 and CaCl 2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Graphical abstract: Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by using extract components of croaker gill as adjust control agent. The results indicate that yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph when its concentration is low. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. With the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Highlights: • Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate

  1. Postural stabilizing effect of alfacalcidol and active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca) compared with calcium carbonate assessed by computerized posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takuo; Nakamura, Shoji; Ohue, Mutsumi; Fujii, Yoshio; Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Takagi, Yasuyuki; Tsugeno, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    Sway and postural instability have drawn attention as a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, in addition to low bone mineral density (BMD) and poor bone quality. In view of the fracture-reducing effect of alfacalcidol and active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca) not readily explained by rather mild increases of BMD, attempts were made to evaluate postural stabilizing effect of alfacalcidol, AAA Ca, and calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) by computerized posturography. Track of the gravity center was analyzed to calculate parameters related to tract length, track range, and track density to express the degree of sway before and after supplementation in 126 subjects ranging in age between 20 and 81 years randomly divided into four groups. Supplementation with AAA Ca containing 900 mg elemental Ca (group A), no calcium (group B), CaCO(3) also containing 900 mg elemental Ca (group C), or alfacalcidol (group D) continued daily for 12 months. For each parameter, the ratio closed eye value/open eye value (Romberg ratio) was calculated to detect aggravation of sway by eye closure. Age, parameters of Ca and P, and proportions of subjects with fracture and those with low BMD showed no marked deviation among the groups. With eyes open, significant decreases of a track range parameter (REC) from group B was noted in groups A (P = 0.0397) and D (P = 0.0296), but not in group C according to multiple comparison by Scheffe, indicating superior postural stabilizing effect of A and D over C. In the first 2 months, a significant fall was already evident in REC from group B in group D (P = 0.0120) with eyes open. Paired comparison of sway parameters before and after supplementation revealed a significant increase of track density parameter (LNGA), indicating sway control efficiency and a significant decrease of REC in groups A and D compared to group B with eyes open. With eyes closed, only group A showed a significant improvement from group B (P = 0.0456; Fig. 1), with a significant

  2. The effects of particle size and origin of calcium carbonate on performance and ossification characteristics in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinotte, F; Nys, Y; de Monredon, F

    1991-09-01

    The following physico-chemical characteristics of various calcium sources, differing in origin and particle size were determined: mineral composition, sieve and image analysis, apparent solubility (AS), surface area (SA), porous volume, specific gravity, and compressibility (C). The AS, SA, and C values were related more to the calcium particle size than to its origin and were higher in ground calcium sources. Calcium retention of seashells treated with phosphoric acid, oyster shells, and limestone using two particle sizes, ground or particulate, was assayed in 98 broiler chicks. Particulate marble was also tested in this experiment. Calcium retention expressed as a percentage of calcium ingestion was decreased when coarse particles of calcium were supplied in lieu of pulverized sources (40 versus 49%). An experiment with a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments were tested using 576 broiler chicks. Treatments included three calcium sources (phosphorus-treated shell, oyster shell, and marble), three particle sizes [ground (less than .15 mm), medium (.6 to 1.18 mm) and coarse (greater than 1.18 mm)] and three levels of calcium (.5,.7, and .9%) with ground limestone as a reference. Performance, tibial morphometry, breaking strength variables, and ash content were measured at 4 wk of age. Weight gain and feed conversion were ameliorated with ground particles of calcium. Cortical thickness, length of the tibia, stiffness, stress, and tibia ash were diminished when coarse particles of calcium were incorporated in the diets. Conversely, the origin of the calcium source hardly affected these criteria. Additionally, the incorporation of phosphorus-treated shells was assayed in 112 broiler chicks. Coarse particles decreased calcium retention. Consequently, ultimate stress, the modulus of elasticity, and stress were impaired. It is concluded that differences in utilization of calcium carbonate sources by the broiler chick is primarily a result of particle size rather

  3. Calcium Isotope Fractionation during Carbonate Weathering in the Northern Guangdong, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Mao, G.; Wei, G.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    CO2 is consumed during the weathering of carbonates, whereas carbonates are precipitated rapidly in the oceans, which are pivotal to modulate atmospheric CO2, oceanic pH and climate. Calcium carbonate in limestone is one of the largest reservoirs of carbon at the Earth's surface, so calcium is an important element that links the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and the atmosphere. Compared with silicate rocks, carbonate rocks have more rapid rates of physical and chemical erosions, so the carbonate weathering will respond more quickly to the climatic changes. In the southeast of China, enormous of carbonate rocks are widely distributed. Due to the influence of the subtropical monsoon climate, the rocks experienced strong chemical weathering and pedogenic process, resulting in red weathering crust of carbonate rocks. This type of weathering crust is geochemistry-sensitive and ecology-vulnerable, which can provide important insights into the recycle of supergene geochemistry in the karst areas. In this study, we report calcium isotopic compositions of saprolites from a weathering profile developed on argillaceous carbonate rocks in northern Guangdong, South China. The acid-leachable fraction, which was extracted by 1N hydrochloride acid, showed limited variation of δ44/40Ca(NIST 915a) spanning from 0.55 ± 0.06‰ (2SD) to 0.72 ± 0.05‰ (2SD) despite CaO content ranging from 0.01 wt.% to 45.7 wt.%, implying that Ca isotope didn't fractionate much which may due to the congruent dissolution of limestone minerals. In contrast, radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the whole rocks changed with depth from 0.710086 ± 6 (2SE) at the base rock to 0.722164± 8 (2SE) at the top-soil, which are possibly attributed to the mixing effect between carbonate and silicate fractions. Sr is an analogue for Ca due to its similar ionic size and charge; however, these two systems can differ in certain respects. The coupled study of Ca and Sr will be helpful to verify sources of Ca and the

  4. Role of carbon atoms in the remote plasma deposition of hydrogenated amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedikt, J.; Wisse, M.; Woen, R.V.; Engeln, R.; Sanden, M.C.M. van de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the role of carbon atoms in the growth of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films by means of an argon/acetylene expanding thermal plasma. Cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy is used to detect metastable carbon atoms by probing the 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3s 1 P 1 2 2s 2 2p 2 1 S 0 electronic transition. In addition to absorption measurements, the emission of the same transition is monitored by means of optical emission spectroscopy. These two measurements provide information about the local production of the C atoms and about their reactivity in the gas phase. It will be shown that under growth conditions in an Ar/C 2 H 2 expanding thermal plasma, the metastable carbon density is also representative for the ground state carbon density. From obtained results it is concluded that the carbon atoms react rapidly with acetylene in the gas phase and therefore their contribution to the growth of hard diamond-like a-C:H films can be neglected. Only at low acetylene flows, the condition when soft polymer-like films are deposited, carbon atoms are detected close to the substrate and can possibly contribute to the film growth

  5. El Paso Formation - a Lower Ordovician platform carbonate deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    The eastward-transgressive Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation conformably overlies Bliss Sandstone in southern New Mexico. Locally, lower El Paso was deposited on low hills of plutonic and volcanic rocks. The region subsided gradually throughout Canadian time, receiving the El Paso carbonate rock blanket up to 460 m thick. Lithologic and chronologic correlative rocks were deposited over most of the southwestern US as the first Paleozoic carbonate platform sequence. The El Paso Formation contains four members, listed here in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose, McKelligon, and Padre. Gradually decreasing sand content upward through the Hitt Canyon indicates deepening water and/or greater distance to shore. Girvanella(.) oncolites are locally abundant. Stromatolite mounds near the top of the Hitt Canyon, combined with an influx of sand, ooids, and rounded bioclasts in the Jose Member, recorded a shoaling phase. The overlying McKelligon Member contains little or no sand, and sponge-Calathium mounds are prominent at some locales. Stromatolite mounds are interbedded with sponge-Calathium mounds in a few sections. Lower Padre Member beds are typically silty to sandy and locally contain thinly-laminated zones. The Padre contains more restricted fauna that includes traces of ostracods. Pervasive bioturbation of El Paso beds and fauna consisting of echinoderms, sponges, gastropods, trilobites, Nuia, Calathium, cephalopods, and algae plus minor brachiopods and Pulchrilamina indicate predominating shallow-subtidal environments. Low-energy platform environments, in which a large volume of micritic muds accumulated, were disturbed thousands of times by storms producing abundant thin, poorly washed biosparite, intrasparite, and intrasparrudite lenses.

  6. Calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) dielectrics prepared by plasma spray and post-deposition thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ctibor, Pavel [Materials Engineering Department, Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kotlan, Jiri, E-mail: kotlan@ipp.cas.cz [Materials Engineering Department, Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Electrotechnology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Pala, Zdenek [Materials Engineering Department, Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sedlacek, Josef [Department of Electrotechnology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hajkova, Zuzana; Grygar, Tomas Matys [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry ASCR, v.v.i., Husinec-Rez 1001, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Calcium titanate was sprayed by two different plasma spray systems. • Significant improvement of dielectric properties after annealing was observed. • Calcium titanate self-supporting parts can be fabricated by plasma spraying. - Abstract: This paper studies calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) dielectrics prepared by plasma spray technology. A water stabilized plasma gun (WSP) as well as a widely used gas stabilized plasma gun (GSP) were employed in this study to deposit three sample sets at different spray conditions. Prepared specimens were annealed in air at atmospheric pressure for 2 h at various temperatures from 530 to 1170 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements were used for sample characterization. Dielectric spectroscopy was applied to obtain relative permittivity, conductivity and loss factor frequency dependence. Band gap energy was estimated from reflectance measurements. The work is focused on the explanation of changes in microstructure and properties of a plasma sprayed deposit after thermal annealing. Obtained results show significant improvement of dielectric properties after thermal annealing.

  7. Method for in situ carbon deposition measurement for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods to measure carbon deposition in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes do not permit simultaneous electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements supplemented with carbon deposition quantities create the opportunity to further understand how carbon affects SOFC performance and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In this work, a method for measuring carbon in situ, named here as the quantification of gasified carbon (QGC), was developed. TGA experiments showed that carbon with a 100 h residence time in the SOFC was >99.8% gasified. Comparison of carbon mass measurements between the TGA and QGC show good agreement. In situ measurements of carbon deposition in SOFCs at varying molar steam/carbon ratios were performed to further validate the QGC method, and suppression of carbon deposition with increasing steam concentration was observed, in agreement with previous studies. The technique can be used to investigate in situ carbon deposition and gasification behavior simultaneously with electrochemical measurements for a variety of fuels and operating conditions, such as determining conditions under which incipient carbon deposition is reversible.

  8. Electrospinning of calcium carbonate fibers and their conversion to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Santala, Eero; Heikkilä, Mikko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) fibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by annealing. Solutions consisting of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) dissolved in ethanol or 2-methoxyethanol were used for the fiber preparation. By varying the precursor concentrations in the electrospinning solutions CaCO 3 fibers with average diameters from 140 to 290 nm were obtained. After calcination the fibers were identified as calcite by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The calcination process was studied in detail with high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initially weak fiber-to-substrate adhesion was improved by adding a strengthening CaCO 3 layer by spin or dip coating Ca(NO 3 ) 2 /PVP precursor solution on the CaCO 3 fibers followed by annealing of the gel formed inside the fiber layer. The CaCO 3 fibers were converted to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) fibers by treatment in a dilute phosphate solution. The resulting hydroxyapatite had a plate-like crystal structure with resemblance to bone mineral. The calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite fibers are interesting materials for bone scaffolds and bioactive coatings. - Highlights: • Calcium carbonate fibers were prepared by electrospinning. • The electrospun fibers crystallized to calcite upon calcination at 500 °C. • Spin and dip coating methods were used to improve the adhesion of the CaCO 3 fibers. • The CaCO 3 fibers were converted to hydroxyapatite by treatment in phosphate solution. • The hydroxyapatite fibers consisted of plate-like nanocrystals

  9. Electrospinning of calcium carbonate fibers and their conversion to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, Jani, E-mail: jani.holopainen@helsinki.fi; Santala, Eero; Heikkilä, Mikko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) fibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by annealing. Solutions consisting of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) dissolved in ethanol or 2-methoxyethanol were used for the fiber preparation. By varying the precursor concentrations in the electrospinning solutions CaCO{sub 3} fibers with average diameters from 140 to 290 nm were obtained. After calcination the fibers were identified as calcite by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The calcination process was studied in detail with high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initially weak fiber-to-substrate adhesion was improved by adding a strengthening CaCO{sub 3} layer by spin or dip coating Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/PVP precursor solution on the CaCO{sub 3} fibers followed by annealing of the gel formed inside the fiber layer. The CaCO{sub 3} fibers were converted to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) fibers by treatment in a dilute phosphate solution. The resulting hydroxyapatite had a plate-like crystal structure with resemblance to bone mineral. The calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite fibers are interesting materials for bone scaffolds and bioactive coatings. - Highlights: • Calcium carbonate fibers were prepared by electrospinning. • The electrospun fibers crystallized to calcite upon calcination at 500 °C. • Spin and dip coating methods were used to improve the adhesion of the CaCO{sub 3} fibers. • The CaCO{sub 3} fibers were converted to hydroxyapatite by treatment in phosphate solution. • The hydroxyapatite fibers consisted of plate-like nanocrystals.

  10. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration in boreal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, Nadia I; Nordin, Annika; Hasselquist, Niles J; Bach, Lisbet H; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    It is proposed that carbon (C) sequestration in response to reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition in boreal forests accounts for a large portion of the terrestrial sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While studies have helped clarify the magnitude by which Nr deposition enhances C sequestration by forest vegetation, there remains a paucity of long-term experimental studies evaluating how soil C pools respond. We conducted a long-term experiment, maintained since 1996, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden to understand how atmospheric Nr deposition affects soil C accumulation, soil microbial communities, and soil respiration. We hypothesized that soil C sequestration will increase, and soil microbial biomass and soil respiration will decrease, with disproportionately large changes expected compared to low levels of N addition. Our data showed that the low N addition treatment caused a non-significant increase in the organic horizon C pool of ~15% and a significant increase of ~30% in response to the high N treatment relative to the control. The relationship between C sequestration and N addition in the organic horizon was linear, with a slope of 10 kg C kg(-1) N. We also found a concomitant decrease in total microbial and fungal biomasses and a ~11% reduction in soil respiration in response to the high N treatment. Our data complement previous data from the same study system describing aboveground C sequestration, indicating a total ecosystem sequestration rate of 26 kg C kg(-1) N. These estimates are far lower than suggested by some previous modeling studies, and thus will help improve and validate current modeling efforts aimed at separating the effect of multiple global change factors on the C balance of the boreal region. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  12. Effect of Temperature on Precipitation Rate of Calcium Carbonate Produced through Microbial Metabolic Process of Bio Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Yane Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil engineering. But plain concrete is a brittle material and has little resistance to cracking. The cracking in concrete promotes deterioration such as the corrosion of reinforcing rebar, therefore, repair in filling the crack is often carried out. Recently, repair methods using bio-based materials associated with microbial metabolic processes leading to precipitation of calcium carbonate have been intensively studied. In this study, influencing factors on the precipitation rate depending on the constituents of bio-based material comprising yeast, glucose and calcium acetate mixed in tris buffer solution was examined for improving the rate of initial reactions. In addition, effect of temperature change on the amount of calcium carbonate precipitation was also investigated. The precipitates were identified by X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the increase of temperature lead to a change on calcium carbonate precipitation and caused the pH decrease under 7.0.

  13. Preparation and physical properties of vapour-deposited carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, Philippe

    1976-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis reports a bibliographical study on methods of preparation of various types of vapour-deposited (CVD) carbons, and the author notices that only structure and texture properties of these macroscopically homogeneous pyro-carbons have been studied in detail. For a better understanding of the behaviour of carbon-carbon composites, this thesis thus reports the study of the relationships between physical properties, macroscopic texture and microscopic structure. A densification installation and methods of characterisation have been developed. The fabrication process and its installation are presented (oven with its temperature and gas rate controls, study of its thermal gradient, substrate, heat treatments), and the study and characterisation of carbon-carbon composites are reported: structure and texture properties (studied by optic and scanning electronic microscopy, density measurements, and X-ray diffraction), physical properties (electronic paramagnetic resonance, static magnetism, electric and thermal conductivity). In the last part, the author comments and discusses the obtained results: conditions of preparation, existence, physical properties of the different observed microstructures [fr

  14. A unique laboratory test rig reduces the need for offshore tests to combat calcium naphthenate deposition in oilfield process equipment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediaas, Heidi; Grande, Knut; Hustad, Britt-Marie; Hoevik, Kim Reidar; Kummernes, Hege; Nergaard, Bjoern; Vindstad, Jens Emil

    2006-03-15

    Producing and refining high-TAN crude oils introduces a number of challenges, among which calcium naphthenate deposition in process facilities is the most serious production issue. Until recently, the only option for studying chemicals and process parameters in order to prevent naphthenate deposition has been field tests. Statoil has now developed a small scale pilot plant where these experiments can be performed in the laboratory at Statoil's Research and Technology Center in Trondheim, Norway. The results from the pilot plant are in full agreement with the extensive naphthenate experience obtained from almost 9 years operation of the Heidrun oilfield. The design and operational procedures for this test facility are based on the recent discovery by Statoil and ConocoPhillips of the ARN acid. The ARN acid is a prerequisite for calcium naphthenate deposition. The new continuous flow pilot plant, the Naphthenate Rig, is used to develop new environmental friendly naphthenate inhibitors and to optimize process operating conditions. Since it operates on real crudes the need for field tests in qualifying new naphthenate inhibitors is reduced. To the best of our knowledge, the rig is the first of its kind in the world. (Author)

  15. Growth of aragonite calcium carbonate nanorods in the biomimetic anodic aluminum oxide template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inho; Han, Haksoo; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a biomimetic template was prepared and applied for growing calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) nanorods whose shape and polymorphism were controlled. A biomimetic template was prepared by adsorbing catalytic dipeptides into the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Using this peptide-adsorbed template, mineralization and aggregation of CaCO 3 was carried out to form large nanorods in the pores. The nanorods were aragonite and had a structure similar to nanoneedle assembly. This aragonite nanorod formation was driven by both the AAO template and catalytic function of dipeptides. The AAO membrane pores promoted generation of aragonite polymorph and guided nanorod formation by guiding the nanorod growth. The catalytic dipeptides promoted the aggregation and further dehydration of calcium species to form large nanorods. Functions of the AAO template and catalytic dipeptides were verified through several control experiments. This biomimetic approach makes possible the production of functional inorganic materials with controlled shapes and crystalline structures.

  16. Image-based Modeling of Biofilm-induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J. M.; Rothman, A.; Jackson, B.; Klapper, I.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.

    2013-12-01

    Pore scale biological processes in the subsurface environment are important to understand in relation to many engineering applications including environmental contaminant remediation, geologic carbon sequestration, and petroleum production. Specifically, biofilm induced calcium carbonate precipitation has been identified as an attractive option to reduce permeability in a lasting way in the subsurface. This technology may be able to replace typical cement-based grouting in some circumstances; however, pore-scale processes must be better understood for it to be applied in a controlled manor. The work presented will focus on efforts to observe biofilm growth and ureolysis-induced mineral precipitation in micro-fabricated flow cells combined with finite element modelling as a tool to predict local chemical gradients of interest (see figure). We have been able to observe this phenomenon over time using a novel model organism that is able to hydrolyse urea and express a fluorescent protein allowing for non-invasive observation over time with confocal microscopy. The results of this study show the likely existence of a wide range of local saturation indices even in a small (1 cm length scale) experimental system. Interestingly, the locations of high predicted index do not correspond to the locations of higher precipitation density, highlighting the need for further understanding. Figure 1 - A micro-fabricated flow cell containing biofilm-induced calcium carbonate precipitation. (A) Experimental results: Active biofilm is in green and dark circles are calcium carbonate crystals. Note the channeling behavior in the top of the image, leaving a large hydraulically inactive area in the biofilm mass. (B) Finite element model: The prediction of relative saturation of calcium carbonate (as calcite). Fluid enters the system at a low saturation state (blue) but areas of high supersaturation (red) are predicted within the hydraulically inactive area in the biofilm. If only effluent

  17. The role of oxygen in the deposition of copper–calcium thin film as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhinong, E-mail: znyu@bit.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ren, Ruihuang [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xue, Jianshe; Yao, Qi; Li, Zhengliang; Hui, Guanbao [Beijing BOE Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing 100176 (China); Xue, Wei [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film. • The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film is necessary to improve the adhesion of Cu film. • The CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate. - Abstract: The properties of copper (Cu) metallization based on copper–calcium (CuCa) diffusion barrier as a function of oxygen flux in the CuCa film deposition were investigated in view of adhesion, diffusion and electronic properties. The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film, however, and increases the resistance of Cu film. The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film induces the improvement of adhesion and crystallinity of Cu film, but produces a slight increase of resistance. The increased resistance results from the partial oxidation of Cu film. The annealing process in vacuum further improves the adhesion, crystallinity and conductivity of Cu film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) show that the CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate due to the formation of Ca oxide in the interface of CuCa/substrate.

  18. Atmospheric deposition as a source of carbon and nutrients to an alpine catchment of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Williams, M. W.; Schmidt, S. K.; Cawley, K.

    2012-08-01

    Many alpine areas are experiencing deglaciation, biogeochemical changes driven by temperature rise, and changes in atmospheric deposition. There is mounting evidence that the water quality of alpine streams may be related to these changes, including rising atmospheric deposition of carbon (C) and nutrients. Given that barren alpine soils can be severely C limited, atmospheric deposition sources may be an important source of C and nutrients for these environments. We evaluated the magnitude of atmospheric deposition of C and nutrients to an alpine site, the Green Lake 4 catchment in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Using a long-term dataset (2002-2010) of weekly atmospheric wet deposition and snowpack chemistry, we found that volume weighted mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were 1.12 ± 0.19 mg l-1, and weekly concentrations reached peaks as high at 6-10 mg l-1 every summer. Total dissolved nitrogen concentration also peaked in the summer, whereas total dissolved phosphorus and calcium concentrations were highest in the spring. To investigate potential sources of C in atmospheric deposition, we evaluated the chemical quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and relationships between DOM and other solutes in wet deposition. Relationships between DOC concentration, fluorescence, and nitrate and sulfate concentrations suggest that pollutants from nearby urban and agricultural sources and organic aerosols derived from sub-alpine vegetation may influence high summer DOC wet deposition concentrations. Interestingly, high DOC concentrations were also recorded during "dust-in-snow" events in the spring, which may reflect an association of DOM with dust. Detailed chemical and spectroscopic analyses conducted for samples collected in 2010 revealed that the DOM in many late spring and summer samples was less aromatic and polydisperse and of lower molecular weight than that of winter and fall samples. Our C budget estimates for the Green Lake 4 catchment

  19. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  20. Evaluation of Various Synthesis Methods for Calcite-Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, Chilakala; Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan

    2017-01-01

    This review paper evaluates different kinds of synthesis methods for calcite precipitated calcium carbonates by using different materials. The various processing routes of calcite with different compositions are reported and the possible optimum conditions required to synthesize a desired particle sizes of calcite are predicted. This paper mainly focuses on that the calcite morphology and size of the particles by carbonation process using loop reactors. In this regard, we have investigated various parameters such as CO 2 flow rate, Ca (OH) 2 concentration, temperature, pH effect, reaction time and loop reactor mechanism with orifice diameter. The research results illustrate the formation of well-defined and pure calcite crystals with controlled crystal growth and particle size, without additives or organic solvents. The crystal growth and particle size can be controlled, and smaller sizes are obtained by decreasing the Ca (OH) 2 concentration and increasing the CO 2 flow rate at lower temperatures with suitable pH. The crystal structure of obtained calcite was characterized by using X-ray diffraction method and the morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of x-ray diffraction recognized that the calcite phase of calcium carbonate was the dominating crystalline structure.

  1. Evaluation of Various Synthesis Methods for Calcite-Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, Chilakala [Hanil Cement Corporation, Danyang (Korea, Republic of); Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This review paper evaluates different kinds of synthesis methods for calcite precipitated calcium carbonates by using different materials. The various processing routes of calcite with different compositions are reported and the possible optimum conditions required to synthesize a desired particle sizes of calcite are predicted. This paper mainly focuses on that the calcite morphology and size of the particles by carbonation process using loop reactors. In this regard, we have investigated various parameters such as CO{sub 2} flow rate, Ca (OH){sub 2} concentration, temperature, pH effect, reaction time and loop reactor mechanism with orifice diameter. The research results illustrate the formation of well-defined and pure calcite crystals with controlled crystal growth and particle size, without additives or organic solvents. The crystal growth and particle size can be controlled, and smaller sizes are obtained by decreasing the Ca (OH){sub 2} concentration and increasing the CO{sub 2} flow rate at lower temperatures with suitable pH. The crystal structure of obtained calcite was characterized by using X-ray diffraction method and the morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of x-ray diffraction recognized that the calcite phase of calcium carbonate was the dominating crystalline structure.

  2. Calcium and organic matter removal by carbonation process with waste incineration flue gas towards improvement of leachate biotreatment performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Xuedong; Wu, Liang; Li, Qingtao; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren

    2017-09-01

    Municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) flue gas was employed as the carbon source for in-situ calcium removal from MSWI leachate. Calcium removal efficiency was 95-97% with pH of 10.0-11.0 over 100min of flue gas aeration, with both bound Ca and free Ca being removed effectively. The fluorescence intensity of tryptophan, protein-like and humic acid-like compounds increased after carbonation process. The decrease of bound Ca with the increase of precipitate indicated that calcium was mainly converted to calcium carbonate precipitate. It suggested that the interaction between dissolved organic matter and Ca 2+ was weakened. Moreover, 10-16% of chemical oxygen demand removal and the decrease of ultraviolet absorption at 254nm indicated that some organics, especially aromatic compound decreased via adsorption onto the surface of calcium carbonate. The results indicate that introduce of waste incineration flue gas could be a feasible way for calcium removal from leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microalgal bacterial flocs treating paper mill effluent: A sunlight-based approach for removing carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Rodrigues, André; Hamaekers, Helen; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2017-10-25

    Treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent from a paper mill in aerated activated sludge reactors involves high aeration costs. Moreover, this calcium-rich effluent leads to problematic scale formation. Therefore, a novel strategy for the aerobic treatment of paper mill UASB effluent in microalgal bacterial floc sequencing batch reactors (MaB-floc SBRs) is proposed, in which oxygen is provided via photosynthesis, and calcium is removed via bio-mineralization. Based on the results of batch experiments in the course of this study, a MaB-floc SBR was operated at an initial neutral pH. This SBR removed 58±21% organic carbon, 27±8% inorganic carbon, 77±5% nitrogen, 73±2% phosphorus, and 27±11% calcium. MaB-flocs contained 10±3% calcium, including biologically-influenced calcite crystals. The removal of calcium and inorganic carbon by MaB-flocs significantly decreased when inhibiting extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyses the hydration and dehydration of CO 2 . This study demonstrates the potential of MaB-floc SBRs for the alternative treatment of calcium-rich paper mill effluent, and highlights the importance of extracellular CA in this treatment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This research was an investigation of calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent, as a binder for coal fines. The reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, was studied as a method for improving pellet quality. Carbonation forms a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate. Research has demonstrated that calcium hydroxide is a viable binder for coal fines and that a roller-and-die pellet mill is an effective method of pellet formation. From a minus 28 mesh preparation plant fine coal sample, a roller-and-die pellet mill produced strong pellets when 5 and 10% calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. The pellets containing 10% calcium hydroxide strengthened considerably when air cured. This increase in strength was attributed to carbonation via atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide were produced using an extruder but pellets formed in this manner were much weaker than pellets produced with the roller-and-die mill. In tests performed using a laboratory hydraulic press, the effect of particle size and compaction pressure on pellet strength was studied. Particle distributions with mean sizes of 200, 90 and 40 microns were tested. The results indicate that pellet strength increased with decreasing particle size and increasing compaction pressure when calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide increased in strength by approximately 40% when air dried for one day. As above, this increase in strength was attributed to carbonation of the calcium hydroxide via atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  5. Investigation of the formation of deposits of calcium sulfate on a metallic wall: detection and growth initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Roger

    1970-01-01

    Whereas the formation of calcium sulfate deposits on walls of (water desalination) heat exchanger tubes increases the load loss and decreases the heat exchange coefficient, measuring the load loss or measuring heat transfer in an exchanger could be a method to determine whether scaling occurs. In this research thesis, the author aims at a computational assessing of the sensitivity of such methods in conditions easily obtained in laboratory and allowing, if possible, the identification of the different steps of deposit formation. Then, the author considers some discontinuous methods, possibly more sensitive but more difficult to adjust, but which are not interesting in an industrial point of view: methods based on weighing, on chemical dosing, on radioactive measurements (tracers, auto-radiography, beta backscattering), optical methods and electric methods (piezoelectric quartz, conductivity measurements)

  6. Adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on silica and calcium carbonate sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjee C; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Nap, Rikkert J; Whitaker, Ragnhild D; Mathiyazhagan, Vidhya; Song, Yi-Qiao; Hürlimann, Martin; Szleifer, Igal; Wong, Joyce Y

    2014-01-28

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have the potential to be used in the characterization of porous rock formations in oil fields as a contrast agent for NMR logging because they are small enough to traverse through nanopores and enhance contrast by shortening NMR T2 relaxation time. However, successful development and application require detailed knowledge of particle stability and mobility in reservoir rocks. Because nanoparticle adsorption to sand (SiO2) and rock (often CaCO3) affects their mobility, we investigated the thermodynamic equilibrium adsorption behavior of citric acid-coated SPIO nanoparticles (CA SPIO NPs) and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted SPIO nanoparticles (PEG SPIO NPs) on SiO2 (silica) and CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). Adsorption behavior was determined at various pH and salt conditions via chemical analysis and NMR, and the results were compared with molecular theory predictions. Most of the NPs were recovered from silica, whereas far fewer NPs were recovered from calcium carbonate because of differences in the mineral surface properties. NP adsorption increased with increasing salt concentration: this trend was qualitatively explained by molecular theory, as was the role of the PEG grafting in preventing NPs adsorption. Quantitative disagreement between the theoretical predictions and the data was due to NP aggregation, especially at high salt concentration and in the presence of calcium carbonate. Upon aggregation, NP concentrations as determined by NMR T2 were initially overestimated and subsequently corrected using the relaxation rate 1/T2, which is a function of aggregate size and fractal dimension of the aggregate. Our experimental validation of the theoretical predictions of NP adsorption to minerals in the absence of aggregation at various pH and salt conditions demonstrates that molecular theory can be used to determine interactions between NPs and relevant reservoir surfaces. Importantly, this integrated experimental and

  7. Urea Hydrolysis and Calcium Carbonate Precipitation in Gypsum-Amended Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E

    2018-01-01

    Broiler () litter is subject to ammonia (NH) volatilization losses. Previous work has shown that the addition of gypsum to broiler litter can increase nitrogen mineralization and decrease NH losses due to a decrease in pH, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not well understood. Therefore, three laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of gypsum addition to broiler litter on (i) urease activity at three water contents, (ii) calcium carbonate precipitation, and (iii) pH. The addition of gypsum to broiler litter increased ammonium concentrations ( litter pH by 0.43 to 0.49 pH units after 5 d ( litter only increased on Day 0 for broiler litter with low (0.29 g HO g) and high (0.69 g HO g) water contents, and on Day 3 for litter with medium (0.40 g HO g) water content ( litter with gypsum also caused an immediate decrease in litter pH (0.22 pH units) due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO) from gypsum-derived calcium and litter bicarbonate. Furthermore, as urea was hydrolyzed, more urea-derived carbon precipitated as CaCO in gypsum-treated litter than in untreated litter ( litter with gypsum favors the precipitation of CaCO, which buffers against increases in litter pH that are known to facilitate NH volatilization. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Capillarity creates single-crystal calcite nanowires from amorphous calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Hetherington, Nicola B J; Noel, Elizabeth H; Kröger, Roland; Charnock, John M; Christenson, Hugo K; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2011-12-23

    Single-crystal calcite nanowires are formed by crystallization of morphologically equivalent amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles within the pores of track etch membranes. The polyaspartic acid stabilized ACC is drawn into the membrane pores by capillary action, and the single-crystal nature of the nanowires is attributed to the limited contact of the intramembrane ACC particle with the bulk solution. The reaction environment then supports transformation to a single-crystal product. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Viability study on using calcium carbonate for the boron adsorption process in waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Guerreiro, M. J.; Munoz Camacho, E.; Bernal Pita da Veiga, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates how viable it is to employ calcium carbonate for the boron adsorption process in waters that could be contaminated by this element. A residue form mussel shells-abundant in Galicia, northwestern Spain, was used. The data gathered from the experiments show that the performance of the boron adsorption within the sample is below 2%. Despite the inferior data obtained, the general aim was reached. An attempt was made to find solutions to the environmental problem caused by the residues mentioned above. (Author) 11 refs.

  10. Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in the Presence of Urea at 293 K and 343 K

    OpenAIRE

    Białowicz Katarzyna; Kiełkowska Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The results of the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a waste post-distillation liquid (DS) and a sodium bicarbonate saturated solution – both from the Solvay method – in the presence of urea are presented. The investigation was carried out at 293 K and 343 K. Reagent dosage times of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, and urea concentrations of 5, 6 and 10 mol/dm3 were applied. The granulometric composition, the values of bulk and packing densities and the absorptiveness sorption of water and para...

  11. Peptoid nanosheets as soluble, two-dimensional templates for calcium carbonate mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Joo Myung V; Altoe, M Virginia P; Aloni, Shaul; Zuckermann, Ronald N

    2015-06-25

    Nacre-mimetic materials are of great interest, but difficult to synthesize, because they require the ordering of organic and inorganic materials on several length scales. Here we introduce peptoid nanosheets as a versatile two-dimensional platform to develop nacre mimetic materials. Free-floating zwitterionic nanosheets were mineralized with thin films of amorphous calcium carbonate (of 2-20 nm thickness) on their surface to produce planar nacre synthons. These can serve as tunable building blocks to produce layered brick and mortar nanoarchitectures.

  12. Calcium Carbonate Formation in Water Distribution Systems and Autogenous Repair of Leaks by Inert Particle Clogging

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Colin Scott

    2016-01-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (i.e. scale) in potable water systems has long been a concern in water treatment and distribution. A literature review reveals that CaCO3 scaling issues are re-emerging due to climate change, temperature increases in hot water systems and lower use of scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Moreover, we have gathered insights that suggest CaCO3 coatings can be beneficial and stop pipeline leaks via self-repair or clogging. Ironically, the actions we are ta...

  13. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite derived from calcium tripolyphosphate gel with urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Y; Hattori, M; Okuyama, M; Kasuga, T; Nogami, M

    2005-08-01

    Carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CO3HAp) is one of the candidate materials as a bioresorbable bone substitute. In the present work, CO3HAp was efficiently prepared by a hydrothermal treatment of calcium tripolyphosphate gel with urea at 140 degrees C for 24 h. Chemical potential plots of the CO3HAp for estimation of its dissolution behavior suggested that the CO3HAp is more soluble than hydroxyapatite (HAp) and is as soluble as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and/or beta -tricalcium phosphate (TCP). This material is expected to be applied to bioresorbable materials such as bone fillers.

  14. An analysis of calcium carbonate/polymer hybrid crystals applying contrast variation SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hitoshi; Schwahn, Dietmar; Coelfen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The geometry of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )/polymer hybrid crystals was investigated by means of the contrast variation small angle neutron scattering. Our sophisticated contrast variation method led to decomposition of the measured scattering intensities into partial scattering functions of each component. These decomposed partial scattering functions gave detailed information on each component in the hybrid particle. Especially, on the basis of the Babinet principle (or incompressibility hypothesis), the comparison of the cross terms led to the relationships of each scattering amplitude. In this way, we could determine the geometry of the hybrid crystals in detail

  15. An analysis of calcium carbonate/polymer hybrid crystals applying contrast variation SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Hitoshi; Schwahn, Dietmar; Coelfen, Helmut

    2004-07-15

    The geometry of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3})/polymer hybrid crystals was investigated by means of the contrast variation small angle neutron scattering. Our sophisticated contrast variation method led to decomposition of the measured scattering intensities into partial scattering functions of each component. These decomposed partial scattering functions gave detailed information on each component in the hybrid particle. Especially, on the basis of the Babinet principle (or incompressibility hypothesis), the comparison of the cross terms led to the relationships of each scattering amplitude. In this way, we could determine the geometry of the hybrid crystals in detail.

  16. The Influence of Calcium Carbonate Composition and Activated Carbon in Pack Carburizing Low Carbon Steel Process in The Review of Hardness and Micro Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafni; Hadi, Syafrul; Edison

    2017-12-01

    Carburizing is a way of hardening the surface by heating the metal (steel) above the critical temperature in an environment containing carbon. Steel at a temperature of the critical temperature of affinity to carbon. Carbon is absorbed into the metal form a solid solution of carbon-iron and the outer layer has high carbon content. When the composition of the activator and the activated charcoal is right, it will perfect the carbon atoms to diffuse into the test material to low carbon steels. Thick layer of carbon Depending on the time and temperature are used. Pack carburizing process in this study, using 1 kg of solid carbon derived from coconut shell charcoal with a variation of 20%, 10% and 5% calcium carbonate activator, burner temperature of 950 0C, holding time 4 hours. The test material is low carbon steel has 9 pieces. Each composition has three specimens. Furnace used in this study is a pack carburizing furnace which has a designed burner box with a volume of 1000 x 600 x 400 (mm3) of coal-fired. Equipped with a circulation of oxygen from the blower 2 inches and has a wall of refractory bricks. From the variation of composition CaCO3, microstructure formed on the specimen with 20% CaCO3, better diffusion of carbon into the carbon steel, it is seen by the form marten site structure after quenching, and this indicates that there has been an increase of or adding carbon to in the specimen. This led to the formation of marten site specimen into hard surfaces, where the average value of hardness at one point side (side edge) 31.7 HRC

  17. Potentiostatic pulse-deposition of calcium phosphate on magnesium alloy for temporary implant applications--an in vitro corrosion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Wallipa, O

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was coated with calcium phosphate using potentiostatic pulse-potential and constant-potential methods and the in vitro corrosion behaviour of the coated samples was compared with the bare metal. In vitro corrosion studies were carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. Calcium phosphate coatings enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy, however, the pulse-potential coating performed better than the constant-potential coating. The pulse-potential coating exhibited ~3 times higher polarization resistance than that of the constant-potential coating. The corrosion current density obtained from the potentiodynamic polarization curves was significantly less (~60%) for the pulse-deposition coating as compared to the constant-potential coating. Post-corrosion analysis revealed only slight corrosion on the pulse-potential coating, whereas the constant-potential coating exhibited a large number of corrosion particles attached to the coating. The better in vitro corrosion performance of the pulse-potential coating can be attributed to the closely packed calcium phosphate particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. TPR system: a powerful technique to monitor carbon nanotube formation during chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristao, Juliana Cristina; Moura, Flavia Cristina Camilo; Lago, Rochel Montero; Sapag, Karim

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction) system is used as a powerful tool to monitor carbon nanotubes production during CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition), The experiments were carried out using catalyst precursors based on Fe-Mo supported on Al 2 O 3 and methane as carbon source. As methane reacts on the Fe metal surface, carbon is deposited and H2 is produced. TPR is very sensitive to the presence of H2 and affords information on the temperature where catalyst is active to form different forms of carbon, the reaction kinetics, the catalyst deactivation and carbon yields. (author)

  19. Study of hard diamond-like carbon films deposited in an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiji; Ma Tengcai

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition of the hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma source (ICPS). The microscopy, microhardness, deposition rate and structure characteristic of the DLC films were analyzed. It is shown that the ICPS is suitable for the hard DLC film deposition at relatively low substrate negative bias voltage, and the substrate negative bias voltage greatly affects chemical vapor deposition of the DLC film and its quality

  20. Effect of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium orthophosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi, Mohammad Daoud, E-mail: eliassi2007@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhao, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yangling 712100 (China); Tan, Wen Feng, E-mail: wenfeng.tan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route. The synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate and hydroxylapatite (HAp), respectively. Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are effective on the reduction of carbonate activity during the crystallization of HAp. - Highlights: • Formation of different complexes from CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and Ca{sup 2+} solutions at 60 °C. • Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2} cause changes in phase and size of synthesized products. • Addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3} inhibited the activity of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} during bound with Ca{sup 2+}. • The phase transformation was completed, when CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappeared in FTIR. • PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and Ca{sup 2+} distributed heterogeneously on the surface of precipitation. - Abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been synthesized by a designed hydrothermal method. Effects of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium-orthophosphates were investigated. With X-ray diffraction measurement the synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate at pH 9.0, and hydroxylapatite (HAp) at pH 8.0, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of product at the high ratio (1.8) of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} shows that the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappear, and the strong peaks at 1412 and 1460 cm{sup −1} are assigned to the vibrations of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in HAp. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of products at the low (0.15–0.6) to the high (1.2–1.8) ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are obtained at 2.9 and 2.7 ppm, respectively. Molar ratios of PO

  1. Additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet for sheep fed ensiled king grass as a based-diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the effect of additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet, on the performance of sheep fed ensiled king grass as a basal diet, a trial was conducted using 28 growing sheep ( average body weight 17 _+ 1 .4 kg. Based on body weight, the animals were grouped and randomized into four dietary treatments in block randomized design . Dietary treatments were (i chopped king grass + 400 g of concentrate, (ii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 0 % of calcium carbonate, (iii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 5 % calcium carbonate and (iv ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 10 % calcium carbonate . Results showed that offering 5 % of calcium carbonate into concentrate diet increased (P 0 .05 for all groups . No differences in the apparent digestibility of the nutrient components were observed, but crude protein decreased significantly (P < 0 .05 . A significant relationship ( P < 0 .01 was found between nitrogen intake (NI and nitrogen retention (NR, and the equation was NR = - 0.1848 + 0.3788 NI ( r = 0.9 . Based on data found that feeding only ensiled king grass as a single diet could not meet the maintenance requirement of energy and protein, therefore, additional energy and crude protein sources is needed .

  2. Microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO deposited onto vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkar, Tushar [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, Denton 76203 (United States); Chang, Won Seok [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jun Yeon, E-mail: Junyeon.Hwang@kist.re.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, Denton 76203 (United States); Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Jeonbuk 565-902 (Korea, Republic of); Shepherd, Nigel D.; Banerjee, Rajarshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, Denton 76203 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films with thicknesses of 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, and 50 nm were deposited via magnetron sputtering onto the surface of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ZnO/CNTs heterostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. No structural degradation of the CNTs was observed and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the nanostructured ZnO layers show that the optical properties of these films are typical of ZnO deposited at low temperatures. The results indicate that magnetron sputtering is a viable technique for growing heterostructures and depositing functional layers onto CNTs.

  3. Microscopical examination of carbon deposits formed in the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, D.J.; Chatwin, W.H.; Pearce, J.H.

    1980-12-01

    Methods are described of sampling and examining carbon deposits on fuel cladding in the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor. Deposition is observed on fuel cladding in both the reactor core and experimental loops in carbon dioxide coolants containing various amounts of carbon monoxide and methane. Deposit distribution over the cladding surface indicated that nucleation is dependent on local surface conditions. Microscopical examination showed that deposit thickness increases by carbon filament growth into the coolant gas stream and that the process can be markedly influenced by metallic impurities. There is evidence that nickel can play a particularly significant role in deposition in loop experiments but similar effects have not been observed in the reactor core. (author)

  4. A Review of Carbon Nanomaterials’ Synthesis via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia M. Manawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively used in many applications owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the prime challenges is the production of these nanomaterials on a large scale. This review paper summarizes the synthesis of various carbon nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. These carbon nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, carbon nanofibers (CNFs, graphene, carbide-derived carbon (CDC, carbon nano-onion (CNO and MXenes. Furthermore, current challenges in the synthesis and application of these nanomaterials are highlighted with suggested areas for future research.

  5. A Review of Carbon Nanomaterials’ Synthesis via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manawi, Yehia M.; Samara, Ayman; Al-Ansari, Tareq; Atieh, Muataz A.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively used in many applications owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the prime challenges is the production of these nanomaterials on a large scale. This review paper summarizes the synthesis of various carbon nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These carbon nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), graphene, carbide-derived carbon (CDC), carbon nano-onion (CNO) and MXenes. Furthermore, current challenges in the synthesis and application of these nanomaterials are highlighted with suggested areas for future research. PMID:29772760

  6. Calcification mechanism and bony bonding studies of calcium carbonate and composite aluminosilicate/calcium phosphate applied as biomaterials by using radioactivation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudadesse, H.; Derrien, A.C.; Lucas-Girot, A.; Martin, S.; Cathelieau, G.

    2007-01-01

    Bony grafts are used as a filling biomaterial for defective bone. The introduction of new range of synthetic materials offers to surgeons additional possibilities to avoid virus transmission risks by using natural grafts in bony surgery. In this work, two materials, synthetic calcium carbonate and composite aluminosilicate/calcium phosphate were synthesized by an original method and experimented 'in vivo' as biomaterials for bony filling. Extracted biopsies were studied by several physico chemical and biological methods. The aim was to evaluate the kinetic resorption and bioconsolidation of these materials. We focused on the bioconsolidation between implant and bone by realising cartographies from the implant to the bone and on the calcification mechanism by determination of the origin of Ca and Sr responsible of the neo-formed bone. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radiotracers 45 Ca* and 85 Sr* and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were used. Concerning the synthetic calcium carbonate, results show that twelve months after implantation, the mineral composition of implant becomes similar to that of the mature bone. The neoformed bone is composed with Ca and Sr coming from the organism when the Ca and Sr of the implant were progressively eliminated. Concerning the composite geopolymer/calcium phosphate, PIXE and histological studies reveal the intimate links between the bone and the implant starting with the first month after implantation. (author)

  7. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  8. Safety assessments of subcutaneous doses of aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaji, Alhaji Zubair; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar; Mahmud, Rozi; Loqman, Mohamad Yusof; Hezmee, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Abba, Yusuf; Isa, Tijani; Mahmood, Saffanah Khuder

    2017-05-01

    Calcium carbonate nanoparticles have shown promising potentials in the delivery of drugs and metabolites. There is however, a paucity of information on the safety of their intentional or accidental over exposures to biological systems and general health safety. To this end, this study aims at documenting information on the safety of subcutaneous doses of biogenic nanocrystals of aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate derived from cockle shells (ANC) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ANC was synthesized using the top-down method, characterized using the transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope and its acute and repeated dose 28-day trial toxicities were evaluated in SD rats. The results showed that the homogenous 30 ± 5 nm-sized spherical pure aragonite nanocrystals were not associated with mortality in the rats. Severe clinical signs and gross and histopathological lesions, indicating organ toxicities, were recorded in the acute toxicity (29,500 mg/m2) group and the high dose (5900 mg/m2) group of the repeated dose 28-day trial. However, the medium- (590 mg/m2 body weight) and low (59 mg/m2)-dose groups showed moderate to mild lesions. The relatively mild lesions observed in the low toxicity dosage group marked the safety margin of ANC in SD rats. It was concluded from this study that the toxicity of CaCO3 was dependent on the particulate size (30 ± 5 nm) and concentration and the route of administration used.

  9. Transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate to rod-like single crystal calcite via "copying" collagen template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhonghui; Hu, Binbin; Dai, Shuxi; Du, Zuliang

    2015-10-01

    Collagen Langmuir films were prepared by spreading the solution of collagen over deionized water, CaCl2 solution and Ca(HCO3)2 solution. Resultant collagen Langmuir monolayers were then compressed to a lateral pressure of 10 mN/m and held there for different duration, allowing the crystallization of CaCO3. The effect of crystallization time on the phase composition and microstructure of CaCO3 was investigated. It was found that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was obtained at a crystallization time of 6 h. The amorphous CaCO3 was transformed to rod-like single crystal calcite crystals at an extended crystallization time of 12 h and 24 h, via "copying" the symmetry and dimensionalities of collagen fibers. Resultant calcite crystallites were well oriented along the longitudinal axis of collagen fibers. The ordered surface structure of collagen fibers and electrostatic interactions played key roles in tuning the oriented nucleation and growth of the calcite crystallites. The mineralized collagen possessing both desired mechanical properties of collagen fiber and good biocompatibility of calcium carbonate may be assembled into an ideal biomaterial for bone implants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Adsorption of arsenic by activated carbon, calcium alginate and their composite beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Elhadidy, H

    2014-07-01

    The present investigation deals with preparation of three different adsorbent materials namely; potassium hydroxide activated carbon based apricot stone (C), calcium alginate beads (G) and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (GC) were used for the removal of arsenic. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2-adsorption at -196°C and point of zero charge. From the obtained results, it was found that the porosity, surface area and total pore volume of the adsorbent material C>GC>G respectively, however, the G adsorbent has more acidic function group than the other adsorbents. The influence of pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of arsenic(V) were studied and optimized. GC exhibits the maximum As(V) adsorption (66.7mg/g at 30°C). The adsorption of arsenic ions was observed to follow pseudo-second order mechanism as well as the thermodynamic parameters confirm also the endothermic spontaneous and a physisorption process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deglacial Millennial-scale Calcium Carbonate Spikes in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, M. O.; Timmermann, A.; Harada, N.; Okazaki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous paleoproxy records from the subarctic Pacific Ocean show two very pronounced deglacial peaks in calcium carbonate content for the Heinrich 1/ Bolling-Allerod (H1-BA) transition (at 14 ka) and for the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition (at 11 ka). Focusing on the H1-BA transition, some model simulations capture the North Pacific shift from ventilated to stratified conditions and from cooling to warming conditions via oceanic and atmospheric connections between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. To test the impact of these physical scenarios (variations in ocean stratification and temperature during the H1-BA transition) on calcite production or preservation, we conduct a series of idealized experiments using the Earth System Model Intermediate Complexity LOVECLIM. The variations in North Pacific Ocean stratification by anomalous freshwater forcing show low calcite productivity in associated with the subsurface nutrient decline. On the other hand, the rapid H1-BA warming of the North Pacific Ocean induced by anomalous heat forcing in turn increases calcite productivity due to the temperature-dependent growth rate of phytoplankton. These results suggest the possibility that the millennial-scale calcium carbonate peaks are the result of surface biogeochemical responses to the climate transition, not by the deep circulation response.

  12. Waste Treatment of Chrome Residue of Chromium Recovery Process Using Calcium Carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endro Kismolo; Prayitno; Nurimaniwathy

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the research was to apply the precipitation technology for the treatment of aqueous wastes of leather tanning industries. The chrome liquid wastes taken was the effluent from the residue of the chromium recovery process using magnesium oxide. The precipitant used was calcium carbonate. The experiments was performed by adjusting the concentration of calcium carbonate from 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm, 250 ppm, 300 ppm, 350 ppm to 400 ppm. The stirring speed was varied from 50 rpm, 75 rpm, 100 rpm, 125 rpm, 150 rpm, 175 rpm to 200 rpm. The time of mixing was varied from 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, 120 minutes, 150 minutes, 175 minutes and 200 minutes. The result from the experiments lead to the best condition obtained were the concentration of precipitant was 300 ppm, flow rates of mixing was 125 rpm and time of mixing was 60 minutes. At this condition the separations efficiency of chrome obtained was 99.985%. (author)

  13. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus isolates induce calcium carbonate precipitation for biorestoration of ornamental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, M I; Magoulas, A; Kotoulas, G; Catsikis, I; Bakolas, A; Karageorgis, A P; Mavridou, A; Doulia, D; Rigas, F

    2013-08-01

    Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from various isolates was investigated aiming at developing an environmentally friendly technique for ornamental stone protection and restoration. Micro-organisms isolated from stone samples and identified using 16S rDNA and biochemical tests promoted calcium carbonate precipitation in solid and novel liquid growth media. Biomineral morphology was studied on marble samples with scanning electron microscopy. Most isolates demonstrated specimen weight increase, covering partially or even completely the marble surfaces mainly with vaterite. The conditions under which vaterite precipitated and its stability throughout the experimental runs are presented. A growth medium that facilitated bacterial growth of different species and promoted biomineralization was formulated. Most isolates induced biomineralization of CaCO3 . Micro-organisms may actually be a milestone in the investigation of vaterite formation facilitating our understanding of geomicrobiological interactions. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus strains could be candidates for bioconsolidation of ornamental stone protection. Characterization of biomineralization capacity of different bacterial species improves understanding of the bacterially induced mineralization processes and enriches the list of candidates for biorestoration applications. Knowledge of biomineral morphology assists in differentiating mineral from biologically induced precipitates. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effects of nanocalcium carbonate on egg production performance and plasma calcium of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjigohari, S; Ziaei, N; Ramzani Ghara, A; Tasharrofi, S

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) instead of calcium carbonate (CC) on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, blood calcium and egg quality characteristics in laying hens. A total of 120 laying hens were used in a 10-weeks trial, from week 23 to 33 of age. Laying hens were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replications, five hens each. The experimental treatments involved replacing 50% of the CC in the diet by decreasing amounts of NCC and were T1 Basal diet (BD) with 8.06% CC; T2 (6.045% of CC as a negative control); T3 (4.03% of CC replaced by 2.015% NCC); T4 (4.03% of CC replaced by 1.01% NCC); T5 (4.03% of CC replaced by 0.252% NCC) and T6 (4.03 of CC replaced with 0.126%NCC).Egg weight was unaffected by dietary treatments (p > .05). However, the egg production percentage and egg mass in T6 were less than that of other treatments (p hens in the control group had the best average feed conversion ratio (p hens' blood was recorded for birds fed T6 (p hens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Synthesis of three-dimensional calcium carbonate nanofibrous structure from eggshell using femtosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural biomaterials from bone-like minerals derived from avian eggshells have been considered as promising bone substitutes owing to their biodegradability, abundance, and lower price in comparison with synthetic biomaterials. However, cell adhesion to bulk biomaterials is poor and surface modifications are required to improve biomaterial-cell interaction. Three-dimensional (3D nanostructures are preferred to act as growth support platforms for bone and stem cells. Although there have been several studies on generating nanoparticles from eggshells, no research has been reported on synthesizing 3D nanofibrous structures. Results In this study, we propose a novel technique to synthesize 3D calcium carbonate interwoven nanofibrous platforms from eggshells using high repetition femtosecond laser irradiation. The eggshell waste is value engineered to calcium carbonate nanofibrous layer in a single step under ambient conditions. Our striking results demonstrate that by controlling the laser pulse repetition, nanostructures with different nanofiber density can be achieved. This approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3D interwoven nanofibrous platforms from natural biomaterials. Conclusion The synthesized 3D nanofibrous structures can promote biomaterial interfacial properties to improve cell-platform surface interaction and develop new functional biomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications.

  16. Application of Box-Behnken design to prepare gentamicin-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad-Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare and optimize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles as carriers for gentamicin sulfate. A chemical precipitation method was used to prepare the gentamicin sulfate-loaded CaCO3 nanoparticles. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization procedure, with the molar ratio of CaCl2: Na2CO3 (X1), the concentration of drug (X2), and the speed of homogenization (X3) as the independent variables. The particle size and entrapment efficiency were considered as response variables. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used, along with the counter plots, to relate the dependent and independent variables. The results indicated that the speed of homogenization was the main variable contributing to particle size and entrapment efficiency. The combined effect of all three independent variables was also evaluated. Using the response optimization design, the optimized Xl-X3 levels were predicted. An optimized formulation was then prepared according to these levels, resulting in a particle size of 80.23 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 30.80%. It was concluded that the chemical precipitation technique, together with the Box-Behnken experimental design methodology, could be successfully used to optimize the formulation of drug-incorporated calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

  17. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  18. Nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, and contemporary carbon balance of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Zaehle, S.; Hughes, J.; Viovy, N.; Jung, M.; Chen, Y.; Heimann, M.; Roedenbeck, C.; Jones, C.

    2009-04-01

    In Europe, atmospheric nitrogen deposition has more than doubled, forest cover was steadily increasing, and agricultural area was declining over the last 50 years. What effect have these changes had on the European carbon balance? In this study we estimate responses of the European land ecosystems to nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion and climate. We use results from four ecosystem process models such as BIOME-BGC, JULES, ORCHIDEE, and ORCHIDEE-CN to address this question. We discuss to which degree carbon balance of Europe has been altered by nitrogen deposition in comparison to other drivers and identify areas which carbon balance has been most effected by anthropogenic changes.

  19. Carbonate deposition on tail feathers of ruddy ducks using evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial carbonate deposits were observed on rectrices of Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) collected during 1982-1984 on evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Carbonate deposits were composed of about 75% aragonite and 25% calcite, both polymorphous forms of CaCO3. Significantly more carbonate deposits were observed on Ruddy Ducks as length of exposure to agricultural drain water increased, during the 1983-1984 field season when salt concentrations in the ponds were higher, and in certain evaporation-pond systems.

  20. Comparison study of biomimetic strontium-doped calcium phosphate coatings by electrochemical deposition and air plasma spray: morphology, composition and bioactive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Lu, Xia; Meng, Yizhi; Weyant, Christopher M

    2012-10-01

    In this study, strontium-doped calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by electrochemical deposition and plasma spray under different process parameters to achieve various coating morphologies. The coating composition was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphologies of the coatings were studied through scanning electron microscopy while the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of the strontium-doped calcium phosphate coatings were evaluated using bone cell culture using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. The addition of strontium leads to enhanced proliferation suggesting the possible benefits of strontium incorporation in calcium phosphate coatings. The morphology and composition of deposited coatings showed a strong influence on the growth of cells.

  1. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  2. Tuning calcium carbonate growth through physical confinement and templating with amyloid-like polypeptide aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Martin Francis

    The creation of useful composite materials requires precise control of the interface between the components in order to tune the overall shape and material properties. Despite the current research into nanotechnology, our ability to create materials with nanoscale precision is nascent. However, nature has a paradigm for the creation of finely structured composites under mild conditions called biomineralization. Through control of protein template assembly, solution conditions, and physical confinement, organisms are able to create useful optical and structural materials, such as bones, teeth, and mollusk shells. The objective of this thesis is to elucidate the importance of these various controls in synthetic systems to further our ability to create nanostructured materials. We begin by examining the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilanes on silica oxides. The formation of functionalized surfaces can help control the mineralization of amorphous or crystalline calcium carbonate. Long-chained organosilanes organize on surfaces to form dense, solid-like films, with the terminal groups determining the hydrophobicity and stereochemistry of the film. Our work has shown that uniform hydrophobic and hydrophilic films can be formed by using cleaned silica over glass or mica and through a vapor phase reaction over a liquid one. Additionally, we showed that mixed SAMs with phase-separated domains could be created through the selection of organosilanes and reaction conditions. We have built on these functionalized surfaces through the use of microfabrication and a gas permeable polymer to create three-dimensionally confined microcrystallizers. Other researchers have shown that one-dimensional confinement with a multi-functional surface (patterned with a small nucleating ordered region in a disordered SAM) can stabilize the creation of an amorphous calcium carbonate film before a single, large, micropatterned crystal is grown. Our work has determined

  3. Effect of Different Catalyst Deposition Technique on Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Grown by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed Saheed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reported the investigation of the substrate preparation technique involving deposition of iron catalyst by electron beam evaporation and ferrocene vaporization in order to produce vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes array needed for fabrication of tailored devices. Prior to the growth at 700°C in ethylene, silicon dioxide coated silicon substrate was prepared by depositing alumina followed by iron using two different methods as described earlier. Characterization analysis revealed that aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes array of 107.9 µm thickness grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition technique can only be achieved for the sample with iron deposited using ferrocene vaporization. The thick layer of partially oxidized iron film can prevent the deactivation of catalyst and thus is able to sustain the growth. It also increases the rate of permeation of the hydrocarbon gas into the catalyst particles and prevents agglomeration at the growth temperature. Combination of alumina-iron layer provides an efficient growth of high density multiwalled carbon nanotubes array with the steady growth rate of 3.6 µm per minute for the first 12 minutes and dropped by half after 40 minutes. Thicker and uniform iron catalyst film obtained from ferrocene vaporization is attributed to the multidirectional deposition of particles in the gaseous form.

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes and their Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Kelly Lynn

    Global issues related to energy and the environment have motivated development of advanced material solutions outside of traditional metals ceramics, and polymers. Taking inspiration from composites, where the combination of two or more materials often yields superior properties, the field of organic-inorganic hybrids has recently emerged. Carbon nanotube (CNT)-inorganic hybrids have drawn widespread and increasing interest in recent years due to their multifunctionality and potential impact across several technologically important application areas. Before the impacts of CNT-inorganic hybrids can be realized however, processing techniques must be developed for their scalable production. Optimization in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for synthesis of CNTs and vertically aligned CNT arrays has created production routes both high throughput and economically feasible. Additionally, control of CVD parameters has allowed for growth of CNT arrays that are able to be drawn into aligned sheets and further processed to form a variety of aligned 1, 2, and 3-dimensional bulk assemblies including ribbons, yarns, and foams. To date, there have only been a few studies on utilizing these bulk assemblies for the production of CNT-inorganic hybrids. Wet chemical methods traditionally used for fabricating CNT-inorganic hybrids are largely incompatible with CNT assemblies, since wetting and drying the delicate structures with solvents can destroy their structure. It is therefore necessary to investigate alternative processing strategies in order to advance the field of CNT-inorganic hybrids. In this dissertation, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is evaluated as a synthetic route for the production of large-scale CNT-metal oxide hybrids as well as pure metal oxide architectures utilizing CNT arrays, ribbons, and ultralow density foams as deposition templates. Nucleation and growth behavior of alumina was evaluated as a function of CNT surface chemistry. While highly graphitic

  5. The influence of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putro, Triswantoro, E-mail: tris@physics.its.ac.id; Endarko, E-mail: endarko@physics.its.ac.id [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    The influences of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation in water have been successfully investigated. The study used three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T whilst the electron discharge was generated from television flyback transformer type BW00607 and stainless steel SUS 304 as an electrode. The water sample with an initial condition of 230 mg/L placed in the reactor with flow rate 375 mL/minutes, result showed that the electron discharge can be reduced contain of calcium carbonate the water sample around 17.39% within 2 hours. Meanwhile for the same long period of treatment and flow rate, around 56.69% from initial condition of 520 mg/L of calcium carbonate in the water sample can be achieved by three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T. When the combination of three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T and the electron discharge used for treatment, the result showed that the combination of electron discharge and magnetic field methods can be used to precipitate calcium carbonate in the water sample 300 mg/L around 76.66% for 2 hours of treatment. The study then investigated the influence of the polar position of the magnetic field on calcium carbonate precipitation. Two positions of magnetic field were tested namely the system with alternated polar magnetics and the system without inversion of the polar magnetics. The influence of the polar position showed that the percentage reduction in levels of calcium carbonate in the water sample (360 mg/L) is significant different. Result showed that the system without inversion of the polar magnetics is generally lower than the system with alternated polar magnetics, with reduction level at 30.55 and 57.69%, respectively.

  6. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei 430073 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Calcium carbide (CaC{sub 2})-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g{sup -1} measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s{sup -1}. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles. (author)

  7. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA. Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications.

  8. Quantifying black carbon deposition over the Greenland ice sheet from forest fires in Canada: BC DEPOSITION FROM FOREST FIRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. L. [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC University Paris 6 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris France; Polashenski, C. M. [USACE-CRREL, Fort Wainwright Alaska USA; Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover New Hampshire USA; Soja, A. J. [National Institute of Aerospace, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Marelle, L. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), Oslo Norway; Casey, K. A. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover New Hampshire USA; Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Choi, H. D. [National Institute of Aerospace, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Raut, J. -C. [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC University Paris 6 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris France; Wiedinmyer, C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Emmons, L. K. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Fast, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Pelon, J. [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC University Paris 6 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris France; Law, K. S. [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC University Paris 6 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris France; Flanner, M. G. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan USA; Dibb, J. E. [Earth Systems Research Center, EOS, University of New Hampshire, Durham New Hampshire USA

    2017-08-05

    We identify an important Black Carbon (BC) aerosol deposition event that was observed in snow stratigraphy and dated to between 27 July 2013 – 2 August 2013. This event comprises a significant portion (~60%) of total deposition over a 10 month period (July 2013 – April 2014). Here we link this event to forest fires burning in Canada during summer 2013 using modeling and remote sensing tools. Aerosols were detected by both the CALIOP and MODIS instruments during transport between Canada and Greenland, confirming that this event involved emissions from forest fires in Canada. We use high-resolution regional chemical transport mod-eling (WRF-Chem) combined with high-resolution fire emissions (FINNv1.5) to study aerosol emissions, transport, and deposition during this event. The model accurately captures the timing of the BC deposition event and shows that the major contribution to deposition during this event is emissions originating from fires in Canada. However, the model under-predicts aerosol deposition compared to measurements at all sites by a factor of 2–100. Under-prediction of modeled BC deposition originates from uncertainties in fire emissions combined with uncertainties in aerosol scavenging by clouds. This study suggests that it is possible to describe the transport of an exceptional smoke event on regional and continental scales. Improvements in model descriptions of precipitation scavenging and emissions from wildfires are needed to correctly predict deposition, which is critical for determining the climate impacts of aerosols that originate from fires.

  9. Design of a continuous process setup for precipitated calcium carbonate production from steel converter slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2014-03-01

    A mineral carbonation process "slag2PCC" for carbon capture, utilization, and storage is discussed. Ca is extracted from steel slag by an ammonium salt solvent and carbonated with gaseous CO2 after the separation of the residual slag. The solvent is reused after regeneration. The effects of slag properties such as the content of free lime, fractions of Ca, Si, Fe, and V, particle size, and slag storage on the Ca extraction efficiency are studied. Small particles with a high free-lime content and minor fractions of Si and V are the most suitable. To limit the amount of impurities in the process, the slag-to-liquid ratio should remain below a certain value, which depends on the slag composition. Also, the design of a continuous test setup (total volume ∼75 L) is described, which enables quick process variations needed to adapt the system to the varying slag quality. Different precipitated calcium carbonate crystals (calcite and vaterite) are generated in different parts of the setup. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, A. S., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com; Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y. [Quantum Semiconductor and Devices Lab., Physics of Material Electronics Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  11. Ultrathin diamond-like carbon films deposited by filtered carbon vacuum arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Fong, Walton; Kulkarni, Ashok; Ryan, Francis W.; Bhatia, C. Singh

    2001-01-01

    Ultrathin ( and lt; 5 nm) hard carbon films are of great interest to the magnetic storage industry as the areal density approaches 100 Gbit/in(sup 2). These films are used as overcoats to protect the magnetic layers on disk media and the active elements of the read-write slider. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films can be produced by filtered cathodic arc deposition, but the films will only be accepted by the storage industry only if the ''macroparticle'' issue has been solved. Better plasma filters have been developed over recent years. Emphasis is put on the promising twist filter system - a compact, open structure that operates with pulsed arcs and high magnetic field. Based on corrosion tests it is shown that the macroparticle reduction by the twist filter is satisfactory for this demanding application, while plasma throughput is very high. Ultrathin hard carbon films have been synthesized using S-filter and twist filter systems. Film properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, wear, and corrosion resistance have been tested

  12. Exposure Assessment and Inflammatory Response Among Workers Producing Calcium Carbonate Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ling

    Problem: Nanotechnology is one of the most rapidly growing fields of science and engineering, and its applications have expanded to numerous research and industrial sectors, from consumer products to medicine to energy. Nano-materials and nanotechnology promise substantial benefits. However, there are many uncertainties and concerns regarding human health and the environment. Numerous toxicological studies on animals and cells in vitro have demonstrated that nanomaterials could cause various adverse health effects, including inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and mutagenesis in the lungs, and cardiovascular and nervous system impairment. Objectives: The overall objective of this study was to characterize particulate exposures in a calcium carbonate nanoparticle manufacturing facility, investigate possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects, and explore the plausibility of an inflammatory mechanism. The associations between exposure level and various health outcomes were investigated. Methodology: Each job was characterized by mass, number and surface area concentration. Job classification was performed based on ranking of the exposure level and statistical models. Lung function tests, exhaled NO and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and after the workshift in the year of 2011. Inflammatory cytokines from induced sputum were measured cross-sectionally in the year of 2011. Data of lung function tests and blood pressure were collected cross-sectionally in the year of 2012. The associations between each exposure metric and health measures in 2012 were investigated. Only mass concentration was linked to both 2011 and 2012 health outcomes. Results: The sampling and analytic methodology used in the study presents the potential to characterize nanoparticle exposure for a variety of operational processes. We found the highest mass exposure occurred at bagging job whereas the highest number and surface area concentration was found at modification

  13. Effects of acid deposition on dissolution of carbonate stone during summer storms in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, 1987-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term research program designed to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone. Acidic deposition accelerates the dissolution of carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. Sequential sampling of runoff from carbonate-stone (marble) and glass (reference) microcatchments in the Adirondack Mountains in New York State provided a detailed record of the episodic fluctuations in rain rate and runoff chemistry during individual summer storms. Rain rate and chemical concentrations from carbonate-stone and glass runoff fluctuated three to tenfold during storms. Net calcium-ion concentrations from the carbonatestone runoff, a measure of stone dissolution, typically fluctuated twofold during these storms. High net sulfate and net calcium concentrations in the first effective runoff at the start of a storm indicated that atmospheric pollutants deposited on the stone surface during dry periods formed calcium sulfate minerals, an important process in carbonate stone dissolution. Dissolution of the carbonate stone generally increased up to twofold during coincident episodes of low rain rate (less than 5 millimeters per hour) and decreased rainfall (glass runoff) pH (less than 4.0); episodes of high rain rate (cloudbursts) were coincident with a rapid increase in rainfall pH and also a rapid decrease in the dissolution of carbonate-stone. During a storm, it seems the most important factors causing increased dissolution of carbonate stone are coincident periods of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. Dissolution of the carbonate stone decreased slightly as the rain rate exceeded about 5 millimeters per hour, probably in response to rapidly increasing rainfall pH during episodes of high rain rate and shorter contact time between the runoff and the stone surface. High runoff rates resulting from cloudbursts remove calcium sulfate minerals formed during dry periods prior to storms and also remove dissolution products formed in large

  14. Investigations into the effect of spinel oxide composition on rate of carbon deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    The deposition of carbon on fuel cladding and other steels results in a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Methane and carbon monoxide are added to the gaseous coolant in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) to reduce the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator and this is known to increase the rate of carbon deposition. However, the composition of oxides formed on steel surfaces within the reactor may also influence deposition. In this investigation carefully characterised spinel type oxides of varying composition have been subjected to γ radiation under conditions of temperature, pressure and atmosphere similar to those experienced in the reactor. The rate of carbon deposition has been studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX). (U.K.)

  15. The multilayered structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Na; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron

  16. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of Pt nanostructures on carbon paper and Ni foam; poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, EK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available characteristic of polycrystalline Pt electrodes. ECALD produced good quality deposits that uniformly covered the carbon paper support. The advantages of preparing nanoparticles with this method include ease, flexibility and cost effectiveness. This could provide...

  17. Opto-electrical properties of amorphous carbon thin film deposited from natural precursor camphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Debabrata [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)]. E-mail: dpradhan@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca; Sharon, Maheshwar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-06-30

    A simple thermal chemical vapor deposition technique is employed for the pyrolysis of a natural precursor 'camphor' and deposition of carbon films on alumina substrate at higher temperatures (600-900 deg. C). X-ray diffraction measurement reveals the amorphous structure of these films. The carbon films properties are found to significantly vary with the deposition temperatures. At higher deposition temperature, films have shown predominately sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon and therefore, higher conductivity and lower optical band gap (Tauc gap). These amorphous carbon (a-C) films are also characterized with Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, electrical and optical properties are measured. The thermoelectric measurement shows these as-grown a-C films are p-type in nature.

  18. Influence of carbon nanotubes coatings onto carbon fiber by oxidative treatments combined with electrophoretic deposition on interfacial properties of carbon fiber composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chao; Jiang, Jianjun; Liu, Fa; Fang, Liangchao; Wang, Junbiao; Li, Dejia; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotube/carbon fiber hybrid fiber was proposed by the treatment with hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid combined with electrophoretic deposition process. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotube coated carbon fiber was prepared by two methods. • Uniform and dense CNTs network formed by oxidative treatments combined with EPD. • Pretreatment of the CF is beneficial to EPD of CNTs on carbon fiber surface. • CNTs enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • CNTs have contributed to the interfacial properties of composite. - Abstract: To improve the interfacial performance of carbon fiber (CF) and epoxy resin, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coatings were utilized to achieve this purpose through coating onto CF by the treatment with hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid combined with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The influence of electrophoretically deposited CNTs coatings on the surface properties of CFs were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic contact angle analysis. The results indicated that the deposition of carbon nanotubes introduced some polar groups to carbon fiber surfaces, enhanced surface roughness and changed surface morphologies of carbon fibers. Surface wettability of carbon fibers may be significantly improved by increasing surface free energy of the fibers due to the deposition of CNTs. The thickness and density of the coatings increases with the introduction of pretreatment of the CF during the EPD process. Short beam shear test was performed to examine the effect of carbon fiber functionalization on mechanical properties of the carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites. The interfacial adhesion of CNTs/CF reinforced epoxy composites showed obvious enhancement of interlaminar shear strength by 60.2% and scanning electron microscope photographs showed that the failure mode of composites was changed

  19. Influence of pulse ratio on codeposition of copper species with calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by means of electrochemically assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Oswald, Steffen; Bierbaum, Susanne; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to combine the well-known biocompatibility and ostoeconductivity of thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium with proangiogenic signals from codeposited copper species. Copper species could be integrated in mineral layers based on hydroxyapatite by means of electrochemically assisted deposition from electrolytes containing calcium, phosphate, and copper ions. Different combinations of duration and intensity of galvanostatic pulses result in different amounts of deposited calcium phosphate and of copper species even for the same applied total charge. Absolute amounts of copper varied between 2.1 and 6.9 μg/cm², and the copper was distributed homogeneously as shown by EDX mapping. The presence of copper did not change the crystalline phase of deposited calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) but provoked a significant decrease in deposited amounts by factor 3 to 4. The copper was deposited mainly as Cu(I) species with a minor fraction of basic copper phosphates. Reduction of copper occurred not only at the surface of titanium but also within the hydroxyapatite coating due to the reaction with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water during the cathodic polarization of the substrate. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Filament poisoning at typical carbon nanotube deposition conditions by hot-filament CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available extensively used for the deposition of various materials, including diamond [1], polymers [2], silicon thin films [3], boron-carbon-nitride layers [4] and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [5]. The process relies on the catalytic decomposition of precursor gases... (Ho) twice as efficient as a W filament during the deposition of microcrystalline silicon thin films [6]. Reactions between the precursor gases and the heated filament result in changes of the structural properties of the filaments; a process...

  1. Increasing of prediction reliability of calcium carbonate scale formation in heat exchanger of secondary coolant circuits of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, O.V.; Kritskij, V.G.; Styazhkin, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium carbonate scale formation in the secondary circuit heat exchanger of thermal and nuclear power plants is investigated. A model of calcium-carbonate scale formation providing quite reliable prediction of process running and the possibility of its control affecting the parameters of hydrochemical regime (HCR) is developed. The results can be used when designing the automatic-control system of HCR

  2. Hall Measurements on Carbon Nanotube Paper Modified With Electroless Deposited Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuoha Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube paper, sometimes referred to as bucky paper, is a random arrangement of carbon nanotubes meshed into a single robust structure, which can be manipulated with relative ease. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to make the nanotube paper, and were subsequently modified with platinum using an electroless deposition method based on substrate enhanced electroless deposition. This involves the use of a sacrificial metal substrate that undergoes electro-dissolution while the platinum metal deposits out of solution onto the nanotube paper via a galvanic displacement reaction. The samples were characterized using SEM/EDS, and Hall-effect measurements. The SEM/EDS analysis clearly revealed deposits of platinum (Pt distributed over the nanotube paper surface, and the qualitative elemental analysis revealed co-deposition of other elements from the metal substrates used. When stainless steel was used as sacrificial metal a large degree of Pt contamination with various other metals was observed. Whereas when pure sacrificial metals were used bimetallic Pt clusters resulted. The co-deposition of a bimetallic system upon carbon nanotubes was a function of the metal type and the time of exposure. Hall-effect measurements revealed some interesting fluctuations in sheet carrier density and the dominant carrier switched from N- to P-type when Pt was deposited onto the nanotube paper. Perspectives on the use of the nanotube paper as a replacement to traditional carbon cloth in water electrolysis systems are also discussed.

  3. The electrolytic deposition of carbon from molten Li2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodeposition of carbon on an nickel electrode in molten salt has been investigated with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry, using molten LiCl, as a base electrolyte with adding of 1 and 5 % of Li 2 CO 3 . Commercial nickel wire was used as a cathode and graphite crucible as the anode electrode. A cyclic voltammograms for an nickel electrode indicates that the deposition or discharge of carbon at the cathode occurs at potential range of - 0.8 to -1.7 V. Further, SEM observations showed that morphology of the carbon at the cathode is in the form of a fairly hard black deposit. It was found that the quality of the deposit depends by the cathode surface, applied overpotential, content of lithium carbonate and the thickness of the carbon film. (Original)

  4. Oxygen reduction activity of N-doped carbon-based films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Yoshikawa, Masahito

    2010-12-01

    Carbon-based films with nitrogen species on their surface were prepared on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate for application as a non-platinum cathode catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Cobalt and carbon were deposited in the presence of N 2 gas using a pulsed laser deposition method and then the metal Co was removed by HCl-washing treatment. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was electrochemically determined using a rotating disk electrode system in which the film samples on the GC substrate were replaceable. The ORR activity increased with the temperature of the GC substrate during deposition. A carbon-based film prepared at 600 °C in the presence of N 2 at 66.7 Pa showed the highest ORR activity among the tested samples (0.66 V vs. NHE). This film was composed of amorphous carbons doped with pyridine type nitrogen atoms on its surface.

  5. Distribution and sedimentary arrangement of carbon in South African proterozoic placer deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon, which occurs as grains, films, and thin seams in Witwatersrand Proterozoic placer deposits, is generally confined to carbon-seam reefs that were deposited in distal environments. The distribution of carbon on paleosurfaces, on sedimentary accumulation surfaces like pebble layers, on trough-shaped bedforms of pi-crossbedded units and foresets, and on the winnowed top of placer sediments implies that its growth took place contemporaneously with placer deposition in an aquatic fluvial environment. The areal distribution of carbon seams in distal environments is patchy, and its sparsity or total absence in some areas does not affect either the gold or the uranium content of the placer. High gold and uranium contents that appear to be associated with carbon seams are at the base of the reef because that position represents both the stable consolidated paleosurface upon which the plant material anchored itself and also the surface of bedload concentration

  6. Recovery of sludge from the treatment of liquid radioactive effluents by co-precipitation with calcium carbonate: laboratory study; Recuperation des boues de traitement des effluents radioactifs liquides par coprecipitation avec le carbonate de calcium: etude de laboratoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patti, F.; Gailledreau, C.; Cohen, P.

    1961-02-24

    As during the treatment by co-precipitation with calcium carbonate of liquid radioactive residues, a partial decontamination can be obtained by simply agitating an already formed radioactive sludge with the effluent to be processed, the authors study whether it would be possible to first perform a co-precipitation with a lower dose of calcium carbonate and then to complete decontamination by agitating with an adequate quantity of sludge stored during preceding operations. The authors report the study of the influence of reactant quantity on the chemical treatment efficiency, of the evolution of the activity of a radioactive residual solution in contact with a precipitate, of the cleaner element, of a precipitate reuse, of the technological and economic aspects, and of another possibility of reduction of the precipitate volume [French] Dans le traitement par coprecipitation avec le carbonate de calcium des residus radioactifs liquides, une decontamination partielle peut etre obtenue en agitant simplement une boue radioactive deja formee avec l'effluent a traiter. En consequence, il pourrait etre possible d'effectuer d'abord une coprecipitation avec une dose plus faible de carbonate de calcium et de completer ensuite la decontamination en agitant le liquide avec une quantite convenable de boue stockee a partir d'operations precedentes. (auteurs)

  7. Effects of Calcium Carbonate on Pain Symptoms in Third Trimester of Pregnancy and Nursing Period: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosan Alimohammadzadeh Taher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study evaluated the efficacy of oral calcium carbonate supplement on leg pain in pregnancy and nursing period.Materials and methods: A total number of 176 women at third trimester of pregnancy or nursing period till to one year after delivery with complaint of leg pain, low back pain (LBP, and posterior pelvic pain (PPP were evaluated for distinct primary causes and were excluded, then 58 patients randomized into calcium group (n=27 treated with 500 mg calcium carbonate orally per day just for one week, and control group (n=31 received no drug. Incidence of days with leg, low back, and posterior pelvic pain per week were evaluated and compared between the two groups at 3 different weeks before, during, and after discontinuation of drug. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.  Results: Mean number of days with leg pain per week during calcium carbonate intake was significantly different between the study and control groups (P<0.05. Mean number of days with LBP and PPP was not significantly different between two groups.Conclusion: The use of oral calcium supplement was associated with lower episodes of leg pain but failed to reduce the incidence of LBP and PPP in pregnancy and nursery period.

  8. Hydrogen retention in carbon-tungsten co-deposition layer formed by hydrogen RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, K.; Kawasaki, T.; Manabe, Y.; Nagase, H.; Takeishi, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-tungsten co-deposition layers (C-W layers) were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen or deuterium RF plasma. The deposition rate of the C-W layer by deuterium plasma was faster than that by hydrogen plasma, where the increase of deposition rate of tungsten was larger than that of carbon. This indicates that the isotope effect on sputtering-depositing process for tungsten is larger than that for carbon. The release curve of hydrogen from the C-W layer showed two peaks at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Comparing the hydrogen release from the carbon deposition layer and the tungsten deposition layer, it is considered that the increase of the release rate at 400 deg. C is affected by tungsten and that at 700 deg. C is affected by carbon. The obtained hydrogen retention in the C-W layers which have over 60 at.% of carbon was in the range between 0.45 and 0.16 as H/(C + W)

  9. Effects of ion beam bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto tungsten carbide and tool steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Industrial Research Inst. of Ishikawa (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Iwaki, Masaya; Guzman, L [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan)

    1992-04-15

    A study was made of the effects of argon ion bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto WC and tool steels. Carbon thin film deposition was performed at various temperatures ranging from 200degC to 350degC, using C{sub 6}H{sub 6} gas. Argon ion beam bombardment of the films was carried out at an energy of 150 keV with a dose of 1x10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. The hardness and adhesion of the films were measured by means of Knoop hardness and scratch tests respectively. The structure of the carbon films was estimated by laser Raman spectroscopy, and the relations were investigated between the mechanical properties and the structure of the films. The hardness of carbon thin films increases as their deposition temperature decreases; this tendency corresponds to the increase in amorphous structure estimated by Raman spectra. Argon ion bombardment results in constant hardness and fraction of amorphous structure. Argon ion beam bombardment of films prior to additional carbon deposition may cause the adhesion of the subsequently deposited films to improve. It is concluded that argon ion beam bombardment is useful for improving the properties of carbon films deposited onto WC and tool steels. (orig.).

  10. Effects of ion beam bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto tungsten carbide and tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masaya; Guzman, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of argon ion bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto WC and tool steels. Carbon thin film deposition was performed at various temperatures ranging from 200degC to 350degC, using C 6 H 6 gas. Argon ion beam bombardment of the films was carried out at an energy of 150 keV with a dose of 1x10 16 ions cm -2 . The hardness and adhesion of the films were measured by means of Knoop hardness and scratch tests respectively. The structure of the carbon films was estimated by laser Raman spectroscopy, and the relations were investigated between the mechanical properties and the structure of the films. The hardness of carbon thin films increases as their deposition temperature decreases; this tendency corresponds to the increase in amorphous structure estimated by Raman spectra. Argon ion bombardment results in constant hardness and fraction of amorphous structure. Argon ion beam bombardment of films prior to additional carbon deposition may cause the adhesion of the subsequently deposited films to improve. It is concluded that argon ion beam bombardment is useful for improving the properties of carbon films deposited onto WC and tool steels. (orig.)

  11. Carbon deposition at the bottom of gaps in TEXTOR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, D.; Kirschner, A.; Esser, H.G.; Freisinger, M.; Kreter, A.; Van Hoey, O.; Borodin, D.; Litnovsky, A.; Wienhold, P.; Coenen, J.W.; Stoschus, H.; Philipps, V.; Brezinsek, S.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-01-01

    Results of a new dedicated experiment addressing the problem of impurity deposition at the bottom in gaps are presented along with modelling. A test limiter with an isolated gap was exposed to the scrape-off layer plasma in TEXTOR. The exposure was accompanied by injection of 13 C-marked methane in the vicinity of the gap. Deposition at the bottom of the gap was monitored in situ with Quartz-Microbalance diagnostics. The 13 C deposition efficiency of about 2.6 × 10 −5 was measured. Post mortem analysis of resulting deposited layers performed with SIMS and EPMA techniques yields about a factor 2 smaller value corresponding to approximately 10% contribution of the gap bottom to the total 13 C deposition in the gap. This measured contribution is effectively much smaller than observed earlier in TEXTOR, taking the difference in geometry into account, and is in reasonable agreement with modelling performed with ERO and 3D-GAPS codes

  12. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-01-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  13. Soil aggregation and the stabilization of organic carbon as affected by erosion and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cammeraat, E.L.H.; Cerli, C.; Kalbitz, K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of soil aggregation in determining the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) during erosion, transportation and deposition is poorly understood. Particularly, we do not know how aggregation contributes to the often-observed accumulation of SOC at depositional sites. Our objective was

  14. Electrocatalytic activity of atomic layer deposited Pt-Ru catalysts onto N-doped carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.-C.; Larsen, J.V.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haugshøj, K.B.; Clausen, H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Christensen, L.H.; Thomsen, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Pt-Ru catalysts of various compositions, between 0 and 100 at.% of Ru, were deposited onto N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 C. The Pt and Ru precursors were trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum (MeCpPtMe3) and

  15. A model to calculate effects of atmospheric deposition on soil acidification, eutrophication and carbon sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Reinds, Gert Jan; Posch, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Triggered by the steep decline in sulphur deposition in Europe and North America over the last decades, research and emission reduction policies have shifted from acidification to the effects of nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change on plant species diversity and carbon (C) sequestration in

  16. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N., E-mail: jesper.knijnenburg@alumni.ethz.ch; Hilty, Florentine M. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland); Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [ETH Zurich, Particle Technology Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (Switzerland); Zimmermann, Michael B. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO{sub 3} made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO{sub 3} and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO{sub 3}, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO{sub 3}) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO{sub 3} nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  17. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO3) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO3, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca2P2O7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO3) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H3PO4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  18. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO 3 ) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO 3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO 3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO 3 , with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO 3 ) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H 3 PO 4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO 3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  19. Multivariate regression models for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of calcium and magnesium carbonates and magnesium oxide through drifts data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work multivariate regression models were developed for the quantitative analysis of ternary systems using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS to determine the concentration in weight of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide. Nineteen spectra of standard samples previously defined in ternary diagram by mixture design were prepared and mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded. The partial least squares (PLS regression method was applied to the model. The spectra set was preprocessed by either mean-centered and variance-scaled (model 2 or mean-centered only (model 1. The results based on the prediction performance of the external validation set expressed by RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction demonstrated that it is possible to develop good models to simultaneously determine calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide content in powdered samples that can be used in the study of the thermal decomposition of dolomite rocks.

  20. Interlaminar improvement of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via depositing mixture of carbon nanotubes and sizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cuiqin [Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Julin, E-mail: julinwang@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Tao [Beijing Institute of Ancient Architecture, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • COOH-CNTs can react with sizing agent, and the optimum reaction ratio was 1:20. • Carbon fibers were dipped into the mixture bath of CNTs and sizing agent. • SEM results indicate that fibers surfaces were coated with CNTs and sizing agent. • ILSS was increased by 67.01% for the composites after the mixture coating process. • Single fibers tensile strength was maintained after the deposited process. - Abstract: The effects of deposition to carbon fibers surfaces with mixture of functionalized multi-walled carbon fibers (MWCNTs) and sizing agent were investigated. Relationships between CNTs and sizing agent were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Ubbelohde viscometer. The results revealed that CNTs could react with sizing agent at 120 °C, and optimal reaction occurs when mass ratio was about 1:20. Then, carbon fibers were immersed in mixed aqueous suspension of CNTs and sizing agent with the above ratio dispersed by ultrasonication. According to scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, fibers surfaces were coated with CNTs and sizing agent. The static contact angle tests indicated wetting performance between fibers and epoxy resin were improved after deposited procedures. Interlaminar shear strength was increased by 67.01% for fibers/epoxy resin composites after mixture deposited process. Moreover, the tensile strength of single fibers after depositing showed a slightly increase compared with that of fibers without depositing layer.

  1. Amorphous and crystalline calcium carbonate phases during carbonation of nanolimes: implications in heritage conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Navarro, C.; Elert, K.; Ševčík, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 35 (2016), s. 6594-6607 ISSN 1466-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20374P; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : carbonation * nanolime * kinetics * CaCO3 polymorphs Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 3.474, year: 2016 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2016/CE/c6ce01202g#!divAbstract

  2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on nanostructured carbon electrodes grown by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Bardizza, Giorgio; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured porous films of carbon with density of about 0.5 g/cm 3 and 200 nm thickness were deposited at room temperature by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) from carbon clusters formed in the gas phase. Carbon film surface topography, determined by atomic force microscopy, reveals a surface roughness of 16 nm and a granular morphology arising from the low kinetic energy ballistic deposition regime. The material is characterized by a highly disordered carbon structure with predominant sp2 hybridization as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The interface properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing KOH 1 M solution as aqueous electrolyte. An increase of the double layer capacitance is observed when the electrodes are heat treated in air or when a nanostructured nickel layer deposited by SCBD on top of a sputter deposited film of the same metal is employed as a current collector instead of a plain metallic film. This enhancement is consistent with an improved charge injection in the active material and is ascribed to the modification of the electrical contact at the interface between the carbon and the metal current collector. Specific capacitance values up to 120 F/g have been measured for the electrodes with nanostructured metal/carbon interface.

  3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on nanostructured carbon electrodes grown by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Bardizza, Giorgio; Podesta, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo, E-mail: piseri@mi.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica and CIMaINa (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Nanostructured porous films of carbon with density of about 0.5 g/cm{sup 3} and 200 nm thickness were deposited at room temperature by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) from carbon clusters formed in the gas phase. Carbon film surface topography, determined by atomic force microscopy, reveals a surface roughness of 16 nm and a granular morphology arising from the low kinetic energy ballistic deposition regime. The material is characterized by a highly disordered carbon structure with predominant sp2 hybridization as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The interface properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing KOH 1 M solution as aqueous electrolyte. An increase of the double layer capacitance is observed when the electrodes are heat treated in air or when a nanostructured nickel layer deposited by SCBD on top of a sputter deposited film of the same metal is employed as a current collector instead of a plain metallic film. This enhancement is consistent with an improved charge injection in the active material and is ascribed to the modification of the electrical contact at the interface between the carbon and the metal current collector. Specific capacitance values up to 120 F/g have been measured for the electrodes with nanostructured metal/carbon interface.

  4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on nanostructured carbon electrodes grown by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Bardizza, Giorgio; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Nanostructured porous films of carbon with density of about 0.5 g/cm3 and 200 nm thickness were deposited at room temperature by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) from carbon clusters formed in the gas phase. Carbon film surface topography, determined by atomic force microscopy, reveals a surface roughness of 16 nm and a granular morphology arising from the low kinetic energy ballistic deposition regime. The material is characterized by a highly disordered carbon structure with predominant sp2 hybridization as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The interface properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing KOH 1 M solution as aqueous electrolyte. An increase of the double layer capacitance is observed when the electrodes are heat treated in air or when a nanostructured nickel layer deposited by SCBD on top of a sputter deposited film of the same metal is employed as a current collector instead of a plain metallic film. This enhancement is consistent with an improved charge injection in the active material and is ascribed to the modification of the electrical contact at the interface between the carbon and the metal current collector. Specific capacitance values up to 120 F/g have been measured for the electrodes with nanostructured metal/carbon interface.

  5. Calcium carbonate formation on mica supported extracellular polymeric substance produced by Rhodococcus opacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szcześ, Aleksandra, E-mail: aszczes@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin 20-031 (Poland); Czemierska, Magdalena; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna [Department of Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin 20-031 (Poland)

    2016-10-15

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extracted from Rhodococcus opacus bacterial strain was used as a matrix for calcium carbonate precipitation using the vapour diffusion method. The total exopolymer and water-soluble exopolymer fraction of different concentrations were spread on the mica surface by the spin-coating method. The obtained layers were characterized using the atomic force microscopy measurement and XPS analysis. The effects of polymer concentration, initial pH of calcium chloride solution and precipitation time on the obtained crystals properties were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the precipitated minerals. It was found that the type of precipitated CaCO{sub 3} polymorph and the crystal size depend on the kind of EPS fraction. The obtained results indicates that the water soluble fraction favours vaterite dissolution and calcite growth, whereas the total EPS stabilizes vaterite and this effect is stronger at basic pH. It seems to be due to different contents of the functional group of EPS fractions. - Highlights: • CaCO{sub 3} crystal size and polymorph can be controlled by EPS substance obtained from R. opacus. • The water soluble fraction favours vaterite dissolution and calcite growth. • The total EPS stabilizes vaterite. • This effect is stronger at basic pH.

  6. Calcium carbonate formation on mica supported extracellular polymeric substance produced by Rhodococcus opacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szcześ, Aleksandra; Czemierska, Magdalena; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extracted from Rhodococcus opacus bacterial strain was used as a matrix for calcium carbonate precipitation using the vapour diffusion method. The total exopolymer and water-soluble exopolymer fraction of different concentrations were spread on the mica surface by the spin-coating method. The obtained layers were characterized using the atomic force microscopy measurement and XPS analysis. The effects of polymer concentration, initial pH of calcium chloride solution and precipitation time on the obtained crystals properties were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the precipitated minerals. It was found that the type of precipitated CaCO 3 polymorph and the crystal size depend on the kind of EPS fraction. The obtained results indicates that the water soluble fraction favours vaterite dissolution and calcite growth, whereas the total EPS stabilizes vaterite and this effect is stronger at basic pH. It seems to be due to different contents of the functional group of EPS fractions. - Highlights: • CaCO 3 crystal size and polymorph can be controlled by EPS substance obtained from R. opacus. • The water soluble fraction favours vaterite dissolution and calcite growth. • The total EPS stabilizes vaterite. • This effect is stronger at basic pH.

  7. Effect of Hydraulic Activity on Crystallization of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) for Eco-Friendly Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Han, Gi-Chun; Lim, Mihee; You, Kwang-Suk; Ryu, Miyoung; Ahn, Ji-Whan; Fujita, Toyohisa; Kim, Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Wt% of aragonite, a CaCO3 polymorph, increased with higher hydraulic activity (°C) of limestone in precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from the lime-soda process (Ca(OH)2-NaOH-Na2CO3). Only calcite, the most stable polymorph, was crystallized at hydraulic activity under 10 °C, whereas aragonite also started to crystallize over 10 °C. The crystallization of PCC is more dependent on the hydraulic activity of limestone than CaO content, a factor commonly used to classify limestone ores according to quality. The results could be effectively applied to the determination of polymorphs in synthetic PCC for eco-friendly paper manufacture. PMID:20087470

  8. Effect of precipitated calcium carbonate--Cellulose nanofibrils composite filler on paper properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Cho, Byoung-Uk; Won, Jong Myoung

    2016-01-20

    A new concept of composite filler was developed by using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and cationic starch (C-starch). In this study, cellulose nanofibrils were utilized in two different ways: a PCC-CNF composite filler and a papermaking additive in sheet forming. The aim was to elucidate their effects on flocculation, filler retention and the strength and optical properties of handsheets. The highest filler retention was obtained by using the PCC-CNF composite filler in paper sheets. The paper filled with the composite fillers had much higher bursting and tensile strengths than conventional PCC loading. It was also found that the paper prepared with PCC-CNF composite fillers became denser with increasing the filler content of paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of calcium hydrogen carbonate mesoscopic crystals as a disinfectant for influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKASHIMA, Ryuji; KAWAMOTO, Masaomi; MIYAZAKI, Shigeru; ONISHI, Rumiko; FURUSAKI, Koichi; OSAKI, Maho; KIRISAWA, Rikio; SAKUDO, Akikazu; ONODERA, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the virucidal effect of a novel electrically charged disinfectant CAC-717 was investigated. CAC-717 is produced by applying an electric field to mineral water containing calcium hydrogen carbonate to generate mesoscopic crystals. Virus titration analysis showed a >3 log reduction of influenza A viruses after treatment with CAC-717 for 1 min in room temperature, while infectivity was undetectable after 15 min treatment. Adding bovine serum albumin to CAC-717 solution did not affect the disinfectant effect. Although CAC-717 is an alkaline solution (pH=12.39), upon contact with human tissue, its pH becomes almost physiological (pH 8.84) after accelerated electric discharge, which enables its use against influenza viruses. Therefore, CAC-717 may be used as a preventative measure against influenza A viruses and for biosecurity in the environment. PMID:28392537

  10. Preparation of poly (methyl methacrylate)/nanometer calcium carbonate composite by in-situ emulsion polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建明; 包永忠; 黄志明; 翁志学

    2004-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) emulsion polymerization in the presence of nanometer calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO3) surface modified with (-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) was carried out to prepare poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/nano-CaCO3 composite. The reaction between nano-CaCO3 and MPTMS, and the grafting of PMMA onto nano-CaCO3 were confirmed by infrared spectrum. The grafting ratio and grafting efficiency of PMMA on nano-CaCO3 modified with MPTMS were much higher than that on nano-CaCO3 modified with stearic acid. The grafting ratio of PMMA increased as the weight ratio between MMA and nano-CaCO3 increased, while the grafting efficiency of PMMA decreased. Transmission electron micrograph showed that nano-CaCO3 covered with PMMA was formed by in-situ emulsion polymerization.

  11. Calcium carbonate-gold nanocluster hybrid spheres: synthesis and versatile application in immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan; Feng, Li-Na; Zhang, Kui; Li, Xing-Hua; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2012-04-23

    Fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were incorporated into porous calcium carbonate spheres through electrostatic interaction. The resulting CaCO(3)/AuNCs hybrid material exhibited interesting properties, such as porous structure, excellent biocompatibility, good water solubility, and degradability. These properties make the CaCO(3)/AuNCs hybrid material a promising template to assemble horseradish peroxidase/antibody conjugates (HRP-Ab(2)). By using CaCO(3)/AuNCs/HRP-Ab(2) bioconjugates as probes, a versatile immunosensor was developed for fluorescent and electrochemical detection of the cancer biomarker neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The detection limits of the sensor were 2.0 and 0.1 pg mL(-1) for fluorescent and electrochemical detection, respectively. The immunosensor shows high sensitivity and offers an alternative strategy for the detection of other proteins and DNA. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. HF treatment effect for carbon deposition on silicon (111) by DC sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, A. S., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com; Darma, Y., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com [Quantum Semiconductor and Devices Lab., Physics of Material Electronics Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Surface modifications of Si (111) substrate by HF solution for thin film carbon deposition have been systematically studied. Thin film carbon on Si (111) has been deposited using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pellet doped by 5% Fe as the target. EDAX characterization confirmed that the carbon fraction on Si substrate much higher by dipping a clean Si substrate by HF solution before sputtering process in comparison with carbon fraction on Si substrate just after conventional RCA. Moreover, SEM and AFM images show the uniform thin film carbon on Si with HF treatment, in contrast to the Si without HF solution treatment. These experimental results suggest that HF treatment of Si surface provide Si-H bonds on top Si surface that useful to enhance the carbon deposition during sputtering process. Furthermore, we investigate the thermal stability of thin film carbon on Si by thermal annealing process up to 900 °C. Atomic arrangements during annealing process were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra indicate that thin film carbon on Si is remaining unchanged until 600 °C and carbon atoms start to diffuse toward Si substrate after annealing at 900 °C.

  13. Characterization of the dimensions of colloidal calcium carbonate dispersions in toluene with neutron small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlak, W.A.H.M.; Dorrepaal, J.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium carbonate particles, stabilized by a surface layer, and dispersed in toluene are investigated with neutron small-angle scattering. Estimates for the dimensions of the core particle and the layer have been obtained: the layer thickness is 8.6 A and the core particle radius is 16.5 A. The limits within which these results are valid are indicated. (Auth.)

  14. By-product reuse in drinking water softening: influence of operating conditions on calcium carbonate pellet characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Camilla; Rosshaug, P. S.; Kristensen, J. B.

    both socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, optimal implementation of softening requires a holistic approach including e.g. possibilities for by-product reuse. A pellet reactor is one widely used softening technology that may produce up to 350 kg calcium carbonate pellets per 1000 m3...

  15. Growth Rate and Morphology of a Single Calcium Carbonate Crystal on Polysulfone Film Measured with Time Lapse Raman Micro Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The growth of single, self- nucleated calcium carbonate crystals on a polysulfone (PSU) film was investigated with high resolution, time lapse Raman imaging. The Raman images were acquired on the interface of the polymer with the crystal. The growth of crystals could thus be followed in time. PSU is

  16. A strategy of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) fillers for enhancing the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna, Chilakala [Hanil Cement, Danyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    A wide variety of fillers are currently used in more than twenty types of polymer resins, although four of them alone (polypropylene, polyamides, thermoplastic polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride) account for 90% of the market of mineral fillers in plastics. Polypropylene (PP) and PVC dominate the market for calcium carbonate. PP is a versatile reinforcement material that can meet engineering and structural specifications and is widely used for automotive components, home appliances, and industrial applications. Talc, mica, clay, kaolin, wollastonite, calcium carbonates, feldspar, aluminum hydroxide, glass fibers, and natural fibers are commonly used in fillers. Among these, calcium carbonate (both natural and synthetic) is the mos abundant and affords the possibility of improved surface finishing, control over the manufacture of products, and increased electric resistance and impact resistance. Meeting the global challenge to reduce the weight of vehicles by using plastics is a significant issue. The current the global plastic and automobile industry cannot survive without fillers, additives, and reinforcements. Polypropylene is a major component of the modern plastic industry, and currently is used in dashboards, wheel covers, and some engine parts in automobiles. This article reports that the use of calcium carbonate fillers with polypropylene is the best choice to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts used in automobiles.

  17. A strategy of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3) fillers for enhancing the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan; Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon; Ramakrishna, Chilakala

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of fillers are currently used in more than twenty types of polymer resins, although four of them alone (polypropylene, polyamides, thermoplastic polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride) account for 90% of the market of mineral fillers in plastics. Polypropylene (PP) and PVC dominate the market for calcium carbonate. PP is a versatile reinforcement material that can meet engineering and structural specifications and is widely used for automotive components, home appliances, and industrial applications. Talc, mica, clay, kaolin, wollastonite, calcium carbonates, feldspar, aluminum hydroxide, glass fibers, and natural fibers are commonly used in fillers. Among these, calcium carbonate (both natural and synthetic) is the mos abundant and affords the possibility of improved surface finishing, control over the manufacture of products, and increased electric resistance and impact resistance. Meeting the global challenge to reduce the weight of vehicles by using plastics is a significant issue. The current the global plastic and automobile industry cannot survive without fillers, additives, and reinforcements. Polypropylene is a major component of the modern plastic industry, and currently is used in dashboards, wheel covers, and some engine parts in automobiles. This article reports that the use of calcium carbonate fillers with polypropylene is the best choice to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts used in automobiles

  18. Influence of calcium carbonate on extraction yield and quality of extra virgin oil from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeo, G; Silletti, R; Summo, C; Paradiso, V M; Pasqualone, A; Caponio, F

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate (1%, 2%, and 4% of addition) at two different particle sizes (2.7μm and 5.7μm), added at the beginning of the malaxation phase, on both the extraction yield and the quality of oil obtained from Coratina olives at different ripening index. The results showed that calcium carbonate significantly increased the extraction yield of olive oil, more than affecting chemical indices. In particular, for less ripened olives, 1-2% of larger particle size calcium carbonate addiction determined a significant increase of the extraction effectiveness, ranging from 4.0 to 4.9%, while more ripened olives required higher amounts of coadjuvant (2-4% when using the larger particle size and 4% when using the smaller one), with a significant increase of the extraction yield up to 5%. Moreover, an increase of pungent perception was observed in some cases when adding calcium carbonate to more ripened olives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of pH and phosphate on calcium carbonate polymorphs precipitated at near-freezing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yu-Bin; Wolthers, Mariëtte; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Nehrke, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pH and phosphate on the precipitation of calcium carbonate polymorphs from aqueous solution were investigated. Experiments were carried out at near-freezing temperature and two different pH conditions (pH 13.4 and 9.0). At each pH condition, solutions having different concentrations

  20. GFP facilitates native purification of recombinant perlucin derivatives and delays the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Weber

    Full Text Available Insolubility is one of the possible functions of proteins involved in biomineralization, which often limits their native purification. This becomes a major problem especially when recombinant expression systems are required to obtain larger amounts. For example, the mollusc shell provides a rich source of unconventional proteins, which can interfere in manifold ways with different mineral phases and interfaces. Therefore, the relevance of such proteins for biotechnological processes is still in its infancy. Here we report a simple and reproducible purification procedure for a GFP-tagged lectin involved in biomineralization, originally isolated from mother-of-pearl in abalone shells. An optimization of E. coli host cell culture conditions was the key to obtain reasonable yields and high degrees of purity by using simple one-step affinity chromatography. We identified a dual functional role for the GFP domain when it became part of a mineralizing system in vitro. First, the GFP domain improved the solubility of an otherwise insoluble protein, in this case recombinant perlucin derivatives. Second, GFP inhibited calcium carbonate precipitation in a concentration dependent manner. This was demonstrated here using a simple bulk assay over a time period of 400 seconds. At concentrations of 2 µg/ml and higher, the inhibitory effect was observed predominantly for HCO(3 (- as the first ionic interaction partner, but not necessarily for Ca(2+. The interference of GFP-tagged perlucin derivatives with the precipitation of calcium carbonate generated different types of GFP-fluorescent composite calcite crystals. GFP-tagging offers therefore a genetically tunable tool to gently modify mechanical and optical properties of synthetic biocomposite minerals.

  1. Hard and transparent hybrid polyurethane coatings using in situ incorporation of calcium carbonate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lu; Yang Jie; Sun Jing; Cai Lifang; He Linghao; Huang Hui; Song Rui; Hao Yongmei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In situ mineralization via gas diffusion was adopted for a good dispersion of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in the polymeric PU matrix. → Hybrid films with high dispersion, transparency, robust and thermal stability can be obtained by controlling the CaCO 3 loading. → The hybrid films display a significant improvement in its water resistance, surface hardness, scratch resistance and flexibility, with the introduction of CaCO 3 , and all coatings exhibited excellent chemical resistance and adhesion. - Abstract: The combination of hardness, scratch resistance, and flexibility is a highly desired feature in many coating applications. The aim of this study is to achieve this goal through the in situ introduction of an unmodified calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) into a water-soluble polyurethane (PU) matrix. Smooth and (semi-) transparent films were prepared from both the neat PU and the CaCO 3 -filled composites. As evidenced by the measurements from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), hybrid films with high dispersion, transparency, robustness and thermal stability could be obtained by controlling the CaCO 3 loading. The storage modulus could increase from 441 MPa of neat PU matrix to 1034 MPa of hybrid film containing 2% (w/w) CaCO 3 . In addition, the same hybrid films displayed a significant improvement in its water resistance. In this case, the water-uptake ratio decreased from 41.54% of PU to 2.21% of hybrid film containing 2% (w/w) CaCO 3 . Moreover, with the introduction of CaCO 3 , conventional coating characterization methods demonstrated an increase in the surface hardness, scratch resistance and flexibility, and all coatings exhibited excellent chemical resistance and adhesion.

  2. GFP facilitates native purification of recombinant perlucin derivatives and delays the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eva; Guth, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2012-01-01

    Insolubility is one of the possible functions of proteins involved in biomineralization, which often limits their native purification. This becomes a major problem especially when recombinant expression systems are required to obtain larger amounts. For example, the mollusc shell provides a rich source of unconventional proteins, which can interfere in manifold ways with different mineral phases and interfaces. Therefore, the relevance of such proteins for biotechnological processes is still in its infancy. Here we report a simple and reproducible purification procedure for a GFP-tagged lectin involved in biomineralization, originally isolated from mother-of-pearl in abalone shells. An optimization of E. coli host cell culture conditions was the key to obtain reasonable yields and high degrees of purity by using simple one-step affinity chromatography. We identified a dual functional role for the GFP domain when it became part of a mineralizing system in vitro. First, the GFP domain improved the solubility of an otherwise insoluble protein, in this case recombinant perlucin derivatives. Second, GFP inhibited calcium carbonate precipitation in a concentration dependent manner. This was demonstrated here using a simple bulk assay over a time period of 400 seconds. At concentrations of 2 µg/ml and higher, the inhibitory effect was observed predominantly for HCO(3) (-) as the first ionic interaction partner, but not necessarily for Ca(2+). The interference of GFP-tagged perlucin derivatives with the precipitation of calcium carbonate generated different types of GFP-fluorescent composite calcite crystals. GFP-tagging offers therefore a genetically tunable tool to gently modify mechanical and optical properties of synthetic biocomposite minerals.

  3. Large flexibility of high aspect ratio carbon nanostructures fabricated by electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Gordeev, S N, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-26

    The mechanical properties of free-standing electron beam deposited amorphous carbon structures have been studied using atomic force microscopy. The fabricated carbon blades are found to be extraordinarily flexible, capable of undergoing vertical deflection up to {approx} 75% of their total length without inelastic deformation. The elastic bending modulus of these structures was calculated to be 28 {+-} 10 GPa.

  4. Heating effect of substrate of pulsed laser ablation deposition technique towards the orientation of carbon microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, L.S.; Irmawati Ramli; Noorhana Yahya; Abdul Halim Shaari

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Carbon thin film has been successfully deposited by second harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser ablation deposition, PLAD. The topology and morphology of the deposited layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas emission dispersion X-ray (EDX) was used to determine the existence of elements that constitutes the microstructure. Substrate heated at 500 degree Celsius during the laser ablation showed the most homogenous lollipop microstructure as compared to mainly pillars of microstructure ablated at lower substrate temperature. It is found that this also avoid further diffusion of carbon into catalyst in forming iron carbide. (author)

  5. Diamond like carbon coatings deposited by microwave plasma CVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques for estimating sp. 3. /sp. 2 ratio. ... ion beam deposition (Savvidas 1986), pulsed laser deposi- ... carrier gas (10 sccm) by passing 150 watts of microwave power.

  6. A probabilistic assessment of calcium carbonate export and dissolution in the modern ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Gianna; Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat

    2016-05-01

    The marine cycle of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is an important element of the carbon cycle and co-governs the distribution of carbon and alkalinity within the ocean. However, CaCO3 export fluxes and mechanisms governing CaCO3 dissolution are highly uncertain. We present an observationally constrained, probabilistic assessment of the global and regional CaCO3 budgets. Parameters governing pelagic CaCO3 export fluxes and dissolution rates are sampled using a Monte Carlo scheme to construct a 1000-member ensemble with the Bern3D ocean model. Ensemble results are constrained by comparing simulated and observation-based fields of excess dissolved calcium carbonate (TA*). The minerals calcite and aragonite are modelled explicitly and ocean-sediment fluxes are considered. For local dissolution rates, either a strong or a weak dependency on CaCO3 saturation is assumed. In addition, there is the option to have saturation-independent dissolution above the saturation horizon. The median (and 68 % confidence interval) of the constrained model ensemble for global biogenic CaCO3 export is 0.90 (0.72-1.05) Gt C yr-1, that is within the lower half of previously published estimates (0.4-1.8 Gt C yr-1). The spatial pattern of CaCO3 export is broadly consistent with earlier assessments. Export is large in the Southern Ocean, the tropical Indo-Pacific, the northern Pacific and relatively small in the Atlantic. The constrained results are robust across a range of diapycnal mixing coefficients and, thus, ocean circulation strengths. Modelled ocean circulation and transport timescales for the different set-ups were further evaluated with CFC11 and radiocarbon observations. Parameters and mechanisms governing dissolution are hardly constrained by either the TA* data or the current compilation of CaCO3 flux measurements such that model realisations with and without saturation-dependent dissolution achieve skill. We suggest applying saturation-independent dissolution rates in Earth system

  7. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H. [Materials Synthesis Laboratory, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, and Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials (CAPEM), State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. A review on the kinetics of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by urea hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paassen, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation induced by the ureolytic bacteria are reviewed based on experiments and mathematical modelling. The study shows how urea hydrolysis rate depends on the amount of bacteria and the conditions during growth, storage, hydrolysis and precipitation. The dynamics of Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation has been monitored in non-seeded liquid batch experiments. Results show that particulary for a fast hydrolysis of urea (>1 M-urea day-1) in a highly concentrated equimolar solution with calcium chloride (>0.25 M) the solubility product of CaCO3 is exceeded within a short period (less than 30 minutes), the supersaturation remains high for an exended period, resulting in prolonged periods of nucleation and crystal growth and extended growth of metastable precursor mineral phases. The pH, being a result of the speciation, quickly rises until critical supersaturation is reached and precipitation is initiated. Then pH drops (sometimes showing oscillating behaviour) to about neutral where it stays until all substrates are depleted. Higher hydrolysis rates lead to higher supersaturation and pH and relatively many small crystals, whereas higher concentrations of urea and calcium chloride mainly lead to lower pH values. The conversion can be reasonably monitored by electrical conductivity and reasonably predicted, using a simplified model based on a single reaction as long as the urea hydrolysis rate is known. Complex geochemical models, which include chemical speciciation through acid-base equilibria and kinetic equations to describe mineral precipitation, do not show significant difference from the simplified model regarding the bulk chemistry and the total amount of precipitates. However, experiments show that ureolytic MICP can result in a highly variable crystal morphologies with large variation in the affected hydraulic properties when applied in a porous medium. In order to calculate the number, size and

  9. Effect of nickel introduced by electroplating on pyrocarbon deposition of carbon-fiber preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yancai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the deposition rate and microstructure of pyrocarbon, nickel was introduced by electroplating on carbon fibers and used as a catalyst during the deposition of pyrocarbon at 1000 °C using methane as a precursor gas. The distribution of nickel catalyst and the microstructure of pyrocarbon were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Raman micro-spectrometry. Results show that nano-sized nickel particles could be well distributed on carbon fibers and the pyrocarbon deposited catalytically had a smaller d002 value and a higher graphitization degree compared with that without catalyst. In addition, the deposition rate of pyrocarbon in each hour was measured. The deposition rate of pyrocarbon in the first hour was more than 10 times when carbon cloth substrates were doped with nickel catalysts as compared to the pure carbon cloths. The pyrocarbon gained by rapid deposition may include two parts, which are generation directly on the nickel catalyst and formation with the carbon nanofibers as crystal nucleus.

  10. Ion-substituted calcium phosphate coatings deposited by plasma-assisted techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Gabriela; Bianchi, Michele; Sassoni, Enrico; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2017-05-01

    One of the main critical aspects behind the failure or success of an implant resides in its ability to fast bond with the surrounding bone. To boost osseointegration, the ideal implant material should exhibit composition and structure similar to those of biological apatite. To this aim, the most common approach is to coat the implant surface with a coating of hydroxyapatite (HA), resembling the main component of mineralized tissues. However, bone apatite is a non-stoichiometric, multi-substituted poorly-crystalline apatite, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, with high biological relevance. Ion-substituted HAs can be deposited by so called "wet methods", which are however poorly reproducible and hardly industrially feasible; at the same time bioactive coatings realized by plasma assisted method, interesting for industrial applications, are generally made of stoichiometric (i.e. un-substituted) HA. In this work, the literature concerning plasma-assisted deposition methods used to deposit ion-substituted HA was reviewed and the last advances in this field discussed. The ions taken into exam are those present in mineralized tissues and possibly having biological relevance. Notably, literature about this topic is scarce, especially relating to in vivo animal and clinical trials; further on, available studies evaluate the performance of substituted coatings from different points of view (mechanical properties, bone growth, coating dissolution, etc.) which hinders a proper evaluation of the real efficacy of ion-doped HA in promoting bone regeneration, compared to stoichiometric HA. Moreover, results obtained for plasma sprayed coatings (which is the only method currently employed for deposition at the industrial scale) were collected and compared to those of novel plasma-assisted techniques, that are expected to overcome its limitations. Data so far available on the topic were discussed to highlight advantages, limitations and possible perspectives of these

  11. The Influence of Electrolytic Concentration on the Electrochemical Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coating on a Direct Laser Metal Forming Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianyue Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium phosphate (CaP coating on titanium surface enhances its biocompatibility, thus facilitating osteoconduction and osteoinduction with the inorganic phase of the human bone. Electrochemical deposition has been suggested as an effective means of fabricating CaP coatings on porous surface. The purpose of this study was to develop CaP coatings on a direct laser metal forming implant using electrochemical deposition and to investigate the effect of electrolytic concentration on the coating’s morphology and structure by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In group 10−2, coatings were rich in dicalcium phosphate, characterized to be thick, layered, and disordered plates. In contrast, in groups 10−3 and 10−4, the relatively thin and well-ordered coatings predominantly consisted of granular hydroxyapatite. Further, the hydrophilicity and cell affinity were improved as electrolytic concentration increased. In particular, the cells cultured in group 10−3 appeared to have spindle morphology with thick pseudopodia on CaP coatings; these spindles and pseudopodia strongly adhered to the rough and porous surface. By analyzing and evaluating the surface properties, we provided further knowledge on the electrolytic concentration effect, which will be critical for improving CaP coated Ti implants in the future.

  12. Transformation of Mg-bearing amorphous calcium carbonate to Mg-calcite - In situ monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgstaller, Bettina; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Immenhauser, Adrian; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The formation of Mg-bearing calcite via an amorphous precursor is a poorly understood process that is of relevance for biogenic and abiogenic carbonate precipitation. In order to gain an improved insight on the controls of Mg incorporation in calcite formed via an Mg-rich amorphous calcium carbonate (Mg-ACC) precursor, the precipitation of Mg-ACC and its transformation to Mg-calcite was monitored by in situ Raman spectroscopy. The experiments were performed at 25.0 ± 0.03 °C and pH 8.3 ± 0.1 and revealed two distinct pathways of Mg-calcite formation: (i) At initial aqueous Mg/Ca molar ratios ⩽ 1:6, Mg-calcite formation occurs via direct precipitation from solution. (ii) Conversely, at higher initial Mg/Ca molar ratios, Mg-calcite forms via an intermediate Mg-rich ACC phase. In the latter case, the final product is a calcite with up to 20 mol% Mg. This Mg content is significant higher than that of the Mg-rich ACC precursor phase. Thus, a strong net uptake of Mg ions from the solution into the crystalline precipitate throughout and also subsequent to ACC transformation is postulated. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the geochemical composition of the reactive solution and the Mg-ACC has no significant effect on the obtained ;solubility product; of Mg-ACC. The enrichment of Mg in calcite throughout and subsequent to Mg-ACC transformation is likely affected by the high aqueous Mg/Ca ratio and carbonate alkalinity concentrations in the reactive solution. The experimental results have a bearing on the formation mechanism of Mg-rich calcites in marine early diagenetic environments, where high carbonate alkalinity concentrations are the rule rather than the exception, and on the insufficiently investigated inorganic component of biomineralisation pathways in many calcite secreting organisms.

  13. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  14. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Timothy; Lapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram K.

    carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. GG is an inexpensive, biotechnologically produced anionic polysaccharide, from which hydrogels for cartilage regeneration have been formed by crosslinking with divalent ions[3]. Methods: GG hydrogels were loaded with the enzyme urease...... by incubation in 5% (w/v) urease solution and mineralized for 5 days in five different media denoted as UA, UB, UC, UD and UE, which contained urea (0.17 M) and different concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 (270:0, 202.5:67.5, 135:135, 67.5:202.5 and 0:250, respectively (mmol dm-3)). Discs were autoclaved...

  15. Impacts of Human Induced Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Water Balance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, M.; Yang, D.; Tang, J.; Lei, H.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced plant biomass accumulation in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration could dampen the future rate of increase in CO2 levels and associated climate warming. However, many experiments around the world reported that nitrogen availability could limit the sustainability of the ecosystems' response to elevated CO2. In the recent 20 years, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, has increased sharply about 25% in China and meanwhile, China has the highest carbon emission in the world, implying a large opportunity to increase vegetation greenness and ecosystem carbon sequestration. Moreover, the water balance of the ecosystem will also change. However, in the future, the trajectory of increasing nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel use is to be controlled by the government policy that shapes the energy and industrial structure. Therefore, the historical and future trajectories of nitrogen deposition are likely very different, and it is imperative to understand how changes in nitrogen deposition will impact the ecosystem carbon sequestration and water balance in China. We here use the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5) to analyze how the change of nitrogen deposition has influenced and will influence the ecosystem carbon and water cycle in China at a high spatial resolution (0.1 degree). We address the following questions: 1) what is the contribution of the nitrogen deposition on historical vegetation greenness? 2) How does the change of nitrogen deposition affect the carbon sequestration? 3) What is its influence to water balance? And 4) how different will be the influence of the nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon and water cycling in the future?

  16. Nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, climate, and contemporary carbon balance of Europe (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Zahle, S.; Hughes, J.; Viovy, N.; Chen, Y.; Jung, M.; Ramankutty, N.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.; Jones, C.

    2009-12-01

    In Europe, atmospheric nitrogen deposition has more than doubled, air temperature was rising, forest cover was steadily increasing, while agricultural area was declining over the last 50 years. What effect have these changes had on the European carbon balance? In this study we estimate responses of the European land ecosystems to nitrogen deposition, rising CO2, land cover conversion and climate change. We use results from three ecosystem process models such as BIOME-BGC, JULES, and ORCHIDEE (-CN) to address this question. We discuss to which degree carbon balance of Europe has been altered by nitrogen deposition in comparison to other drivers and identify areas which carbon balance has been affected by anthropogenic changes the most. We also analyze ecosystems carbon pools which were affected by the abovementioned environmental changes.

  17. Surface and corrosion characteristics of carbon plasma implanted and deposited nickel-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, R.W.Y.; Liu, X.Y.; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are potentially useful in orthopedic implants on account of their super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the materials are prone to surface corrosion and the most common problem is out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the substrate into body tissues and fluids. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and related surface properties, we used the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition to deposit an amorphous hydrogenated carbon coating onto NiTi and implant carbon into NiTi. Both the deposited amorphous carbon film and carbon plasma implanted samples exhibit much improved corrosion resistances and surface mechanical properties and possible mechanisms are suggested

  18. Reactivity of rhodium during co-deposition of rhodium and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; De Temmerman, Gregory; Oelhafen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The detailed characterizations of rhodium/carbon films prepared by co-deposition using a dual magnetron sputtering have been carried out on silicon substrates at room temperature. Effects of the carbon incorporated in the film on the chemical bonding state, optical reflectivity and crystallinity were investigated using XPS, reflectivity measurements, XRD and SEM. The incorporation of carbon changes the films' crystallinity and thus producing amorphous films. The reflectivity of the films decreases linearly as the rhodium concentration decreases. It is important to note that no chemical bonding was observed between rhodium and carbon whatever the deposition conditions, even at high deposition temperature. Concerning the reactivity of rhodium films with oxygen, after long term storage in air the rhodium surface is covered with a thin rhodium oxide (few nanometers). However, for these films no variation of the optical reflectivity was observed after long air storage.

  19. Carbon deposition on 20/25/Nb steel using an electrically heated AGR fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Campion, P.

    1980-01-01

    The radiolysis of carbon dioxide in gas-cooled reactors leads to the production of active species capable of reacting with the graphite moderator to form carbon monoxide with a resultant gradual loss of moderator. In the early days of gas-cooled reactor design, the intention was to allow the carbon monoxide concentration to increase and use this reaction product to inhibit the initial radiolysis of the carbon dioxide. Exploratory irradiation experiments using 4 to 7% carbon monoxide revealed that low density deposits ranging in colour from light grey through brown to black were found in the temperature range 470 to 600 K. In view of the fact that this type of deposition could adversely affect heat transfer processes in both fuel channels and heat exchangers, together with the fact that carbon monoxide was not sufficiently powerful as a graphite oxidation inhibitor, methane was selected as the primary inhibitor for the AGR series of power stations. This paper describes some carbon deposition experiments using an electrically heated 'dummy fuel element' linked to a recirculating carbon dioxide irradiation loop in which carbon monoxide concentration, methane concentration, fuel pin temperature and the chemical nature of the fuel pin surface were varied. (author)

  20. Electron energy deposition in a multilayered carbon--uranium--carbon configuration and in semi-infinite uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.

    1977-10-01

    Absolute measurements of electron energy deposition profiles are reported here for electrons incident on the multilayer configuration of carbon-uranium-carbon. These measurements were for normally incident source electrons at an energy of 1.0 MeV. To complement these measurements, electron energy deposition profiles were also obtained for electrons incident on semi-infinite uranium as a function of energy and angle of incidence. The results are compared with the predictions of a coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport model. In general, the agreement between theory and experiment is good. This work was in support of the Reactor Safety Research Equation-of-State Program

  1. Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Dejun; Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in China has increased greatly, but the general impact of elevated N deposition on carbon (C) dynamics in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems is not well documented. In this study we used a meta-analysis method to compile 88 studies on the effects of N deposition C cycling...... and rate of N addition. Overall, our findings suggest that 1) decreased below-ground plant C pool may limit long-term soil C sequestration; and 2) it is better to treat N-rich and N-limited ecosystems differently in modeling effects of N deposition on ecosystem C cycle....

  2. Change perspective to increase diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease! A new approach: the axial scan of the meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Filippou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is a relevant tool in the study of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP deposition disease. However, differential diagnosis of hyperechoic deposits within the fibrocartilage can be difficult; moreover, US study is limited by the need of an adequate acoustic window. We describe a US scanning technique that offers a new viewpoint in the study of knee meniscal structure: a longitudinal scan performed according to the long axis of meniscus. This technique proves to be particularly useful for the identification of CPP deposition, but could also improve the US diagnostic utility and accuracy in other meniscal pathologies.

  3. Nanosized amorphous calcium carbonate stabilized by poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Baptiste; Faatz, Michael; Gröhn, Franziska; Wegner, Gerhard; Gnanou, Yves

    2006-02-14

    Particles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), formed in situ from calcium chloride by the slow release of carbon dioxide by alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl carbonate in water, are stabilized against coalescence in the presence of very small amounts of double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBCs) composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blocks. Under optimized conditions, spherical particles of ACC with diameters less than 100 nm and narrow size distribution are obtained at a concentration of only 3 ppm of PEO-b-PAA as additive. Equivalent triblock or star DHBCs are compared to diblock copolymers. The results are interpreted assuming an interaction of the PAA blocks with the surface of the liquid droplets of the concentrated CaCO3 phase, formed by phase separation from the initially homogeneous reaction mixture. The adsorption layer of the block copolymer protects the liquid precursor of ACC from coalescence and/or coagulation.

  4. Mechanochemically Activated, Calcium Oxide-Based, Magnesium Oxide-Stabilized Carbon Dioxide Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlov, Alexey; Broda, Marcin; Hosseini, Davood; Mitchell, Sharon J; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Müller, Christoph R

    2016-09-08

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a promising approach to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions and mitigate climate change. However, the costs associated with the capture of CO2 using the currently available technology, that is, amine scrubbing, are considered prohibitive. In this context, the so-called calcium looping process, which relies on the reversible carbonation of CaO, is an attractive alternative. The main disadvantage of naturally occurring CaO-based CO2 sorbents, such as limestone, is their rapid deactivation caused by thermal sintering. Here, we report a scalable route based on wet mechanochemical activation to prepare MgO-stabilized, CaO-based CO2 sorbents. We optimized the synthesis conditions through a fundamental understanding of the underlying stabilization mechanism, and the quantity of MgO required to stabilize CaO could be reduced to as little as 15 wt %. This allowed the preparation of CO2 sorbents that exceed the CO2 uptake of the reference limestone by 200 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Preliminary report on the geology of uranium deposits in the Browns Park Formation in Moffat County, Colorado, and Carbon County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormond, A.

    1957-06-01

    Uranium was first discovered in the Browns Park Formation in 1951 in the Miller Hill area of south-central Wyoming. Since that time economically important deposits in this formation have been discovered and developed in the Poison Basin of south-central Wyoming and in the Maybell area of northwest Colorado. The Browns Park is the youngest formation (Miocene) in the region and overlies older rocks with angular unconformity. The formation consists of a basal conglomerate, fluviatile, lacustrine, and eolian sandstones, and locally a few thin beds of clay, tuff, and algal limestone. The sandstones are predominantly fine- to medium-grained and consist of quartz grains, scattered black chert grains, and interstitial clay. The uranium deposits are of the sandstone-impregnation type and are not confined to specific stratigraphic horizons. The important ore minerals are autunite and uranophane in oxidized sandstones, and uraninite and coffinite in unoxidized sandstones. Uranium is often associated with limonite and calcium carbonate in concretionary forms. Woody material, thought to play an important part in the deposition of uranium in many sandstone-type deposits, is not present in the deposits of the Browns Park Formation. However, organic carbon in the form of petroleum and petroleum residues has been observed in association with uranium in both the Poison Basin and the Maybell areas

  6. The transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC, to crystalline phases as function of time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Hermann; Happel, Marian; Niedermayr, Andrea; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    We present results from a structural study of the transformation of freeze dried amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC, in crystalline material using pair distribution function analysis, PDF analysis, of X-ray powder diffraction data, XPD data. PDF analysis allows for the analysis of local order of structural subunit in the range between molecular unit (1. and 2. coordination sphere) and long range periodicity as in crystalline materials. ACC was precipitated from aqueous solutions at 298 K and 278 K using different amounts of Mg cations as stabilizer. The samples were immediately separated from the solution and freeze dried. For the transformation study, the samples were heated and analysed using XPD until they were crystallized. The radial distribution obtained from the XPD data were compared to simulated radial distributions of the calcium carbonate polymorphs and their hydrated phases. An ACC precipitated from a solution with Ca:Mg:CO3 = 1:5:4 at 298 K (ration in mmol, pH = 8.2) and freeze dried right after isolation from the solution revealed a close resemblance with ikaite in its local order. Another ACC with Ca:Mg:CO3 = 1:10:1.4 (T = 298, pH = 8.7) showed distinctly different local order resembling monohydrocalcite. Both ACC, however, still had considerable amounts of water dominating the Ca-coordination sphere. During the transformation to calcite, the structural changes in the sample concerned the hydrate water coordinating Ca which was removed and replaced by the carbonate oxygens. The study shows that ACC obtained from different starting solutions show specific local order. Freeze drying leads to solid ACC powder which still contain considerable amounts of hydrate water. Structural subunits are distinct in ACC and different from the crystalline phase. The study supplements recent reports presented by Konrad et al., Purgstaller et al., and Tobler et al.. F. Konrad et al., Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 6310-6317(2016) B. Purgstaller et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica

  7. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  8. Atmospheric deposition as a source of carbon and nutrients to barren, alpine soils of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Williams, M. W.; Schmidt, S. K.; Cawley, K.

    2012-03-01

    Many alpine areas are experiencing intense deglaciation, biogeochemical changes driven by temperature rise, and changes in atmospheric deposition. There is mounting evidence that the water quality of alpine streams may be related to these changes, including rising atmospheric deposition of carbon (C) and nutrients. Given that barren alpine soils can be severely C limited, we evaluated the magnitude and chemical quality of atmospheric deposition of C and nutrients to an alpine site, the Green Lake 4 catchment in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Using a long term dataset (2002-2010) of weekly atmospheric wet deposition and snowpack chemistry, we found that volume weighted mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were approximately 1.0 mg L-1and weekly concentrations reached peaks as high at 6-10 mg L-1 every summer. Total dissolved nitrogen concentration also peaked in the summer, whereas total dissolved phosphorus and calcium concentrations were highest in the spring. Relationships among DOC concentration, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence properties, and nitrate and sulfate concentrations suggest that pollutants from nearby urban and agricultural sources and organic aerosols derived from sub-alpine vegetation may influence high summer DOC wet deposition concentrations. Interestingly, high DOC concentrations were also recorded during "dust-in-snow" events in the spring. Detailed chemical and spectroscopic analyses conducted for samples collected in 2010 revealed that the DOM in many late spring and summer samples was less aromatic and polydisperse and of lower molecular weight than that of winter and fall samples and, therefore, likely to be more bioavailable to microbes in barren alpine soils. Bioavailability experiments with different types of atmospheric C sources are needed to better evaluate the substrate quality of atmospheric C inputs. Our C budget estimates for the Green Lake 4 catchment suggest that atmospheric deposition represents an

  9. Barrier properties to surrogates of hydrogenated carbon nano-films deposited on PET by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Éder C; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Nerin, Cristina; Cruz, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) resin was contaminated with a series of surrogates using a US Food and Drug Administration protocol. The contaminated samples were coated with two different kinds of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films (a-C:H): one with diamond-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon and another with polymer-like hydrogenated carbon (PLCH) phases. To evaluate the barrier properties of the a-C:H films, migration assays were performed using food simulants. After the tests, analysis by gas chromatography with different detectors was carried out. The appearance of the films before and after the migration experiments was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that a-C:H films have good barrier properties for most of the evaluated compounds, mainly when they are deposited as PLCH phase.

  10. Superhard PVD carbon films deposited with different gradients with and without additions of titanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, C.

    2003-10-01

    This work focusses on thin carbon-based films, deposited by magnetron sputtering with additional argon ion bombardment (0 eV to 800 eV) without extra adhesive layer on hard metal inserts. As one possibility of increasing the reduced adherence of hard carbon films the deposition of films with additions of titanium and silicon is studied. The aim of this work is to examine the influence of a modification of the transition between substrate and film by realizing three different types of deposition gradients. The pure carbon films are amorphous, the dominant network of atoms is formed by sp 2 bonded atoms. The amount of sp 3 bonded atoms is up to 30% and is influenced by the bombarding argon ion energy. Carbon films with additions of silicon are amorphous, only in films with a high amount of titanium (approx. 20 at%) nanocomposites of titanium carbide crystals with diameters of less than 5 nm in an amorphous carbon matrix were found. The mechanical properties and the behavior of single layer carbon films strongly depend on the argon ion energy. An increase of this energy leads to higher film hardness and higher residual stress and results in the delamination of superhard carbon films on hard metal substrates. The adhesion of single layer films for ion energies of more than 200 eV is significantly improved by additions of titanium and silicon, respectively. The addition of 23 at% silicon and titanium, respectively leads to a high reduction of the residual stress. In a non-reactive PVD process thin films were deposited with a continuously gradient in chemical composition. The results of the investigations of the films with two different concentrations of titanium and silicon, respectively show that carbon-based films with a good adhesion could be deposited. The combination of the two gradients in structure and properties and in chemical composition leads in the system with carbon and silicon carbide to hard and very adhesive films. Especially for carbon films with a high

  11. Diagenetic pathways in deposits of cool- and cold-water carbonate factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.; James, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation integrates sedimentological, petrographic, and geochemical observations from modern and ancient heterozoan carbonate deposits that formed at temperate to polar latitudes with the aim of evaluating diagenetic pathways characteristic of these systems. These factories operate under conditions distinct from those of photozoan counterparts. Lower temperatures, higher trophic resources, lower carbonate saturation states, and strong seasonality govern not only the nature of carbonate communities, but also how deposits translate into the rock record. In these settings, carbonate production is entirely biogenic, assemblages are of low diversity, and there are no significant calcareous phototrophs. Aragonitic taxa may be present in living communities, but allochems rapidly disappear via dissolution. Carbonate producers are not capable of building rigid frameworks, so their deposits accumulate as sands and gravels and are prone to winnowing and reworking. Low production rates lead to long seafloor residence times (1000s of years) for grains, which undergo physical reworking, dissolution, and repeated infestation by endolithic borers. Microborings remain empty, increasing grain susceptibility to disintegration. Intergranular cementation on the seafloor is rare and restricted to hardgrounds. Periods of subaerial exposure do not leave traces of meteoric alteration. Results show that the deposits of heterozoan carbonate factories tend enter the geologic record as taphonomic remnants, namely reworked, unconsolidated sands and gravels with low diagenetic potential. During burial, physical and chemical compaction produce limestones with tightly packed, grain-supported fabrics, often with grains in sutured contact. Significant cementation is associated with the deep burial realm. Results reveal a dramatically different diagenetic pathway than is typical for deposits of tropical photozoan factories, in which significant recrystallization and lithification occur on

  12. Speleothem records of acid sulphate deposition and organic carbon mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Peter; Fairchild, Ian; Bourdin, Clement; Baldini, James; Muller, Wolfgang; Hartland, Adam; Bartlett, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Dramatic increases in measured surface water DOC in recent decades have been variously attributed to either temperature rise, or destabilisation of long-term soil carbon pools following sulphur peak emissions status. However, whilst both drivers of DOC dynamics are plausible, they remain difficult to test due to the restricted nature of the available records of riverine DOC flux (1978 to present), and the limited availability of SO2 emissions inventory data at the regional scale. Speleothems offer long term records of both sulphur and carbon. New techniques to extract sulphur concentrations and isotopes from speleothem calcite have enabled archives of pollution history and environmental acidification to be reconstructed. Due to the large dynamic range in sulphur isotopic values from end member sources (marine aerosol +21 ‰ to continental biogenic emissions -30 ‰) and limited environmental fractionation under oxidising conditions, sulphur isotopes form an ideal tracer of industrial pollution and environmental acidification in the palaeo-record. We couple this acidification history to the carbon record, using organic matter fluorescence and trace metals. Trace metal ratios and abundance can be used to infer the type and size of organic ligand and are therefore sensitive to changes in temperature as a driver of organic carbon processing and biodegradation. This allows fluorescent properties and ratios of trace metals in speleothem carbonate to be used to represent both the flux of organic carbon into the cave as well as the degradation pathway. Here we present some of the first results of this work, exploring sulphur acidification as a mechanistic control on carbon solubility and export throughout the twentieth century.

  13. SM50 repeat-polypeptides self-assemble into discrete matrix subunits and promote appositional calcium carbonate crystal growth during sea urchin tooth biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yelin; Satchell, Paul G; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2016-01-01

    The two major proteins involved in vertebrate enamel formation and echinoderm sea urchin tooth biomineralization, amelogenin and SM50, are both characterized by elongated polyproline repeat domains in the center of the macromolecule. To determine the role of polyproline repeat polypeptides in basal deuterostome biomineralization, we have mapped the localization of SM50 as it relates to crystal growth, conducted self-assembly studies of SM50 repeat polypeptides, and examined their effect on calcium carbonate and apatite crystal growth. Electron micrographs of the growth zone of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin teeth documented a series of successive events from intravesicular mineral nucleation to mineral deposition at the interface between tooth surface and odontoblast syncytium. Using immunohistochemistry, SM50 was detected within the cytoplasm of cells associated with the developing tooth mineral, at the mineral secreting front, and adjacent to initial mineral deposits, but not in muscles and ligaments. Polypeptides derived from the SM50 polyproline alternating hexa- and hepta-peptide repeat region (SM50P6P7) formed highly discrete, donut-shaped self-assembly patterns. In calcium carbonate crystal growth studies, SM50P6P7 repeat peptides triggered the growth of expansive networks of fused calcium carbonate crystals while in apatite growth studies, SM50P6P7 peptides facilitated the growth of needle-shaped and parallel arranged crystals resembling those found in developing vertebrate enamel. In comparison, SM50P6P7 surpassed the PXX24 polypeptide repeat region derived from the vertebrate enamel protein amelogenin in its ability to promote crystal nucleation and appositional crystal growth. Together, these studies establish the SM50P6P7 polyproline repeat region as a potent regulator in the protein-guided appositional crystal growth that occurs during continuous tooth mineralization and eruption. In addition, our studies highlight the role of species

  14. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, C. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Correcher, V., E-mail: v.correcher@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Virgos, M.D. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Aragonite and biogenic Ca-carbonates could be used as a TL dosimeters. • TL can be employed for retrospective dosimetry purposes. • Calcium carbonates show an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity. • The stability of the radiation–induced TL remains, at least, till 700 h. - Abstract: As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle – littorina littorera – shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180–320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  15. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V.; Virgos, M.D.; Garcia-Guinea, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Aragonite and biogenic Ca-carbonates could be used as a TL dosimeters. • TL can be employed for retrospective dosimetry purposes. • Calcium carbonates show an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity. • The stability of the radiation–induced TL remains, at least, till 700 h. - Abstract: As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle – littorina littorera – shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180–320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  16. The effect of carbon content on mechanical properties, failure and corrosion resistance of deposited chromium metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонід Кімович Лещинськiй

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that if choosing a metal composition for surfacing rolls and rollers of continuous casting machines, both the carbon impact on the mechanical and functional properties and the critical values of the chromium concentration, which determine the corrosion resistance of the metal with regard to electrochemical corrosion theory, should be considered as well. The paper studied the effect of chromium and carbon steel the X5-X12 type on the structure, technological strength, mechanical properties, fracturing resistance and corrosion resistance of the weld metal. The composition of chromium tool steels (deposited metal (X5-used for the rolls of hot rolling mills and (X12-used for continuous casting machines rollers correspond to these values. The impact of carbon on the properties of the deposited metal containing chromium was considered by comparing the data for both types of the deposited metal. It was found that for both types of the deposited metal (X5 and X12, the limiting value of the carbon content, providing an optimal combination of strength, ductility, failure resistance is the same. If the carbon content is more than the limiting value – (0,25% the technological strength and failure resistance of the deposited metal significantly reduce. With increasing carbon content from 0,18 to 0,25% the martensite structure has a mixed morphology – lath and plate. The strength and toughness of the deposited metal grow. Of particular interest is simultaneous increase in the specific work of failure resulted from crack inhibition at the boundary with far less solid and more ductile ferrite. As for the 5% chromium metal, the X12 type composition with 0,25% C, is borderline. With a further increase in the carbon content of the metal both ductility and failure resistance sharply decrease and with 0,40% C the growth rate of fatigue crack increases by almost 1,5 times

  17. Production of thin carbon stripper foils using heated-substrates in a cathodic arc deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, A.R.; Lobanov, N.; Elliman, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Rode, A.; Weisser, D.C.; Turkentine, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime of carbon stripper foil can have a marked impact on the successful running of a beam line. Standard techniques for production of carbon stripper foils include evaporation of carbon (ec) and laser-pulsed ablation (Ipa). Recent work by a using Ipa has been successful in substantially increasing the lifetime of a very thin foil. The suspected mechanism for the increased lifetime of the foil is that the amorphous carbon foil is density-matched to that of graphite (around 2.26g/cc). In this work, we attempt to reproduce this result by producing carbon stripper foils with a mass-density similar to graphite using a cathodic arc deposition system. The cathodic arc is well known for the production of tetrahedral amorphous carbon: a high density, high stress form of carbon with over 90% sp 3 -like bonds; to reduce the density of the carbon and promote more graphitic structure, a high bias was initially attempted but this proved unsuccessful. Another method is to use a heated-substrate holder to reduce compressive stress within the deposited film. The performance of the density-matched carbon stripper foils and the implications for future production of high-quality carbon stripper foils in our laboratory will be discussed. (authors)

  18. Preparation of carbon nanotubes with different morphology by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M. [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi av., 050038 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ibragimov Street 11, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansurov, Zulkhair [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi av., 050038 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmoldin, S.Zh. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ibragimov Street 11, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2010-04-15

    In this work we present a part of our results about the preparation of carbon nanotube with different morphologies by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition MPECVD. Well aligned, curly, carbon nanosheets, coiled carbon sheets and carbon microcoils have been prepared. We have investigated the effect of the different growth condition parameters such as the growth temperature, pressure and the hydrogen to methane flow rate ratio on the morphology of the carbon nanotubes. The results showed that there is a great dependence of the morphology of carbon nanotubes on these parameters. The yield of the carbon microcoils was high when the growth temperature was 700 C. There is a linear relation between the growth rate and the methane to hydrogen ratio. The effect of the gas pressure on the CNTs was also studied. Our samples were investigated by scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Forest Grown via Chemical Vapor Deposition from Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles, by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique chemical and physical properties. Herein, we report an XPS analysis of a forest of multiwalled CNTs using monochromatic Al Kα radiation. Survey scans show only one element: carbon. The carbon 1s peak is centered 284.5 eV. The C 1s envelope also shows the expected π → π* shake-up peak at ca. 291 eV. The valence band and carbon KVV Auger signals are presented. When patterned, the CNT forests can be used as a template for subsequent deposition of metal oxides to make thin layer chromatography plates.1-3

  20. Cathode deposits in fullerene formation — microstructural evidence for independent pathways of pyrolytic carbon and nanobody formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. H.; Gerald, J. D. Fitz; Pang, L.; Wilson, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Microstructures in cathode deposits formed during fullerene production by electrical arcing in helium have been examined in detail. This has provided new information about the mechanisms by which nanobodies (nanotubes and nanoparticles) and pyrolytic carbon are deposited. Nanobodies and pyrolytic carbon form independently; the former probably grow in the plasma then deposit on the electrode but much of the latter deposits directly on the electrode surface.

  1. Optimizing the fabrication of carbon nanotube electrode for effective capacitive deionization via electrophoretic deposition strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeng Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain superior electrode performances in capacitive deionization (CDI, the electrophoretic deposition (EPD was introduced as a novel strategy for the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT electrode. Preparation parameters, including the concentration of slurry components, deposition time and electric field intensity, were mainly investigated and optimized in terms of electrochemical characteristic and desalination performance of the deposited CNT electrode. The SEM image shows that the CNT material was deposited homogeneously on the current collector and a non-crack surface of the electrode was obtained. An optimal preparation condition of the deposited CNT electrode was obtained and specified as the Al (NO33 M concentration of 1.3 × 10−2 mol/L, the deposition time of 30 min and the electric field intensity of 15 V/cm. The obtained electrode performs an increasing specific mass capacitance of 33.36 F/g and specific adsorption capacity of 23.93 mg/g, which are 1.62 and 1.85 times those of the coated electrode respectively. The good performance of the deposited CNT electrode indicates the promising application of the EPD methodology in subsequent research and fabrication of the CDI electrodes for CDI process. Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Water treatment, Desalination, Capacitive deionization, Electrode fabrication, Electrophoretic deposition

  2. Methods for the characterization of pyrolytic deposited carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, K.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.

    Pyrocarbon is deposited as a coating material on fuel kernels used in HTGRs. For the development of particle coatings specified for various reactor designs, it is necessary to know the properties of pyrocarbon and their changes by neutron irradiation. In this report, procedures are described which are used to characterize pyrocarbon: measurement of geometry, density, microporosity, apparent crystallite size, anisotropy of orientation, modulus of elasticity, and strength of coatings, as well as ceramography, etching by oxidation, secondary and transmission electron microscopy. (auth)

  3. Coating of carbon short fibers with thin ceramic layers by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Gerrit; Gerhard, Helmut; Popovska, Nadejda

    2006-01-01

    Carbon short fiber bundles with a length of 6 mm were uniformly coated using specially designed, continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) equipment. Thin layers of titanium nitride, silicon nitride (SiC) and pyrolytic carbon (pyC) were deposited onto several kilograms of short fibers in this large scale CVD reactor. Thermo-gravimetric analyses and scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed layer thicknesses between 20 and 100 nm on the fibers. Raman spectra of pyC coated fibers show a change of structural order depending on the CVD process parameters. For the fibers coated with SiC, Raman investigations showed a deposition of amorphous SiC. The coated carbon short fibers will be applied as reinforcing material in composites with ceramic and metallic matrices

  4. ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION OF TIO2-MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITE COATINGS: MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MAHMOUDI JOZEE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A homogenous TiO2 / multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs composite film were prepared by electrophoretic co-deposition from organic suspension on a stainless steel substrate.  In this study, MWCNTs was incorporated to the coating because of their long structure and their capability to be functionalized by different inorganic groups on the surface. FTIR spectroscopy showed the existence of carboxylic groups on the modified carbon nanotubes surface. The effect of applied electrical fields, deposition time and concentration of nanoparticulates on coatings morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that combination of MWCNTs within TiO2 matrix eliminating micro cracks presented on TiO2 coating. Also, by increasing the deposition voltages, micro cracks were increased. SEM observation of the coatings revealed that TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes coatings produced from optimized electric field was uniform and had good adhesive to the substrate.

  5. Room-temperature deposition of diamond-like carbon field emitter on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Iliev, M.N.; Liu, J.R.; Ma, K.B.; Chu, W.-K.; Badi, N.; Bensaoula, A.; Svedberg, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    Room-temperature fabrication of diamond-like carbon electron field emitters on flexible polyimide substrate is reported. These thin film field emitters are made using an Ar gas cluster ion beam assisted C 6 vapor deposition method. The bond structure of the as-deposited diamond-like carbon film was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The field emission characteristics of the deposited films were also measured. Electron current densities over 15 mA/cm 2 have been recorded under an electrical field of about 65 V/μm. These diamond-like carbon field emitters are easy and inexpensive to fabricate. The results are promising for flexible field-emission fabrication without the need of complex patterning and tip shaping as compared to the Spindt-type field emitters

  6. Amorphous carbon nanofibres inducing high specific capacitance of deposited hydrous ruthenium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, V.; Pico, F.; Ibanez, J.; Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A.; Kimura, M.; Oya, A.; Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M.; Rojo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Composites consisting of ruthenium oxide particles deposited on amorphous carbon nanofibres are prepared by a repetitive impregnation procedure. The choice of amorphous carbon nanofibres as support of amorphous ruthenium oxide leads to composites in which the deposited oxide consists of aggregates of extremely small primary particles (1-1.5 nm-size) and showing high porosity (specific surface area of 450 m 2 g -1 ). This special deposition of the oxide seems to favour: (i) high oxide capacitance (1000 Fg -1 ) at high oxide loadings (up to 20 wt%) and (ii) high capacitance retention (ca. 80% from the initial oxide capacitance) at high current densities (200 mA cm -2 ). Amorphous carbon nanofibres are suitable supports for amorphous ruthenium oxide and perhaps for other amorphous oxides acting as active electrode materials.

  7. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  8. Effect of temperature on the reaction pathway of calcium carbonate formation via precursor phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgstaller, Bettina; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Konrad, Florian; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    It has been earlier postulated that some biogenic and sedimentary calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals (e.g. calcite and aragonite) are secondary in origin and have originally formed via a metastable calcium carbonate precursor phase (e.g. amorphous CaCO3, [1-2]). Such formation pathways are likely affected by various physicochemical parameters including aqueous Mg and temperature. In an effort to improve our understanding on the formation mechanism of CaCO3 minerals, precipitation experiments were carried out by the addition of a 0.6 M (Ca,Mg)Cl2 solution at distinct Mg/Ca ratios (1/4 and 1/8) into a 1 M NaHCO3 solution under constant pH conditions(8.3 ±0.1). The formation of CaCO3 was systematically examined as a function of temperature (6, 12, 18 and 25 ±0.3° C). During the experimental runs mineral precipitation was monitored by in situ Raman spectroscopy as well as by continuous sampling and analyzing of precipitates and reactive solutions. The results revealed two pathways of CaCO3 formation depending on the initial Mg/Ca ratio and temperature: (i) In experiments with a Mg/Ca ratio of 1/4 at ≤ 12° C as well as in experiments with a Mg/Ca ratio of 1/8 at ≤ 18° C, ikaite (CaCO3 6H2O) acts as a precursor phase for aragonite formation. (ii) In contrast higher temperatures induced the formation of Mg-rich amorphous CaCO3 (Mg-ACC) which was subsequently transformed to Mg-rich calcite. In situ Raman spectra showed that the transformation of Mg-ACC to Mg-calcite occurs at a higher rate (˜ 8 min) compared to that of ikaite to aragonite (> 2 h). Thus, the formation of aragonite rather than of Mg-calcite occurs due to the slower release of Ca2+and CO32- ions into the Mg-rich reactive solution during retarded ikaite dissolution. This behavior is generally consistent with the observation that calcite precipitation is inhibited at elevated aqueous Mg/Ca ratios. [1] Addadi L., Raz S. and Weiner S. (2003) Advanced Materials 15, 959-970. [2] Rodriguez-Blanco J. D

  9. Nanostructured Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Off-Axis Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Shan Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC films instead of the ultrasmooth film were obtained by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite. Deposition was performed at room temperature in vacuum with substrates placed at off-axis position. The configuration utilized high density plasma plume arriving at low effective angle for the formation of nanostructured DLC. Nanostructures with maximum size of 50 nm were deposited as compared to the ultrasmooth DLC films obtained in a conventional deposition. The Raman spectra of the films confirmed that the films were diamond-like/amorphous in nature. Although grown at an angle, ion energy of >35 eV was obtained at the off-axis position. This was proposed to be responsible for subplantation growth of sp3 hybridized carbon. The condensation of energetic clusters and oblique angle deposition correspondingly gave rise to the formation of nanostructured DLC in this study.

  10. Deposition of carbon nanostructures by surfatron generated discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davydova, Marina; Šmíd, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2014), s. 389-393 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-06054P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : carbon nanostructures * microwave plasma * PECVD * surfatron Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  11. Aligned carbon nanotube, graphene and graphite oxide thin films via substrate-directed rapid interfacial deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Julio M.; Tran, Henry D.; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2012-05-01

    A procedure for depositing thin films of carbon nanostructures is described that overcomes the limitations typically associated with solution based methods. Transparent and conductively continuous carbon coatings can be grown on virtually any type of substrate within seconds. Interfacial surface tension gradients result in directional fluid flow and film spreading at the water/oil interface. Transparent films of carbon nanostructures are produced including aligned ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes and assemblies of single sheets of chemically converted graphene and graphite oxide. Process scale-up, layer-by-layer deposition, and a simple method for coating non-activated hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.A procedure for depositing thin films of carbon nanostructures is described that overcomes the limitations typically associated with solution based methods. Transparent and conductively continuous carbon coatings can be grown on virtually any type of substrate within seconds. Interfacial surface tension gradients result in directional fluid flow and film spreading at the water/oil interface. Transparent films of carbon nanostructures are produced including aligned ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes and assemblies of single sheets of chemically converted graphene and graphite oxide. Process scale-up, layer-by-layer deposition, and a simple method for coating non-activated hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Droplet coalescence, catenoid formation, mechanism of film growth, scanning electron micrographs showing carbon nanotube alignment, flexible transparent films of SWCNTs, AFM images of a chemically converted graphene film, and SEM images of SWCNT free-standing thin films. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr00010e

  12. Comparing the applicability of some geostatistical methods to predict the spatial distribution of topsoil Calcium Carbonate in part of farmland of Zanjan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadian, Fereydoon; Keshavarzi, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Most of soils in iran, were located in the arid and semi-arid regions and have high pH (more than 7) and high amount of calcium carbonate and this problem cause to their calcification.In calcareous soils, plant growing and production is difficult. Most part of this problem, in relation to high pH and high concentration of calcium ion that cause to fixation and unavailability of elements which were dependent to pH, especially Phosphorous and some micro nutrients such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Prediction of soil calcium carbonate in non-sampled areas and mapping the calcium carbonate variability in order to sustainable management of soil fertility is very important.So, this research was done with the aim of evaluation and analyzing spatial variability of topsoil calcium carbonate as an aspect of soil fertility and plant nutrition, comparing geostatistical methods such as kriging and co-kriging and mapping topsoil calcium carbonate. For geostatistical analyzing, sampling was done with stratified random method and soil samples from 0 to 15 cm depth were collected with auger within 23 locations.In co-kriging method, salinity data was used as auxiliary variable. For comparing and evaluation of geostatistical methods, cross validation were used by statistical parameters of RMSE. The results showed that co-kriging method has the highest correlation coefficient and less RMSE and has the higher accuracy than kriging method to prediction of calcium carbonate content in non-sampled areas.

  13. Genesis of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic type uranium deposits in Baoyuan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baochi; Zhang Daishi; Li Shengxiang; Zhu Jiechen

    1995-01-01

    Based on systematic studies of the regional geology, the fundamental geological characteristics of uranium mineralizations, and according to the researches of uranium source, the REE characteristics, the H,O,C,S isotope compositions, as well as the chronology of uranium metallogenesis of the uranium deposits, the authors consider that the multistage accumulative metallogenesis (especially the hydrothermal superimposed and reworking metallogenesis) is the universal and important uranium metallogenesis in the formation of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic type uranium deposits in the area

  14. Ironstone deposits hosted in Eocene carbonates from Bahariya (Egypt)-New perspective on cherty ironstone occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, A. M.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives new insight into the genesis of cherty ironstone deposits. The research was centered on well-exposed, unique cherty ironstone mineralization associated with Eocene carbonates from the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Egypt). The economically important ironstones occur in the Naqb Formation (Early Eocene), which is mainly formed of shallow marine carbonate deposits. Periods of lowstand sea-level caused extensive early dissolution (karstification) of the depositional carbonates and dolomitization associated with mixing zones of fresh and marine pore-water. In faulted areas, the Eocene carbonate deposits were transformed into cherty ironstone with preservation of the precursor carbonate sedimentary features, i.e. skeletal and non-skeletal grain types, thickness, bedding, lateral and vertical sequential arrangement, and karst profiles. The ore deposits are composed of iron oxyhydroxides, mainly hematite and goethite, chert in the form of micro- to macro-quartz and chalcedony, various manganese minerals, barite, and a number of subordinate sulfate and clay minerals. Detailed petrographic analysis shows that quartz and iron oxides were coetaneous and selectively replaced carbonates, the coarse dolomite crystals having been preferentially transformed into quartz whereas the micro-crystalline carbonates were replaced by the iron oxyhydroxides. A number of petrographic, sedimentological and structural features including the presence of hydrothermal-mediated minerals (e.g., jacobsite), the geochemistry of the ore minerals as well as the structure-controlled location of the mineralization suggest a hydrothermal source for the ore-bearing fluids circulating through major faults and reflect their proximity to centers of magmatism. The proposed formation model can contribute to better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) that were abundant during the Precambrian.

  15. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimate