WorldWideScience

Sample records for calcium atpase type

  1. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendranath Reddy Chintagari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion.

  2. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  3. Calcium-ATPases: Gene disorders and dysregulation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Donna; Rao, Rajini

    2016-06-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPases belonging to the superfamily of P-type pumps play an important role in maintaining low, nanomolar cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels at rest and priming organellar stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and secretory vesicles with high levels of Ca(2+) for a wide range of signaling functions. In this review, we introduce the distinct subtypes of Ca(2+)-ATPases and their isoforms and splice variants and provide an overview of their specific cellular roles as they relate to genetic disorders and cancer, with a particular emphasis on recent findings on the secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPases (SPCA). Mutations in human ATP2A2, ATP2C1 genes, encoding housekeeping isoforms of the endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) and secretory pathway (SPCA1) pumps, respectively, confer autosomal dominant disorders of the skin, whereas mutations in other isoforms underlie various muscular, neurological, or developmental disorders. Emerging evidence points to an important function of dysregulated Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in cancers of the colon, lung, and breast where they may serve as markers of differentiation or novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We review the mechanisms underlying the link between calcium homeostasis and cancer and discuss the potential clinical relevance of these observations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential regulation of the fiber type-specific gene expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase isoforms induced by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Marc P; Susser, Shanel E; Stammers, Andrew N; O'Hara, Kimberley A; Gardiner, Phillip F; Sheppard, Patricia; Moffatt, Teri L; Duhamel, Todd A

    2014-09-01

    The regulatory role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α2 on sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 1a and SERCA2a in different skeletal muscle fiber types has yet to be elucidated. Sedentary (Sed) or exercise-trained (Ex) wild-type (WT) and AMPKα2-kinase dead (KD) transgenic mice, which overexpress a mutated and inactivated AMPKα2 subunit, were utilized to characterize how genotype or exercise training influenced the regulation of SERCA isoforms in gastrocnemius. As expected, both Sed and Ex KD mice had >40% lower AMPK phosphorylation and 30% lower SERCA1a protein than WT mice (P SERCA2a protein was not different among KD and WT mice. Exercise increased SERCA1a and SERCA2a protein content among WT and KD mice, compared with their Sed counterparts. Maximal SERCA activity was lower in KD mice, compared with WT. Total phospholamban protein was higher in KD mice than in WT and lower in Ex compared with Sed mice. Exercise training increased phospholamban Ser(16) phosphorylation in WT mice. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative PCR indicated that SERCA1a mRNA expression among type I fibers was not altered by genotype or exercise, but SERCA2a mRNA was increased 30-fold in WT+Ex, compared with WT+Sed. In contrast, the exercise-stimulated increase for SERCA2a mRNA was blunted in KD mice. Exercise upregulated SERCA1a and SERCA2a mRNA among type II fibers, but was not altered by genotype. Collectively, these data suggest that exercise differentially influences SERCA isoform expression in type I and type II fibers. Additionally, AMPKα2 influences the regulation of SERCA2a mRNA in type I skeletal muscle fibers following exercise training. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Evolution of plant P-type ATPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian N.S. Pedersen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five organisms having completely sequenced genomes and belonging to all major branches of green plants (Viridiplantae were analyzed with respect to their content of P-type ATPases encoding genes. These were the chlorophytes Ostreococcus tauria and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the streptophytes Physcomitrella patens (a moss, Selaginella moellendorffii (a primitive vascular plant, and Arabidopsis thaliana (a model flowering plant. Each organism contained sequences for all five subfamilies of P-type ATPases. Our analysis demonstrates when specific subgroups of P-type ATPases disappeared in the evolution of Angiosperms. Na/K-pump related P2C ATPases were lost with the evolution of streptophytes whereas Na+ or K+ pumping P2D ATPases and secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPases remained until mosses. An N-terminally located calmodulin binding domain in P2B ATPases can only be detected in pumps from Streptophytae, whereas, like in animals, a C-terminally localized calmodulin binding domain might be present in chlorophyte P2B Ca2+-ATPases. Chlorophyte genomes encode P3A ATPases resembling protist plasma membrane H+-ATPases and a C-terminal regulatory domain is missing. The complete inventory of P-type ATPases in the major branches of Viridiplantae is an important starting point for elucidating the evolution in plants of these important pumps.

  6. The evolutionary history of sarco(endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianina Altshuler

    Full Text Available Investigating the phylogenetic relationships within physiologically essential gene families across a broad range of taxa can reveal the key gene duplication events underlying their family expansion and is thus important to functional genomics studies. P-Type II ATPases represent a large family of ATP powered transporters that move ions across cellular membranes and includes Na(+/K(+ transporters, H(+/K(+ transporters, and plasma membrane Ca(2+ pumps. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of one such transporter, the Sarco(endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA, which maintains calcium homeostasis in the cell by actively pumping Ca(2+ into the sarco(endoplasmic reticulum. Our protein-based phylogenetic analyses across Eukaryotes revealed two monophyletic clades of SERCA proteins, one containing animals, fungi, and plants, and the other consisting of plants and protists. Our analyses suggest that the three known SERCA proteins in vertebrates arose through two major gene duplication events after the divergence from tunicates, but before the separation of fishes and tetrapods. In plants, we recovered two SERCA clades, one being the sister group to Metazoa and the other to Apicomplexa clade, suggesting an ancient duplication in an early eukaryotic ancestor, followed by subsequent loss of one copy in Opisthokonta, the other in protists, and retention of both in plants. We also report relatively recent and independent gene duplication events within invertebrate taxa including tunicates and the leech Helobdella robusta. Thus, it appears that both ancient and recent gene duplication events have played an important role in the evolution of this ubiquitous gene family across the eukaryotic domain.

  7. Expression of a prokaryotic P-type ATPase in E. coli Plasma Membranes and Purification by Ni2+-affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the P-type ATPase from Synechocystis 6803 [Geisler (1993 et al. J. Mol. Biol. 234, 1284] and to facilitate its purification, we expressed an N-terminal 6xHis-tagged version of the ATPase in an ATPase deficient E. coli strain. The expressed ATPase was immunodetected as a dominant band of about 97 kDa localized to the E. coli plasma membranes representing about 20-25% of the membrane protein. The purification of the Synecho-cystis 6xHis-ATPase by single-step Ni-affinity chromatography under native and denaturating conditions is described. ATPase activity and the formation of phosphointermediates verify the full function of the enzyme: the ATPase is inhibited by vanadate (IC50= 119 &mgr;M and the formation of phosphorylated enzyme intermediates shown by acidic PAGE depends on calcium, indicating that the Synechocystis P-ATPase functions as a calcium pump.

  8. Overproduction of PIB-Type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sitsel, Oleg; Wang, Kaituo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the functions and mechanisms of fundamental processes in the cell requires structural information. Structural studies of membrane proteins typically necessitate large amounts of purified and preferably homogenous target protein. Here, we describe a rapid overproduction and purifi...... and purification strategy of a bacterial PIB-type ATPase for isolation of milligrams of target protein per liter Escherichia coli cell culture, with a final quality of the sample which is sufficient for generating high-resolution crystals....

  9. Identification of calcium-transporting ATPases of Entamoeba histolytica and cellular localization of the putative SERCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Higuera, Aarón; Salas-Casas, Andrés; Calixto-Gálvez, Mercedes; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Pérez-Ishiwara, D Guillermo; Ximénez, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2013-09-01

    Calcium has an important role on signaling of different cellular processes in the protozoa parasite Entamoeba histolytica, including development and pathogenesis. However, the systems that control calcium responses in this parasite are incompletely understood. Calcium-ATPases (Ca(2+)-ATPases) are proteins that play an important role in calcium homeostasis by catalyzing the active efflux of this ion from cytoplasm and are essential to the correct functioning of the cell machinery. Here, we reported the identification of five E. histolytica genes encoding putative Ca(2+)-ATPases, three related to PMCA, and two related to organellar ATPases. RT-PCR assays showed that all those genes are expressed in trophozoites and specific antibodies against the SERCA-like member located this protein in a continuous cytoplasmic network, supporting the hypothesis that it corresponds to the Ca(2+)-ATPase responsible to sequester calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum of this parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

    2004-06-30

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

  11. Does Increased Expression of the Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase Isoform 2 Confer Resistance to Apoptosis on Breast Cancer Cells?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VanHouten, Joshua N

    2008-01-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) is highly expressed on the apical membrane of mammary epithelial cells during lactation, and is the predominant pump responsible for calcium transport into milk...

  12. Elucidating Functional Aspects of P-type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    and helped enlighten how thapsigargin, a potent inhibitor of SERCA1a, depends on a water mediated hydrogen bond network when bound to SERCA1a. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the same P-type ATPase were used to assess a long-standing question whether cholesterol affects SERCA1a through......P-type ATPases are proteins that act to maintain ion homeostasis and electrochemical gradients through the translocation of cations across cell membranes. Underscoring their significance in humans, dysfunction of the ATPases can lead to crucial diseases. Dysfunction of the sarco......; however, encouraging hits were obtained with AgNO3 and E. coli lipids, potentially underscoring the importance of utilizing native lipids. Finally, atomistic MD simulations of a Zn2+-ATPase (ZntA) were set up and computed in order to elucidate the dynamics of its ion exit pathway, and helped reveal how...

  13. The evolutionary history of sarco(endo)plasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Ianina; Vaillant, James J; Xu, Sen; Cristescu, Melania E

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the phylogenetic relationships within physiologically essential gene families across a broad range of taxa can reveal the key gene duplication events underlying their family expansion and is thus important to functional genomics studies. P-Type II ATPases represent a large family of ATP powered transporters that move ions across cellular membranes and includes Na(+)/K(+) transporters, H(+)/K(+) transporters, and plasma membrane Ca(2+) pumps. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of one such transporter, the Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which maintains calcium homeostasis in the cell by actively pumping Ca(2+) into the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum. Our protein-based phylogenetic analyses across Eukaryotes revealed two monophyletic clades of SERCA proteins, one containing animals, fungi, and plants, and the other consisting of plants and protists. Our analyses suggest that the three known SERCA proteins in vertebrates arose through two major gene duplication events after the divergence from tunicates, but before the separation of fishes and tetrapods. In plants, we recovered two SERCA clades, one being the sister group to Metazoa and the other to Apicomplexa clade, suggesting an ancient duplication in an early eukaryotic ancestor, followed by subsequent loss of one copy in Opisthokonta, the other in protists, and retention of both in plants. We also report relatively recent and independent gene duplication events within invertebrate taxa including tunicates and the leech Helobdella robusta. Thus, it appears that both ancient and recent gene duplication events have played an important role in the evolution of this ubiquitous gene family across the eukaryotic domain.

  14. On Allosteric Modulation of P-Type Cu+-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattle, Daniel; Sitsel, Oleg; Autzen, Henriette E.

    2013-01-01

    of intramembranous Cu+ binding, and we suggest an alternative role for the proposed second site in copper translocation and proton exchange. The class-specific features demonstrate that topological diversity in P-type ATPases may tune a general energy coupling scheme to the translocation of compounds with remarkably...

  15. The Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPases and Their Role as Major New Players in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Nicholas; Wilson, Claire; Oceandy, Delvac; Neyses, Ludwig; Cartwright, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The Ca2+ extrusion function of the four mammalian isoforms of the plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) is well established. There is also ever-increasing detail known of their roles in global and local Ca2+ homeostasis and intracellular Ca2+ signaling in a wide variety of cell types and tissues. It is becoming clear that the spatiotemporal patterns of expression of the PMCAs and the fact that their abundances and relative expression levels vary from cell type to cell type both reflect and impact on their specific functions in these cells. Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that these genes have potentially significant roles in human health and disease, with PMCAs1-4 being associated with cardiovascular diseases, deafness, autism, ataxia, adenoma, and malarial resistance. This review will bring together evidence of the variety of tissue-specific functions of PMCAs and will highlight the roles these genes play in regulating normal physiological functions and the considerable impact the genes have on human disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Analysis of Conditional Paralytic Mutants in Drosophila Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase Reveals Novel Mechanisms for Regulating Membrane Excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, S.; Consoulas, C.; Kuromi, H.; Basole, A.; Mukai, L.; Kidokoro, Y.; Krishnan, K. S.; Ramaswami, M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual contributions made by different calcium release and sequestration mechanisms to various aspects of excitable cell physiology are incompletely understood. SERCA, a sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, being the main agent for calcium uptake into the ER, plays a central role in this process. By isolation and extensive characterization of conditional mutations in the Drosophila SERCA gene, we describe novel roles of this key protein in neuromuscular physiology and enable a gene...

  17. Two isoforms of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) are essential in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J H; Bandyopadhyay, J; Lee, J; Park, C S; Ahnn, J

    2000-12-31

    SERCA (Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase), a membrane bound Ca(2+)- /Mg(2+)- dependent ATPase that sequesters Ca(2+) into the SR/ER lumen, is one of the essential components for the maintenance of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Here we describe the identification and functional characterization of a C. elegans SERCA gene (ser-1). ser-1 is a single gene alternatively spliced at its carboxyl terminus to form two isoforms (SER-1A and SER-1B) and displays a high homology (70% identity, 80% similarity) with mammalian SERCAs. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and whole-mount immunostaining analyses reveal that SER-1 expresses in neuronal cells, body-wall muscles, pharyngeal and vulval muscles, excretory cells, and vulva epithelial cells. Furthermore, SER-1::GFP expresses during embryonic stages and the expression is maintained through the adult stages. Double-stranded RNA injection (also known as RNAi) targeted to each SER-1 isoform results in severe phenotypic defects: ser-1A(RNAi) animals show embryonic lethality, whereas ser-1B(RNAi) results in L1 larval arrest phenotype. These findings suggest that both isoforms of C. elegans SERCA, like in mammals, are essential for embryonic development and post-embryonic growth and survival.

  18. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 signalling in cardiac fibroblasts mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tamer M. A.; Abou-Leisa, Riham; Stafford, Nicholas; Maqsood, Arfa; Zi, Min; Prehar, Sukhpal; Baudoin-Stanley, Florence; Wang, Xin; Neyses, Ludwig; Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Oceandy, Delvac

    2016-01-01

    The heart responds to pathological overload through myocyte hypertrophy. Here we show that this response is regulated by cardiac fibroblasts via a paracrine mechanism involving plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4). Pmca4 deletion in mice, both systemically and specifically in fibroblasts, reduces the hypertrophic response to pressure overload; however, knocking out Pmca4 specifically in cardiomyocytes does not produce this effect. Mechanistically, cardiac fibroblasts lacking PMCA4 produce higher levels of secreted frizzled related protein 2 (sFRP2), which inhibits the hypertrophic response in neighbouring cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we show that treatment with the PMCA4 inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) inhibits and reverses cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in mice. Our results reveal that PMCA4 regulates the development of cardiac hypertrophy and provide proof of principle for a therapeutic approach to treat this condition. PMID:27020607

  19. Compensatory Internalization of Pma1 in V-ATPase Mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Requires Calcium- and Glucose-Sensitive Phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velivela, Swetha Devi; Kane, Patricia M

    2017-12-18

    Loss of V-ATPase activity in organelles, whether through V-ATPase inhibition or V-ATPase ( vma) mutations, triggers a compensatory downregulation of the essential plasma membrane proton pump, Pma1 in S. cerevisiae We have previously determined that the a-arrestin Rim8 and ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 are essential for Pma1 ubiquination and endocytosis in response to loss of V-ATPase activity. Here, we show that Pma1 endocytosis in V-ATPase mutants does not require Rim101 pathway components upstream and downstream of Rim8, indicating that Rim8 is acting independently in Pma1 internalization. We find that two phosphatases, the calcium-responsive phosphatase, calcineurin and glucose-sensitive phosphatase, Glc7 (PP1) and one of the Glc7 regulatory subunits, Reg1, exhibit negative synthetic genetic interactions with vma mutants, and demonstrate that both phosphatases are essential for ubiquitination and endocytic downregulation of Pma1 in these mutants.  Although both acute and chronic loss of V-ATPase activity trigger internalization of approximately 50% of surface Pma1, a comparable reduction in Pma1 expression in a pma1-007 mutant neither compensates for loss of V-ATPase activity nor stops further Pma1 endocytosis. The results indicate that cell surface level of Pma1 is not directly sensed and that internalized Pma1 may play a role in compensating for loss of V-ATPase-dependent acidification.  Taken together, these results provide new insights into crosstalk between two major proton pumps central to cellular pH control. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.

  20. Expression of gill vacuolar-type H+-ATPase B subunit, and Na+, K+-ATPase alpha- and beta- subunit messenger RNAs in smolting Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Michel; Madsen, Steffen; Cutler, Christopher P

    2001-01-01

    Changes in gill vacuolar-type H+-ATPase B subunit, and Na+,K+-ATPase alpha and beta subunit mRNA expression were examined during the course of smoltification in Salmo salar. We cloned and sequenced cDNA fragments of S. salar gill i) vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-H+-ATPase) B subunit, ii) Na......+,K+-ATPase alpha (1) subunit, and iii) Na+,K+-ATPase beta (1) subunit, and used these as Northern blotting probes. During smoltification, the salmon showed a typical increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and improved hypo-osmoregulatory ability as judged by their ability to regulate plasma [Cl-] in a 24-hr...... seawater challenge test (35 ppt). Gill Na+,K+-ATPase alpha (1) and beta (1) subunit mRNA levels were regulated at a constant ratio during smoltification. Both transcripts were elevated during the build-up of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, underlining the importance of increased mRNA levels for increased...

  1. Tetrahydrocarbazoles are a novel class of potent P-type ATPase inhibitors with antifungal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, Maike; Kjellerup, Lasse; Cohrt, Karen O.Hanlon

    2018-01-01

    We have identified a series of tetrahydrocarbazoles as novel P-type ATPase inhibitors. Using a set of rationally designed analogues, we have analyzed their structure-activity relationship using functional assays, crystallographic data and computational modeling. We found that tetrahydrocarbazoles...... inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis of the fungal H+-ATPase, depolarize the fungal plasma membrane and exhibit broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Comparative inhibition studies indicate that many tetrahydrocarbazoles also inhibit the mammalian Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and Na......+,K+-ATPase with an even higher potency than Pma1. We have located the binding site for this compound class by crystallographic structure determination of a SERCA-tetrahydrocarbazole complex to 3.0 Å resolution, finding that the compound binds to a region above the ion inlet channel of the ATPase. A homology model...

  2. Role of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 in spinal cord pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakira, Amanda Kathleen; Elkabes, Stella

    2010-05-26

    A number of studies have indicated that plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are expressed in the brain and spinal cord and could play important roles not only in the maintenance of cellular calcium homeostasis but also in the survival and function of central nervous system cells under pathological conditions. The different regional and cellular distributions of the various PMCA isoforms and splice variants in the nervous system and the diverse phenotypes of PMCA knockout mice support the notion that each isoform might play a distinct role. Especially in the spinal cord, the survival of neurons and, in particular, motor neurons could be dependent on PMCA2. This is indicated by the knockdown of PMCA2 in pure spinal cord neuronal cultures that leads to cell death via a decrease in collapsing response mediator protein 1 levels. Moreover, the progressive decline in the number of motor neurons in PMCA2-null mice and heterozygous mice further supports this notion. Therefore, the reported reduction in PMCA2 mRNA and protein levels in the inflamed spinal cord of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and after spinal cord contusion injury, suggests that changes in PMCA2 expression could be a cause of neuronal pathology and death during inflammation and injury. Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated via kainate receptors has been implicated in the neuropathology of both EAE and spinal cord injury, and has been identified as a trigger that reduces PMCA2 levels in pure spinal cord neuronal cultures through degradation of the pump by calpain without affecting PMCA2 transcript levels. It remains to be determined which other stimuli modulate PMCA2 mRNA expression in the aforementioned pathological conditions of the spinal cord.

  3. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan

    2012-02-01

    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  4. Examining zinc transporting P-type ATPases by genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient in plants. It is taken up from the soil by the plant roots and transported from there throughout the plant tissues, as a final destination ending up in the plant progeny, the seed. In this route from soil to seed, several bottlenecks occur. The export of zinc...... into apoplastic gaps is required both for xylem loading in the roots and for loading into the apoplastic space in the seeds, the tissue surrounding the next plant generation. The movement of the positively charged zinc ions out of the symplast is against the electrochemical gradient and thus requires active...... transport. Both in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and in the cereals, the P1B2-ATPases have been demonstrated to be involved in the loading of zinc into the xylem, and here we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis P1B2-ATPase AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 are involved in loading of zinc into the seed apoplast. The P1B...

  5. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase required for semicircular canal formation and otolith growth in the zebrafish inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Shelly; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Liao, Bo-Kai; Huang, Chang-Jen; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2009-03-01

    Fish otoliths consist of >90% calcium carbonate, the accretion of which depends on acellular endolymph. This study confirms the presence of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1a isoform (Atp2b1a) in the auditory and vestibular system of a teleost fish. As shown by in situ hybridization, zebrafish atp2b1a is expressed mainly in larval otic placode and lateral-line neuromast as well as in the hair cells within the adult zebrafish inner ear chamber. Zebrafish atp2b1a knockdown by antisense morpholinos reduced the number of hair cells and produced malformation of semicircular canals and smaller otoliths. These defects coincide with unbalanced body orientation. The formation of smaller otoliths in atp2b1a morphants may stem from an impairment of calcium supply in the endolymph. However, otolith formation persists in most morphants, suggesting that other zebrafish Atp2b isoforms or paracellular pathways may also transport calcium into the endolymph. These results suggest that Atp2b1a plays an important role for normal development of the auditory and vestibular system as well as calcium transport in the inner ear of zebrafish.

  6. Membrane Anchoring and Ion-Entry Dynamics in P-type ATPase Copper Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Christina; Sitsel, Oleg; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Cu(+)-specific P-type ATPase membrane protein transporters regulate cellular copper levels. The lack of crystal structures in Cu(+)-binding states has limited our understanding of how ion entry and binding are achieved. Here, we characterize the molecular basis of Cu(+) entry using molecular-dynamics...... simulations, structural modeling, and in vitro and in vivo functional assays. Protein structural rearrangements resulting in the exposure of positive charges to bulk solvent rather than to lipid phosphates indicate a direct molecular role of the putative docking platform in Cu(+) delivery. Mutational analyses...... and provide a molecular understanding of ion entry in Cu(+)-transporting P-type ATPases....

  7. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  8. Subunit topology in the V type ATPase and related enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaban, Yuriy

    2005-01-01

    During the last decades impressive progress has been made in understanding of the catalytic mechanism of F-type ATP synthase, which is the key enzyme in the energy metabolism of eukaryotes and most bacteria. This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the process of oxidative phosphorylation in bacteria

  9. A putative P-type Cu(2+)-transporting ATPase gene on chromosome II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, M R; Kirchrath, L; Hollenberg, C P

    1994-09-01

    We have sequenced a gene on the right arm near the telomere of chromosome II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which codes for a putative P-type cation-transporting ATPase (PCA1). The gene codes for a 1216 amino acids protein. The PCA1 gene expresses a 3.5 kb message in both haploid and diploid cells when grown in glucose-based rich medium YPD. The gene product is most similar at the C-terminal region to a human copper-transporting ATPase and Enterococcus hirae copper-transporting ATPases and also an N-terminal dithiol region that was proposed to be a 'metal-binding motif'. Cells lacking PCA1 display no obvious phenotype when tested under standard conditions: whereas they cease growth much earlier than the isogenic wild-type cells in a minimal medium with high copper concentration. Overexpression of PCA1 under GAL1/10 promoter in yeast cells causes poor growth. We also show that yeast strains carrying PCA1 in multiple copies grow slower than isogenic wild-type strains in a minimal synthetic medium containing 0.3 mM-CuSO4.

  10. Proton Pumping and Slippage Dynamics of a Eukaryotic P-Type ATPase Studied at the Single-Molecule Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veshaguri, Salome

    In all eukaryotes the plasma membrane potential and secondary transport systems are energized by P-type ATPases whose regulation however remains poorly understood. Here we monitored at the single-molecule level the activity of the prototypic proton pumping P-type ATPase Arabidopsis thaliana isoform...... pumping rates remained constant. Titration of ATP down to ~1% of apparent Km for ATPase activity exclusively affected the distributions of the durations the pump spends in active and inactive states. The dramatic consequence of our findings is that ATP reduction decreased ATP/H+ stoichiometry of the pump...

  11. Herpesviral G protein-coupled receptors activate NFAT to induce tumor formation via inhibiting the SERCA calcium ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; He, Shanping; Wang, Yi; Brulois, Kevin; Lan, Ke; Jung, Jae U; Feng, Pinghui

    2015-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of proteins that transmit signal to regulate an array of fundamental biological processes. Viruses deploy diverse tactics to hijack and harness intracellular signaling events induced by GPCR. Herpesviruses encode multiple GPCR homologues that are implicated in viral pathogenesis. Cellular GPCRs are primarily regulated by their cognate ligands, while herpesviral GPCRs constitutively activate downstream signaling cascades, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. However, the roles of NFAT activation and mechanism thereof in viral GPCR tumorigenesis remain unknown. Here we report that GPCRs of human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kGPCR) and cytomegalovirus (US28) shortcut NFAT activation by inhibiting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which is necessary for viral GPCR tumorigenesis. Biochemical approaches, entailing pharmacological inhibitors and protein purification, demonstrate that viral GPCRs target SERCA2 to increase cytosolic calcium concentration. As such, NFAT activation induced by vGPCRs was exceedingly sensitive to cyclosporine A that targets calcineurin, but resistant to inhibition upstream of ER calcium release. Gene expression profiling identified a signature of NFAT activation in endothelial cells expressing viral GPCRs. The expression of NFAT-dependent genes was up-regulated in tumors derived from tva-kGPCR mouse and human KS. Employing recombinant kGPCR-deficient KSHV, we showed that kGPCR was critical for NFAT-dependent gene expression in KSHV lytic replication. Finally, cyclosporine A treatment diminished NFAT-dependent gene expression and tumor formation induced by viral GPCRs. These findings reveal essential roles of NFAT activation in viral GPCR tumorigenesis and a mechanism of "constitutive" NFAT activation by viral GPCRs.

  12. Herpesviral G protein-coupled receptors activate NFAT to induce tumor formation via inhibiting the SERCA calcium ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute the largest family of proteins that transmit signal to regulate an array of fundamental biological processes. Viruses deploy diverse tactics to hijack and harness intracellular signaling events induced by GPCR. Herpesviruses encode multiple GPCR homologues that are implicated in viral pathogenesis. Cellular GPCRs are primarily regulated by their cognate ligands, while herpesviral GPCRs constitutively activate downstream signaling cascades, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT pathway. However, the roles of NFAT activation and mechanism thereof in viral GPCR tumorigenesis remain unknown. Here we report that GPCRs of human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kGPCR and cytomegalovirus (US28 shortcut NFAT activation by inhibiting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA, which is necessary for viral GPCR tumorigenesis. Biochemical approaches, entailing pharmacological inhibitors and protein purification, demonstrate that viral GPCRs target SERCA2 to increase cytosolic calcium concentration. As such, NFAT activation induced by vGPCRs was exceedingly sensitive to cyclosporine A that targets calcineurin, but resistant to inhibition upstream of ER calcium release. Gene expression profiling identified a signature of NFAT activation in endothelial cells expressing viral GPCRs. The expression of NFAT-dependent genes was up-regulated in tumors derived from tva-kGPCR mouse and human KS. Employing recombinant kGPCR-deficient KSHV, we showed that kGPCR was critical for NFAT-dependent gene expression in KSHV lytic replication. Finally, cyclosporine A treatment diminished NFAT-dependent gene expression and tumor formation induced by viral GPCRs. These findings reveal essential roles of NFAT activation in viral GPCR tumorigenesis and a mechanism of "constitutive" NFAT activation by viral GPCRs.

  13. Tissue-specific expression of Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPases (ATP2A/SERCA) 1, 2, 3 during Xenopus laevis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Caterina; Pollet, Nicolas; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2011-01-01

    Calcium-ATPase pumps are critical in most cells, to sequester calcium into intracytoplasmic stores and regulate general calcium signalling. In addition, cell-specific needs for calcium signals have been described and employ a diversity of calcium ATPases in adult tissues and oocytes. A major family of such calcium pumps is ATP2A/SERCA family, for Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPases. Although largely studied in adults, the developmental expression of the atp2a/serca genes remains unknown. Here, we provide genome organisation in Xenopuslaevis and tropicalis and phylogeny of atp2a/serca genes in craniates. We detail embryonic expression for the three X. laevis atp2a/serca genes. We found that the three atp2a/serca genes are strongly conserved among vertebrates and display complementary and tissue-specific expression in embryos. These expression patterns present variations when compared to the data reported in adults. Atp2a1/serca1 is expressed as soon as the end of gastrulation in a subset of the myod-positive cells, and later labels prospective slow muscle cells in the superficial part of the somite. In contrast atp2a2/serca2 is found in a larger subset of cells, but is not ubiquitous as reported in adults. Notably, atp2a2/serca2 is prominently expressed in the neural-related tissues, i.e. the neural plate, cement gland, but is excluded from premigratory neural crest. Finally, atp2a3/serca3 expression is restricted to the ectoderm throughout development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kaituo; Sitsel, Oleg; Meloni, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. It is required for signalling and proper functioning of a range of proteins involved in, for example, DNA binding and enzymatic catalysis. In prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, Zn(2+)-transporting P-type ATPases of class IB (Znt......A) are crucial for cellular redistribution and detoxification of Zn(2+) and related elements. Here we present crystal structures representing the phosphoenzyme ground state (E2P) and a dephosphorylation intermediate (E2·Pi) of ZntA from Shigella sonnei, determined at 3.2 Å and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively....... The structures reveal a similar fold to Cu(+)-ATPases, with an amphipathic helix at the membrane interface. A conserved electronegative funnel connects this region to the intramembranous high-affinity ion-binding site and may promote specific uptake of cellular Zn(2+) ions by the transporter. The E2P structure...

  15. Type IV traffic ATPase TrwD as molecular target to inhibit bacterial conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; García-Cazorla, Yolanda; Getino, María; Machón, Cristina; Sanabria-Ríos, David; de la Cruz, Fernando; Cabezón, Elena; Arechaga, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial conjugation is the main mechanism responsible for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Hence, the search for specific conjugation inhibitors is paramount in the fight against the spread of these genes. In this pursuit, unsaturated fatty acids have been found to specifically inhibit bacterial conjugation. Despite the growing interest on these compounds, their mode of action and their specific target remain unknown. Here, we identified TrwD, a Type IV secretion traffic ATPase, as the molecular target for fatty acid-mediated inhibition of conjugation. Moreover, 2-alkynoic fatty acids, which are also potent inhibitors of bacterial conjugation, are also powerful inhibitors of the ATPase activity of TrwD. Characterization of the kinetic parameters of ATPase inhibition has led us to identify the catalytic mechanism by which fatty acids exert their activity. These results open a new avenue for the rational design of inhibitors of bacterial conjugation in the fight against the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [ATPase activity and processes of calcium transport in membranes of sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscles with E-avitaminotic dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurskiĭ, M D; Grigor'eva, V A; Medovar, E N; Meshkova, L I

    1978-01-01

    Peculiarities of functioning of the sarcoplasmic reticulum muscles membranes with E-avitaminotic distrophy were studied. It was determined that the level of ATP-dependent consumption of Ca2+, value of the Mg2+, Ca2+-ATPase activity and an amount of the intermediate phosphorylated product forming in the reaction of ATP hydrolysis decrease. The rate of this product formation in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the distrophic muscles is inhibited as compared to normalcy. Elimination of Ca2+ into calcium-free medium from the vesicular membranes of the reticulum preliminarily loaded with Ca2+ occurs more rapidly under dystrophy than in normalcy. The data obtained evidence for a disturbance of mechanism of Ca2+ active transport and for an increase in the membrane permeability for Ca2+ in the membranes of the dystrophic muscles sarcoplasmic reticulum. A problem is considered on a dependence of the skeletal muscles observed in the reticulum under dystrophy of the functional changes on the membrane structure, in particular on their lipid composition.

  17. Membrane Structure of CtrA3, a Copper-transporting P-type-ATPase from Aquifex aeolicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chintalapati, Sivaram; Kurdi, Rana Al; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2008-01-01

    We have produced and characterized two new copper-transporting ATPases, CtrA2 and CtrA3 from Aquifex aeolicus, that belong to the family of heavy metal ion-transporting PIB-type ATPases. CtrA2 has a CPC metal-binding sequence in TM6 and a CxxC metal-binding N-terminal domain, while CtrA3 has a CPH

  18. Chronic inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channels and calcium-ATPase lengthens the period of hepatic clock gene Per1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Muñoz Mauricio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role played by calcium as a regulator of circadian rhythms is not well understood. The effect of the pharmacological inhibition of the ryanodine receptor (RyR, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, and endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA, as well as the intracellular Ca2+-chelator BAPTA-AM was explored on the 24-h rhythmicity of the liver-clock protein PER1 in an experimental model of circadian synchronization by light and restricted-feeding schedules. Methods Liver explants from Period1-luciferase (Per1-luc transgenic rats with either free food access or with a restricted meal schedule were treated for several days with drugs to inhibit the activity of IP3Rs (2-APB, RyRs (ryanodine, or SERCA (thapsigargin as well as to suppress intracellular calcium fluctuations (BAPTA-AM. The period of Per1-luc expression was measured during and after drug administration. Results Liver explants from rats fed ad libitum showed a lengthened period in response to all the drugs tested. The pharmacological treatments of the explants from meal-entrained rats induced the same pattern, with the exception of the ryanodine treatment which, unexpectedly, did not modify the Per1-luc period. All effects associated with drug application were reversed after washout, indicating that none of the pharmacological treatments was toxic to the liver cultures. Conclusions Our data suggest that Ca2+ mobilized from internal deposits modulates the molecular circadian clock in the liver of rats entrained by light and by restricted meal access.

  19. Na+,K+-ATPase Na+ affinity in rat skeletal muscle fiber types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in expression systems have found different ion activation of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isozymes, which suggest that different muscles have different ion affinities. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was used to quantify Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, and the Na(+) affinity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...

  20. Modulation of L-type calcium channels by sodium ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Balke, C W; Wier, W G

    1992-01-01

    It is universally believed that the removal of external sodium ions is without effect on calcium current. We now report that in enzymatically isolated guinea pig ventricular cells, the replacement of external sodium ions with certain other cations causes a 3- to 6-fold increase in peak L-type calcium current. The increase in current is reversibly blocked by L-type calcium-channel antagonists, not mediated by changes in internal calcium, and is inhibited by intracellular 5'-adenylyl imidodipho...

  1. Transporters, chaperones, and P-type ATPases controlling grapevine copper homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Mu, Qian; Wang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xudong; Shangguan, Lingfei; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-11-01

    With more copper and copper-containing compounds used as bactericides and fungicides in viticulture, copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis) has become one of the serious environmental crises with great risk. To better understand the regulation of Cu homeostasis in grapevine, grapevine seedlings cultured in vitro with different levels of Cu were utilized to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of grapevine responding to copper availability at physiological and molecular levels. The results indicated that Cu contents in roots and leaves arose with increasing levels of Cu application. With copper concentration increasing, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased in roots and leaves and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) increased to protect the plant itself from damage. The expression patterns of 19 genes, encoding transporters, chaperones, and P-type ATPases involved in copper homeostasis in root and leaf of grapevine seedling under various levels of Cu(2+) were further analyzed. The expression patterns indicated that CTr1, CTr2, and CTr8 transporters were significantly upregulated in response both to Cu excess and deficiency. ZIP2 was downregulated in response to Cu excess and upregulated under Cu-deficient conditions, while ZIP4 had an opposite expression pattern under similar conditions. The expression of chaperones and P-type ATPases in response to Cu availability in grapevine were also briefly studied.

  2. Intracellular pH (pHin) and cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) regulation via ATPases: studies in cell populations, single cells, and subcellular compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose D.; Sanka, Shankar C.; Gyorke, Sandor; Wesson, Donald E.; Minta, Akwasi; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul

    1999-07-01

    Changes in pHin and (Ca2+)cyt are important in the signal transduction mechanisms leading to many physiological responses including cell growth, motility, secretion/exocytosis, etc. The concentrations of these ions are regulated via primary and secondary ion transporting mechanisms. In diabetes, specific pH and Ca2+ regulatory mechanism might be altered. To study these ions, we employ fluorescence spectroscopy, and cell imagin spectroscopy/confocal microscopy. pH and Ca2+ indicators are loaded in the cytosol with acetoxymethyl ester forms of dyes, and in endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartments by overnight incubation of cells with dextran- conjugated ion fluorescent probes. We focus on specific pH and Ca2+ regulatory systems: plasmalemmal vacuolar- type H+-ATPases (pm V-ATPases) and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA). As experimental models, we employ vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and microvascular endothelial cells. We have chosen these cells because they are important in blood flow regulation and in angiogenesis. These processes are altered in diabetes. In many cell types, ion transport processes are dependent on metabolism of glucose for maximal activity. Our main findings are: (a) glycolysis coupling the activity of SERCA is required for cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis in both VSM and microvascular endothelial cells; (b) E/L compartments are important for pH and Ca2+ regulation via H+-ATPases and SERCA, respectively; and (c) pm-V- ATPases are important for pHin regulation in microvascular endothelial cells.

  3. In silico identification and characterization of the ion transport specificity for P-type ATPases in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa-Aponte Lorena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P-type ATPases hydrolyze ATP and release energy that is used in the transport of ions against electrochemical gradients across plasma membranes, making these proteins essential for cell viability. Currently, the distribution and function of these ion transporters in mycobacteria are poorly understood. Results In this study, probabilistic profiles were constructed based on hidden Markov models to identify and classify P-type ATPases in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC according to the type of ion transported across the plasma membrane. Topology, hydrophobicity profiles and conserved motifs were analyzed to correlate amino acid sequences of P-type ATPases and ion transport specificity. Twelve candidate P-type ATPases annotated in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome were identified in all members of the MTBC, and probabilistic profiles classified them into one of the following three groups: heavy metal cation transporters, alkaline and alkaline earth metal cation transporters, and the beta subunit of a prokaryotic potassium pump. Interestingly, counterparts of the non-catalytic beta subunits of Hydrogen/Potassium and Sodium/Potassium P-type ATPases were not found. Conclusions The high content of heavy metal transporters found in the MTBC suggests that they could play an important role in the ability of M. tuberculosis to survive inside macrophages, where tubercle bacilli face high levels of toxic metals. Finally, the results obtained in this work provide a starting point for experimental studies that may elucidate the ion specificity of the MTBC P-type ATPases and their role in mycobacterial infections.

  4. A tomato ER-type Ca2+-ATPase, LCA1, has a low thapsigargin-sensitivity and can transport manganese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Neil A.; Liu, F; Weeks, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    investigate the differences between plant and animal Ca pumps utilizing comparisons between chicken and rabbit SERCA-type pumps with Arabidopsis (ECA1) and tomato plant (LCA1) Ca(2+)-ATPases. Enzyme function was confirmed by the ability of each Ca(2+)-ATPase to rescue K616 growth on EGTA-containing agar...... and directly via in vitro ATP hydrolysis. We found LCA1 to be approximately 300-fold less sensitive to thapsigargin than animal SERCAs, whereas ECA1 was thapsigargin-resistant. LCA1 showed typical pharmacological sensitivities to cyclopiazonic acid, vanadate, and eosin, consistent with it being a P...

  5. Rotary ATPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  6. In silico approaches and chemical space of anti-P-type ATPase compounds for discovering new antituberculous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paola; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Soto, Carlos-Y

    2017-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems around the world. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has driven the finding of alternative anti-TB targets. In this context, P-type ATPases are interesting therapeutic targets due to their key role in ion homeostasis across the plasma membrane and the mycobacterial survival inside macrophages. In this review, in silico and experimental strategies used for the rational design of new anti-TB drugs are presented; in addition, the chemical space distribution based on the structure and molecular properties of compounds with anti-TB and anti-P-type ATPase activity is discussed. The chemical space distribution compared to public compound libraries demonstrates that natural product libraries are a source of novel chemical scaffolds with potential anti-P-type ATPase activity. Furthermore, compounds that experimentally display anti-P-type ATPase activity belong to a chemical space of molecular properties comparable to that occupied by those approved for oral use, suggesting that these kinds of molecules have a good pharmacokinetic profile (drug-like) for evaluation as potential anti-TB drugs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Crystal structure of a copper-transporting PIB-type ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Skjørringe, Tina

    2011-01-01

    copper entry point at the intracellular interface. Comparisons to Ca(2+)-ATPase suggest an ATPase-coupled copper release mechanism from the binding sites in the membrane via an extracellular exit site. The structure also provides a framework to analyse missense mutations in the human ATP7A and ATP7B...... proteins associated with Menkes' and Wilson's diseases....

  8. Characterization of the intracellular and the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases in fractionated pig brain membranes using calcium pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, J M; Mata, A M

    1998-03-15

    The Ca2+-ATPase activity of isolated membranes and purified plasma membrane ATPase from pig brain was measured in the presence of specific inhibitors. The inhibition of the enzymatic activity by vanadate presents a lower affinity in microsomes than in the synaptic plasma membrane vesicles, showing K0.5 of 0.4 and 0.2 microM, respectively. The purified enzyme showed a higher sensitivity to vanadate with a K0.5 of 0.10 microM. Thapsigargin (Tg) and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ) were stronger inhibitors of the Ca2+-ATPase activity in microsomes than in the synaptic membrane vesicles. The activity of the purified enzyme was not affected by Tg and only partially by BHQ. Cyclopiazonic acid inhibited the enzymatic activity in all fractions, being more sensitive in microsomes. The microsome preparation incorporated 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into two main proteins that appear at approx 110,000 and 140,000. According to the inhibition pattern, the lower phosphorylated band was identified as the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, being in a higher percentage than the upper band. Synaptic membrane vesicles also incorporated radioactive 32P into two protein bands. The 140,000 protein (upper band) shows the typical behavior of the purified plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase, being more abundant in this preparation than the organellar Ca2+-pump (lower band). This study highlights the heterogeneous nature of the Ca2+-ATPase activity measured in brain membrane fractions. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Na+/K+-ATPase and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase in the gills of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster microlepis in response to salinity variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Chao, Pei-Lin; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2010-03-01

    The aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster microlepis, can be found in fresh water and estuaries. We further evaluated the changes in two important osmoregulatory enzymes, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA), in the gills when fish were subjected to deionized water (DW), fresh water (FW), and salinated brackish water (salinity of 10 g/L). Fish were sampled only 4 days after experimental transfer. The mortality, plasma osmolality, and Na(+) concentration were higher in 10 g/L acclimated fish, while their muscle water content decreased with elevated external salinity. The highest NKA protein abundance was found in the fish gills in 10 g/L, and NKA activity was highest in the DW and 10 g/L acclimated fish. The VHA protein levels were highest in 10 g/L, and VHA activity was highest in the DW treatment. From immunohistochemical results, we found three different cell populations: (1) NKA-immunoreactive (NKA-IR) cells, (2) both NKA-IR and HA-IR cells, and (3) HA-IR cells. NKA-IR cells in the lamellar and interlamellar regions significantly increased in DW and 10 g/L treatments. Only HA-IR cells in the lamellar region were significantly increased in DW. In the interlamellar region, there was no difference in the number of HA-IR cells among the three treated. From these results, T. microlepis exhibited osmoregulatory ability in DW and 10 g/L treatments. The cell types involved in ionic regulation were also examined with immunofluorescence staining; three ionocyte types were found which were similar to the zebrafish model. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective upregulation of the expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms upon differentiation and 1,25(OH)2D3-vitamin treatment of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribiczey, Polett; Papp, Béla; Homolya, László; Enyedi, Ágnes; Kovács, Tünde

    2015-08-14

    We have previously presented co-expression of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms 4b (PMCA4b) and 1b (PMCA1b) in colon carcinoma cells, and selective upregulation of PMCA4b during differentiation initiated by short chain fatty acids or post-confluent growth. Here we show that the induction of PMCA4b expression is a characteristic feature of the post-confluency-induced differentiation of both enterocyte-type and goblet cell-type colon cancer cells. Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is a well-known regulator of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and of basic cell functions such as growth and differentiation in various cell types. As PMCA proteins are involved both in intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and adenocarcinoma cell differentiation, we investigated the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on PMCA expression in enterocyte-like colon carcinoma cells, and monitored its effect on the expression of various differentiation markers. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated PMCA1b, but not PMCA4b expression without modulating the expression of the majority of the differentiation markers examined. Caco-2 cells differentiated in post-confluent cultures present normal enterocyte-like intestinal epithelial phenotype. To better understand the role of PMCA proteins in vectorial Ca(2+) transport by enterocytes, we also studied their subcellular localization in mature polarized Caco-2 cells. Both PMCA isoforms were located to the basolateral membrane, and the PMCA-specific immunofluorescent signal was significantly higher in vitamin D3-treated cells, underlining the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced upregulation of PMCA (presumably 1b isoform) expression in differentiated Caco-2 cells. We suggest that while PMCA1b has a housekeeping function in colon cancer cells, PMCA4b participates in the reorganization of the Ca(2+) signalling machinery during cell differentiation. The subcellular localization of PMCA1b and its selective 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent upregulation indicate that this isoform may have a specific role in 1,25(OH)2D3

  11. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Carmany, Daniel; Retford, Michael; Guelta, Mark; Dorsey, Russell; Bozue, Joel; Lee, Michael S; Olson, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50) values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  12. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Swietnicki

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50 values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  13. Structures and immunolocalization of Na+, K+ -ATPase, Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 and vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase in the gills of blennies (Teleostei: Blenniidae) inhabiting rocky intertidal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, M; Komiyama, M; Yoshizawa, H; Shimizu, N; Konno, N; Matsuda, K

    2012-05-01

    The structure and immunolocalization of the ion transporters Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase (NKA), Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase (VHA) were examined in the gills of teleosts of the family Blenniidae, which inhabit rocky shores with vertical zonation in subtropical seas. These features were compared among the following species with different ecologies: the amphibious rockskipper blenny Andamia tetradactylus, the intertidal white-finned blenny Praealticus tanegasimae and the purely marine yaeyama blenny Ecsenius yaeyamaensis. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated that thick gill filaments were arranged close to each other and alternately on two hemibranches of a gill arch in the opercular space of A. tetradactylus. Many mucous cells (MC) and mitochondrion-rich cells (MRC) were present in the interlamellar regions of the gill filament. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that numerous NKA, NHE3 and some VHA were located predominantly on presumed MRCs of gill filaments and at the base of the lamellae. Analyses using serial (mirror image) sections of the gills indicated that only a few NKA immunoreactive cells (IRC) were colocalized with VHA on some MRCs in the filaments. In the gills of P. tanegasimae, NKA- and NHE3-IRCs were observed in the interlamellar region of the filaments and at the base of the lamellae. VHA-IRCs were located sparsely on the lamellae and filaments. In the gills of E. yaeyamaensis, the lamellae and filaments were thin and straight, respectively. MCs were located at the tip as well as found scattered in the interlamellar region of gill filaments. NKA-, NHE3- and VHA-IRCs were moderately frequently observed in the filaments and rarely on the lamellae. This study shows that the structure and distribution of ion transporters in the gills differ among the three blennid species, presumably reflecting their different ecologies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the

  14. Host and Pathogen Copper-Transporting P-Type ATPases Function Antagonistically during Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Khan, Aslam; Shanbhag, Vinit; Cavet, Jennifer S; Chan, Jefferson; Weisman, Gary A; Petris, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Copper is an essential yet potentially toxic trace element that is required by all aerobic organisms. A key regulator of copper homeostasis in mammalian cells is the copper-transporting P-type ATPase ATP7A, which mediates copper transport from the cytoplasm into the secretory pathway, as well as copper export across the plasma membrane. Previous studies have shown that ATP7A-dependent copper transport is required for killing phagocytosed Escherichia coli in a cultured macrophage cell line. In this investigation, we expanded on these studies by generating Atp7a(LysMcre) mice, in which the Atp7a gene was specifically deleted in cells of the myeloid lineage, including macrophages. Primary macrophages isolated from Atp7a(LysMcre) mice exhibit decreased copper transport into phagosomal compartments and a reduced ability to kill Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to that of macrophages isolated from wild-type mice. The Atp7a(LysMcre) mice were also more susceptible to systemic infection by S Typhimurium than wild-type mice. Deletion of the S Typhimurium copper exporters, CopA and GolT, was found to decrease infection in wild-type mice but not in the Atp7a(LysMcre) mice. These studies suggest that ATP7A-dependent copper transport into the phagosome mediates host defense against S Typhimurium, which is counteracted by copper export from the bacteria via CopA and GolT. These findings reveal unique and opposing functions for copper transporters of the host and pathogen during infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Preliminary Studies of Acute Cadmium Administration Effects on the Calcium-Activated Potassium (SKCa and BKCa) Channels and Na+/K+-ATPase Activity in Isolated Aortic Rings of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Dalton V; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Teixeira, Ariane Calazans; da Silva, David Chaves F; Angeli, Jhuli K; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2017-09-13

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant closely linked with cardiovascular diseases that seems to involve endothelium dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Knowing that NO causes dilatation through the activation of potassium channels and Na+/K+-ATPase, we aimed to determine whether acute cadmium administration (10 μM) alters the participation of K+ channels, voltage-activated calcium channel, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in vascular function of isolated aortic rings of rats. Cadmium did not modify the acetylcholine-induced relaxation. After L-NAME addition, the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was abolished in presence or absence of cadmium, suggesting that acutely, this metal did not change NO release. However, tetraethylammonium (a nonselective K+ channels blocker) reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation but this effect was lower in the preparations with cadmium, suggesting a decrease of K+ channels function in acetylcholine response after cadmium incubation. Apamin (a selective blocker of small Ca2+-activated K+ channels-SKCa), iberiotoxin (a selective blocker of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels-BKCa), and verapamil (a blocker of calcium channel) reduced the endothelium-dependent relaxation only in the absence of cadmium. Finally, cadmium decreases Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results provide evidence that the cadmium acute incubation unaffected the calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa and BKCa) and voltage-calcium channels on the acetylcholine vasodilatation. In addition, acute cadmium incubation seems to reduce the Na+/K+-ATPase activity.

  16. P-type ATPase heavy metal transporters with roles in essential zinc homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Dawar; Haydon, Michael J; Wang, Yuwen; Wong, Edwin; Sherson, Sarah M; Young, Jeff; Camakaris, James; Harper, Jeffrey F; Cobbett, Christopher S

    2004-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana has eight genes encoding members of the type 1(B) heavy metal-transporting subfamily of the P-type ATPases. Three of these transporters, HMA2, HMA3, and HMA4, are closely related to each other and are most similar in sequence to the divalent heavy metal cation transporters of prokaryotes. To determine the function of these transporters in metal homeostasis, we have identified and characterized mutants affected in each. Whereas the individual mutants exhibited no apparent phenotype, hma2 hma4 double mutants had a nutritional deficiency phenotype that could be compensated for by increasing the level of Zn, but not Cu or Co, in the growth medium. Levels of Zn, but not other essential elements, in the shoot tissues of a hma2 hma4 double mutant and, to a lesser extent, of a hma4 single mutant were decreased compared with the wild type. Together, these observations indicate a primary role for HMA2 and HMA4 in essential Zn homeostasis. HMA2promoter- and HMA4promoter-reporter gene constructs provide evidence that HMA2 and HMA4 expression is predominantly in the vascular tissues of roots, stems, and leaves. In addition, expression of the genes in developing anthers was confirmed by RT-PCR and was consistent with a male-sterile phenotype in the double mutant. HMA2 appears to be localized to the plasma membrane, as indicated by protein gel blot analysis of membrane fractions using isoform-specific antibodies and by the visualization of an HMA2-green fluorescent protein fusion by confocal microscopy. These observations are consistent with a role for HMA2 and HMA4 in Zn translocation. hma2 and hma4 mutations both conferred increased sensitivity to Cd in a phytochelatin-deficient mutant background, suggesting that they may also influence Cd detoxification.

  17. Phosphosite mapping of P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPase in homologous and heterologous environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudashevskaya, Elena; Ye, Juanying; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an important posttranslational modification of proteins in living cells and primarily serves regulatory purposes. Several methods were employed for isolating phosphopeptides from proteolytically digested plasma membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana. After a mass spectrometric...... analysis of the resulting peptides we could identify 10 different phosphorylation sites in plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases AHA1, AHA2, AHA3, and AHA4/11, five of which have not been reported before, bringing the total number of phosphosites up to 11, which is substantially higher than reported so far for any...... other P-type ATPase. Phosphosites were almost exclusively (9 of 10) in the terminal regulatory domains of the pumps. The AHA2 isoform was subsequently expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The plant protein was phosphorylated at multiple sites in yeast, and surprisingly, seven of nine...

  18. The F- or V-Type Na+-ATPase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Clostridium fervidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEELMANS, G; POOLMAN, B; ABEE, T; KONINGS, WN

    Clostridium fervidus is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium which uses solely Na+ as a coupling ion for energy transduction. Important features of the primary Na+ pump (ATPase) that generates the sodium motive force are presented. The advantage of using a sodium rather than a proton motive force at

  19. Cloning of a neonatal calcium atpase isoform (SERCA 1B) from extraocular muscle of adult blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londraville, R L; Cramer, T D; Franck, J P; Tullis, A; Block, B A

    2000-10-01

    Complete cDNAs for the fast-twitch Ca2+ -ATPase isoform (SERCA 1) were cloned and sequenced from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) extraocular muscle (EOM). Complete cDNAs for SERCA 1 were also cloned from fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the same species. The two sequences are identical over the coding region except for the last five codons on the carboxyl end; EOM SERCA 1 cDNA codes for 996 amino acids and the fast-twitch cDNAs code for 991 aa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EOM SERCA 1 clusters with an isoform of Ca2+ -ATPase normally expressed in early development of mammals (SERCA 1B). This is the first report of SERCA 1B in an adult vertebrate. RNA hybridization assays indicate that 1B expression is limited to extraocular muscles. Because EOM gives rise to the thermogenic heater organ in marlin, we investigated whether SERCA 1B may play a role in heat generation, or if 1B expression is common in EOM among vertebrates. Chicken also expresses SERCA 1B in EOM, but rat expresses SERCA 1A; because SERCA 1B is not specific to heater tissue we conclude it is unlikely that it plays a specific role in intracellular heat production. Comparative sequence analysis does reveal, however, several sites that may be the source of functional differences between fish and mammalian SERCAs.

  20. T-type calcium channel: a privileged gate for calcium entry and control of adrenal steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Florian Rossier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies.Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis.Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T-type

  1. Disruption of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase complex in liver causes MTORC1-independent accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissing, Sandra; Rudnik, Sönke; Damme, Markus; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kornak, Uwe; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Jabs, Sabrina; Heeren, Jörg; De Brabander, Jef K; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul

    2017-04-03

    The vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating ATPase (v-H(+)-ATPase) has been implicated in the amino acid-dependent activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1), an important regulator of macroautophagy. To reveal the mechanistic links between the v-H(+)-ATPase and MTORC1, we destablilized v-H(+)-ATPase complexes in mouse liver cells by induced deletion of the essential chaperone ATP6AP2. ATP6AP2-mutants are characterized by massive accumulation of endocytic and autophagic vacuoles in hepatocytes. This cellular phenotype was not caused by a block in endocytic maturation or an impaired acidification. However, the degradation of LC3-II in the knockout hepatocytes appeared to be reduced. When v-H(+)-ATPase levels were decreased, we observed lysosome association of MTOR and normal signaling of MTORC1 despite an increase in autophagic marker proteins. To better understand why MTORC1 can be active when v-H(+)-ATPase is depleted, the activation of MTORC1 was analyzed in ATP6AP2-deficient fibroblasts. In these cells, very little amino acid-elicited activation of MTORC1 was observed. In contrast, insulin did induce MTORC1 activation, which still required intracellular amino acid stores. These results suggest that in vivo the regulation of macroautophagy depends not only on v-H(+)-ATPase-mediated regulation of MTORC1.

  2. Microdamage induced calcium efflux from bone matrix activates intracellular calcium signaling in osteoblasts via L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyungjin; Best, Makenzie; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms by which bone microdamage triggers repair response are not completely understood. It has been shown that calcium efflux ([Ca(2+)]E) occurs from regions of bone undergoing microdamage. Such efflux has also been shown to trigger intracellular calcium signaling ([Ca(2+)]I) in MC3T3-E1 cells local to damaged regions. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are implicated in the entry of [Ca(2+)]E to the cytoplasm. We investigated the involvement of VGCC in the extracellular calcium induced intracellular calcium response (ECIICR). MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to one dimensional calcium efflux from their basal aspect which results in an increase in [Ca(2+)]I. This increase was concomitant with membrane depolarization and it was significantly reduced in the presence of Bepridil, a non-selective VGCC inhibitor. To identify specific type(s) of VGCC in ECIICR, the cells were treated with selective inhibitors for different types of VGCC. Significant changes in the peak intensity and the number of [Ca(2+)]I oscillations were observed when L-type and T-type specific VGCC inhibitors (Verapamil and NNC55-0396, respectively) were used. So as to confirm the involvement of L- and T-type VGCC in the context of microdamage, cells were seeded on devitalized notched bone specimen, which were loaded to induce microdamage in the presence and absence of Verapamil and NNC55-0396. The results showed significant decrease in [Ca(2+)]I activity of cells in the microdamaged regions of bone when L- and T-type blockers were applied. This study demonstrated that extracellular calcium increase in association with damage depolarizes the cell membrane and the calcium ions enter the cell cytoplasm by L- and T-type VGCCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Demethoxycurcumin is a potent inhibitor of P-type ATPases from diverse kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Thanh Tung, Truong

    2016-01-01

    as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among...... of these pumps. Future research on biological effects of commercial preparations of curcumin should consider the heterogeneity of the material....

  4. P4-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Theorin, Lisa; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2014-01-01

    ) comprises lipid flippases that catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of cell membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, recent studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4......Cellular membranes, notably eukaryotic plasma membranes, are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Among these ATP-driven transporters, the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases...

  5. Identification of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III Secretion System YscN ATPase

    OpenAIRE

    Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Carmany, Daniel; Retford, Michael; Guelta, Mark; Dorsey, Russell; Bozue, Joel; Lee, Michael S.; Olson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webst...

  6. Crystallization of P-type ATPases by the High Lipid-Detergent (HiLiDe) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Wang, Kaituo; Liu, Xiangyu

    2016-01-01

    Determining structures of membrane proteins remains a significant challenge. A technique utilizing high lipid-detergent concentrations ("HiLiDe") circumvents the major bottlenecks of current membrane protein crystallization methods. During HiLiDe, the protein-lipid-detergent ratio is varied...... in a controlled way in order to yield initial crystal hits, which may be subsequently optimized by variation of the crystallization conditions and/or utilizing secondary detergents. HiLiDe preserves the advantages of classical lipid-based methods, yet is compatible with both the vapor diffusion and batch...... crystallization techniques. The method has been applied with particular success to P-type ATPases....

  7. Antifungal Mechanism of Action of Lactoferrin: Identification of H+-ATPase (P3A-Type) as a New Apoptotic-Cell Membrane Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, María T; Acosta-Zaldívar, Maikel; Fierro, José F

    2016-07-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf) is a protein of the innate immune system which induces an apoptotic-like process in yeast. Determination of the susceptibility to lactoferrin of several yeast species under different metabolic conditions, respiratory activity, cytoplasmic ATP levels, and external medium acidification mediated by glucose assays suggested plasma membrane Pma1p (P3A-type ATPase) as the hLf molecular target. The inhibition of plasma membrane ATPase activity by hLf and the identification of Pma1p as the hLf-binding membrane protein confirmed the previous physiological evidence. Consistent with this, cytoplasmic ATP levels progressively increased in hLf-treated Candida albicans cells. However, oligomycin, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial F-type ATPase proton pump (mtATPase), abrogated the antifungal activity of hLf, indicating a crucial role for mtATPase in the apoptotic process. We suggest that lactoferrin targeted plasma membrane Pma1p H(+)-ATPase, perturbing the cytoplasmic ion homeostasis (i.e., cytoplasmic H(+) accumulation and subsequent K(+) efflux) and inducing a lethal mitochondrial dysfunction. This initial event involved a normal mitochondrial ATP synthase activity responsible for both the ATP increment and subsequent hypothetical mitochondrial proton flooding process. We conclude that human lactoferrin inhibited Pma1p H(+)-ATPase, inducing an apoptotic-like process in metabolically active yeast. Involvement of mitochondrial H(+)-ATPase (nonreverted) was essential for the progress of this programmed cell death in which the ionic homeostasis perturbation seems to precede classical nonionic apoptotic events. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Hereditary Parkinsonism-Associated Genetic Variations in PARK9 Locus Lead to Functional Impairment of ATPase Type 13A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Sue, Carolyn M

    2017-01-01

    Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease (PD) with juvenile onset of parkinsonism, often accompanied by extra clinical features such as supranuclear gaze palsy, dementia and generalised brain atrophy. Mutations in ATP13A2, associated with the PARK9 locus (chromosome 1p36) have been identified in KRS patients. ATP13A2 encodes a lysosomal P5B-type ATPase which has functional domains similar to other P-type ATPases which mainly transport cations. Consistently, recent studies suggest that human ATP13A2 may preferably regulate Zn2+, while ATP13A2 from other species have different substrate selectivity. Until now, fourteen mutations in ATP13A2 have been associated with KRS, while other mutations have been reported in association with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) and early-onset PD. Experimentally, these disease- associated ATP13A2 mutations have been shown to confer loss-of-function to the protein by disrupting its protein structure and function to varying degrees, ranging from impairment in ATPase function to total loss of protein, confirming their pathogenicity. Loss of functional ATP13A2 has been shown to induce Zn2+ dyshomeostasis. Disturbances in Zn2+ homeostasis impair mitochondrial and lysosomal function which leads to loss of mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity and accumulation of lysosomal substrates such as α-synuclein and lipofuscin. Additionally, ATP13A2 appears to be involved in α-synuclein externalisation through its Zn2+-regulating activity. In this review, we will discuss all the reported KRS/NCL-associated ATP13A2 mutations along with several PD-associated mutations which have been experimentally assessed, in respect to their impact on the protein structure and function of ATP13A2. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (ΔzitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (ΔzitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms.

  10. Citrate synthase, sarcoplasmic reticular calcium ATPase, and choline acetyltransferase activities of specific pelvic floor muscles of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spettel, Sara; De, Elise; Elias, Tamer; Schuler, Catherine; Leggett, Robert E; Levin, Robert M

    2012-11-01

    There is a clear relationship between the pelvic floor muscles and urinary systems, which relates to urgency, frequency, incontinence, pelvic pain, and bowel complaints. The specific mechanisms which relate these two systems are not clear. Improved understanding of the relation between the pelvic floor muscles and bladder function is clinically relevant in establishing effective treatments to such problems as incontinence, secondary to birth. The following tissues were collected from normal adult female rabbits: pubococcygeus (Pc) and ischiocavernosus/bulbospongiosus (Ic/Bs) pelvic floor muscles. Bladder body muscle and mucosa, bladder base muscle and mucosa, and leg skeletal muscle were also collected. The following enzymatic assays were performed on each tissue: citrate synthase (CS), sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). CS and SERCA activities were significantly higher in the Pc compared with the Ic/Bs pelvic floor muscles, whereas the ChAT activity of the Ic/Bs was higher than that of the Pc muscle. Based on our results, the Pc muscle is expected to have a significantly greater capacity to contract and a higher metabolic activity than those of the Ic/Bs muscles. We believe that an understanding of the biochemical activities of these three biomarker enzymes in normal pelvic floor muscles is essential in evaluating the effects of specific experimental dysfunctions created in pelvic floor muscle activity.

  11. cDNA cloning of 12 subunits of the V-type ATPase from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and their expression under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Christoph; Lamkemeyer, Petra; Tavakoli, Nastaran; Golldack, Dortje; Kandlbinder, Andrea; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2003-01-01

    The vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase) and the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase are electrogenic proton pumps at plant endomembranes that create the proton motive force required for secondary activated transport and metabolite accumulation during development and adaptation to a variety of adverse growth conditions. Twelve distinct vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA) subunits are suggested to constitute the functional V-ATPase complex. Starting from the available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences and by homology screening, the complete set of 12 VHA subunits was cloned as cDNAs from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, vha-A-H, -a,-c, -d and -e. Transcript levels of all 12 VHA subunits as well as of tonoplast pyrophosphatase and P-ATPase were analysed in root and leaf tissue under conditions of osmotic (700 mM mannitol), heat and cold stress, and salinity. Distinct coordinated changes of stress-induced expression were observed for most subunits in roots and leaves, with mostly paralleled changes in transcript levels of all subunits. In some cases, contrasting responses were seen for vha-B and -c transcript amounts.

  12. Improved Model of Proton Pump Crystal Structure Obtained by Interactive Molecular Dynamics Flexible Fitting Expands the Mechanistic Model for Proton Translocation in P-Type ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Dorota; Croll, Tristan I; Pedersen, Bjorn P; Nissen, Poul

    2017-01-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a proton pump of the P-type ATPase family and essential in plants and fungi. It extrudes protons to regulate pH and maintains a strong proton-motive force that energizes e.g., secondary uptake of nutrients. The only crystal structure of a H(+)-ATPase (AHA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana) was reported in 2007. Here, we present an improved atomic model of AHA2, obtained by a combination of model rebuilding through interactive molecular dynamics flexible fitting (iMDFF) and structural refinement based on the original data, but using up-to-date refinement methods. More detailed map features prompted local corrections of the transmembrane domain, in particular rearrangement of transmembrane helices 7 and 8, and the cytoplasmic N- and P-domains, and the new model shows improved overall quality and reliability scores. The AHA2 structure shows similarity to the Ca(2+)-ATPase E1 state, and provides a valuable starting point model for structural and functional analysis of proton transport mechanism of P-type H(+)-ATPases. Specifically, Asp684 protonation associated with phosphorylation and occlusion of the E1P state may result from hydrogen bond interaction with Asn106. A subsequent deprotonation associated with extracellular release in the E2P state may result from an internal salt bridge formation to an Arg655 residue, which in the present E1 state is stabilized in a solvated pocket. A release mechanism based on an in-built counter-cation was also later proposed for Zn(2+)-ATPase, for which structures have been determined in Zn(2+) released E2P-like states with the salt bridge interaction formed.

  13. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eTelianidis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-Type ATPases (copper-ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  14. Glucocorticoids specifically enhance L-type calcium current amplitude and affect calcium channel subunit expression in the mouse hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chameau, P.; Qin, Y.; Spijker, S.; Smit, A.B.; Joels, M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that corticosterone enhances whole cell calcium currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, through a pathway involving binding of glucocorticoid receptor homodimers to the DNA. We examined whether glucocorticoids show selectivity for L- over N-type of calcium currents. Moreover,

  15. Glucocorticoids specifically enhance L-type calcium current amplitude and affect calcium channel subunit expression in the mouse hippocampus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chameau, P.J.P.; Qin, Y.J.; Smit, G.; Joëls, M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that corticosterone enhances whole cell calcium currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, through a pathway involving binding of glucocorticoid receptor homodimers to the DNA. We examined whether glucocorticoids show selectivity for L- over N-type of calcium currents. Moreover,

  16. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Veen, Sarah; Sørensen, Danny M.; Holemans, Tine

    2014-01-01

    . To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson......Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown...... disease), the Na+/K+-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P...

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  18. T-type calcium channels in synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leresche, Nathalie; Lambert, Régis C

    2017-03-04

    The role of T-type calcium currents is rarely considered in the extensive literature covering the mechanisms of long-term synaptic plasticity. This situation reflects the lack of suitable T-type channel antagonists that till recently has hampered investigations of the functional roles of these channels. However, with the development of new pharmacological and genetic tools, a clear involvement of T-type channels in synaptic plasticity is starting to emerge. Here, we review a number of studies showing that T-type channels participate to numerous homo- and hetero-synaptic plasticity mechanisms that involve different molecular partners and both pre- and post-synaptic modifications. The existence of T-channel dependent and independent plasticity at the same synapse strongly suggests a subcellular localization of these channels and their partners that allows specific interactions. Moreover, we illustrate the functional importance of T-channel dependent synaptic plasticity in neocortex and thalamus.

  19. A cytotoxic type III secretion effector of Vibrio parahaemolyticus targets vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c and ruptures host cell lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Matsuda

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the human pathogenic vibrios. During the infection of mammalian cells, this pathogen exhibits cytotoxicity that is dependent on its type III secretion system (T3SS1. VepA, an effector protein secreted via the T3SS1, plays a major role in the T3SS1-dependent cytotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus. However, the mechanism by which VepA is involved in T3SS1-dependent cytotoxicity is unknown. Here, we found that protein transfection of VepA into HeLa cells resulted in cell death, indicating that VepA alone is cytotoxic. The ectopic expression of VepA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae interferes with yeast growth, indicating that VepA is also toxic in yeast. A yeast genome-wide screen identified the yeast gene VMA3 as essential for the growth inhibition of yeast by VepA. Although VMA3 encodes subunit c of the vacuolar H(+-ATPase (V-ATPase, the toxicity of VepA was independent of the function of V-ATPases. In HeLa cells, knockdown of V-ATPase subunit c decreased VepA-mediated cytotoxicity. We also demonstrated that VepA interacted with V-ATPase subunit c, whereas a carboxyl-terminally truncated mutant of VepA (VepAΔC, which does not show toxicity, did not. During infection, lysosomal contents leaked into the cytosol, revealing that lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred prior to cell lysis. In a cell-free system, VepA was sufficient to induce the release of cathepsin D from isolated lysosomes. Therefore, our data suggest that the bacterial effector VepA targets subunit c of V-ATPase and induces the rupture of host cell lysosomes and subsequent cell death.

  20. Final Report for DE-FG02-04ER15626: P-type ATPases in Plants – Role of Lipid Flippases in Membrane Biogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Jeffrey F. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-02-24

    The long-range goal of the research is to understand the structure and biological functions of different P-type ATPases (ion pumps) in plant cells, and to use that knowledge to enhance the production of bioenergy from plants, or plant-research inspired technologies. Ptype ATPases include ion pumps that specifically transport H+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, K+, or Na+, as well as at least one unusual subfamily that appears to function as lipid flippases, flipping specific lipids from one side of a membrane bilayer to the other. As a group, P-type ATPases are thought to consume more than 1/3 of the cellular ATP in typical eukaryotic cells. Recent research in the Harper lab focused on understanding the biochemical and biological functions of P-type ATPases that flip lipids. These flippases belong to the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases. The activity of lipid flippases is thought to induce membrane curvature and/or create an asymmetry in which certain lipid head groups are preferential exposed to one surface or the other. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are 12 members of this family referred to as Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) 1 to ALA12. Using genetic knockouts, the Harper lab has established that this unusual subfamily of P-type ATPases are critical for plants to cope with even modest changes in temperature (e.g., down to 15°C, or up to 30°C). In addition, members of one subclade are critical for cell expansion, and loss of function mutants result in severe dwarfism. Other members of this same sub-clade are critical for pollen tube growth, and loss of function mutants are sterile under conditions of hot days and cold nights. While the cellular processes that depend on lipid flippases are still unclear, the genetic analysis of loss of function mutants clearly show they are of fundamental importance to plant growth and response to the environment.

  1. Calcium signalling through L-type calcium channels: role in pathophysiology of spinal nociceptive transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Lapirot, Olivier; Radwani, Houda; Aby, Franck; Nagy, Frédéric; Landry, Marc; Fossat, Pascal

    2017-02-18

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels are ubiquitous channels in the CNS. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders. However, when applied locally in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the three families of LTC pharmacological blockers - dihydropyridines (nifedipine), phenylalkylamines (verapamil) and benzothiazepines (diltiazem) - proved effective in altering short-term sensitization to pain, inflammation-induced hyperexcitability and neuropathy-induced allodynia. Two subtypes of LTCs, Cav 1.2 and Cav 1.3, are expressed in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where Cav 1.2 channels are localized mostly in the soma and proximal dendritic shafts, and Cav 1.3 channels are more distally located in the somato-dendritic compartment. Together with their different kinetics and pharmacological properties, this spatial distribution contributes to their separate roles in shaping short- and long-term sensitization to pain. Cav 1.3 channels sustain the expression of plateau potentials, an input/output amplification phenomenon that contributes to short-term sensitization to pain such as prolonged after-discharges, dynamic receptive fields and windup. The Cav 1.2 channels support calcium influx that is crucial for the excitation-transcription coupling underlying nerve injury-induced dorsal horn hyperexcitability. These subtype-specific cellular mechanisms may have different consequences in the development and/or the maintenance of pathological pain. Recent progress in developing more specific compounds for each subunit will offer new opportunities to modulate LTCs

  2. Multi site polyadenylation and transcriptional response to stress of a vacuolar type H+-ATPase subunit A gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogarten Johann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vacuolar type H+-ATPases play a critical role in the maintenance of vacuolar homeostasis in plant cells. V-ATPases are also involved in plants' defense against environmental stress. This research examined the expression and regulation of the catalytic subunit of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis thaliana and the effect of environmental stress on multiple transcripts generated by this gene. Results Evidence suggests that subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase is encoded by a single gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome blot analysis showed no indication of a second subunit A gene being present. The single gene identified was shown by whole RNA blot analysis to be transcribed in all organs of the plant. Subunit A was shown by sequencing the 3' end of multiple cDNA clones to exhibit multi site polyadenylation. Four different poly (A tail attachment sites were revealed. Experiments were performed to determine the response of transcript levels for subunit A to environmental stress. A PCR based strategy was devised to amplify the four different transcripts from the subunit A gene. Conclusions Amplification of cDNA generated from seedlings exposed to cold, salt stress, and etiolation showed that transcript levels for subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis were responsive to stress conditions. Cold and salt stress resulted in a 2–4 fold increase in all four subunit A transcripts evaluated. Etiolation resulted in a slight increase in transcript levels. All four transcripts appeared to behave identically with respect to stress conditions tested with no significant differential regulation.

  3. Glucocorticoids specifically enhance L-type calcium current amplitude and affect calcium channel subunit expression in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chameau, Pascal; Qin, Yongjun; Spijker, Sabine; Smit, August Benjamin; Smit, Guus; Joëls, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that corticosterone enhances whole cell calcium currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, through a pathway involving binding of glucocorticoid receptor homodimers to the DNA. We examined whether glucocorticoids show selectivity for L- over N-type of calcium currents. Moreover, we addressed the putative gene targets that eventually lead to the enhanced calcium currents. Electrophysiological recordings were performed in nucleated patches that allow excellent voltage control. Calcium currents in these patches almost exclusively involve N- and L-type channels. We found that L- but not N-type calcium currents were largely enhanced after treatment with a high dose of corticosterone sufficient to activate glucocorticoid receptors. Voltage dependency and kinetic properties of the currents were unaffected by the hormone. Nonstationary noise analysis suggests that the increased current is not caused by a larger unitary conductance, but rather to a doubling of the number of functional channels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that transcripts of the Ca(v)1 subunits encoding for the N- or L-type calcium channels are not upregulated in the mouse CA1 area; instead, a strong, direct, and consistent upregulation of the beta4 subunit was observed. This indicates that the corticosteroid-induced increase in number of L-type calcium channels is not caused by a simple transcriptional regulation of the pore-forming subunit of the channels.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Salmonella FliI, the ATPase component of the type III flagellar protein-export apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamino, Tohru; Imada, Katsumi, E-mail: kimada@fbs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Dynamic NanoMachine Project, ICORP, JST, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tahara, Aiko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kihara, May; Macnab, Robert M. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8114 (United States); Namba, Keiichi [Dynamic NanoMachine Project, ICORP, JST, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    Crystals of an N-terminally truncated variant of the Salmonella flagellar ATPase FliI, which exports substrate proteins into the central channel of the growing flagellar structure by utilizing the energy of ATP hydrolysis, have been obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Most of the structural components making up the bacterial flagellum are translocated through the central channel of the growing flagellar structure by the type III flagellar protein-export apparatus in an ATPase-driven manner and are assembled at the growing end. FliI is the ATPase that drives flagellar protein export using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. FliI forms an oligomeric ring structure in order to attain maximum ATPase activity. In this study, FliI(Δ1–18), an N-terminally truncated variant of FliI lacking the first 18 residues, was purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 8000 as a precipitant. FliI(Δ1–18) crystals grew in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48, b = 73, c = 126 Å, β = 94°, and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution. Anomalous difference Patterson maps of Os-derivative and Pt-derivative crystals showed significant peaks in their Harker sections, indicating that both derivatives are suitable for structure determination.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of P5 P-type ATPases, a eukaryotic lineage of secretory pathway pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Annette B; Asp, Torben; Holm, Preben Bach

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotes encompass a remarkable variety of organisms and unresolved lineages. Different phylogenetic analyses have lead to conflicting conclusions as to the origin and associations between lineages and species. In this work, we investigated evolutionary relationship of a family of cation pumps ...... far, while P5B ATPases appear to be lost in three eukaryotic lineages; excavates, entamoebas and land plants. A lineage-specific gene expansion of up to four different P5B ATPases is seen in animals....

  6. Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, G D; Kroetsch, T; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-07-01

    Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia I. Chiarello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals.

  8. HMA P-type ATPases are the major mechanism for root-to-shoot Cd translocation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chong Kum Edwin; Cobbett, Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    The Zn/Cd-transporting ATPases, HMA2 and HMA4, essential for root-to-shoot Zn translocation, are also able to transport Cd. Phytochelatins (PCs) are a major mechanism of Cd detoxification through the sequestration of PC-Cd complexes in vacuoles. The roles of HMA2 and HMA4 in root-to-shoot Cd translocation and Cd tolerance were investigated in the PC-deficient, cad1-3 mutant and CAD1 backgrounds. Six lines, with all possible combinations of hma2, hma4 and cad1 mutations, were constructed. The lines were tested for Cd-sensitivity on agar medium, and radioactive (109)Cd was used to measure Cd uptake and translocation from root to shoot over periods of up to 6 d. In hma4 and hma2,hma4, but not hma2, root-to-shoot Cd translocation was decreased to about 60 and 2%, respectively, of that in the wild-type. Cd sensitivity increased approximately twofold in the hma2,hma4 mutant in both CAD1 and cad1 backgrounds. PC deficiency resulted in an increase in shoot Cd concentrations. The near-complete abolition of root-to-shoot Cd translocation resulting from the loss of function of HMA2 and HMA4 demonstrates they are the major mechanism for Cd translocation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  9. Tuning local calcium availability: cell-type-specific immobile calcium buffer capacity in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Elizabeth A; Schoch, Susanne; Dietrich, Dirk

    2013-09-04

    It has remained difficult to ascribe a specific functional role to immobile or fixed intracellular calcium buffers in central neurons because the amount of these buffers is unknown. Here, we explicitly isolated the fixed buffer fraction by prolonged whole-cell patch-clamp dialysis and quantified its buffering capacity in murine hippocampal slices using confocal calcium imaging and the "added-buffer" approach. In dentate granule cells, the calcium binding ratio (κ) after complete washout of calbindin D28k (Cb), κfixed, displayed a substantial value of ∼100. In contrast, in CA1 oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) interneurons, which do not contain any known calcium-binding protein(s), κfixed amounted to only ∼30. Based on these values, a theoretical analysis of dendritic spread of calcium after local entry showed that fixed buffers, in the absence of mobile species, decrease intracellular calcium mobility 100- and 30-fold in granule cells and OLM cells, respectively, and thereby strongly slow calcium signals. Although the large κfixed alone strongly delays the spread of calcium in granule cells, this value optimizes the benefits of additionally expressing the mobile calcium binding protein Cb. With such high κfixed, Cb effectively increases the propagation velocity to levels seen in OLM cells and, contrary to expectation, does not affect the peak calcium concentration close to the source but sharpens the spatial and temporal calcium gradients. The data suggest that the amount of fixed buffers determines the temporal availability of calcium for calcium-binding partners and plays a pivotal role in setting the repertoire of cellular calcium signaling regimens.

  10. Optimisation and validation of a high throughput screening compatible assay to identify inhibitors of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase pump--a novel therapeutic target for contraception and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tamer M A; Zakeri, Simon A; Baudoin, Florence; Wolf, Markus; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Gul, Sheraz; Neyses, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    ATPases, which constitute a major category of ion transporters in the human body, have a variety of significant biological and pathological roles. However, the lack of high throughput assays for ATPases has significantly limited drug discovery in this area. We have recently found that the genetic deletion of the ATP dependent calcium pump PMCA4 (plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin dependent ATPase, isoform 4) results in infertility in male mice due to a selective defect in sperm motility. In addition, recent discoveries in humans have indicated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PMCA4 gene determines the susceptibility towards malaria plasmodium infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop specific PMCA4 inhibitors. In the current study, we aim to optimise and validate a high throughput screening compatible assay using recombinantly expressed PMCA4 and the HTRF® Transcreener® ADP (TR-FRET) assay to screen a drug library. PMCA4 membrane microsomes were prepared from HEK293 cells overexpressing PMCA4. Western blot quantification revealed nearly nine-fold increased expression of PMCA4 compared to LacZ (control virus)-infected cells. Maximal PMCA4 microsomal activity was achieved in the TR-FRET assay with 15ng/μl microsomal concentration, 30-minute pre-incubation with compounds at 37°C, and calcium buffering with 1mM EGTA providing 1μM free-calcium. Finally a dose-response curve for carboxyeosin (a non-specific PMCA inhibitor) under optimised conditions showed significant PMCA4 inhibition. Upon confirmation that the assay was suitable for high-throughput screening, we have screened the ChemBioNet small molecule library (~21,000 compounds) against the PMCA4 assay to identify those that are its apparent inhibitors. This screening yielded 1,494 primary hits. We have optimised the HTRF® Transcreener® ADP assay for high-throughput screening to identify PMCA4 inhibitors. The output of the screening campaign has provided preliminary chemical

  11. Thapsigargin affinity purification of intracellular P(2A)-type Ca(2+) ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandecaetsbeek, Ilse; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Liu, Huizhen

    2011-01-01

    protein. In a first step, these proteins were purified with the aid of an analogue of the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin (Tg) coupled to a matrix. Wild-type (WT) hSERCA2b bound efficiently to the gel, but its elution was hampered by the high affinity of SERCA2b for Tg. Therefore, a mutant was generated...

  12. Type IV traffic ATPase TrwD as molecular target to inhibit bacterial conjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Garc��a-Cazorla, Yolanda; Getino, Mar��a; Mach��n, Cristina; Sanabria-R��os, David; de la Cruz, Fernando; Cabez��n, Elena; Arechaga, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is the main mechanism responsible for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Hence, the search for specific conjugation inhibitors is paramount in the fight against the spread of these genes. In this pursuit, unsaturated fatty acids have been found to specifically inhibit bacterial conjugation. Despite the growing interest on these compounds, their mode of action and their specific target remain unknown. Here, we identified TrwD, a Type IV secretion traffic AT...

  13. Functional characterization of the copper-transporting P-type ATPase gene of Penicillium janthinellum strain GXCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hongmin; Sun, Changbin; Tang, Huaying; Fan, Xianwei; Ma, Yili; Li, Youzhi

    2009-12-01

    Copper (Cu)-transporting P-type ATPase (CTPA) genes have been documented to play an important role in resistance to heavy metals. However, our understanding of roles of CTPA genes of the filamentous fungi was based only on sequence similarity prediction before. In a previous study, we isolated a Penicillum janthinellum strain GXCR of higher tolerance to Cu (200 mM). In this study, we cloned the partial cDNA of CTPA gene, named PcpA, from the strain GXCR. Sequence alignment indicated that the cloned cDNA sequence has the highest identity (94.4%) with a predictive CTPA gene of Aspergillus clavatus. The PcpA-encoded protein, termed PcpA, has classical functional domains of CTPAs, and shows differences from reported CTPAs in some specific sequence motifs and transmembrane regions. Expression of the PcpA was induced by extracellular Cu, cadmium (Cd), and silver (Ag). PcpA RNA interference (RNAi) mutants with a reduced level of PcpA mRNA were more sensitive to Cu, iron, Cd, and Ag than the wild-type (WT) strain GXCR. When grown in the presence of Cu, iron, and Cd, intracellular Cu and iron contents in the PcpA RNAi mutant were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those in the WT; However, intracellular Cd content in the mutant was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the WT. Taken together, it can be concluded that the PcpA functions in Cu uptake and homeostasis, iron uptake, and Cd export from the cytosol to the extracytosol.

  14. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting...... in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal......43 (UMR/Cx43) we confirmed that nifedipine sensitivity of ICW required Cx43 expression. In human osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW also required activation of L-type calcium channels and influx of extracellular calcium....

  15. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  16. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  17. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  18. T-Type Calcium Channels Are Required to Maintain Viability of Neural Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Oh, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ki Chan; Eun, Pyung Hwa; Ko, Mee Jung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Seung, Hana; Kim, Seonmin; Bahn, Geon Ho; Shin, Chan Young

    2018-02-21

    T-type calcium channels are low voltage-activated calcium channels that evoke small and transient calcium currents. Recently, T-type calcium channels have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and neural tube defects. However, their function during embryonic development is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the function and expression of T-type calcium channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). First, we compared the expression of T-type calcium channel subtypes (CaV3.1, 3.2, and 3.3) in NPCs and differentiated neural cells (neurons and astrocytes). We detected all subtypes in neurons but not in astrocytes. In NPCs, CaV3.1 was the dominant subtype, whereas CaV3.2 was weakly expressed, and CaV3.3 was not detected. Next, we determined CaV3.1 expression levels in the cortex during early brain development. Expression levels of CaV3.1 in the embryonic period were transiently decreased during the perinatal period and increased at postnatal day 11. We then pharmacologically blocked T-type calcium channels to determine the effects in neuronal cells. The blockade of T-type calcium channels reduced cell viability, and induced apoptotic cell death in NPCs but not in differentiated astrocytes. Furthermore, blocking T-type calcium channels rapidly reduced AKT-phosphorylation (Ser473) and GSK3β-phosphorylation (Ser9). Our results suggest that T-type calcium channels play essential roles in maintaining NPC viability, and T-type calcium channel blockers are toxic to embryonic neural cells, and may potentially be responsible for neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Role of L-type calcium-channel modulation in nonconvulsive epilepsy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Ates, N.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Old male Wistar rats spontaneously showing hundreds of spike-wave discharges daily were used to investigate the role of calcium ions in nonconvulsive epilepsy. The effects of the L-type calcium channel blocker nimodipine and the L-type channel opener BAY K 8644 on number and duration of these

  20. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  1. In Silico Docking of Small-Molecule Inhibitors to the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System EscN ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    proteins directly into host cells, which permits pathogen survival and replication and evades the host immune response at the same time. These pathogens...ATPases that were tested include EscN (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli), InvC ( Salmonella ), Spa47 (Shigella flexneri), BsaS and SpaL (Burkholderia...2 panel for broad-spectrum activity by measuring their ability to confer macrophage survivability against infection by human pathogens. We

  2. Interaction of the cyclic-di-GMP binding protein FimX and the Type 4 pilus assembly ATPase promotes pilus assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ruchi; Sliusarenko, Oleksii; Kazmierczak, Barbara I

    2017-08-01

    Type IVa pili (T4P) are bacterial surface structures that enable motility, adhesion, biofilm formation and virulence. T4P are assembled by nanomachines that span the bacterial cell envelope. Cycles of T4P assembly and retraction, powered by the ATPases PilB and PilT, allow bacteria to attach to and pull themselves along surfaces, so-called "twitching motility". These opposing ATPase activities must be coordinated and T4P assembly limited to one pole for bacteria to show directional movement. How this occurs is still incompletely understood. Herein, we show that the c-di-GMP binding protein FimX, which is required for T4P assembly in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, localizes to the leading pole of twitching bacteria. Polar FimX localization requires both the presence of T4P assembly machine proteins and the assembly ATPase PilB. PilB itself loses its polar localization pattern when FimX is absent. We use two different approaches to confirm that FimX and PilB interact in vivo and in vitro, and further show that point mutant alleles of FimX that do not bind c-di-GMP also do not interact with PilB. Lastly, we demonstrate that FimX positively regulates T4P assembly and twitching motility by promoting the activity of the PilB ATPase, and not by stabilizing assembled pili or by preventing PilT-mediated retraction. Mutated alleles of FimX that no longer bind c-di-GMP do not allow rapid T4P assembly in these assays. We propose that by virtue of its high-affinity for c-di-GMP, FimX can promote T4P assembly when intracellular levels of this cyclic nucleotide are low. As P. aeruginosa PilB is not itself a high-affinity c-di-GMP receptor, unlike many other assembly ATPases, FimX may play a key role in coupling T4P mediated motility and adhesion to levels of this second messenger.

  3. The role of T-type calcium channel genes in absence seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucai eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The thalamic relay neurons, reticular thalamic nucleus, and neocortical pyramidal cells form a circuit that sustains oscillatory burst firing, and is regarded as the underlying mechanism of absence seizures. T-type calcium channels play a key role in this circuit. Here we review the role of T-type calcium channel genes in the development of absence seizures, and emphasize gain or loss of function mutations, and other variations that alter both quantity and quality of transcripts, and methylation status of isoforms of T-type calcium channel proteins might be of equal importance in understanding the pathological mechanism of absence seizures.

  4. Biochemical and biological characterization of wild-type and ATPase-deficient Cockayne syndrome B repair protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, E; Rademakers, S; van der Horst, G T; van Gool, A J; Hoeijmakers, J H; Vermeulen, W

    1998-05-08

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a nucleotide excision repair disorder characterized by sun (UV) sensitivity and severe developmental problems. Two genes have been shown to be involved: CSA and CSB. Both proteins play an essential role in preferential repair of transcription-blocking lesions from active genes. In this study we report the purification and characterization of baculovirus-produced HA-His6-tagged CSB protein (dtCSB), using a highly efficient three-step purification protocol. Microinjection of dtCSB protein in CS-B fibroblasts shows that it is biologically functional in vivo. dtCSB exhibits DNA-dependent ATPase activity, stimulated by naked as well as nucleosomal DNA. Using structurally defined DNA oligonucleotides, we show that double-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA with partial single-stranded character but not true single-stranded DNA act as efficient cofactors for CSB ATPase activity. Using a variety of substrates, no overt DNA unwinding by dtCSB could be detected, as found with other SNF2/SWI2 family proteins. By site-directed mutagenesis the invariant lysine residue in the NTP-binding motif of CSB was substituted with a physicochemically related arginine. As expected, this mutation abolished ATPase activity. Surprisingly, the mutant protein was nevertheless able to partially rescue the defect in recovery of RNA synthesis after UV upon microinjection in CS-B fibroblasts. These results indicate that integrity of the conserved nucleotide-binding domain is important for the in vivo function of CSB but that also other properties independent from ATP hydrolysis may contribute to CSB biological functions.

  5. D1 receptors physically interact with N-type calcium channels to regulate channel distribution and dendritic calcium entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, Alexandra E; Mulligan, Sean J; Altier, Christophe; Iftinca, Mircea C; Varela, Diego; Tai, Chao; Chen, Lina; Hameed, Shahid; Hamid, Jawed; Macvicar, Brian A; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2008-05-22

    Dopamine signaling through D1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the maintenance of higher cognitive functions, such as working memory. At the cellular level, these functions are predicated to involve alterations in neuronal calcium levels. The dendrites of PFC neurons express D1 receptors and N-type calcium channels, yet little information exists regarding their coupling. Here, we show that D1 receptors potently inhibit N-type channels in dendrites of rat PFC neurons. Using coimmunoprecipitation, we demonstrate the existence of a D1 receptor-N-type channel signaling complex in this region, and we provide evidence for a direct receptor-channel interaction. Finally, we demonstrate the importance of this complex to receptor-channel colocalization in heterologous systems and in PFC neurons. Our data indicate that the N-type calcium channel is an important physiological target of D1 receptors and reveal a mechanism for D1 receptor-mediated regulation of cognitive function in the PFC.

  6. Low threshold T‐type calcium channels as targets for novel epilepsy treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, Kim L; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; O'Brien, Terence J

    2014-01-01

    .... T ‐type calcium channels are expressed widely throughout the brain and peripheral tissues, and thus have been proposed as therapeutic targets for a variety of diseases such as epilepsy, insomnia, pain...

  7. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and Na+, K+-ATPase expression in gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during isolated and combined exposure to hyperoxia and hypercapnia in fresh water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Michel; Brauner, Colin J; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2001-01-01

    Changes in branchial vacuolar-type H+-ATPase B-subunit mRNA and Na+, K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit mRNA and ATP hydrolytic activity were examined in smolting Atlantic salmon exposed to hyperoxic and/or hypercapnic fresh water. Pre-smolts, smolts, and post-smolts were exposed for 1 to 4 days......-subunit mRNA levels, although not to the same degree as hypercapnic treatment alone. Hyperoxia generally increased Na+, K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit mRNA levels, whereas hypercapnia reduced mRNA levels in presmolts (beta) and smolts (alpha and beta). Despite these changes in mRNA levels, whole tissue...... response in order to minimise intracellular HCO3- formation in epithelial cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Dec...

  8. Low threshold T-type calcium channels as targets for novel epilepsy treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kim L; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; O'Brien, Terence J

    2014-05-01

    Low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels were originally cloned in the 1990s and much research has since focused on identifying the physiological roles of these channels in health and disease states. T-type calcium channels are expressed widely throughout the brain and peripheral tissues, and thus have been proposed as therapeutic targets for a variety of diseases such as epilepsy, insomnia, pain, cancer and hypertension. This review discusses the literature concerning the role of T-type calcium channels in physiological and pathological processes related to epilepsy. T-type calcium channels have been implicated in pathology of both the genetic and acquired epilepsies and several anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in clinical use are known to suppress seizures via inhibition of T-type calcium channels. Despite the fact that more than 15 new AEDs have become clinically available over the past 20 years at least 30% of epilepsy patients still fail to achieve seizure control, and many patients experience unwanted side effects. Furthermore there are no treatments that prevent the development of epilepsy or mitigate the epileptic state once established. Therefore there is an urgent need for the development of new AEDs that are effective in patients with drug resistant epilepsy, are anti-epileptogenic and are better tolerated. We also review the mechanisms of action of the current AEDs with known effects on T-type calcium channels and discuss novel compounds that are being investigated as new treatments for epilepsy. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Effect of L- type Calcium Channel Blocker Nimodipine and T-type Calcium Channel Blocker Flunarizine on Motor Control in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Balkrishna Kaikade

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of L-type of Calcium channel blocker nimodipine and T-type of calcium channel blocker funarizine on locomotor activity in mice without pretreatment by any other drug. Materials and method: The study was carried out following permission from the Institutional animal ethics committee. Healthy Swiss albino mice of either sex were selected by the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and the grouping is done. Group A is control treated with normal saline, Group B and C received two titrated doses of nimodipine while Group D and E received two titrated doses of flunarizine. The animals were then observed for motor control on inclined plane and the Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. Results: L-type calcium channel blocker nimodipine has dose dependent effect on motor control on inclined plane while the T- type calcium channel blocker flunarizine has no effect on motor control. Conclusion: Nimodipine has significant dose dependent depressant action on motor control on inclined plane while flunarizine has no effect on the above mentioned parameter.

  10. Consolidation undrainage three-axial compression test of calcium type bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Munehiro [K.K. Kobori Takuji Kenkyusho (Japan); Ito, Masaru; Mihara, Morihiro; Tanaka, Masuhiro

    1997-12-01

    On disposal of radioactive wastes, when using sodium type bentonite for buffer agent, it is presumed to convert from sodium type to calcium type for a long term at disposing environment owing to effects of calcite in bentonite and components in underground water. And, in the TRU waste disposal facility, cement material can be used for its structural frame body, filler and supporting material, where conversion to calcium type is thought to become remarkable. Therefore, when promoting disposal study of the TRU waste, it is necessary to know some features of calcium type bentonite. This report is summary on consolidation undrainage three-axial compression test of saturated compressed bentonite, for a part of investigation on disposal concept of the TRU waste. In this test, sodium and calcium type bentonite were prepared to specimens after compressing them to have 1.6 g/cc of dry density to saturate. The test was conducted by using a three-axial compression tester, where the saturated specimen were conducted their compression tests under undrainage condition after suffering 0.5 to 2.0 MPa of consolidation stress. As a result, the calcium type bentonite showed a little larger dynamic features than those of the sodium type, but its difference was so small that investigation on dynamic deformation behavior of the buffer agent was judged to be allowed to use dynamic features of the sodium type bentonite. (G.K.)

  11. Differential expression of T- and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal resistance vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2001-01-01

    a significant increase of calcium in response to K(+) (100 mmol/L) in isolated afferent arterioles (140+/-25%) and in juxtamedullary efferent arterioles (118+/-21%). These calcium responses were attenuated by the L-type antagonist calciseptine and by the T-type antagonist mibefradil. Intracellular calcium...

  12. An exposed carboxyl group on sialic acid is essential for gangliosides to inhibit calcium uptake via the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase: relevance to gangliosidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Luba; Li, Su-Chen; Li, Yu-Teh; Futerman, Anthony H

    2008-01-01

    We previously observed that gangliosides GM2, GM1, and GM3 inhibit Ca2+-uptake via the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) in neurons and in brain microsomes. We now systematically examine the effect of various gangliosides and their analogs on Ca2+-uptake via SERCA and demonstrate that an exposed carboxyl group on the ganglioside sialic acid residue is required for inhibition. Thus, asialo-GM2 and asialo-GM1 have no inhibitory effect, and modifications of the carboxyl group of GM1 and GM2 into a hydroxymethyl residue (CH2OH), a methyl ester (COOCH3) or a taurine-conjugated amide (CONHCH2CH2SO3H) drastically diminish their inhibitory activities. We also demonstrate that the saccharides must be attached to a ceramide backbone in order to inhibit SERCA as the ceramide-free ganglioside saccharides only inhibit SERCA to a minimal extent. Finally, we attempted to use the ceramide-free ganglioside saccharides to antagonize the effects of the gangliosides on SERCA; although some reversal was observed, the inhibitory effects of the gangliosides were not completely abolished.

  13. Normal and malignant cells exhibit differential responses to calcium electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Krüger, Mie Barthold; Mangalanathan, Uma M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium electroporation may offer a simple general tool for anticancer therapy. Transient permeabilization of cancer cell membranes created by applying short, high-voltage pulses in tumors enables high calcium influxes that trigger cell death. In this study, we compared the relative sensitivity...... of different human tumor models and normal tissues to calcium electroporation. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) protein expression was confirmed in vitro in all cancer cell lines and normal primary dermal fibroblasts studied. In all tumor types tested in vivo, calcium electroporation effectively induced...... tissue after calcium electroporation but decreased in skin tissue 4 hours after treatment to levels comparable with untreated controls, whereas calcium content endured at high levels in tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments in vitro indicated that calcium influx was similar in fibroblasts and cancer...

  14. The KdpC subunit of the Escherichia coli K+-transporting KdpB P-type ATPase acts as a catalytic chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzik, Kristina; Pfrötzschner, Juliane; Goss, Tatjana; Ahnert, Franziska; Haupt, Melina; Greie, Jörg-Christian

    2011-09-01

    In Bacteria and Archaea, high-affinity potassium uptake is mediated by the ATP-driven KdpFABC complex. On the basis of the biochemical properties of the ATP-hydrolyzing subunit KdpB, the transport complex is classified as type IA P-type ATPase. However, the KdpA subunit, which promotes K(+) transport, clearly resembles a potassium channel, such that the KdpFABC complex represents a chimera of ion pumps and ion channels. In the present study, we demonstrate that the blending of these two groups of transporters in KdpFABC also entails a nucleotide-binding mechanism in which the KdpC subunit acts as a catalytic chaperone. This mechanism is found neither in P-type ATPases nor in ion channels, although parallels are found in ABC transporters. In the latter, the ATP nucleotide is coordinated by the LSGGQ signature motif via double hydrogen bonds at a conserved glutamine residue, which is also present in KdpC. High-affinity nucleotide binding to the KdpFABC complex was dependent on the presence of this conserved glutamine residue in KdpC. In addition, both ATP binding to KdpC and ATP hydrolysis activity of KdpFABC were sensitive to the accessibility, presence or absence of the hydroxyl groups at the ribose moiety of the nucleotide. Furthermore, the KdpC subunit was shown to interact with the nucleotide-binding loop of KdpB in an ATP-dependent manner around the ATP-binding pocket, thereby increasing the ATP-binding affinity by the formation of a transient KdpB/KdpC/ATP ternary complex. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  15. Role of T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanBavel, Ed; Sorop, Oana; Andreasen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    T-type calcium channels may be involved in the maintenance of myogenic tone. We tested their role in isolated rat cremaster arterioles obtained after CO(2) anesthesia and decapitation. Total RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR and Southern blotting for calcium channel expression. We observed expression......); K(+) -5.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 4); all log(IC(50)) P maintenance of myogenic tone in rat cremaster muscle arterioles....

  16. AII amacrine cells express L-type calcium channels at their output synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Christopher J; O'Brien, Brendan J; Wässle, Heinz; Protti, Dario A

    2003-07-30

    AII amacrine cells play a critical role in the high-fidelity signal transmission pathways involved with nighttime vision. The temporal properties of the light responses strongly depend on the transfer function at different synaptic stages and consequently on presynaptic calcium influx. AII light responses are complex waveforms generated by graded input, they comprise Na+-based spikes as well as a sustained component, and they are transferred to graded cone bipolar cells. It is, therefore, of interest to determine the properties of AII voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) to establish whether these cells express N-type and/or P/Q-type VDCCs, characteristic of spiking neurons, or whether they are more like graded neurons, which mostly use L-type VDCCs. We combined electrophysiological, molecular biological, and imaging techniques to characterize calcium currents and their sites of origin in mouse AII amacrine cells. Calcium currents activated at potentials more positive than -60 mV (maximally between -50 and -20 mV) and inactivated slowly. These currents were blocked by dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonists and were enhanced by the DHP agonist BayK 8644. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis of mRNA encoding for different calcium channel alpha subunits in AIIs revealed a consistent expression of the alpha1-D subunit. Calcium imaging of AII cells showed that the greatest change in intracellular calcium occurred in the lobular appendages, with minor changes being observed in the arboreal dendrites. Depolarization-induced calcium rises were also modulated by DHPs, suggesting that a particular kind of L-type VDCC, mainly localized to the lobular appendages, enables these spiking-capable neurons to release neurotransmitter in a sustained manner onto OFF-cone bipolar cells.

  17. Induction of cell differentiation activates transcription of the Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum calcium-ATPase 3 gene (ATP2A3) in gastric and colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Peredo, Lucía; Rodríguez, Gabriela; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel

    2017-02-01

    The Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ -ATPases (SERCAs), pump Ca2+ into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen modulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations to regulate various cellular processes including cell growth. Previous studies have reported a downregulation of SERCA3 protein expression in gastric and colon cancer cell lines and showed that in vitro cell differentiation increases its expression. However, little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms and transcription factors that regulate SERCA3 expression in epithelial cancer cells. In this work, we demonstrate that SERCA3 mRNA is upregulated up to 45-fold in two epithelial cancer cell lines, KATO-III and Caco-2, induced to differentiate with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and by cell confluence, respectively. To evaluate the transcriptional elements responding to the differentiation stimuli, we cloned the human ATP2A3 promoter, generated deletion constructs and transfected them into KATO-III cells. Basal and differentiation responsive DNA elements were located by functional analysis within the first -135 bp of the promoter region. Using site-directed mutagenesis and DNA-protein binding assays we found that Sp1, Sp3, and Klf-4 transcription factors bind to ATP2A3 proximal promoter elements and regulate basal gene expression. We showed that these factors participated in the increase of ATP2A3 expression during cancer cell differentiation. This study provides evidence for the first time that Sp1, Sp3, and Klf-4 transcriptionally modulate the expression of SERCA3 during induction of epithelial cancer cell differentiation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia due to Impaired Renal Tubular Calcium Excretion in a Type 2 Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The case we presented here was a 73-year-old gentleman, who was admitted to endocrinology department due to recurrent fatigue for 1 year. He had medical histories of type 2 diabetes for 18 years and developed CKD 4 years ago. He also suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy, and coronary heart disease, moderate sleep apnea syndrome, primary hypothyroidism, and gout. His treatment regimen was complicated which included Caltrate D and compound α-keto acid (1200 mg calcium/d. Laboratory examination revealed that his serum calcium level elevated, 24-hour urine calcium output decreased, PTH level was suppressed, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was in normal low range. No other specific abnormalities were found in serum bone turnover markers, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy. The diagnosis was suggested to be hypocalciuric hypercalcemia but was different from familial or acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia which were featured by elevated PTH level. The patient was asked to restrict calcium intake and to take diuretics; then his serum calcium level gradually lowered. In brief, patients with CKD could present with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia due to impaired renal calcium excretion. In this case, calcium restriction should be applied for treatment.

  19. Localization of Ca2+ and Ca-ATPase on wet (Ruscus aculeatus) and dry (Primula officinalis) stigma surface

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is present in the surface cells of both types of stigma. The chlorotetracycline method was used to show that the papillae of the dry stigma of Primula officinalis are the source of fluorescence of the CTC-Ca2+ complex. The precipitation method (NHA) localized calcium ions mainly in the pellicula surrounding these papillae. The NHA-Ca2+ precipitates were localized on the plasma membrane in the papillae of the wet stigma of Ruscus aculeatus. Ca-ATPase activity was found in both types of...

  20. Localization of Ca2+ and Ca-ATPase on wet (Ruscus aculeatus and dry (Primula officinalis stigma surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is present in the surface cells of both types of stigma. The chlorotetracycline method was used to show that the papillae of the dry stigma of Primula officinalis are the source of fluorescence of the CTC-Ca2+ complex. The precipitation method (NHA localized calcium ions mainly in the pellicula surrounding these papillae. The NHA-Ca2+ precipitates were localized on the plasma membrane in the papillae of the wet stigma of Ruscus aculeatus. Ca-ATPase activity was found in both types of stigma in sites where the presence of Ca2+ had been determined.

  1. Identification of the Mg2+-binding site in the P-type ATPase and phosphatase members of the HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) superfamily by structural similarity to the response regulator protein CheY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, Ivo S.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1999-01-01

    The large HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) superfamily of hydrolases comprises P-type ATPases, phosphatases, epoxide hydrolases and L-2-haloacid dehalogenases. A comparison of the three-dimensional structure of L-2-haloacid dehalogenase with that of the response regulator protein CheY allowed the

  2. Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, William A; Orr, Mona W; Murray, Samantha R; Lee, Vincent T; Melville, Stephen B

    2017-05-15

    The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses type IV pili (TFP), which are extracellular fibers that are polymerized from a pool of pilin monomers in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two proteins that are essential for pilus functions are an assembly ATPase (PilB) and an inner membrane core protein (PilC). Two homologues each of PilB and PilC are present in C. perfringens, called PilB1/PilB2 and PilC1/PilC2, respectively, along with four pilin proteins, PilA1 to PilA4. The gene encoding PilA2, which is considered the major pilin based on previous studies, is immediately downstream of the pilB2 and pilC2 genes. Purified PilB2 had ATPase activity, bound zinc, formed hexamers even in the absence of ATP, and bound the second messenger molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Circular dichroism spectroscopy of purified PilC2 indicated that it retained its predicted degree of alpha-helical secondary structure. Even though no direct interactions between PilB2 and PilC2 could be detected in vivo or in vitro even in the presence of c-di-GMP, high levels of expression of a diguanylate cyclase from C. perfringens (CPE1788) stimulated polymerization of PilA2 in a PilB2- and PilC2-dependent manner. These results suggest that PilB2 activity is controlled by c-di-GMP levels in vivo but that PilB2-PilC2 interactions are either transitory or of low affinity, in contrast to results reported previously from in vivo studies of the PilB1/PilC1 pair in which PilC1 was needed for polar localization of PilB1. This is the first biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP-dependent assembly ATPase from a Gram-positive bacterium.IMPORTANCE Type IV pili (TFP) are protein fibers involved in important bacterial functions, including motility, adherence to surfaces and host cells, and natural transformation. All clostridia whose genomes have been sequenced show evidence of the presence of TFP. The genetically tractable species Clostridium perfringens was used to study proteins involved in

  3. L-type calcium channels regulate filopodia stability and cancer cell invasion downstream of integrin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemet, Guillaume; Baghirov, Habib; Georgiadou, Maria; Sihto, Harri; Peuhu, Emilia; Cettour-Janet, Pierre; He, Tao; Perälä, Merja; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-12-02

    Mounting in vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence suggest an important role for filopodia in driving cancer cell invasion. Using a high-throughput microscopic-based drug screen, we identify FDA-approved calcium channel blockers (CCBs) as potent inhibitors of filopodia formation in cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we discover that L-type calcium channels are functional and frequently expressed in cancer cells suggesting a previously unappreciated role for these channels during tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that, at filopodia, L-type calcium channels are activated by integrin inside-out signalling, integrin activation and Src. Moreover, L-type calcium channels promote filopodia stability and maturation into talin-rich adhesions through the spatially restricted regulation of calcium entry and subsequent activation of the protease calpain-1. Altogether we uncover a novel and clinically relevant signalling pathway that regulates filopodia formation in cancer cells and propose that cycles of filopodia stabilization, followed by maturation into focal adhesions, directs cancer cell migration and invasion.

  4. Effect of calcium dobesilate on nephropathy in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Xinming

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects and mechanisms of calcium dobesilate on renal lesions in experimental type 2 diabetic rats, dibetic rats were randomly divided into control group (group C) and experimental group (group D) treated with calcium dobesitate. The serum creatinine (Scr), protein kinase C (PKC), creatinine clearance (Ccr), transforming growth factor-beta, (TGF-beta1), type IV collagen were compared among the groups after 24 weeks. The renal tissues were observed under light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results showed that after 24 weeks, Scr, PKC, TGF-beta1 in group D were significantly lower than in group C, meanwhile, renal pathologic changes in group D were improved. Ccr had no difference between group C and group D. It was concluded that calcium dobesilate could ameliorate renal lesions in diabetic rats through inhibiting PKC and TGF-beta1.

  5. Noradrenaline upregulates T-type calcium channels in rat pinealocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijie; Seo, Jong Bae; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Koh, Duk-Su; Hille, Bertil

    2015-02-15

    The mammalian pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that responds to circadian and seasonal rhythms. Its major function is to secrete melatonin as a hormonal night signal in response to nocturnal delivery of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. Culturing rat pinealocytes in noradrenaline for 24 h induced a low-voltage activated transient Ca(2+) current whose pharmacology and kinetics corresponded to a CaV3.1 T-type channel. The upregulation of the T-type Ca(2+) current is initiated by β-adrenergic receptors, cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Messenger RNA for CaV3.1 T-type channels is significantly elevated by noradrenaline at 8 h and 24 h. The noradrenaline-induced T-type channel mediated an increased Ca(2+) entry and supported modest transient electrical responses to depolarizing stimuli, revealing the potential for circadian regulation of pinealocyte electrical excitability and Ca(2+) signalling. Our basic hypothesis is that mammalian pinealocytes have cycling electrical excitability and Ca(2+) signalling that may contribute to the circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin secretion. This study asked whether the functional expression of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV channels) in rat pinealocytes is changed by culturing them in noradrenaline (NA) as a surrogate for the night signal. Channel activity was assayed as ionic currents under patch clamp and as optical signals from a Ca(2+)-sensitive dye. Channel mRNAs were assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cultured without NA, pinealocytes showed only non-inactivating L-type dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca(2+) current. After 24 h in NA, additional low-voltage activated transient Ca(2+) current developed whose pharmacology and kinetics corresponded to a T-type CaV3.1 channel. This change was initiated by β-adrenergic receptors, cyclic AMP and protein kinase A as revealed by pharmacological experiments. mRNA for CaV3.1 T-type channels became significantly elevated, but mRNA for

  6. Relationship between milk and calcium intake and lipid metabolism in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju; Chang, Namsoo; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Arabidopsis calmodulin-like protein CML36 is a calcium (Ca2+) sensor that interacts with the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform ACA8 and stimulates its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astegno, Alessandra; Bonza, Maria Cristina; Vallone, Rosario; La Verde, Valentina; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Luoni, Laura; Molesini, Barbara; Dominici, Paola

    2017-09-08

    Calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are major EF-hand-containing, calcium (Ca2+)-binding proteins with crucial roles in plant development and in coordinating plant stress tolerance. Given their abundance in plants, the properties of Ca2+ sensors and identification of novel target proteins of CMLs deserve special attention. To this end, we recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized CML36 from Arabidopsis thaliana We analyzed Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding to the individual EF-hands, observed metal-induced conformational changes, and identified a physiologically relevant target. CML36 possesses two high-affinity Ca2+/Mg2+ mixed binding sites and two low-affinity Ca2+-specific sites. Binding of Ca2+ induced an increase in the α-helical content and a conformational change that lead to the exposure of hydrophobic regions responsible for target protein recognition. Cation binding, either Ca2+ or Mg2+, stabilized the secondary and tertiary structures of CML36, guiding a large structural transition from a molten globule apo-state to a compact holoconformation. Importantly, through in vitro binding and activity assays, we showed that CML36 interacts directly with the regulative N terminus of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 8 (ACA8) and that this interaction stimulates ACA8 activity. Gene expression analysis revealed that CML36 and ACA8 are co-expressed mainly in inflorescences. Collectively, our results support a role for CML36 as a Ca2+ sensor that binds to and modulates ACA8, uncovering a possible involvement of the CML protein family in the modulation of plant-autoinhibited Ca2+ pumps. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Two types of coherence resonance in an intracellular calcium oscillation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Gao, Qingyu

    2017-09-01

    Two types of noise induced oscillations (NIOs) near Hopf bifurcation and coherence resonance (CR) have been studied analytically in a calcium system. One is NIOs with small amplitude and internal signal stochastic resonance (CR type I) occurs, and the other is noise induced spike and the regularity of which reaches a maximum at an optimal noise level (CR type II). For the first type, stochastic normal form theory is employed to analyze the signal to noise ratio of the NIOs depending on the noise intensity. For the second type, based on the independent assumption, activation time and excursion time have been split, and the sum of which reach a minimum with the variation of noise intensity. The theoretical evidence is also explained in detail. Numerical simulations show good agreements with the theoretical results. It may indicate some kind of transmit mechanism involved in stochastic calcium dynamics.

  9. The genetic background affects the vascular response in T-type calcium channels 3.2 deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Hansen, Pernille B L

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav ) are important regulators of vascular tone and are attractive targets for pharmacological treatment of hypertension. The clinical used calcium blockers are often not selective for one channel but affect several types of calcium channels (Hansen 2015). L......-type channels are the dominant Ca(2+) entry pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells, however, T-type calcium channels are also expressed in the cardiovascular system where they play a functional role in the regulation of both contraction and vasodilation in (Chen et al. 2003; Hansen et al. 2001). This article...... is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. New Role of P/Q-type Voltage-gated Calcium Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are important for the depolarization-evoked contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), with L-type channels being the classical channel involved in this mechanism. However, it has been demonstrated that the CaV2.1 subunit, which encodes a neuronal isoform o...

  11. 5,6-EET potently inhibits T-type calcium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazade, M.; Bidaud, I.; Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard

    2014-01-01

    T-type calcium channels (T-channels) are important actors in neuronal pacemaking, in heart rhythm, and in the control of the vascular tone. T-channels are regulated by several endogenous lipids including the primary eicosanoid arachidonic acid (AA), which display an important role in vasodilation...

  12. [Expression of L-type calcium channel alpha1C subunit in adult rat heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yan; Niu, Xiao-lin; Ren, Fu-xian; Zhang, Ying; Ling, Feng-dong

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of L-type calcium channel alpha1C subunits in adult rat heart. HE staining was applied on the frozen sections of adult rat heart to identify the sinoatrial node (SAN), atrioventricular node (AVN), and posterior nodal extension (PNE). The protein expression of L-type calcium channel alpha1C in adult rat heart and its cellular localization were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. L-type calcium channel alpha1C subunit was immunolocalized on the membrane of the myocardial cells, and its expression increased gradually in the SAN, AVN, PNE, right atrium and right ventricle. The protein level of L-type calcium channel alpha1C in the AVN was similar to that in the PNE (P>0.05), and its level in the right atrium and ventricle were significantly higher than those in the SAN and AVN (Pchannel alpha1C subunit may play a role in the electrophysiological functions of the heart.

  13. The central role of calcium in the effects of cytokines on beta-cell function: implications for type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, James W; Steiner, Stephen R; O'Neill, Christina M; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2011-12-01

    The appropriate regulation of intracellular calcium is a requirement for proper cell function and survival. This review focuses on the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on calcium regulation in the insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell and how normal stimulus-secretion coupling, organelle function, and overall beta-cell viability are impacted. Proinflammatory cytokines are increasingly thought to contribute to beta-cell dysfunction not only in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also in the progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cytokine-induced disruptions in calcium handling result in reduced insulin release in response to glucose stimulation. Cytokines can alter intracellular calcium levels by depleting calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and by increasing calcium influx from the extracellular space. Depleting ER calcium leads to protein misfolding and activation of the ER stress response. Disrupting intracellular calcium may also affect organelles, including the mitochondria and the nucleus. As a chronic condition, cytokine-induced calcium disruptions may lead to beta-cell death in T1D and T2D, although possible protective effects are also discussed. Calcium is thus central to both normal and pathological cell processes. Because the tight regulation of intracellular calcium is crucial to homeostasis, measuring the dynamics of calcium may serve as a good indicator of overall beta-cell function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on L-type calcium channels in human heart sarcolemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevilacqua, M.; Vago, T.; Norbiato, G. (Servizio di Endocrinologia, Milano, (Italy))

    1991-02-01

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PC) protects perfused rat hearts against damage by ischemia-reperfusion. Activation of L-type calcium channel play a role on ischemia-reperfusion damage. Therefore, we studied the effect of PC on some properties of L-type calcium channels in an in vitro preparation from human myocardium sarcolemma (from patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy). Binding of the L-type calcium channel blockers isradipine ({sup 3}H)-PN 200-110 (PN) to plasma membrane preparations revealed a single population of binding sites (total number: Bmax = 213 +/- 34 fM/mg protein and affinity: Kd = 152 +/- 19 nM; n = 6). The characteristics of these binding sites were evaluated in the presence and in the absence of Ca{sup 2}{sup +} and of calcium blockers (D-888, a verapamillike drug, and diltiazem). Incubation in a Ca{sup 2}{sup +}-containing buffer increased the affinity of PN binding sites. Binding sites for PN were modulated by organic calcium channel blockers; in competition isotherms at 37{degree}C, D-888 (desmethoxyverapamil) decreased the PN binding, whereas diltiazem increased it. These results strongly suggest that the site labelled by PN is the voltage-operated calcium channel of the human myocardium. The addition of PC (1 mM) to plasma membranes labelled with PN at 37{degree}C decreased the affinity of the binding; this effect was counteracted by the addition of Ca{sup 2}{sup +} to the medium. This result was consistent with a competition between Ca{sup 2}{sup +} and PC. The effect of PC incubation at 4{degree}C was the opposite; at this temperature PC increased the affinity of the binding sites and the effect was obscured by Ca{sup 2}{sup +}.

  15. The PerR-Regulated P1B-4-Type ATPase (PmtA) Acts as a Ferrous Iron Efflux Pump in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew G; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Djoko, Karrera Y; West, Nicholas P; Davies, Mark R; McEwan, Alastair G; Walker, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) is an obligate human pathogen responsible for a broad spectrum of human disease. GAS has a requirement for metal homeostasis within the human host and, as such, tightly modulates metal uptake and efflux during infection. Metal acquisition systems are required to combat metal sequestration by the host, while metal efflux systems are essential to protect against metal overload poisoning. Here, we investigated the function of PmtA (PerR-regulated metal transporter A), a P1B-4-type ATPase efflux pump, in invasive GAS M1T1 strain 5448. We reveal that PmtA functions as a ferrous iron [Fe(II)] efflux system. In the presence of high Fe(II) concentrations, the 5448ΔpmtA deletion mutant exhibited diminished growth and accumulated 5-fold-higher levels of intracellular Fe(II) than did the wild type and the complemented mutant. The 5448ΔpmtA deletion mutant also showed enhanced susceptibility to killing by the Fe-dependent antibiotic streptonigrin as well as increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. We suggest that the PerR-mediated control of Fe(II) efflux by PmtA is important for bacterial defense against oxidative stress. PmtA represents an exemplar for an Fe(II) efflux system in a host-adapted Gram-positive bacterial pathogen. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. OsACA6, a P-type 2B Ca(2+) ATPase functions in cadmium stress tolerance in tobacco by reducing the oxidative stress load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Sarvjeet Singh; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-10-01

    The present study demonstrates the first direct evidence of the novel role of OsACA6 in providing Cd (2+) stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating ROS-scavenging pathway. Cadmium, a non-essential toxic heavy metal, interferes with the plant growth and development. It reaches the leaves through xylem and may become part of the food chain, thus causing detrimental effects to human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop strategies for engineering plants for Cd(2+) tolerance and less accumulation. The members of P-type ATPases family transport metal ions including Cd(2+), and thus play important role an ion homeostasis. The present study elucidates the role of P-type 2B Ca(2+) ATPase (OsACA6) in Cd(2+) stress tolerance. The transcript levels of OsACA6 were up-regulated upon Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) exposure. Transgenic tobacco expressing OsACA6 showed tolerance towards Cd(2+) stress as demonstrated by several physiological indices including root length, biomass, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content. The roots of the transgenic lines accumulated more Cd(2+) as compared to shoot. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that Cd(2+) exposure altered Ca(2+) uptake in OsACA6 transgenic plants. OsACA6 expression in tobacco also protected the transgenic plants from oxidative stress by enhancing the activity of enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, GR) and non-enzymatic (GSH and AsA) antioxidant machinery. Transgenic lines also tolerated Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) stress; however, tolerance for these ions was not as significant as observed for Cd(2+) exposure. Thus, overexpression of OsACA6 confers Cd(2+) stress tolerance in transgenic lines by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging pathway. The results of the present study will help to develop strategies for engineering Cd(2+) stress tolerance in economically important crop plants.

  17. Calcium dysregulation in relation to Alzheimer-type pathology in the ageing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, C; Faizullabhoy, A; Wharton, S B; Ince, P G; Heath, P R; Shaw, P J; Baxter, L; Gelsthorpe, C; Forster, G; Matthews, F E; Brayne, C; Simpson, J E

    2013-12-01

    Calcium dyshomeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. However, much of the previous research has focused on changes in neuronal calcium signalling. In a recent microarray study we identified dysregulation of several key signalling pathways including the Ca(2+) signalling pathway in astrocytes as Alzheimer-type pathology developed. In this study we sought to determine the expression of calpain-10 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase alpha (CamKIIα) in relation to Alzheimer-type pathology in a population-based study. Using post mortem temporal cortex samples derived from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC-CFAS) ageing brain cohort we examined calpain-10 and CamKIIα gene and protein expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that astrocytic expression of calpain-10 is up-regulated, and CamKIIα down-regulated with increasing Braak stage. Using immunohistochemistry we confirm protein expression of calpain-10 in astrocytes throughout the temporal cortex and demonstrate that calpain-10 immunoreactivity is correlated with both local and global measures of Alzheimer-type pathology. In addition, we identify a subpopulation of calpain-10 immunoreactive interlaminar astrocytes that extend processes deep into the cortex. CamKIIα is predominantly neuronal in localization and is associated with the presence of diffuse plaques in the ageing brain. Dysregulated expression of key calcium signalling molecules occurs with progression of Alzheimer-type pathology in the ageing brain, highlighting the need for further functional studies of astrocytic calcium signalling with respect to disease progression. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  18. GABA(A) Increases Calcium in Subventricular Zone Astrocyte-Like Cells Through L- and T-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Stephanie Z; Platel, Jean-Claude; Nielsen, Jakob V

    2010-01-01

    induced Ca(2+) increases in 40-50% of SVZ astrocytes. GABA(A)-induced Ca(2+) increases were prevented with nifedipine and mibefradil, blockers of L- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). The L-type Ca(2+) channel activator BayK 8644 increased the percentage of GABA(A)-responding astrocyte...

  19. An ionic liquid-type carbon paste electrode for electrochemical investigation and determination of calcium dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Pingping

    2007-10-31

    An ionic liquid-type carbon paste electrode (IL-CPE) had been fabricated by replacing non-conductive organic binders with a conductive room temperature ionic liquid, 1-pentyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (PMIMPF(6)). The electrochemical responses of calcium dobesilate were investigated at the IL-CPE and the traditional carbon paste electrode (T-CPE) in 0.05molL(-1) H(2)SO(4), respectively. The results showed the superiority of IL-CPE to T-CPE in terms of provision of higher sensitivity, faster electron transfer and better reversibility. A novel method for determination of calcium dobesilate was proposed. The oxidation peak current was rectilinear with calcium dobesilate concentration in the range of 8.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-4)molL(-1), with a detection limit of 4.0x10(-7)molL(-1) (S/N=3) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method was applied to directly determine calcium dobesilate in capsule and urine samples.

  20. Normal and Malignant Cells Exhibit Differential Responses to Calcium Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Stine K; Krüger, Mie B; Mangalanathan, Uma M; Tramm, Trine; Mahmood, Faisal; Novak, Ivana; Gehl, Julie

    2017-08-15

    Calcium electroporation may offer a simple general tool for anticancer therapy. Transient permeabilization of cancer cell membranes created by applying short, high-voltage pulses in tumors enables high calcium influxes that trigger cell death. In this study, we compared the relative sensitivity of different human tumor models and normal tissues to calcium electroporation. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) protein expression was confirmed in vitro in all cancer cell lines and normal primary dermal fibroblasts studied. In all tumor types tested in vivo, calcium electroporation effectively induced necrosis, with a range of sensitivities observed (36%-88%) 2 days after treatment. Necrosis was induced using calcium concentrations of 100-500 mmol/L and injection volumes 20%-80% of tumor volume. Notably, only limited effects were seen in normal tissue. Calcium content increased >7-fold in tumor and skin tissue after calcium electroporation but decreased in skin tissue 4 hours after treatment to levels comparable with untreated controls, whereas calcium content endured at high levels in tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments in vitro indicated that calcium influx was similar in fibroblasts and cancer cells. However, we observed decreased PMCA expression in cancer cells compared with fibroblasts, offering a potential explanation for the different calcium content in tumor cells versus normal tissues. Overall, our results suggest that calcium electroporation can elicit a rapid and selective necrosis of solid tumors, with limited deleterious effects on surrounding normal tissues. Cancer Res; 77(16); 4389-401. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. An inulin-type fructan enhances calcium absorption primarily via an effect on colonic absorption in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium absorption efficiency and bone mineral mass are increased in adolescents who regularly consume inulin-type fructans (ITF). The mechanism of action in increasing absorption is unknown but may be related to increased colonic calcium absorption. We conducted a study in young adults designed to ...

  2. Signal processing by T-type calcium channel interactions in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Jordan D T; Anderson, Dustin; Zamponi, Gerald W; Turner, Ray W

    2013-11-27

    T-type calcium channels of the Cav3 family are unique among voltage-gated calcium channels due to their low activation voltage, rapid inactivation, and small single channel conductance. These special properties allow Cav3 calcium channels to regulate neuronal processing in the subthreshold voltage range. Here, we review two different subthreshold ion channel interactions involving Cav3 channels and explore the ability of these interactions to expand the functional roles of Cav3 channels. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, Cav3 and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa) channels form a novel complex which creates a low voltage-activated, transient outward current capable of suppressing temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). In large diameter neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Cav3-mediated calcium current (I T) and hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I H) are activated during trains of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. These currents have distinct, and yet synergistic, roles in the subthreshold domain with I T generating a rebound burst and I H controlling first spike latency and rebound spike precision. However, by shortening the membrane time constant the membrane returns towards resting value at a faster rate, allowing I H to increase the efficacy of I T and increase the range of burst frequencies that can be generated. The net effect of Cav3 channels thus depends on the channels with which they are paired. When expressed in a complex with a KCa channel, Cav3 channels reduce excitability when processing excitatory inputs. If functionally coupled with an HCN channel, the depolarizing effect of Cav3 channels is accentuated, allowing for efficient inversion of inhibitory inputs to generate a rebound burst output. Therefore, signal processing relies not only on the activity of individual subtypes of channels but also on complex interactions between ion channels whether based on a physical complex or by indirect

  3. Signal processing by T-type calcium channel interactions in the cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan D.T. Engbers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available T-type calcium channels of the Cav3 family are unique among voltage-gated calcium channels due to their low activation voltage, rapid inactivation, and small single channel conductance. These special properties allow Cav3 calcium channels to regulate neuronal processing in the subthreshold voltage range. Here, we review two different subthreshold ion channel interactions involving Cav3 channels and explore the ability of these interactions to expand the functional roles of Cav3 channels. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, Cav3 and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa channels form a novel complex which creates a low voltage-activated, transient outward current capable of suppressing temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs. In large diameter neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Cav3-mediated calcium current (IT and hyperpolarization-activated cation current (IH are activated during trains of IPSPs. These currents have distinct, and yet synergistic, roles in the subthreshold domain with IT generating a rebound burst and IH controlling first spike latency and rebound spike precision. However, by shortening the membrane time constant the membrane returns towards resting value at a faster rate, allowing IH to increase the efficacy of IT, and increase the range of burst frequencies that can be generated. The net effect of Cav3 channels thus depends on the channels with which they are paired. When expressed in a complex with a KCa channel, Cav3 channels reduce excitability when processing excitatory inputs. If functionally coupled with an HCN channel, the depolarizing effect of Cav3 channels is accentuated, allowing for efficient inversion of inhibitory inputs to generate a rebound burst output. Therefore, signal processing relies not only on the activity of individual subtypes of channels but also on complex interactions between ion channels whether based on a physical complex or by indirect effects on

  4. Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-25

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CadA of Mesorhizobium metallidurans isolated from a zinc-rich mining soil is a P(IB-2)-type ATPase involved in cadmium and zinc resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynaud, Geraldine; Brunel, Brigitte; Yashiro, Erika; Mergeay, Max; Cleyet-Marel, Jean-Claude; Le Quéré, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Mesorhizobium metallidurans STM 2683(T) is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that nodulates Anthyllis vulneraria in mine tailings highly contaminated in zinc, lead and cadmium. To study the mechanisms whereby this bacterium copes with metals, we functionally screened a cosmid genomic library of M. metallidurans for zinc or cadmium tolerance. A cosmid clone harbored a gene encoding P(IB)-type ATPase homologous to CadA that leads to cadmium and zinc resistance in Escherichia coli. The CadA protein structure presents one duplication of the two N-terminal metal binding domains (i.e. a heavy metal-associated domain followed by a histidine-rich domain) which allows specific binding to zinc and cadmium cations. A cadA-deleted strain of M. metallidurans failed to grow at high zinc concentrations (2 mM) and its growth was delayed at lower zinc concentrations. Expression studies using a transcriptional fusion of cadA promoter to gfp showed that cadA is specifically induced in a dose-dependent manner by zinc and cadmium in M. metallidurans in vitro conditions and into A. vulneraria nodules after Zn stress. Metal induction sensitivity was increased in the strain where cadA gene was deleted. This study identified cadA as a first mesorhizobial resistance determinant involved in detoxification of cadmium and zinc and which confers upon M. metallidurans greater capacity for coping with high zinc concentrations. This improves the knowledge of this bacterium for potential use as a symbiotic inoculant of Anthyllis in phytostabilization strategies of metal-rich sites. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  7. Ziconotide, an intrathecally administered N-type calcium channel antagonist for the treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermeling, Daniel P

    2005-08-01

    Ziconotide is a novel peptide that blocks the entry of calcium into neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, preventing the conduction of nerve signals. N-type calcium channels are present in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In various animal models of pain, intrathecal administration of ziconotide blocked nerve transmission and nociception. The United States Food and Drug Administration recently approved ziconotide intrathecal infusion for the management of severe chronic pain in patients who require intrathecal therapy and who are intolerant of or refractory to other treatment, such as systemic analgesics, adjunctive therapies, or intrathecal morphine. The drug has a narrow therapeutic window and a lag time for the onset and offset of analgesia and adverse events. In early clinical trials, frequent and severe psychiatric and central nervous system adverse effects were associated with rapid intrathecal infusion (0.4 microg/hr) and frequent up-titration (every 12 hrs). Therefore, patients with psychiatric symptoms are not candidates for this drug. Drug trials of external intrathecal catheters and microinfusion devices demonstrated a 3% risk of meningitis. A low initial infusion rate of 0.1 microg/hour and limiting infusion rate increases to 2-3 times/week are now recommended. Patients responsive to intrathecal ziconotide require an implanted infusion system to receive long-term therapy.

  8. Removal of calcium ions triggers a novel type of intercadherin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troyanovsky, R B; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Troyanovsky, S

    1999-01-01

    incorporating the cell-cell adhesive receptors, E-cadherin, desmoglein or desmocollin. Sedimentation and biochemical analysis demonstrated that calcium removal triggers a rapid formation of a novel type of complex formed via direct lateral E-cadherin-desmoglein, E-cadherin-desmocollin and desmoglein......-desmocollin dimerization of the extracellular cadherin regions. Replacement of Trp(156) and Val(157) of E-cadherin, that has been shown to abolish lateral and adhesive E-cadherin homodimerization in standard cultures, did not influence the formation of these 'calcium-sensitive' complexes. Furthermore, experiments...... with this mutant revealed that EGTA induced lateral Trp(156)/Val(157)-independent homodimerization of E-cadherin. Deletion mutagenesis of E-cadherin showed that these complexes are mediated by at least two extracellular cadherin domains, EC3 and EC4. Notably, protein kinase inhibitor H-7 which confers EGTA...

  9. Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium absorption and whole-body bone mineral content are greater in young adolescents who receive 8 g/d of Synergy, a mixture of inulin-type fructans (ITF), compared with those who received a maltodextrin control. Not all adolescents responded to this intervention, however. We evaluated 32 respond...

  10. Regulation of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falhof, Janus

    The plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is responsible for generating the electrochemical gradientthat drives the secondary transport of nutrients across the cellular membrane. It belongs to a familyof cation and lipid transporters that are vital to many organisms. PM H+-ATPases are Type P3AATPases...

  11. Sigma-1 Receptor Plays a Negative Modulation on N-type Calcium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sigma-1 receptor is a 223 amino acids molecular chaperone with a single transmembrane domain. It is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. By chaperone-mediated interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules, the sigma-1 receptor performs broad physiological and pharmacological functions. Despite sigma-1 receptors have been confirmed to regulate various types of ion channels, the relationship between the sigma-1 receptor and N-type Ca2+ channel is still unclear. Considering both sigma-1 receptors and N-type Ca2+ channels are involved in intracellular calcium homeostasis and neurotransmission, we undertake studies to explore the possible interaction between these two proteins. In the experiment, we confirmed the expression of the sigma-1 receptors and the N-type calcium channels in the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs in rat striatum by using single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (scRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. N-type Ca2+ currents recorded from ChIs in the brain slice of rat striatum was depressed when sigma-1 receptor agonists (SKF-10047 and Pre-084 were administrated. The inhibition was completely abolished by sigma-1 receptor antagonist (BD-1063. Co-expression of the sigma-1 receptors and the N-type calcium channels in Xenopus oocytes presented a decrease of N-type Ca2+ current amplitude with an increase of sigma-1 receptor expression. SKF-10047 could further depress N-type Ca2+ currents recorded from oocytes. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assays and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP demonstrated that sigma-1 receptors and N-type Ca2+ channels formed a protein complex when they were co-expressed in HEK-293T (Human Embryonic Kidney -293T cells. Our results revealed that the sigma-1 receptors played a negative modulation on N-type Ca2+ channels. The mechanism for the inhibition of sigma-1 receptors on

  12. Excessive signal transduction of gain-of-function variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR are associated with increased ER to cytosol calcium gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ranieri

    Full Text Available In humans, gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR gene are the cause of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or type 5 Bartter syndrome characterized by an abnormality of calcium metabolism with low parathyroid hormone levels and excessive renal calcium excretion. Functional characterization of CaSR activating variants has been so far limited at demonstrating an increased sensitivity to external calcium leading to lower Ca-EC50. Here we combine high resolution fluorescence based techniques and provide evidence that for the efficiency of calcium signaling system, cells expressing gain-of-function variants of CaSR monitor cytosolic and ER calcium levels increasing the expression of the Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase (SERCA and reducing expression of Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase (PMCA. Wild-type CaSR (hCaSR-wt and its gain-of-function (hCaSR-R990G; hCaSR-N124K variants were transiently transfected in HEK-293 cells. Basal intracellular calcium concentration was significantly lower in cells expressing hCaSR-wt and its gain of function variants compared to mock. In line, FRET studies using the D1ER probe, which detects [Ca2+]ER directly, demonstrated significantly higher calcium accumulation in cells expressing the gain of function CaSR variants compared to hCaSR-wt. Consistently, cells expressing activating CaSR variants showed a significant increase in SERCA activity and expression and a reduced PMCA expression. This combined parallel regulation in protein expression increases the ER to cytosol calcium gradient explaining the higher sensitivity of CaSR gain-of-function variants to external calcium. This control principle provides a general explanation of how cells reliably connect (and exacerbate receptor inputs to cell function.

  13. Excessive Signal Transduction of Gain-of-Function Variants of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Are Associated with Increased ER to Cytosol Calcium Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mise, Annarita; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Soldati, Laura; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    In humans, gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene are the cause of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or type 5 Bartter syndrome characterized by an abnormality of calcium metabolism with low parathyroid hormone levels and excessive renal calcium excretion. Functional characterization of CaSR activating variants has been so far limited at demonstrating an increased sensitivity to external calcium leading to lower Ca-EC50. Here we combine high resolution fluorescence based techniques and provide evidence that for the efficiency of calcium signaling system, cells expressing gain-of-function variants of CaSR monitor cytosolic and ER calcium levels increasing the expression of the Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase (SERCA) and reducing expression of Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase (PMCA). Wild-type CaSR (hCaSR-wt) and its gain-of-function (hCaSR-R990G; hCaSR-N124K) variants were transiently transfected in HEK-293 cells. Basal intracellular calcium concentration was significantly lower in cells expressing hCaSR-wt and its gain of function variants compared to mock. In line, FRET studies using the D1ER probe, which detects [Ca2+]ER directly, demonstrated significantly higher calcium accumulation in cells expressing the gain of function CaSR variants compared to hCaSR-wt. Consistently, cells expressing activating CaSR variants showed a significant increase in SERCA activity and expression and a reduced PMCA expression. This combined parallel regulation in protein expression increases the ER to cytosol calcium gradient explaining the higher sensitivity of CaSR gain-of-function variants to external calcium. This control principle provides a general explanation of how cells reliably connect (and exacerbate) receptor inputs to cell function. PMID:24244430

  14. L-type calcium channels refine the neural population code of sound level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Calum Alex; Green, David Brian; Sivaramakrishnan, Shobhana

    2016-12-01

    The coding of sound level by ensembles of neurons improves the accuracy with which listeners identify how loud a sound is. In the auditory system, the rate at which neurons fire in response to changes in sound level is shaped by local networks. Voltage-gated conductances alter local output by regulating neuronal firing, but their role in modulating responses to sound level is unclear. We tested the effects of L-type calcium channels (CaL: CaV1.1-1.4) on sound-level coding in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in the auditory midbrain. We characterized the contribution of CaL to the total calcium current in brain slices and then examined its effects on rate-level functions (RLFs) in vivo using single-unit recordings in awake mice. CaL is a high-threshold current and comprises ∼50% of the total calcium current in ICC neurons. In vivo, CaL activates at sound levels that evoke high firing rates. In RLFs that increase monotonically with sound level, CaL boosts spike rates at high sound levels and increases the maximum firing rate achieved. In different populations of RLFs that change nonmonotonically with sound level, CaL either suppresses or enhances firing at sound levels that evoke maximum firing. CaL multiplies the gain of monotonic RLFs with dynamic range and divides the gain of nonmonotonic RLFs with the width of the RLF. These results suggest that a single broad class of calcium channels activates enhancing and suppressing local circuits to regulate the sensitivity of neuronal populations to sound level. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Structural and functional studies of a Cu+-ATPase from Legionella pneumophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattle, Daniel

    During his studies, Daniel Mattle explored the copper(I) export mechanism of a P-type Cu+ ATPase from Legionella pneumophila – a homologue to the human Cu+ ATPases. Cu+ ATPases are responsible for the homeostatic control of the physiological relevant – but toxic – copper(I) cations. To assess...

  16. Structure of the plasminogen kringle 4 binding calcium-free form of the C-type lectin-like domain of tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Steen; Thomsen, Jens K; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov

    2004-01-01

    Tetranectin is a homotrimeric protein containing a C-type lectin-like domain. This domain (TN3) can bind calcium, but in the absence of calcium, the domain binds a number of kringle-type protein ligands. Two of the calcium-coordinating residues are also critical for binding plasminogen kringle 4 (K...

  17. The dynamic stator stalk of rotary ATPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Lee, Lawrence K.; Donohoe, Mhairi; Chaston, Jessica J.; Stock, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP hydrolysis/synthesis with proton translocation across biological membranes and so are central components of the biological energy conversion machinery. Their peripheral stalks are essential components that counteract torque generated by rotation of the central stalk during ATP synthesis or hydrolysis. Here we present a 2.25-Å resolution crystal structure of the peripheral stalk from Thermus thermophilus A-type ATPase/synthase. We identify bending and twisting motions inherent within the structure that accommodate and complement a radial wobbling of the ATPase headgroup as it progresses through its catalytic cycles, while still retaining azimuthal stiffness necessary to counteract rotation of the central stalk. The conformational freedom of the peripheral stalk is dictated by its unusual right-handed coiled-coil architecture, which is in principle conserved across all rotary ATPases. In context of the intact enzyme, the dynamics of the peripheral stalks provides a potential mechanism for cooperativity between distant parts of rotary ATPases. PMID:22353718

  18. TRANSPARENT TESTA 13 is a tonoplast P3A -ATPase required for vacuolar deposition of proanthocyanidins in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhagen, I.; Nordholt, N.; Seidel, T.; Spelt, K.; Koes, R.; Quattrochio, F.; Sagasser, M.; Weisshaar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pH homeostasis is essential for all living cells. In plants, pH is usually maintained by three structurally distinct and differentially localized types of proton pump: P-type H(+) -ATPases in the plasma membrane, and multimeric vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPases (V-ATPases) and vacuolar H(+)

  19. Serum calcium and the calcium-sensing receptor polymorphism rs17251221 in relation to coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and mortality: the Tromsø Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Rolf; Schirmer, Henrik; Njølstad, Inger; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Ellisiv; Kamycheva, Elena; Figenschau, Yngve; Grimnes, Guri

    2013-07-01

    Serum calcium measured in 27,158 subjects in 1994 and the calcium-sensing receptor polymorphism rs17251221 genotyped in 9,404 subjects were related to cardiovascular risk factors, incident myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer and death during follow-up until 2008-2010. In a Cox regression model with adjustment for age, gender, smoking and body mass index, subjects with serum calcium 2.50-2.60 mmol/L had a significantly increased risk of incident MI [n = 1,802, hazards ratio (HR) 1.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.66] and T2DM (n = 705, HR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.15, 1.94) and a significantly reduced risk of cancer (n = 2,222, HR 0.73, 95 % CI 0.62, 0.86) as compared to subjects with serum calcium 2.20-2.29 mmol/L. For rs17251221 there was a mean difference in serum calcium of 0.05 mmol/L between major and minor homozygote genotypes. No consistent, significant relation between rs17251221 and risk factors or the major hard endpoints were found. The minor homozygote genotype (high serum calcium) had a significant twofold increased risk (HR 2.32, 95 % CI 1.24, 4.36) for prostate cancer, as compared to the major homozygote. This may be clinically important if confirmed in other cohorts.

  20. Development of multiple calcium channel types in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chameau, P; Lucas, P; Melliti, K; Bournaud, R; Shimahara, T

    1999-05-01

    The development of multiple calcium channel activities was studied in mouse hippocampal neurons in culture, using the patch-clamp technique. A depolarizing pulse (40-50 ms duration) from the holding potential of -80 mV to levels more depolarized than -40 mV produced a low threshold T-type current. The T-type current was observed in 52% of four days in vitro neurons. The number of neurons which expressed T-type current decreased with age of culture, so that the current was detected in only 18% of neurons after 16 days in vitro. The T-type current densities varied between 1.9 pA/pF and 3.29 pA/pF in the mean values during the period studied (4-16 days in vitro). A depolarizing pulse from -80 mV to levels more depolarized than -35 mV evoked a high threshold calcium channel current. The high threshold current density increased in the mean values from 3.9 pA/pF in four days in vitro neurons to 28 pA/pF in 16 days in vitro neurons. We have then examined the effect of nifedipine, omega-Agatoxin IVA and omega-conotoxin GVIA on the high threshold current. Nifedipine (1-5 microM) sensitive current density stayed in the range of 1.9-2.1 pA/pF during 4-16 days in vitro, while omega-Agatoxin IVA (200 nM) sensitive current density increased in the mean values from 1.54 pA/pF in four days in vitro neurons to 21.5 pA/pF in 16 days in vitro neurons. The omega-conotoxin GVIA sensitive N-type channel current was maximum at eight days in vitro (5.44 pA/pF) and it reduced progressively to reach almost half (2.46 pA/pF) in 16 days in vitro neurons. These results showed that diverse subtypes of calcium channels change in density during the early period of culture. We suggest that the temporal expression of each type of channel may be linked to the development of neural activities.

  1. Mechanism of sodium hydrosulfide modulation of L-type calcium channels in rat colonic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qincai; Quan, Xiaojing; Yan, Lin; Ren, Haixia; Chen, Wei; Xia, Hong; Luo, Hesheng

    2018-01-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can exert different effects on the gastrointestinal tract by modulating ion channels. Previously, we found that H 2 S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) regulates colonic motility through L-type calcium channels, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the modulation of L-type calcium channels by NaHS in rat colonic smooth muscle cells. L-type calcium currents in colonic smooth muscle cells were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Spontaneous contractions of mid-colonic smooth muscle strips were measured in an organ bath system and a biological signal acquisition system. NaHS evoked a significant rightward shift in the steady-state activation curve of L-type calcium channels, changed the shape of the current-voltage (I-V) curve, and decreased the peak current density at 0mV, although it significantly increased with higher stimulatory voltage. The sulfhydryl-modifying reagent DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) enhanced the effects of NaHS on L-type calcium channels, while diamide (DM) and reduced L-glutathione (GSH) alleviated the effects of NaHS. Additionally, NaHS inhibited the spontaneous high-amplitude contractions of both longitudinal and circular smooth muscle strips in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were reversible. DTT and GSH enhanced the effects of NaHS, while DM attenuated the effects of NaHS. In conclusion, NaHS modulates L-type calcium channels in rat colonic smooth muscle cells and regulates the contractile activity of colonic smooth muscle, potentially by modifying the free sulfhydryl groups of L-type calcium channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of the N-type calcium channel gene expression by the alpha subunit of Go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Jun; Ghil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Min-Ji; Yun Park, So; Kim, Dong-Sun; Hwan Kim, Sung; Chin, Hemin; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Jiang, Meisheng; Hong, Sung Youl; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Young-Don

    2003-04-10

    Go, a heterotrimeric G-protein, is enriched in brain and neuronal growth cones. Although several reports suggest that Go may be involved in modulation of neuronal differentiation, the precise role of Go is not clear. To investigate the function of Go in neuronal differentiation, we determined the effect of Goalpha, the alpha subunit of Go, on the expression of Ca(v)2.2, the pore-forming unit of N-type calcium channels, at the transcription level. Treatment with cyclic AMP (cAMP), which triggers neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma F11 cells, increased the mRNA level and the promoter activity of the Ca(v)2.2 gene. Overexpression of Goalpha inhibited neurite extension in F11 cells and simultaneously repressed the stimulatory effect of cAMP on the Ca(v)2.2 gene expression to the basal level. Targeted mutation of the Goalpha gene also increased the level of Ca(v)2.2 in the brain. These results suggest that Go may regulate neuronal differentiation through modulation of gene expression of target genes such as N-type calcium channels.

  3. Characterization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase from rabbit temporalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel Antonio; Di Croce, Daniel Eduardo; Casadoumecq, Ana Clara; Richard, Susana Beatriz; Takara, Delia

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca-ATPase from rabbit temporalis muscle and to determine the optimal conditions for calcium transport and enzymatic activity. SR vesicles were isolated from rabbit temporalis muscle by differential centrifugation, the protein composition analyzed by electrophoresis and compared to fast-twitch muscle membrane suspensions. ELISA was used to determine the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) isoform. Ca-ATPase activity was determined by a colorimetric method. Calcium-binding to the Ca-ATPase, calcium uptake, calcium efflux and phosphorylation by P(i) were determined with radioisotopic techniques. Sixty five percent of the total protein concentration of SR membranes suspensions from rabbit temporalis corresponded to SERCA. Of the total SERCA protein, 64% was SERCA 2, 35% was SERCA 1 and less than 1% was SERCA 3. The optimal conditions of the SERCA isolated from rabbit temporalis muscle were: pH 7.2, 5 μM Ca(2+), 100 μM EGTA, 90 μM Mg(2+), 3mM ATP and 100mM KCl and did not differ from fast-twitch skeletal muscle. The temporalis maximal calcium uptake and Ca-ATPase activity were lower but the sensitivity to the specific Ca-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin was higher. Calcium-binding to the enzyme and calcium efflux were similar while the phosphorylation of the enzyme by P(i) was lower. The lower enzymatic activity and calcium transport capability of the Ca-ATPase isolated from rabbit temporalis, and the higher sensitivity to inhibitory drugs are consistent with the presence of a substantial proportion of SERCA 2, which can be expected in other rabbit masticatory muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of La-Co Substituted M-type Calcium Hexaferrite by Polymerizable Complex Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Nakanishi, M.; Fujii, T.; Takada, J.; Ikeda, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Synthesis of La-Co substituted M-type Calcium hexaferrite was studied. Samples were prepared by polymerizable complex method. High purity reagent of strontium carbonate, iron (III) nitrate ennnahydrate, cobalt (II) nitrate hexahydrate and lanthanum oxide were used as starting materials. Prepared aqueous solution was heated for dehydration and gelling. Thermal pyrolysis was carried out by heating the gel. The obtained precursor powders were ground with an alumina mortar and compacted by uniaxial pressing into disk specimens and then heated at temperature range between 1173 K and 1573 K in air. Phase identification and determination of lattice parameters were carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized to investigate the microstructure of the polycrystalline ferrites. Magnetic properties were discussed by magnetization measurements by measuring of M-H curve with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Single-phase of M-type hexaferrite was obtained at lower temperature relative to by conventional synthesis.

  5. Seipin promotes adipose tissue fat storage through the ER Ca²⁺-ATPase SERCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Junfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Zhonghua; Huang, Xiahe; Jiang, Qingqing; Liu, George; Wang, Yingchun; Huang, Xun

    2014-05-06

    Adipose tissue is central to the regulation of lipid metabolism. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), one of the most severe lipodystrophy diseases, is caused by mutation of the Seipin gene. Seipin plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and lipid homeostasis, but its exact molecular functions are still unknown. Here, we show that Seipin physically interacts with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) in both Drosophila and man. SERCA, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump, is solely responsible for transporting cytosolic calcium into the ER lumen. Like dSeipin, dSERCA cell-autonomously promotes lipid storage in Drosophila fat cells. dSeipin affects dSERCA activity and modulates intracellular calcium homeostasis. Adipose tissue-specific knockdown of the ER-to-cytosol calcium release channel ryanodine receptor (RyR) partially restores fat storage in dSeipin mutants. Our results reveal that Seipin promotes adipose tissue fat storage by regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blockade of L-type calcium channel in myocardium and calcium-induced contractions of vascular smooth muscle by CPU 86017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-zai; Hu, Hui-juan; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Xue-mei; Yang, Dong-mei; Zhou, Pei-ai; Wu, Cai-hong

    2004-04-01

    To assess the blockade by CPU 86017 on the L-type calcium channels in the myocardium and on the Ca(2+)-related contractions of vascular smooth muscle. The whole-cell patch-clamp was applied to investigate the blocking effect of CPU 86017 on the L-type calcium current in isolated guinea pig myocytes and contractions by KCl or phenylephrine (Phe) of the isolated rat tail arteries were measured. Suppression of the L-type current of the isolated myocytes by CPU 86017 was moderate, in time- and concentration-dependent manner and with no influence on the activation and inactivation curves. The IC(50) was 11.5 micromol/L. Suppressive effect of CPU 86017 on vaso-contractions induced by KCl 100 mmol/L, phenylephrine 1 micromol/L in KH solution (phase 1), Ca(2+) free KH solution ( phase 2), and by addition of CaCl(2) into Ca(2+)-free KH solution (phase 3) were observed. The IC(50) to suppress vaso-contractions by calcium entry via the receptor operated channel (ROC) and voltage-dependent channel (VDC) was 0.324 micromol/L and 16.3 micromol/L, respectively. The relative potency of CPU 86017 to suppress vascular tone by Ca(2+) entry through ROC and VDC is 1/187 of prazosin and 1/37 of verapamil, respectively. The blocking effects of CPU 86017 on the L-type calcium channel of myocardium and vessel are moderate and non-selective. CPU 86017 is approximately 50 times more potent in inhibiting ROC than VDC.

  8. New Conotoxin SO-3 Targeting N-type Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective blockers of the N-type voltage-sensitive calcium (CaV channels are useful in the management of severe chronic pain. Here, the structure and function characteristics of a novel N-type CaV channel blocker, SO-3, are reviewed. SO-3 is a 25-amino acid conopeptide originally derived from the venom of Conus striatus, and contains the same 4-loop, 6-cysteine framework (C-C-CC-C-C as O-superfamily conotoxins. The synthetic SO-3 has high analgesic activity similar to ω-conotoxin MVIIA (MVIIA, a selective N-type CaV channel blocker approved in the USA and Europe for the alleviation of persistent pain states. In electrophysiological studies, SO-3 shows more selectivity towards the N-type CaV channels than MVIIA. The dissimilarity between SO-3 and MVIIA in the primary and tertiary structures is further discussed in an attempt to illustrate the difference in selectivity of SO-3 and MVIIA towards N-type CaV channels.

  9. In vivo impact of presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction on motor axons in episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Susan E; Tan, S Veronica; Burke, David; Labrum, Robyn W; Haworth, Andrea; Gibbons, Vaneesha S; Sweeney, Mary G; Griggs, Robert C; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Bostock, Hugh; Hanna, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    Ion channel dysfunction causes a range of neurological disorders by altering transmembrane ion fluxes, neuronal or muscle excitability, and neurotransmitter release. Genetic neuronal channelopathies affecting peripheral axons provide a unique opportunity to examine the impact of dysfunction of a single channel subtype in detail in vivo. Episodic ataxia type 2 is caused by mutations in CACNA1A, which encodes the pore-forming subunit of the neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.1. In peripheral motor axons, this channel is highly expressed at the presynaptic neuromuscular junction where it contributes to action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release, but it is not expressed mid-axon or thought to contribute to action potential generation. Eight patients from five families with genetically confirmed episodic ataxia type 2 underwent neurophysiological assessment to determine whether axonal excitability was normal and, if not, whether changes could be explained by Cav2.1 dysfunction. New mutations in the CACNA1A gene were identified in two families. Nerve conduction studies were normal, but increased jitter in single-fibre EMG studies indicated unstable neuromuscular transmission in two patients. Excitability properties of median motor axons were compared with those in 30 age-matched healthy control subjects. All patients had similar excitability abnormalities, including a high electrical threshold and increased responses to hyperpolarizing (P ataxia type 2 thus has unexpected effects on axon excitability, which may reflect an indirect effect of abnormal calcium current fluxes during development. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.

  10. Transient Silencing of a Type IV P-Type ATPase, Atp10c, Results in Decreased Glucose Uptake in C2C12 Myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, S E; Minkin, S C; Biggerstaff, J; Dhar, M S

    2012-01-01

    Atp10c is a strong candidate gene for diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. To identify molecular and cellular targets of ATP10C, Atp10c expression was altered in vitro in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes by transient transfection with an Atp10c-specific siRNA. Glucose uptake assays revealed that insulin stimulation caused a significant 2.54-fold decrease in 2-deoxyglucose uptake in transfected cells coupled with a significant upregulation of native mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38, and p44/42. Additionally, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) was significantly upregulated; no changes in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) expression were observed. The involvement of MAPKs was confirmed using the specific inhibitor SB203580, which downregulated the expression of native and phosphorylated MAPK proteins in transfected cells without any changes in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Results indicate that Atp10c regulates glucose metabolism, at least in part via the MAPK pathway, and, thus, plays a significant role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Transient Silencing of a Type IV P-Type ATPase, Atp10c, Results in Decreased Glucose Uptake in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Hurst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atp10c is a strong candidate gene for diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. To identify molecular and cellular targets of ATP10C, Atp10c expression was altered in vitro in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes by transient transfection with an Atp10c-specific siRNA. Glucose uptake assays revealed that insulin stimulation caused a significant 2.54-fold decrease in 2-deoxyglucose uptake in transfected cells coupled with a significant upregulation of native mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, p38, and p44/42. Additionally, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1 was significantly upregulated; no changes in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4 expression were observed. The involvement of MAPKs was confirmed using the specific inhibitor SB203580, which downregulated the expression of native and phosphorylated MAPK proteins in transfected cells without any changes in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Results indicate that Atp10c regulates glucose metabolism, at least in part via the MAPK pathway, and, thus, plays a significant role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  12. Nicotine affects bone resorption and suppresses the expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9 and vacuolar-type H(+-ATPase d2 and actin organization in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for the development of several cancers, osteoporosis, and inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. Nicotine is one of the major components of tobacco. In previous study, we showed that nicotine inhibits mineralized nodule formation by osteoblasts, and the culture medium from osteoblasts containing nicotine and lipopolysaccharide increases osteoclast differentiation. However, the direct effect of nicotine on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the direct effects of nicotine on the expression of nicotine receptors and bone resorption-related enzymes, mineral resorption, actin organization, and bone resorption using RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow cells as osteoclast precursors. Cells were cultured with 10(-5, 10(-4, or 10(-3 M nicotine and/or 50 µM α-bungarotoxin (btx, an 7 nicotine receptor antagonist, in differentiation medium containing the soluble RANKL for up 7 days. 1-5, 7, 9, and 10 nicotine receptors were expressed on RAW264.7 cells. The expression of 7 nicotine receptor was increased by the addition of nicotine. Nicotine suppressed the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive multinuclear osteoclasts with large nuclei(≥10 nuclei, and decreased the planar area of each cell. Nicotine decreased expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, and V-ATPase d2. Btx inhibited nicotine effects. Nicotine increased CA II expression although decreased the expression of V-ATPase d2 and the distribution of F-actin. Nicotine suppressed the planar area of resorption pit by osteoclasts, but did not affect mineral resorption. These results suggest that nicotine increased the number of osteoclasts with small nuclei, but suppressed the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei. Moreover, nicotine reduced the planar area of resorption pit by suppressing the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei, V-ATPase d2, cathepsin K and MMP-9 expression and actin

  13. Analysis of Amino Acid Residues of Potential Importance for Phosphati-dylserine Specificity of P4-type ATPase ATP8A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Louise; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine

    The asymmetric structure of the plasma membrane is maintained through internalization of phos-pholipids by the family of P4-ATPases by a poorly characterized mechanism. Studies in yeast point towards a non-classical pathway involving important residues of a two-gate mechanism [1]. Glycine-230...... and alanine-231 of Dnf1 have shown to be important determinants of the phosphatidylcholine headgroup specificity of a putative entry gate, as seen by substitution of these residues by two glutamines as present in the phosphatidylserine-specific Drs2 at the same position. Aspargine-550 also appeared...

  14. Enhanced L-type calcium currents in cardiomyocytes from transgenic rats overexpressing SERCA2a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkin, Andre; Kiseleva, Irina; Theres, Heinz; Eulert-Grehn, Jaime-Jürgen; Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Scholz, Holger; Vetter, Roland

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research reported that transgenic rats overexpressing the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase SERCA2a exhibit improved contractile function of the myocardium. Furthermore, impaired Ca2+ uptake and reduced relaxation rates in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy were partially rescued by transgenic expression of SERCA2a in the heart. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether enhanced Ca2+ cycling in the cardiomyocytes of SERCA2a transgenic rats is associated with changes in L-type Ca2+ (ICa-L) currents. METHODS: The patch-clamp technique was used to measure whole-cell currents in cardiomyocytes from transgenic rats overexpressing SERCA2a and from wild-type (nontransgenic) animals. RESULTS: The amplitudes of ICa-L currents at depolarizing pulses ranging from −45 mV to 0 mV (350 ms duration, 1 Hz) were significantly higher in cardiomyocytes of SERCA2a transgenic rats than in nontransgenic rats (1985±48 pA [n=32] versus 1612±55 pA [n=28], respectively). The inactivation kinetics of ICa-L showed subtle differences with increased tau fast and tau slow decay constants in cardiomyocytes of SERCA2a transgenic animals. Beta-adrenergic stimulation with 50 nM isoproterenol reduced tau fast and tau slow decay constants in cardiomyocytes of transgenic rats to values that were not significantly different from those in normal cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, isoproterenol enhanced ICa-L currents 3.2-fold and 2.3-fold in cardiomyocytes with and without the SERCA2a transgene, respectively, and this effect was abolished by buffering intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that enhanced Ca2+ cycling in the hearts of SERCA2a transgenic rats, both under normal conditions and during beta-adrenergic stimulation, involves changes in ICa-L currents. Modified ICa-L kinetics may contribute, to some extent, to the improved contractile function of the myocardium of transgenic rats. PMID:21264068

  15. A type IV P-type ATPase affects insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Madhu S; Yuan, Joshua S; Elliott, Sarah B; Sommardahl, Carla

    2006-12-01

    Mice carrying two pink-eyed dilution (p) locus heterozygous deletions represent a novel polygenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. Atp10c, a putative aminophospholipid transporter on mouse chromosome 7, is a candidate for the phenotype. The phenotype is diet-induced. As a next logical step in the validation and characterization of the model, experiments to analyze metabolic abnormalities associated with these mice were carried out. Results demonstrate that mutants (inheriting the p deletion maternally) heterozygous for Atp10c are hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant and have an altered insulin-stimulated response in peripheral tissues. Adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle are the targets, and GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is the specific metabolic pathway associated with Atp10c deletion. Insulin resistance primarily affects the adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle, and the effect in the liver is secondary. Gene expression profiling using microarray and real-time PCR show significant changes in the expression of four genes--Vamp2, Dok1, Glut4 and Mapk14--involved in insulin signaling. The expression of Atp10c is also significantly altered in the adipose tissue and the soleus muscle. The most striking observation is the loss of Atp10c expression in the mutants, specifically in the soleus muscle, after eating the high-fat diet for 12 weeks. In conclusion, experiments suggest that the target genes and/or their cognate factors in conjunction with Atp10c presumably affect the normal translocation and sequestration of GLUT4 in both the target tissues.

  16. bcpmr1 encodes a P-type Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-ATPase mediating cell-wall integrity and virulence in the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Verónica; Lagües, Yanssuy; Carvajal, Mauro; Pérez-García, Luis A; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F; Castillo, Luis

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall of fungi is generally composed of an inner skeletal layer consisting of various polysaccharides surrounded by a layer of glycoproteins. These usually contain both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides, coupled to the proteins by stepwise addition of mannose residues by mannosyltransferases in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In yeast, an essential luminal cofactor for these mannosyltransferases is Mn(2+) provided by the Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-ATPase known as Pmr1. In this study, we have identified and characterized the Botrytis cinerea pmr1 gene, the closest homolog of yeast PMR1. We hypothesized that bcpmr1 also encodes a Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-ATPase that plays an important role in the protein glycosylation pathway. Phenotypic analysis showed that bcpmr1 null mutants displayed a significant reduction in conidial production, radial growth and diameter of sclerotia. Significant alterations in hyphal cell wall composition were observed including a 83% decrease of mannan levels and an increase in the amount of chitin and glucan. These changes were accompanied by a hypersensitivity to cell wall-perturbing agents such as Calcofluor white, Congo red and zymolyase. Importantly, the Δbcpmr1 mutant showed reduced virulence in tomato (leafs and fruits) and apple (fruits) and reduced biofilm formation. Together, our results highlight the importance of bcpmr1 for protein glycosylation, cell wall structure and virulence of B. cinerea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphorus and Calcium Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women with Diabetes Mellitus: Effects of the Type and Duration of the Disease, Time of Menopause and Body Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kyryliuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM on the phosphorus and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women, depending on the type and duration of the disease, duration of menopause, body mass and type of hypoglycemic therapy. The state of phosphorus and calcium metabolism in 86 women with type 1 DM (13 patients and type 2 DM (73 patients was studied. In all patients, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the blood was within normal limits. It was found that the concentration of ionized calcium, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the blood can not be the main criterion for the state of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with DM. Sulfonylureas and insulin in combination with biguanides have no effect on the status of phosphorus and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 DM.

  18. Vacuolar H+-ATPase: An Essential Multitasking Enzyme in Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shannon Holliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases are large multisubunit proton pumps that are required for housekeeping acidification of membrane-bound compartments in eukaryotic cells. Mammalian V-ATPases are composed of 13 different subunits. Their housekeeping functions include acidifying endosomes, lysosomes, phagosomes, compartments for uncoupling receptors and ligands, autophagosomes, and elements of the Golgi apparatus. Specialized cells, including osteoclasts, intercalated cells in the kidney and pancreatic beta cells, contain both the housekeeping V-ATPases and an additional subset of V-ATPases, which plays a cell type specific role. The specialized V-ATPases are typically marked by the inclusion of cell type specific isoforms of one or more of the subunits. Three human diseases caused by mutations of isoforms of subunits have been identified. Cancer cells utilize V-ATPases in unusual ways; characterization of V-ATPases may lead to new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of cancer. Two accessory proteins to the V-ATPase have been identified that regulate the proton pump. One is the (prorenin receptor and data is emerging that indicates that V-ATPase may be intimately linked to renin/angiotensin signaling both systemically and locally. In summary, V-ATPases play vital housekeeping roles in eukaryotic cells. Specialized versions of the pump are required by specific organ systems and are involved in diseases.

  19. Extinct 10Be in Type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from CV chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.

    2003-09-01

    We have found clear evidence of live 10Be in five normal Type A Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), one normal Type B CAI, and one FUN Type A CAI, all from CV3 chondrites. The ( 10Be/ 9Be) 0 ratios range from ˜0.36 × 10 -3 to ˜0.77 × 10 -3 and are similar to those found by previous workers. The ( 10Be/ 9Be) 0 ratios do not correlate in a temporal fashion with ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0, suggesting that 10Be and 26Al were produced by different mechanisms. An examination of possible sources for the short-lived radionuclides indicates that production of 10Be was almost certainly by particle irradiation, possibly within the solar system, and was probably accompanied by significant production of 41Ca and 53Mn. In contrast, all of the 60Fe, most of the 26Al, and some of the 53Mn were probably produced in stars and were imported into the solar system within presolar dust grains.

  20. A relationship between vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium levels and lactose intolerance in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, SatyaVati; Morya, Rajesh Kumar; Malik, Aastha; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Sachdeva, Naresh; Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is chronic metabolic disorder. Common gastrointestinal symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients are flatulence, constipation and/or diarrhea. Reason for these may be lactose intolerance leading to change in vitamin D, Calcium and parathyroid hormone which further regulate bone mineralization. To measure lactose intolerance, vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone in type 2 diabetic patients. 150 type 2 diabetic patients attending Endocrinology Clinic in PGI, Chandigarh and 150 age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled. Lactose intolerance was measured using non-invasive lactose breath test. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (total) and Parathyroid hormone were measured in plasma using immunoassay. Serum calcium was measured using auto analyzer. T score was recorded from DXA scan for bone mineral density measurement. Lactose intolerance was observed significantly higher (pintolerant diabetic patients than lactose tolerant patients. Sixty seven percent (67%) of diabetic patients suffered from osteoporosis and 20% of controls. Eighty percent (80%) diabetic patients and 16% controls with osteoporosis suffered from lactose intolerance. From this study we can conclude that measurement of lactose intolerance using non-invasive lactose breath test is suggested for type 2 diabetic patients along with timely measurement of 25-OH vitamin D (total), calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol Dependence Disrupts Amygdalar L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, Florence P; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Logrip, Marian L; George, Olivier; Roberto, Marisa

    2017-04-26

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) are implicated in several psychiatric disorders that are comorbid with alcoholism and involve amygdala dysfunction. Within the amygdala, the central nucleus (CeA) is critical in acute alcohol's reinforcing actions, and its dysregulation in human alcoholics drives their negative emotional state and motivation to drink. Here we investigated the specific role of CeA LTCCs in the effects of acute alcohol at the molecular, cellular physiology, and behavioral levels, and their potential neuroadaptation in alcohol-dependent rats. Alcohol increases CeA activity (neuronal firing rates and GABA release) in naive rats by engaging LTCCs, and intra-CeA LTCC blockade reduces alcohol intake in nondependent rats. Alcohol dependence reduces CeA LTCC membrane abundance and disrupts this LTCC-based mechanism; instead, corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptors (CRF1s) mediate alcohol's effects on CeA activity and drive the escalated alcohol intake of alcohol-dependent rats. Collectively, our data indicate that alcohol dependence functionally alters the molecular mechanisms underlying the CeA's response to alcohol (from LTCC- to CRF1-driven). This mechanistic switch contributes to and reflects the prominent role of the CeA in the negative emotional state that drives excessive drinking.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The central amygdala (CeA) plays a critical role in the development of alcohol dependence. As a result, much preclinical alcohol research aims to identify relevant CeA neuroadaptions that promote the transition to dependence. Here we report that acute alcohol increases CeA neuronal activity in naive rats by engaging L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and that intra-CeA LTCC blockade reduces alcohol intake in nondependent rats. Alcohol dependence disrupts this LTCC-based mechanism; instead, corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptors (CRF1s) mediate alcohol's effects on CeA activity and drive the escalated alcohol intake of alcohol

  2. Plasmodium falciparum isolates from southern Ghana exhibit polymorphisms in the SERCA-type PfATPase6 though sensitive to artesunate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Ayi, Irene; Suzuki, Takashi; Otchere, Joseph; Kumagai, Takashi; Anyan, William K; Osei, Joseph H N; Asahi, Hiroko; Ofori, Michael F; Akao, Nobuaki; Wilson, Michael D; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2011-07-11

    In 2005, Ghana replaced chloroquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The aim of this work was to determine for the first time, polymorphisms in the putative pfATPase6 and pftctp, pfmdr1, pfcrt genes in Ghanaian isolates, particularly at a time when there is no report on artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites from Ghana. The sensitivity of parasite isolates to anti-malaria drugs were also evaluated for a possible association with polymorphisms in these genes. The prevalence of point mutations in the above Plasmodium falciparum genes were assessed from filter-paper blood blot samples by DNA sequencing. In vitro drug sensitivity test was carried out on some of the blood samples from volunteers visiting hospitals/clinics in southern Ghana using a modified version of the standard WHO Mark III micro-test. All successfully tested parasite isolates were sensitive to artesunate; while 19.4%, 29.0% and 51.6% were resistant to quinine, amodiaquine and chloroquine respectively. The geometric mean of IC50 value for artesunate was 0.73 nM (95% CI, 0.38-1.08), amodiaquine 30.69 nM (95% CI, 14.18-47.20) and chloroquine 58.73 nM (95% CI, 38.08-79.38). Twenty point mutations were observed in pfATPase6 gene, with no L263E and S769N. All mutations found were low in frequency, except D639G which was observed in about half of the isolates but was not associated with artesunate response (p = 0.42). The pftctp gene is highly conserved as no mutation was observed, while CVIET which is chloroquine-resistant genotype at codon 72-76 of the pfcrt gene was identified in about half of the isolates; this was consistent with chloroquine IC50 values (p = 0.001). Mutations were present in pfmdr1 gene but were not associated with artemisinin response (p = 1.00). The pfATPase6 gene is highly polymorphic with D639G appearing to be fixed in Ghanaian isolates. These may just be spontaneous mutations as all parasite isolates that were

  3. Plasmodium falciparum isolates from southern Ghana exhibit polymorphisms in the SERCA-type PfATPase6 though sensitive to artesunate in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori Michael F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, Ghana replaced chloroquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The aim of this work was to determine for the first time, polymorphisms in the putative pfATPase6 and pftctp, pfmdr1, pfcrt genes in Ghanaian isolates, particularly at a time when there is no report on artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites from Ghana. The sensitivity of parasite isolates to anti-malaria drugs were also evaluated for a possible association with polymorphisms in these genes. Methods The prevalence of point mutations in the above Plasmodium falciparum genes were assessed from filter-paper blood blot samples by DNA sequencing. In vitro drug sensitivity test was carried out on some of the blood samples from volunteers visiting hospitals/clinics in southern Ghana using a modified version of the standard WHO Mark III micro-test. Results All successfully tested parasite isolates were sensitive to artesunate; while 19.4%, 29.0% and 51.6% were resistant to quinine, amodiaquine and chloroquine respectively. The geometric mean of IC50 value for artesunate was 0.73 nM (95% CI, 0.38-1.08, amodiaquine 30.69 nM (95% CI, 14.18-47.20 and chloroquine 58.73 nM (95% CI, 38.08-79.38. Twenty point mutations were observed in pfATPase6 gene, with no L263E and S769N. All mutations found were low in frequency, except D639G which was observed in about half of the isolates but was not associated with artesunate response (p = 0.42. The pftctp gene is highly conserved as no mutation was observed, while CVIET which is chloroquine-resistant genotype at codon 72-76 of the pfcrt gene was identified in about half of the isolates; this was consistent with chloroquine IC50 values (p = 0.001. Mutations were present in pfmdr1 gene but were not associated with artemisinin response (p = 1.00. Conclusion The pfATPase6 gene is highly polymorphic with D639G appearing to be fixed in Ghanaian isolates. These may just

  4. Metal Fluoride Complexes of Na,K-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2011-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase belongs to the P-type ATPase family of primary active cation pumps. Metal fluorides like magnesium-, beryllium-, and aluminum fluoride act as phosphate analogues and inhibit P-type ATPases by interacting with the phosphorylation site, stabilizing conformations that are analogous to specific phosphoenzyme intermediates. Cardiotonic steroids like ouabain used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias specifically inhibit the Na,K-ATPase, and the detailed structure of the highly conserved binding site has recently been described by the crystal structure of the shark Na,K-ATPase in a state analogous to E2·2K+·Pi with ouabain bound with apparently low affinity (1). In the present work inhibition, and subsequent reactivation by high Na+, after treatment of shark Na,K-ATPase with various metal fluorides are characterized. Half-maximal inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity by metal fluorides is in the micromolar range. The binding of cardiotonic steroids to the metal fluoride-stabilized enzyme forms was investigated using the fluorescent ouabain derivative 9-anthroyl ouabain and compared with binding to phosphorylated enzyme. The fastest binding was to the Be-fluoride stabilized enzyme suggesting a preformed ouabain binding cavity, in accord with results for Ca-ATPase where Be-fluoride stabilizes the E2-P ground state with an open luminal ion access pathway, which in Na,K-ATPase could be a passage for ouabain. The Be-fluoride stabilized enzyme conformation closely resembles the E2-P ground state according to proteinase K cleavage. Ouabain, but not its aglycone ouabagenin, prevented reactivation of this metal fluoride form by high Na+ demonstrating the pivotal role of the sugar moiety in closing the extracellular cation pathway. PMID:21708939

  5. Turtle Flexion Reflex Motor Patterns Show Windup, Mediated Partly by L-type Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith P. Johnson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca2+ channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca2+ channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied. We studied windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, evoked with weak mechanical and electrical stimulation of the dorsal hindlimb foot skin and assessed via a hip flexor (HF nerve recording, in spinal cord-transected and immobilized turtles in vivo. We found that an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, nifedipine, applied at concentrations of 50 μM or 100 μM to the hindlimb enlargement spinal cord, significantly reduced windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, while lower concentrations of nifedipine had no such effect. Nifedipine similarly reduced the amplitude of an individual flexion reflex motor pattern evoked by a stronger mechanical stimulus, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to each flexion reflex as well as to multisecond summation of flexion reflex responses in turtles. We also found that we could elicit flexion reflex windup consistently using a 4-g von Frey filament, which is not usually considered a nociceptive stimulus. Thus, it may be that windup can be evoked by a wide range of tactile stimuli and that L-type calcium channels contribute to multisecond temporal summation of diverse tactile stimuli across vertebrates.

  6. L-type calcium channel targeting and local signalling in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robin M; Colecraft, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    In the heart, Ca(2+) influx via Ca(V)1.2 L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) is a multi-functional signal that triggers muscle contraction, controls action potential duration, and regulates gene expression. The use of LTCC Ca(2+) as a multi-dimensional signalling molecule in the heart is complicated by several aspects of cardiac physiology. Cytosolic Ca(2+) continuously cycles between ~100 nM and ~1 μM with each heartbeat due to Ca(2+) linked signalling from LTCCs to ryanodine receptors. This rapid cycling raises the question as to how cardiac myocytes distinguish the Ca(2+) fluxes originating through L-type channels that are dedicated to contraction from Ca(2+) fluxes originating from other L-type channels that are used for non-contraction-related signalling. In general, disparate Ca(2+) sources in cardiac myocytes such as current through differently localized LTCCs as well as from IP3 receptors can signal selectively to Ca(2+)-dependent effectors in local microdomains that can be impervious to the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) transients that drive contraction. A particular challenge for diversified signalling via cardiac LTCCs is that they are voltage-gated and, therefore, open and presumably flood their microdomains with Ca(2+) with each action potential. Thus spatial localization of Cav1.2 channels to different types of microdomains of the ventricular cardiomyocyte membrane as well as the existence of particular macromolecular complexes in each Cav1.2 microdomain are important to effect different types of Cav1.2 signalling. In this review we examine aspects of Cav1.2 structure, targeting and signalling in two specialized membrane microdomains--transverse tubules and caveolae.

  7. Transcription of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase type 3 gene, ATP2A3, is regulated by the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Lahouaria; Pavoine, Catherine; Lipskaia, Larissa; Yacoubi, Sabrina; Lompré, Anne-Marie

    2006-02-15

    Histamine, known to induce Ca2+ oscillations in endothelial cells, was used to alter Ca2+ cycling. Treatment of HUVEC (human umbilical-vein endothelial cell)-derived EA.hy926 cells with histamine for 1-3 days increased the levels of SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) 3, but not of SERCA 2b, transcripts and proteins. Promoter-reporter gene assays demonstrated that this increase in expression was due to activation of SERCA 3 gene transcription. The effect of histamine was abolished by mepyramine, but not by cimetidine, indicating that the H1 receptor, but not the H2 receptor, was involved. The histamine-induced up-regulation of SERCA 3 was abolished by cyclosporin A and by VIVIT, a peptide that prevents calcineurin and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) from interacting, indicating involvement of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Histamine also induced the nuclear translocation of NFAT. NFAT did not directly bind to the SERCA 3 promoter, but activated Ets-1 (E twenty-six-1), which drives the expression of the SERCA 3 gene. Finally, cells treated with histamine and loaded with fura 2 exhibited an improved capacity in eliminating high cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, in accordance with an increase in activity of a low-affinity Ca2+-ATPase, like SERCA 3. Thus chronic treatment of endothelial cells with histamine up-regulates SERCA 3 transcription. The effect of histamine is mediated by the H1R (histamine 1 receptor) and involves activation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. By increasing the rate of Ca2+ sequestration, up-regulation of SERCA 3 counteracts the cytosolic increase in Ca2+ concentration.

  8. Estradiol inhibits depolarization-evoked exocytosis in PC12 cells via N-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, K.L.; Maxson, M.M.; Mellander, L.; Westerink, R.H.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239425952; Ewing, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Fast neuromodulatory effects of 17-β-estradiol (E2) on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) have been reported in many cell types, but little is known about its direct effects on vesicular neurotransmitter secretion (exocytosis). We examined the effects of E2 on depolarization-evoked

  9. Protein kinase D regulates the human cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel through serine 1884.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Yusuke; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Hirose, Shigehisa; Maturana, Andrés D

    2011-12-15

    Protein kinase D (PKD) regulates the activity of the L-type calcium channel in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, the functional target residues of PKD on the L-type calcium channel remain to be identified. Our aim was to identify the functional phosphorylation sites of PKD on the human L-type calcium channel. The pore subunit of the human CaV1.2 (hCaV1.2) was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Both the expression of a dominant-negative mutant of PKD and the mutation of serine 1884 but not serine 1930, putative targets of PKD, strongly reduced L-type calcium currents and single channel activity without affecting the channel's expression at the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that serine 1884 is essential for the regulation of hCaV1.2 by PKD. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antagonism of T-type calcium channels inhibits high-fat diet-induced weight gain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebele, Victor N; Gotter, Anthony L; Nuss, Cindy E; Kraus, Richard L; Doran, Scott M; Garson, Susan L; Reiss, Duane R; Li, Yuxing; Barrow, James C; Reger, Thomas S; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Ballard, Jeanine E; Tang, Cuyue; Metzger, Joseph M; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Koblan, Kenneth S; Renger, John J

    2009-06-01

    The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously, it was shown that mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type calcium channels have altered sleep/wake activity. We found that these mice were also resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain, without changes in food intake or sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced disruptions of diurnal rhythm. Administration of a potent and selective antagonist of T-type calcium channels, TTA-A2, to normal-weight animals prior to the inactive phase acutely increased sleep, decreased body core temperature, and prevented high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Administration of TTA-A2 to obese rodents reduced body weight and fat mass while concurrently increasing lean muscle mass. These effects likely result from better alignment of diurnal feeding patterns with daily changes in circadian physiology and potentially an increased metabolic rate during the active phase. Together, these studies reveal what we believe to be a previously unknown role for T-type calcium channels in the regulation of sleep and weight maintenance and suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic approach to treating obesity.

  11. 75 FR 1798 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of V-ATPase Inhibitor Compounds for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... use will specifically exclude rheumatoid arthritis and other osteo-specific autoimmune diseases. DATES... Alzheimer's diseases. Briefly, vacuolar type (H+) ATPase (V-ATPase) has been described as ``a universal...-ATPase Inhibitor Compounds for the Treatment of Human Cancers and Osteoclastic Bone Diseases Excluding...

  12. Sociability impairments in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg: Reversal by the T-type calcium channel antagonist Z944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henbid, Mark T; Marks, Wendie N; Collins, Madeline J; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; Howland, John G

    2017-10-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is associated with interictal co-morbid symptoms including abnormalities in social behaviour. Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) is a model of CAE that exhibits physiological and behavioural alterations characteristic of the human disorder. However, it is unknown if GAERS display the social deficits often observed in CAE. Sociability in rodents is thought to be mediated by neural circuits densely populated with T-type calcium channels and GAERS contain a missense mutation in the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of the clinical stage pan-T-type calcium channel blocker, Z944, on sociability behaviour in male and female GAERS and non-epileptic control (NEC) animals. Female GAERS showed reduced sociability in a three-chamber sociability task whereas male GAERS, male NECs, and female NECs all showed a preference for the chamber containing a stranger rat. In drug trials, pre-treatment with 5mg/kg of Z944 normalized sociability in female GAERS. In contrast, female NECs showed impaired sociability following Z944 treatment. Dose-dependent decreases in locomotor activity were noted following Z944 treatment in both strains. Treatment with 10mg/kg of Z944 altered exploration such that only 8 of the 16 rats tested explored both sides of the testing chamber. In those that explored the chamber, significant preference for the stranger rat was observed in GAERS but not NECs. Overall, the data suggest that T-type calcium channels are critical in regulating sociability in both GAERS and NEC animals. Future research should focus on T-type calcium channels in the treatment of sociability deficits observed in disorders such as CAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A structural overview of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase ion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPases are primary active transporters of cations that maintain steep concentration gradients. The ion gradients and membrane potentials derived from them form the basis for a range of essential cellular processes, in particular Na(+)-dependent and proton-dependent secondary tran......(+),K(+)-ATPase maintains a Na(+) and K(+) gradient in animal cells. Structural information provides insight into the function of these two distinct but related P-type pumps....

  14. Calcium-dependent inhibition of T-type calcium channels by TRPV1 activation in rat sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunanza, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio; Marcantoni, Andrea; Sher, Emanuele; Ursu, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    We studied the inhibitory effects of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) activation by capsaicin on low-voltage-activated (LVA, T-type) Ca(2+) channel and high-voltage-activated (HVA; L, N, P/Q, R) currents in rat DRG sensory neurons, as a potential mechanism underlying capsaicin-induced analgesia. T-type and HVA currents were elicited in whole-cell clamped DRG neurons using ramp commands applied before and after 30-s exposures to 1 μM capsaicin. T-type currents were estimated at the first peak of the I-V characteristics and HVA at the second peak, occurring at more positive potentials. Small and medium-sized DRG neurons responded to capsaicin producing transient inward currents of variable amplitudes, mainly carried by Ca(2+). In those cells responding to capsaicin with a large Ca(2+) influx (59% of the total), a marked inhibition of both T-type and HVA Ca(2+) currents was observed. The percentage of T-type and HVA channel inhibition was prevented by replacing Ca(2+) with Ba(2+) during capsaicin application or applying high doses of intracellular BAPTA (20 mM), suggesting that TRPV1-mediated inhibition of T-type and HVA channels is Ca(2+)-dependent and likely confined to membrane nano-microdomains. Our data are consistent with the idea that TRPV1-induced analgesia may derive from indirect inhibition of both T-type and HVA channels which, in turn, would reduce the threshold of nociceptive signals generation (T-type channel inhibition) and nociceptive synaptic transmission (HVA-channels inhibition).

  15. A biomimetic strategy to form calcium phosphate crystals on type I collagen substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhang [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road 119074, Singapore (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Kishen, Anil, E-mail: anil.kishen@utoronto.ca [Discipline of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-20

    Objective: The aim of this study is to induce mineralization of collagen by introducing phosphate groups onto type I collagen from eggshell membrane (ESM) by treating with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). This strategy is based on the hypothesis that phosphate groups introduced on collagen can mimic the nucleating role of phosphorylated non-collagenous proteins bound to collagen for inducing mineralization in natural hard tissue. Method: The collagen membrane was phosphorylated by treating it with a solution of STMP and saturated calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated collagen was subsequently exposed to a mineralization solution and the pattern of mineralization on the surface of phosphorylated collagen substrate was analyzed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness test were used to characterize the collagen substrate and the pattern of minerals formed on the collagen surface. Results: The FTIR and EDX results indicated that the phosphate groups were incorporated onto the collagen surface by treatment with STMP. During the mineralization process, the plate-like mineral, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which was initially formed on the surface of ESM, was later transformed into needle-like hydroxyapatite (HAP) as indicated by the SEM, FESEM, EDX and XRD findings. The microhardness test displayed significant increase in the Knoop hardness number of the mineralized collagen. Conclusions: Phosphate groups can be introduced onto type I collagen surface by treating it with STMP and such phosphorylated collagen can induce the mineralization of type I collagen.

  16. Inhibitory effect of lidocaine on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-dependent atpase from temporalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Casadoumecq, Ana C; Alonso, Guillermo L; Takara, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Myotoxic effects of local anesthetics on skeletal musclefibers involve the inhibition ofsarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -dependent ATPase activity and Ca2 transport. Lidocaine is a local anesthetic frequently used to relieve the symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia. The aim of this work was to test the inhibitory and/or stimulatory effect of lidocaine on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -dependent ATPase isolated from rabbit temporalis muscle. Ca2+ -dependent ATPase activity was determined by a colorimetric method Calcium-binding to the Ca dependent ATPase, Ca2+ transport, and phosphorylation of the enzyme by ATP were determined with radioisotopic techniques. Lidocaine inhibited the Ca2+ -dependent ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The preincubation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes with lidocaine enhanced the Ca2+ dependent ATPase activity in the absence of calcium ionophore. Lidocaine also inhibited both Ca2+ uptake and enzyme phosphorylation by ATP but had no effect on Ca2+ -binding to the enzyme. We conclude that the effect of lidocaine on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -dependent ATPase from temporalis muscle is due to the drug's direct interaction with the enzyme and the increased permeability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane to Ca.

  17. Effects of hypercapnia on membrane potential and intracellular calcium in rat carotid body type I cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, K J; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1994-01-01

    1. An acid-induced rise in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of type I cells is thought to play a vital role in pH/PCO2 chemoreception by the carotid body. In this present study we have investigated the cause of this rise in [Ca2+]i in enzymatically isolated, neonatal rat type I cells. 2. The rise in [Ca2+]i induced by a hypercapnic acidosis was inhibited in Ca(2+)-free media, and by 2 mM Ni2+. Acidosis also increased Mn2+ permeability. The rise in [Ca2+]i is dependent, therefore, upon a Ca2+ influx from the external medium. 3. The acid-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was attenuated by both nicardipine and methoxyverapamil (D600), suggesting a role for L-type Ca2+ channels. 4. Acidosis depolarized type I cells and often (approximately 50% of cells) induced action potentials. These effects coincided with a rise in [Ca2+]i. When membrane depolarization was prevented by a voltage clamp, acidosis failed to evoke a rise in [Ca2+]i. The acid-induced rise in [Ca2+]i is a consequence, therefore, of membrane depolarization. 5. Acidosis decreased the resting membrane conductance of type I cells. The reversal potential of the acid-sensitive current was about -75 mV. 6. A depolarization (30 mM [K+]o)-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was blocked by either the removal of extracellular Ca2+ or the presence of 2 mM Ni2+, and was also substantially inhibited by nicardipine. Under voltage-clamp conditions, [Ca2+]i displayed a bell-shaped dependence on membrane potential. Depolarization raises [Ca2+]i, therefore, through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. 7. Caffeine (10 mM) induced only a small rise in [Ca2+]i (effect upon the resting [Ca2+]i, and only slowed [Ca2+]i recovery slightly following repolarization from 0 to -60 mV. Therefore, if present, Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange plays only a minor role in [Ca2+]i homeostasis. 10. In summary, in the neonatal rat type I cell, hypercapnic acidosis raises [Ca2+]i through membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. Images Figure 1 Figure 3

  18. L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier, we had reported that co-administration of opioids and L-type calcium channel blockers (L-CCBs like diltiazem could prove useful in the treatment of cancer pain. Much of this report was based upon earlier published work involving animal models of pain exposed to brief periods of noxious radiant heat without any tissue injury. However, pain in clinical situations usually result from tissue injury. Thus, the aim of the current investigation was to study the analgesic effect of this combination of drugs in the rat formalin test which is associated with actual tissue injury. Wistar rats (n=60 received either L-CCB (nifedipine/nimodipine/verapamil/diltiazem i.p. or morphine (s.c. or both drugs. The formalin test was done 30 min after morphine or placebo injection. The naloxone reversal test was also done. Administration of L-CCBs alone, particularly diltiazem, increased pain in the formalin test. In contrast, co-administration of these L-CCBs with morphine led to decreased pain response, though statistically significant decrease was noted only with nimodipine + morphine. Naloxone reversed this analgesic effect, indicating that it was primarily an opioid-mediated effect. The results show that administration of L-CCBs alone may prove counterproductive in the therapeutic management of pain (anti-analgesic effect. However, co-administration of both drugs (morphine and nimodipine in quick succession could lead to adequate pain relief.

  19. Dendritic and Axonal L-Type Calcium Channels Cooperate to Enhance Motoneuron Firing Output duringDrosophilaLarval Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadas, Dimitrios; Klein, Aylin; Krick, Niklas; Worrell, Jason W; Ryglewski, Stefanie; Duch, Carsten

    2017-11-08

    Behaviorally adequate neuronal firing patterns are critically dependent on the specific types of ion channel expressed and on their subcellular localization. This study combines in situ electrophysiology with genetic and pharmacological intervention in larval Drosophila melanogaster of both sexes to address localization and function of L-type like calcium channels in motoneurons. We demonstrate that Dmca1D (Ca v 1 homolog) L-type like calcium channels localize to both the somatodendritic and the axonal compartment of larval crawling motoneurons. In situ patch-clamp recordings in genetic mosaics reveal that Dmca1D channels increase burst duration and maximum intraburst firing frequencies during crawling-like motor patterns in semi-intact animals. Genetic and acute pharmacological manipulations suggest that prolonged burst durations are caused by dendritically localized Dmca1D channels, which activate upon cholinergic synaptic input and amplify EPSPs, thus indicating a conserved function of dendritic L-type channels from Drosophila to vertebrates. By contrast, maximum intraburst firing rates require axonal calcium influx through Dmca1D channels, likely to enhance sodium channel de-inactivation via a fast afterhyperpolarization through BK channel activation. Therefore, in unmyelinated Drosophila motoneurons different functions of axonal and dendritic L-type like calcium channels likely operate synergistically to maximize firing output during locomotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Nervous system function depends on the specific excitabilities of different types of neurons. Excitability is largely shaped by different combinations of voltage-dependent ion channels. Despite a high degree of conservation, the huge diversity of ion channel types and their differential localization pose challenges in assigning distinct functions to specific channels across species. We find a conserved role, from fruit flies to mammals, for L-type calcium channels in augmenting motoneuron

  20. Activation of L-type calcium channel in twitch skeletal muscle fibres of the frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, F; Bencini, C; Squecco, R

    1996-07-01

    1. The activation of the L-type calcium current (ICa) was studied in normally polarized (-100 mV) cut skeletal muscle fibres of the frog with the double Vaseline-gap voltage-clamp technique. Both external and internal solutions were Ca2+ buffered. Solutions were made in order to minimize all but the Ca2+ current. 2. The voltage-dependent components of the time course of activation were determined by two procedures: fast and slow components were evaluated by multiexponential fitting to current traces elicited by long voltage pulses (5 s) after removing inactivation; fast components were also determined by short voltage pulses having different duration (0.5-70 ms). 3. The components of deactivation were evaluated after removing the charge-movement current from the total tail current by the difference between two short (50 and 70 ms) voltage pulses to 10 mV, moving the same intramembrane charge. Two exponential components, fast and slow (time constants, 6 +/- 0.3 and 90 +/- 7 ms at -100 mV; n = 26), were found. 4. The time onset of ICa was evaluated either by multiexponential fitting to the ICa activation or by pulses of different duration to test the beginning of the 'on' and 'off' inequality. This was at about 2 ms, denoting that it was very early. 5. The time constant vs. voltage plots indicated the presence of four voltage-dependent components in the activation pathway. Various kinetic models are discussed. Models with independent transitions, like a Hodgkin-Huxley scheme, were excluded. Suitable models were a five-state sequential and a four-state cyclic with a branch scheme. The latter gave the best simulation of the data. 6. The steady-state activation curve saturated at high potentials. It had a half-voltage value of 1 +/- 0.2 mV and the opening probability was only 0.82 +/- 0.2 at 20 mV (n = 32). This result implies a larger number of functional calcium channels than was previously supposed and is in agreement with the number of dihydropyridine (DHP

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibits voltage-gated T-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, M; Gilbert, G; Lory, P; Marthan, R; Quignard, J F; Savineau, J P

    2012-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form, DHEAS, are the most abundant steroid hormones in the mammalian blood flow. DHEA may have beneficial effects in various pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular diseases or deterioration of the sense of well-being. However to date, the cellular mechanism underlying DHEA action remains elusive and may involve ion channel modulation. In this study, we have characterized the effect of DHEA on T-type voltage-activated calcium channels (T-channels), which are involved in several cardiovascular and neuronal diseases. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate that DHEA inhibits the three recombinant T-channels (Ca(V)3.1, Ca(V)3.2 and Ca(V)3.3) expressed in NG108-15 cell line, as well as native T-channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. This effect of DHEA is both concentration (IC(50) between 2 and 7μM) and voltage-dependent and results in a significant shift of the steady-state inactivation curves toward hyperpolarized potentials. Consequently, DHEA reduces window T-current and inhibits membrane potential oscillations induced by Ca(V)3 channels. DHEA inhibition is not dependent on the activation of nuclear androgen or estrogen receptors and implicates a PTX-sensitive Gi protein pathway. Functionally, DHEA and the T-type inhibitor NNC 55-0396 inhibited KCl-induced contraction of pulmonary artery rings and their effect was not cumulative. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that DHEA inhibits T-channels by a Gi protein dependent pathway. DHEA-induced alteration in T-channel activity could thus account for its therapeutic action and/or physiological effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amyloid Beta Peptides Block New Synapse Assembly by Nogo Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanjun; Sivaji, Sivaprakash; Chiang, Michael C; Ali, Haadi; Zukowski, Monica; Ali, Sareen; Kennedy, Bryan; Sklyar, Alex; Cheng, Alice; Guo, Zihan; Reed, Alexander K; Kodali, Ravindra; Borowski, Jennifer; Frost, Georgia; Beukema, Patrick; Wills, Zachary P

    2017-10-11

    Compelling evidence links amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with the emergence of learning and memory deficits, yet a clear understanding of the events that drive this synaptic pathology are lacking. We present evidence that neurons exposed to Aβ are unable to form new synapses, resulting in learning deficits in vivo. We demonstrate the Nogo receptor family (NgR1-3) acts as Aβ receptors mediating an inhibition of synapse assembly, plasticity, and learning. Live imaging studies reveal Aβ activates NgRs on the dendritic shaft of neurons, triggering an inhibition of calcium signaling. We define T-type calcium channels as a target of Aβ-NgR signaling, mediating Aβ's inhibitory effects on calcium, synapse assembly, plasticity, and learning. These studies highlight deficits in new synapse assembly as a potential initiator of cognitive pathology in AD, and pinpoint calcium dysregulation mediated by NgRs and T-type channels as key components. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship of serum ionized calcium and magnesium concentration with parasympathetic nerve Function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khairul Alam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in serum Ca2+ and Mg2+ level may have some relationship to the occurrence of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes. Objective: To observe relationship between parasympathetic nerve function and serum ionized calcium & magnesium in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka on 47 T2DM patients aged 40-68 years of both sexes. Twenty five patients were recently diagnosed diabetics (RDM and 22 were long term diabetics (LDM with 10-20 years duration of diabetes. Parasympathetic nerve functions of all patients were assessed by three simple non-invasive cardiovascular reflex tests. Ionized serum calcium and magnesium were measured by ion sensitive electrode method using NOVA electrode. Data were analyzed by unpaired‘t’test and Pearson’s correlation co-efficient test. Results: Serum ionized calcium and magnesium levels were significantly higher in RDM (P<0.001 and LDM (P<0.001 compared to healthy control. On correlation analysis, significant negative correlation of parasympathetic nerve function with Mg2+was found in both RDM and LDM patients. Conclusion: The result of this study concluded that higher calcium and magnesium ion may be associated with type 2 diabetes and parasympathetic nerve function of diabetic patients may have inverse relationship to serum Mg2+.

  4. Arabidopsis protein kinase PKS5 inhibits the plasma membrane H+ -ATPase by preventing interaction with 14-3-3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Guo, Yan; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2007-01-01

    that an Arabidopsis thaliana Ser/Thr protein kinase, PKS5, is a negative regulator of the plasma membrane proton pump (PM Hþ-ATPase). Loss-of-function pks5 mutant plants are more tolerant of high external pH due to extrusion of protons to the extracellular space. PKS5 phosphorylates the PM Hþ-ATPase AHA2 at a novel...... site, Ser-931, in the C-terminal regulatory domain. Phosphorylation at this site inhibits interaction between the PM Hþ-ATPase and an activating 14-3-3 protein in a yeast expression system. We show that PKS5 interacts with the calcium binding protein SCaBP1 and that high external pH can trigger...... an increase in the concentration of cytosolic-free calcium. These results suggest that PKS5 is part of a calcium-signaling pathway mediating PM Hþ-ATPase regulation....

  5. Heterogeneous distribution of pectin epitopes and calcium in different pit types of four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G

    2011-12-01

    Intervessel pits act as safety valves that prevent the spread of xylem embolism. Pectin-calcium crosslinks within the pit membrane have been proposed to affect xylem vulnerability to cavitation. However, as the chemical composition of pit membranes is poorly understood, this hypothesis has not been verified. Using electron microscopy, immunolabeling, an antimonate precipitation technique, and ruthenium red staining, we studied the distribution of selected polysaccharides and calcium in the pit membranes of four angiosperm tree species. We tested whether shifts in xylem vulnerability resulting from perfusion of stems with a calcium chelating agent corresponded with the distribution of pectic homogalacturonans (HG) and/or calcium within interconduit pit membranes. No HG were detected in the main part of intervessel pit membranes, but were consistently found in the marginal membrane region known as the annulus. Calcium colocalized with HG in the annulus. In contrast to intervessel pits, the membrane of vessel-ray pits showed a high pectin content. The presence of two distinct chemical domains, the annulus and the actual pit membrane, can have substantial implications for pit membrane functioning. We propose that the annulus could affect the observed shift in xylem vulnerability after calcium removal by allowing increased pit membrane deflection. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Islet secretory defect in insulin receptor substrate 1 null mice is linked with reduced calcium signaling and expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-2b and -3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rohit N; Roper, Michael G; Dahlgren, Gabriella; Shih, David Q; Kauri, Lisa M; Peters, Jennifer L; Stoffel, Markus; Kennedy, Robert T

    2004-06-01

    Mice with deletion of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (IRS-1 knockout [KO] mice) show mild insulin resistance and defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduced insulin synthesis. To further define the role of IRS-1 in islet function, we examined the insulin secretory defect in the knockouts using freshly isolated islets and primary beta-cells. IRS-1 KO beta-cells exhibited a significantly shorter increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) than controls when briefly stimulated with glucose or glyceraldehyde and when l-arginine was used to potentiate the stimulatory effect of glucose. These changes were paralleled by a lower number of exocytotic events in the KO beta-cells in response to the same secretagogues, indicating reduced insulin secretion. Furthermore, the normal oscillations in intracellular Ca(2+) and O(2) consumption after glucose stimulation were dampened in freshly isolated KO islets. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a dramatically reduced islet expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)-2b and -3 in the mutants. These data provide evidence that IRS-1 modulation of insulin secretion is associated with Ca(2+) signaling and expression of SERCA-2b and -3 genes in pancreatic islets and provides a direct link between insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion.

  7. Systematic Identification of Cyclic-di-GMP Binding Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Reveals a Novel Class of Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding ATPases Associated with Type II Secretion Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G Roelofs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors from the pathogen Vibrio cholerae using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA. The DRaCALA screen identified a majority of known c-di-GMP binding proteins in V. cholerae and revealed a novel c-di-GMP binding protein, MshE (VC0405, an ATPase associated with the mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA type IV pilus. The known c-di-GMP binding proteins identified by DRaCALA include diguanylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, PilZ domain proteins and transcription factors VpsT and VpsR, indicating that the DRaCALA-based screen of open reading frame libraries is a feasible approach to uncover novel receptors of small molecule ligands. Since MshE lacks the canonical c-di-GMP-binding motifs, a truncation analysis was utilized to locate the c-di-GMP binding activity to the N-terminal T2SSE_N domain. Alignment of MshE homologs revealed candidate conserved residues responsible for c-di-GMP binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these candidate residues revealed that the Arg9 residue is required for c-di-GMP binding. The ability of c-di-GMP binding to MshE to regulate MSHA dependent processes was evaluated. The R9A allele, in contrast to the wild type MshE, was unable to complement the ΔmshE mutant for the production of extracellular MshA to the cell surface, reduction in flagella swimming motility, attachment to surfaces and formation of biofilms. Testing homologs of MshE for binding to c-di-GMP identified the type II secretion ATPase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14_29490 as a c-di-GMP receptor, indicating that type II secretion and type IV pili are both regulated by c-di-GMP.

  8. It takes two T to shape immunity: emerging role for T-type calcium channels in immune cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacinová, L.; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2016), s. 393-396 ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * T-type channel * Ca(v)3.1 * immune cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  9. Cloning, chromosomal localization, and functional expression of the alpha 1 subunit of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel from normal human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, D; Mikala, G; Yatani, A; Engle, D B; Iles, D E; Segers, B; Sinke, R J; Weghuis, D O; Klöckner, U; Wakamori, M

    1993-01-01

    A unique structural variant of the cardiac L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA was isolated from libraries derived from normal human heart mRNA. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to other calcium channel alpha 1 subunits. However, differences from

  10. Clinical features of neuromuscular disorders in patients with N-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Totzeck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular junction disorders affect the pre- or postsynaptic nerve to muscle transmission due to autoimmune antibodies. Members of the group like myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton syndrome have pathophysiologically distinct characteristics. However, in practice, distinction may be difficult. We present a series of three patients with a myasthenic syndrome, dropped-head syndrome, bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness and positive testing for anti-N-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies. In two cases anti-acetylcholin receptor antibodies were elevated, anti-P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies were negative. All patients initially responded to pyridostigmine with a non-response in the course of the disease. While one patient recovered well after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, 3,4-diaminopyridine, steroids and later on immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil, a second died after restriction of treatment due to unfavorable cancer diagnosis, the third patient declined treatment. Although new antibodies causing neuromuscular disorders were discovered, clinical distinction has not yet been made. Our patients showed features of pre- and postsynaptic myasthenic syndrome as well as severe dropped-head syndrome and bulbar and axial muscle weakness, but only anti-N-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies were positive. When administered, one patient benefited from 3,4-diaminopyridine. We suggest that this overlap-syndrome should be considered especially in patients with assumed seronegative myasthenia gravis and lack of improvement under standard therapy.

  11. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  12. Association between direct measurement of active serum calcium and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardi, F; Webb, D R; Carter, P; Pitocco, D; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Kurl, S; Laukkanen, J A

    2015-06-01

    Previous prospective studies showing a positive association between serum calcium and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have relied on total calcium or an indirect estimate of active, ionized calcium (iCa). We aimed to assess this relationship using a direct measurement of iCa. iCa and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in a population-based sample of 2350 men without a known history of T2DM at baseline. Associations between iCa levels and incident cases of T2DM (self-reported, ascertained with a glucose tolerance test, or determined by record linkage to national registers) were estimated using Cox regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders. At baseline, mean (standard deviation) age was 53 (5) years and mean iCa 1.18 (0.05) mmol/L. During a median follow-up of 23.1 years, 140 new cases of T2DM were recorded. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum HDL-cholesterol, and family history of T2DM, there was no association comparing second (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.59-1.18), third (0.77; 0.52-1.14), or fourth (0.98; 0.69-1.39) vs first quartile of iCa (p for trend 0.538); further adjustment for C-reactive protein, physical activity level, and triglycerides did not change the estimates (p for trend 0.389). In this study, we did not find evidence of an association between direct measurement of active calcium and risk of T2DM. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and define the relationship between factors influencing indirect calcium estimation and incident T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerated inactivation of the L-type calcium current due to a mutation in CACNB2b underlies Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Marieb, Mark; Pfeiffer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    S in which loss of function is caused by accelerated inactivation of I(Ca). The proband, a 32 year old male, displayed a Type I ST segment elevation in two right precordial ECG leads following a procainamide challenge. EP study was positive with induction of polymorphic VT/VF. Interrogation of implanted ICD...... significantly faster in mutant channels between 0 and + 20 mV. Action potential voltage clamp experiments showed that total charge was reduced by almost half compared to WT. We report the first BrS mutation in CaCNB2b resulting in accelerated inactivation of L-type calcium channel current. Our results suggest...

  14. Anti-Epileptic Drugs Delay Age-Related Loss of Spiral Ganglion Neurons via T-type Calcium Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Debin; Gao, Xia; Perez, Philip; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Chen, Chien-Chang; Campbell, Kevin P.; Hood, Aizhen Yang; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Loss of spiral ganglion neurons is a major cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Despite being the third most prevalent condition afflicting elderly persons, there are no known medications to prevent presbycusis. Because calcium signaling has long been implicated in age-related neuronal death, we investigated T-type calcium channels. This family is comprised of three members (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3), based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. In the present study, we report a significant delay of age-related loss of cochlear function and preservation of spiral ganglion neurons in α1H null and heterozygous mice, clearly demonstrating an important role for Cav3.2 in age-related neuronal loss. Furthermore, we show that anticonvulsant drugs from a family of T-type calcium channel blockers can significantly preserve spiral ganglion neurons during aging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of drugs capable of diminishing age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID:21640179

  15. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  16. T-type voltage-gated calcium channels regulate the tone of mouse efferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian B; Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Cribbs, Leanne L

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are important for the regulation of renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate. Excitation-contraction coupling in afferent arterioles is known to require activation of these channels and we studied their role in the regulation of cortical efferent arteriol...... publication, 10 November 2010; doi:10.1038/ki.2010.429....

  17. Specific inhibition of stretch‐induced increase in L‐type calcium channel currents by herbimycin A in canine basilar arterial myocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimura, Makoto; Obara, Kazuo; Sasase, Tomohiko; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakayama, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    ...‐activated barium currents (I Ba ) through L‐type calcium channels increased by hypotonic solution were investigated in canine basilar arterial myocytes by the whole‐cell patch‐clamp technique...

  18. Transport ATPases: structure, motors, mechanism and medicine: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Peter L

    2005-12-01

    Today we know there are four different types of ATPases that operate within biological membranes with the purpose of moving many different types of ions or molecules across these membranes. Some of these ions or molecules are transported into cells, some out of cells, and some in or out of organelles within cells. These ATPases span the biological world from bacteria to eukaryotic cells and have become most simply and commonly known as "transport ATPases." The price that each cell type pays for transport work is counted in molecules of hydrolyzed ATP, a metabolic currency that is itself regenerated by a transport ATPase working in reverse, i.e., the ATP synthase. Four major classes of transport ATPases, the P, V, F, and ABC types are now known. In addition to being involved in many different types of biological/physiological processes, mutations in these proteins also account for a large number of diseases. The purpose of this introductory article to a mini-review series on transport ATPases is to provide the reader with a very brief and focused look at this important area of research that has an interesting history and bears significance to cell physiology, biochemistry, immunology, nanotechnology, and medicine, including drug discovery. The latter involves potential applications to a whole host of diseases ranging from cancer to those that affect bones (osteoporosis), ears (hearing), eyes (macromolecular degeneration), the heart (hypercholesterolemia/cardiac arrest,), immune system (immune deficiency disease), kidney (nephrotoxicity), lungs (cystic fibrosis), pancreas (diabetes and cystic fibrosis), skin (Darier disease), and stomach (ulcers).

  19. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  20. Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contribute to the tolerance against high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Taisuke; Furukawa, Soichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takatsuki, Akira; Hirata, Ryogo; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2005-11-25

    As a non-thermal sterilization process, high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment (HPCT) is considered to be promising. The main sterilizing effect of HPCT is thought to be acidification in cytoplasm of microorganisms. We investigated the tolerance mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to HPCT with special reference to vacuolar and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases. HPCT was imposed at 35 degrees C, 4 to 10 MPa, for 10 min. slp1 mutant defective in vacuole morphogenesis was more sensitive to HPCT than its isogenic parent. Concanamycin A, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), at 10 microM rendered the parent more HPCT-sensitive to the level of slp1. To confirm further the contribution of V-ATPase to the tolerance against HPCT in S. cerevisiae, we compared vma1 mutant of V-ATPase with its isogenic parent for their HPCT sensitivity. vma1 mutant was more sensitive to HPCT than its parent. Addition of 10 microM vanadate, an inhibitor of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (P-ATPase), to the wild type strains also increased the inactivation ratio. These results clearly show that V- and P-ATPases contribute to the tolerance against HPCT in S. cerevisiae by accumulating excess H(+) from cytoplasm to vacuole and excluding H(+) outside of the cell, respectively.

  1. Prognostic relevance of a T-type calcium channels gene signature in solid tumours: A correlation ready for clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Lorenzo; Vivaldi, Caterina; Lin, Dong; Xue, Hui; Falcone, Alfredo; Wang, Yuzhuo; Crea, Francesco; Bootman, Martin D

    2017-01-01

    T-type calcium channels (TTCCs) mediate calcium influx across the cell membrane. TTCCs regulate numerous physiological processes including cardiac pacemaking and neuronal activity. In addition, they have been implicated in the proliferation, migration and differentiation of tumour tissues. Although the signalling events downstream of TTCC-mediated calcium influx are not fully elucidated, it is clear that variations in the expression of TTCCs promote tumour formation and hinder response to treatment. We examined the expression of TTCC genes (all three subtypes; CACNA-1G, CACNA-1H and CACNA-1I) and their prognostic value in three major solid tumours (i.e. gastric, lung and ovarian cancers) via a publicly accessible database. In gastric cancer, expression of all the CACNA genes was associated with overall survival (OS) among stage I-IV patients (all p<0.05). By combining the three potential biomarkers, a TTCC signature was developed, which retained a significant association with OS both in stage IV and stage I-III patients. In lung and ovarian cancer, association with OS was also significant when all tumour stages were considered, but was partly lost or inconclusive after splitting cases into localized and metastatic subsets. Alterations in CACNA gene expression are linked to tumour prognosis. Gastric cancer represents the most promising setting for further evaluation.

  2. Calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline increases gene delivery with adenovirus type 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko T Ahonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. METHODS/RESULTS: We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. CONCLUSION: In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline.

  3. Expanded alternative splice isoform profiling of the mouse Cav3.1/α1G T-type calcium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Wayne L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels contributes to the molecular and functional diversity mediating complex network oscillations in the normal brain. Transcript scanning of the human CACNA1G gene has revealed the presence of 11 regions within the coding sequence subjected to alternative splicing, some of which enhance T-type current. In mouse models of absence epilepsy, elevated T-type calcium currents without clear increases in channel expression are found in thalamic neurons that promote abnormal neuronal synchronization. To test whether enhanced T-type currents in these models reflect pathogenic alterations in channel splice isoforms, we determined the extent of alternative splicing of mouse Cacna1g transcripts and whether evidence of altered transcript splicing could be detected in mouse absence epilepsy models. Results Transcript scanning of the murine Cacna1g gene detected 12 regions encoding alternative splice isoforms of Cav3.1/α1G T-type calcium channels. Of the 12 splice sites, six displayed homology to the human CACNA1G splice sites, while six novel mouse-specific splicing events were identified, including one intron retention, three alternative acceptor sites, one alternative donor site, and one exon exclusion. In addition, two brain region-specific alternative splice patterns were observed in the cerebellum. Comparative analyses of brain regions from four monogenic absence epilepsy mouse models with altered thalamic T-type currents and wildtype controls failed to reveal differences in Cacna1g splicing patterns. Conclusion The determination of six novel alternative splice sites within the coding region of the mouse Cacna1g gene greatly expands the potential biophysical diversity of voltage-gated T-type channels in the mouse central nervous system. Although alternative splicing of Cav3.1/α1G channels does not explain the enhancement of T-type current identified in four mouse

  4. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  5. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  6. The secretory response of parathyroid hormone to acute hypocalcemia in vivo is independent of parathyroid glandular sodium/potassium-ATPase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martuseviciene, Giedre; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Clausen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of sodium/potassium-ATPase in regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is inferred from in vitro studies. Recently, the α-klotho-dependent rapid recruitment of this ATPase to the parathyroid cell plasma membrane in response to low extracellular calcium ion was suggested......-treated parathyroid glands, indicating inhibition of the ATPase. As ouabain induced systemic hyperkalemia, the effect of high potassium on hormone secretion was also examined but was found to have no effect. Thus, inhibition of the parathyroid gland sodium/potassium-ATPase activity in vivo had no effect...

  7. Flow rate, pH and calcium concentration of saliva of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in salivary parameters may increase the caries risk in diabetic children, but, contradictory data on this issue have been reported. The aims of this study were to compare salivary parameters (flow rate, pH and calcium concentration between healthy and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM individuals. The sample consisted of 7- to 18-year-old individuals divided into two groups: 30 subjects with T1DM (group A and 30 healthy control subjects (group B. Fasting glucose levels were determined. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva was collected. The pH of unstimulated saliva was measured with paper strips and an electrode. Calcium concentrations in stimulated saliva were determined with a selective electrode. Group A individuals had inadequate blood glucose control (HbA1C >9%, with means ± SD unstimulated salivary flow rate of 0.15 ± 0.1 mL/min compared to 0.36 ± 0.2 mL/min for group B (P < 0.01. Stimulated salivary flow rate was similar by both groups and above 2.0 mL/min. Saliva pH was 6.0 ± 0.8 for group A and significantly different from 7.0 ± 0.6 for group B (P < 0.01. Salivary calcium was 14.7 ± 8.1 mg/L for group A and significantly higher than 9.9 ± 6.4 mg/L for group B (P < 0.01. Except for elevated calcium concentrations in saliva, salivary parameters favoring caries such as low saliva pH and unstimulated salivary flow rate were observed in T1DM individuals.

  8. A blocker of N- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels attenuates ethanol-induced intoxication, place preference, self-administration, and reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M; Zeng, Lily; Wang, Victoria; Connolly, Jacklyn; Wallace, Melisa J; Kim, Chanki; Shin, Hee-Sup; Belardetti, Francesco; Snutch, Terrance P; Messing, Robert O

    2008-11-05

    There is a clear need for new therapeutics to treat alcoholism. Here, we test our hypothesis that selective inhibitors of neuronal calcium channels will reduce ethanol consumption and intoxication, based on our previous studies using knock-out mice and cell culture systems. We demonstrate that pretreatment with the novel mixed N-type and T-type calcium channel antagonist 1-(6,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)hexyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine (NP078585) reduced ethanol intoxication. NP078585 also attenuated the reinforcing and rewarding properties of ethanol, measured by operant self-administration and the expression of an ethanol conditioned place preference, and abolished stress-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking. NP078585 did not affect alcohol responses in mice lacking N-type calcium channels. These results suggest that selective calcium channel inhibitors may be useful in reducing acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol consumption by human alcoholics.

  9. Nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesion associated with type III dens invaginatus using calcium hydroxide: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaskar R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth, probably resulting from an infolding of the papilla during tooth development. It predisposes the tooth to develop caries and periapical pathosis. Root canal therapy may present many problems because of the complex anatomy of the teeth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an Oehlers type III dens invaginatus that perforated into the apical area. Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline, was used as an intracanal medicament. This eradicated the pathogenic microorganisms in the invagination and preserved the vitality of the tooth, allowing gutta-percha obturation in the invagination.

  10. Mapping of dihydropyridine binding residues in a less sensitive invertebrate L-type calcium channel (LCa v 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Adriano; Boone, Adrienne; Lam, Stanley; Dawson, Taylor F; Zhorov, Boris; Spafford, J David

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrate L-type calcium channel, LCa(v) 1, isolated from the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is nearly indistinguishable from mammalian Ca(v) 1.2 (α1C) calcium channel in biophysical characteristics observed in vitro. These L-type channels are likely constrained within a narrow range of biophysical parameters to perform similar functions in the snail and mammalian cardiovascular systems. What distinguishes snail and mammalian L-type channels is a difference in dihydropyridine sensitivity: 100 nM isradipine exhibits a significant block of mammalian Ca(v) 1.2 currents without effect on snail LCa(v)1 currents. The native snail channel serves as a valuable surrogate for validating key residue differences identified from previous experimental and molecular modeling work. As predicted, three residue changes in LCa(v)1 (N_3o18, F_3i10, and I_4i12) replaced with DHP-sensing residues in respective positions of Ca(v) 1.2, (Q_3o18, Y_3i10, and M_4i12) raises the potency of isradipine block of LCa(v)1 channels to that of mammalian Ca(v) 1.2. Interestingly, the single N_3o18_Q mutation in LCa(v) 1 channels lowers DHP sensitivity even further and the triple mutation bearing enhanced isradipine sensitivity, still retains a reduced potency of agonist, (S)-Bay K8644.

  11. [Effects of emodin on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and L-type calcium current of the single ventricular mytocytes from guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shan, Hong-li; Sun, Hong-li; He, Shu-zhuang; Yang, Bao-feng

    2004-01-01

    To study the effects of emodin on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and L-type calcium current of the single ventricular myocytes from guinea pig. Enzymatic dissociation was used to isolate single ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pig. They were loaded with Ca2(+)-sensitive fluorecent indicator Fluo-3/AM. [Ca2+]i represented by fluorescent intensity (FI) was measured by laser scanning confocal microscope. Whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record ICa-L. At resting status, [Ca2+]i was not affected by emodin (1-100 mumol.L-1). Emodin at the concentration of 1 mumol.L-1 was shown to increase the [Ca2+]i induced by 60 mmol.L-1 KCl. The peak value of fluorescent intensity was increased from 1,877 +/- 551 to 2,905 +/- 739 (n = 8, P < 0.05). Emodin at the concentration of 10 mumol.L-1 had no effect on the increase of [Ca2+]i induced by 60 mmol.L-1 KCl. However, the increase of [Ca2+]i induced by KCl was reduced to 1,214 +/- 335 (n = 8, P < 0.05) by 100 mumol.L-1 emodin. The density of ICa-L was increased from (-6.2 +/- 1.3) pA/pF to (-8.3 +/- 0.3) pA/pF (n = 6, P < 0.05) by 1 mumol.L-1 emodin at the test pulse of 0 mV. The current was not altered by 10 mumol.L-1 emodin. But it was inhibited from (-6.6 +/- 1.0) pA/pF to (-3.80 +/- 0.16) pA/pF (n = 6, P < 0.05) by 100 mumol.L-1 emodin at the test pulse of +10 mV. Emodin has two-way regulation on [Ca2+]i and ICa-L of cardiomyocytes in guinea pig.

  12. Structural and functional studies of heavy metal ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    of SsZntA using a broad range of techniques reveals an array of unique Zn2+-ATPase features relating to ion uptake, binding, discharge and countertransport. These results are then used to comprehensively compare Zn2+-ATPases with their Cu+-transporting counterparts, showing how the two have managed...... to handle heavy metal ions. LpCopA is then compared to its two human homologues ATP7A and ATP7B, which cause the severe Menkes and Wilson diseases when malfunctioning. The differences between the three proteins are described and disease-causing mutations in the human proteins are analyzed. The crystal...... to adapt to transport of distinct ion types while still maintaining all the major features of the P1B-ATPase subclass....

  13. Characterization and subcellular targeting of GCaMP-type genetically-encoded calcium indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Mao

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs hold the promise of monitoring [Ca(2+] in selected populations of neurons and in specific cellular compartments. Relating GECI fluorescence to neuronal activity requires quantitative characterization. We have characterized a promising new genetically-encoded calcium indicator-GCaMP2-in mammalian pyramidal neurons. Fluorescence changes in response to single action potentials (17+/-10% DeltaF/F [mean+/-SD] could be detected in some, but not all, neurons. Trains of high-frequency action potentials yielded robust responses (302+/-50% for trains of 40 action potentials at 83 Hz. Responses were similar in acute brain slices from in utero electroporated mice, indicating that long-term expression did not interfere with GCaMP2 function. Membrane-targeted versions of GCaMP2 did not yield larger signals than their non-targeted counterparts. We further targeted GCaMP2 to dendritic spines to monitor Ca(2+ accumulations evoked by activation of synaptic NMDA receptors. We observed robust DeltaF/F responses (range: 37%-264% to single spine uncaging stimuli that were correlated with NMDA receptor currents measured through a somatic patch pipette. One major drawback of GCaMP2 was its low baseline fluorescence. Our results show that GCaMP2 is improved from the previous versions of GCaMP and may be suited to detect bursts of high-frequency action potentials and synaptic currents in vivo.

  14. Synthesis, structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of zirconium copper doped M-type calcium strontium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Qureshi, Raheela Beenish [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Malana, Muhammad Aslam, E-mail: draslammalana@gmail.com [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ehsan, Muhammad Fahad [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguawn, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Particle size of these samples is suitable for high density recording media. • The samples have coercivity suitable for longitudinal magnetic recording media. • The sample (x = 0.8) has dielectric constant useful for high frequency applications. - Abstract: Zirconium copper substituted calcium strontium hexagonal ferrites with composition Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12−2x}Zr{sub x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) have been synthesized by the chemical co precipitation procedure. These compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Dielectric and magnetic properties of these hexaferrites were also explored. XRD analysis confirmed the single hexagonal phase of all the compounds and the average crystallite size was between 37 and 47 nm. The dielectric parameters show relaxation behaviour at higher frequencies. The values of dielectric parameters increase with dopants. In the range of magnetic field studied, the saturation magnetization decreases as the dopant contents increase which may be due to the nonmagnetic character of the substituents. The coercivity of the Zr–Cu doped derivatives of strontium calcium hexaferrites is increased up to x = 0.2 and then decreased. The values of coercivity are above 600 Oe which make them suitable materials for use in industries in longitudinal magnetic recording media.

  15. Cytotoxicity and migration of fibroblasts on two types of calcium sulfate dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teparat-Burana, Thitiwan; Onsiri, Natnicha; Jantarat, Jeeraphat

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare cytotoxicity and migration ability of L929 on medical-grade calcium sulfate dihydrate (MCS) with commercial calcium sulfate dihydrate (CCS). Samples of both freshly-mixed and set states of MCS and CCS were extracted in culture medium and tested for cytotoxicity according to International Organization of Standardization 10993-5:2009. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used, and the percentage of cell viability was calculated. Thirty petri dishes were divided into three equal groups: polystyrene (control), CCS, and MCS. In each petri dish, triplicate wells were made on the agarose overlay on the material. The central well was occupied with L929 cell suspension, one well was filled with platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and the remaining well with Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution. After incubation, the migration distances were measured and the corrected migration distances were calculated. The final step involved scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CCS had significantly less cell viability than MCS at a high extracted concentration (P migration of MCS was significantly greater than that of CCS (P migration of L929 fibroblasts compared with CCS. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. ECA3, a Golgi-localized P2A-type-ATPase, plays a crucial role in manganese nutrition in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Rebecca F.; Doherty, Melissa Louise; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2008-01-01

    not so striking because in this case all plants were severely affected. ECA3 partially restored the growth defect on high Mn of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) pmr1 mutant, which is defective in a Golgi Ca/Mn pump (PMR1), and the yeast K616 mutant (Deltapmc1 Deltapmr1 Deltacnb1), defective in Golgi......, several independent T-DNA insertion mutant alleles were isolated. When grown on medium lacking Mn, eca3 mutants, but not eca2 mutants, displayed a striking difference from wild-type plants. After approximately 8 to 9 d on this medium, eca3 mutants became chlorotic, and root and shoot growth were strongly...... inhibited compared to wild-type plants. These severe deficiency symptoms were suppressed by low levels of Mn, indicating a crucial role for ECA3 in Mn nutrition in Arabidopsis. eca3 mutants were also more sensitive than wild-type plants and eca2 mutants on medium lacking Ca; however, the differences were...

  17. Potentiation of Opioid-Induced Analgesia by L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers: Need for Clinical Trial in Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basu Ray

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports indicate that the analgesic effect of opioids is due to both closure of specific voltage-gated calcium channels (N- and P/Q-types and opening of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs in neurons concerned with transmission of pain. However, administration of opioids leads to unacceptable levels of side effects, particularly at high doses. Thus, current research is directed towards simultaneously targeting other voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs like the L-type VGCCs or even other cell signaling mechanisms, which would aug-ment opioid-mediated analgesic effect without a concurrent increase in the side effects. Unfortunately, the results of these studies are often conflicting considering the different experimental paradigms (variable drug selection and their doses and also the specific pain test used for studying analgesia adopted by researchers. The present review focuses on some of the interesting findings regarding the analgesic effect of Opioids + L-VGCC blockers and suggests that time has come for a clinical trial of this combination of drugs in the treatment of cancer pain.

  18. Branchial Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 and Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in a brackish water-type ionocyte of the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K Ip

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter 1 (nkcc1 in the gills of freshwater H. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold in response to brackish water (salinity 20 acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na+ into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na+ homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka. We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nkaα in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nkaα, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland.

  19. Branchial Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit in a brackish water-type ionocyte of the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K; Hiong, Kum C; Wong, Samuel Z H; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L; Soh, Melody M L; Chng, You R; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Wilson, Jonathan M; Chew, Shit F

    2013-01-01

    Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) in the gills of freshwaterH. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold) in response to brackish water (salinity 20) acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na(+) into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na(+) homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Nka). We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nkaα in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nkaα, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland.

  20. Branchial Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter 1 and Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in a brackish water-type ionocyte of the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hiong, Kum C.; Wong, Samuel Z. H.; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L.; Soh, Melody M. L.; Chng, You R.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) in the gills of freshwaterH. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold) in response to brackish water (salinity 20) acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na+ into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na+ homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka). We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nkaα in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nkaα, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland. PMID:24339817

  1. Peran Enzim Ca2+ - ATPase pada Membran Sel Darah Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry P. Gultom

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ - ATP ase enzyme is transmembrane protein which is found in membrane cell. This protein works as a pump in many cases such as thalassemia which causes leakage of the cell as there is oxidation of sulphidril chain from amino acid in membrane. The calcium-ion intake must be pumped out to get red blood cell homeostatic condition. The aim of this paper is to determine the activity of Ca2+ - ATPase enzyme as a pump of Ca ion in membrane cell.

  2. Amino acid substitutions in the FXYD motif enhance phospholemman-induced modulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Xianming; Gao, Guofeng; Huang, Congxin; Elmslie, Keith S; Peterson, Blaise Z

    2010-11-01

    We have found that phospholemman (PLM) associates with and modulates the gating of cardiac L-type calcium channels (Wang et al., Biophys J 98: 1149-1159, 2010). The short 17 amino acid extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain of PLM contains a highly conserved PFTYD sequence that defines it as a member of the FXYD family of ion transport regulators. Although we have learned a great deal about PLM-dependent changes in calcium channel gating, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed changes. Therefore, we investigated the role of the PFTYD segment in the modulation of cardiac calcium channels by individually replacing Pro-8, Phe-9, Thr-10, Tyr-11, and Asp-12 with alanine (P8A, F9A, T10A, Y11A, D12A). In addition, Asp-12 was changed to lysine (D12K) and cysteine (D12C). As expected, wild-type PLM significantly slows channel activation and deactivation and enhances voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). We were surprised to find that amino acid substitutions at Thr-10 and Asp-12 significantly enhanced the ability of PLM to modulate Ca(V)1.2 gating. T10A exhibited a twofold enhancement of PLM-induced slowing of activation, whereas D12K and D12C dramatically enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. The PLM-induced slowing of channel closing was abrogated by D12A and D12C, whereas D12K and T10A failed to impact this effect. These studies demonstrate that the PFXYD motif is not necessary for the association of PLM with Ca(V)1.2. Instead, since altering the chemical and/or physical properties of the PFXYD segment alters the relative magnitudes of opposing PLM-induced effects on Ca(V)1.2 channel gating, PLM appears to play an important role in fine tuning the gating kinetics of cardiac calcium channels and likely plays an important role in shaping the cardiac action potential and regulating Ca(2+) dynamics in the heart.

  3. Type III restriction endonuclease EcoP15I is a heterotrimeric complex containing one Res subunit with several DNA-binding regions and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszomirski, Karol H; Curth, Ute; Alves, Jürgen; Mackeldanz, Petra; Möncke-Buchner, Elisabeth; Schutkowski, Mike; Krüger, Detlev H; Reuter, Monika

    2012-04-01

    For efficient DNA cleavage, the Type III restriction endonuclease EcoP15I communicates with two inversely oriented recognition sites in an ATP-dependent process. EcoP15I consists of methylation (Mod) and restriction (Res) subunits forming a multifunctional enzyme complex able to methylate or to cleave DNA. In this study, we determined by different analytical methods that EcoP15I contains a single Res subunit in a Mod(2)Res stoichiometry. The Res subunit comprises a translocase (Tr) domain carrying functional motifs of superfamily 2 helicases and an endonuclease domain with a PD..D/EXK motif. We show that the isolated Tr domain retains ATP-hydrolyzing activity and binds single- and double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner. To localize the regions of DNA binding, we screened peptide arrays representing the entire Res sequence for their ability to interact with DNA. We discovered four DNA-binding regions in the Tr domain and two DNA-binding regions in the endonuclease domain. Modelling of the Tr domain shows that these multiple DNA-binding regions are located on the surface, free to interact with DNA. Interestingly, the positions of the DNA-binding regions are conserved among other Type III restriction endonucleases.

  4. Calcium dysregulation via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and ryanodine receptors underlies memory deficits and synaptic dysfunction during chronic neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Sarah C; D'Angelo, Heather M; Royer, Sarah E; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Crockett, Alexis M; Adzovic, Linda; Wenk, Gary L

    2015-03-25

    Chronic neuroinflammation and calcium (Ca(+2)) dysregulation are both components of Alzheimer's disease. Prolonged neuroinflammation produces elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal Ca(+2) homeostasis via L-type voltage-dependent Ca(+2) channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Chronic neuroinflammation also leads to deficits in spatial memory, which may be related to Ca(+2) dysregulation. The studies herein use an in vivo model of chronic neuroinflammation: rats were infused intraventricularly with a continuous small dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) for 28 days. The rats were treated with the L-VDCC antagonist nimodipine or the RyR antagonist dantrolene. LPS-infused rats had significant memory deficits in the Morris water maze, and this deficit was ameliorated by treatment with nimodipine. Synaptosomes from LPS-infused rats had increased Ca(+2) uptake, which was reduced by a blockade of L-VDCCs either in vivo or ex vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that Ca(+2) dysregulation during chronic neuroinflammation is partially dependent on increases in L-VDCC function. However, blockade of the RyRs also slightly improved spatial memory of the LPS-infused rats, demonstrating that other Ca(+2) channels are dysregulated during chronic neuroinflammation. Ca(+2)-dependent immediate early gene expression was reduced in LPS-infused rats treated with dantrolene or nimodipine, indicating normalized synaptic function that may underlie improvements in spatial memory. Pro-inflammatory markers are also reduced in LPS-infused rats treated with either drug. Overall, these data suggest that Ca(+2) dysregulation via L-VDCCs and RyRs play a crucial role in memory deficits resulting from chronic neuroinflammation.

  5. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma...... membrane include ABC transporters, vacuolar (V-type) H+ pumps, and P-type pumps. These pumps all utilize ATP as a fuel for energizing pumping. This review focuses on the physiological roles of plasma membrane P-type pumps, as they represent the major ATP hydrolytic activity in this membrane....

  6. Cell-type-specific H+-ATPase activity in root tissues enables K+ retention and mediates acclimation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    conferring higher sensitivity of apical root cells to salinity in barley (Hordeum vulgare). We show that salinity application to the root apex arrests root growth in a highly tissue- and treatment-specific manner. Although salinity-induced transient net Na(+) uptake was about 4-fold higher in the root apex......While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms...... depolarization, and (3) a higher reactive oxygen species production under NaCl and a larger density of reactive oxygen species-activated cation currents in the apex. Salinity treatment increased (2- to 5-fold) the content of 10 (out of 25 detected) amino acids in the root apex but not in the mature zone...

  7. Thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption on calcium-exchanged faujasite-type zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino, G.T.; Arean, C.O.; Carayol, M.R.L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bonelli, B.; Armandi, M.; Garrone, E. (Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Turin, Italy, and INSTM Unit of Torino Politecnico); Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O. [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Apdo. 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    A combination of variable-temperature infrared spectroscopy with volumetric gas adsorption measurements was used to study the thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption, at a low temperature, on calcium-exchanged zeolites X and Y. Two adsorption regimes were considered: (i) localized adsorption of dihydrogen molecules on Ca{sup 2+} cation sites, and (ii) delocalized hydrogen adsorption following saturation of the Ca{sup 2+} adsorbing centres. For localized adsorption, the corresponding enthalpy change was found to be in the range of -12 to -15 kJ mol{sup -1}, while the isosteric heat of delocalized adsorption was found to be in the range of 4.5-5.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. These experimental results are discussed in the broader context of corresponding data for other alkaline zeolites, with a focus on correlation between adsorption enthalpy and entropy for the localized adsorption regime. (author)

  8. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Ochotny, Noelle [Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Manolson, Morris F. [Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Holliday, L. Shannon, E-mail: sholliday@dental.ufl.edu [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  9. Effect of a high-fiber diet compared with a moderate-fiber diet on calcium and other mineral balances in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Chandalia, Manisha; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Brinkley, Linda J; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Grundy, Scott M; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2009-06-01

    High levels of dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, are recommended to lower serum cholesterol levels and improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, how high levels of fiber affect mineral balance. In a randomized crossover study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were fed a high-fiber (50 g total and 25 g soluble fiber) and a moderate-fiber (24 g total and 8 g soluble fiber) diet of the same energy, macronutrient, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus content for 6 weeks each. Intestinal calcium absorption was determined by fecal recovery of (47)Ca. Stool weight and mineral content were assessed during 3 days, and 24-h urinary mineral content and serum chemistry were assessed over 5 days at the end of each phase. The results were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared with the moderate-fiber diet, the high-fiber diet increased stool weight (165 +/- 53 vs. 216 +/- 63 g/day, P = 0.02) and reduced 24-h urinary calcium (3.3 +/- 1.7 vs. 2.4 +/- 1.2 mmol/day, P = 0.003) and phosphorus (29.2 +/- 5.5 vs. 26.0 +/- 3.2 mmol/day, P = 0.003) excretion and serum calcium concentration (2.33 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.29 +/- 0.07 mmol/l, P = 0.04). Calcium absorption, stool calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus content and serum phosphorus concentration were not significantly different with the two diets. A high-fiber diet rich in soluble fiber has a small impact on calcium and phosphorus balance in subjects with type 2 diabetes. It may be prudent to ensure adequate intake of calcium and other minerals in individuals consuming a high-fiber diet.

  10. Presence of cardiac alpha-myosin correlates with histochemical myosin Ca2+ ATPase activity in rabbit masseter muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredman, J. J.; Weijs, W. A.; Moorman, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    A combined enzyme-histochemical (ATPase reactivity) and immunohistochemical study has been performed on sections of rabbit masseter muscle. The majority of the fibres previously designated as type IIC and/or type I according to their ATPase activity were found to contain 'cardiac' alpha-myosin heavy

  11. Calcium alginate microspheres containing metformin hydrochloride niosomes and chitosomes aimed for oral therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Francesca; Mura, Paola; González-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Cózar-Bernal, María José; Rabasco, Antonio María; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-09-15

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent used in the type 2 diabetes, whose poor bioavailability and short half-life make the development of effective extended-release formulations highly desirable. Different metformin-loaded chitosomal and niosomal formulations were developed and suitably characterized, but were unable to provide the desired sustained release. The entrapment of both kinds of colloidal dispersions in calcium alginate beads enabled to strongly reduce the amount of drug released at gastric level (from 18 up to a maximum of 30%), and to obtain a sustained release in simulated intestinal fluid, which was properly tuned by varying the percentage of calcium alginate in the beads. In vivo studies on rats revealed a significant improvement of metformin hypoglycemic effect when orally administered as chitosomal and even more as niosomal dispersion entrapped in alginate beads, not only with respect to the drug as such, but also to the alginate beads loaded with the plain drug. The more intense and sustained therapeutic effect with time provided by the drug-in niosomes-in alginate bead formulation could be very profitable for maintaining tight blood glucose levels over prolonged period of time after oral administration, allowing a reduction of its dose and related collateral effects, and improving patient compliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flow rate, pH and calcium concentration of saliva of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A R; Passos, I A; Sampaio, F C; Soares, M S M; Oliveira, R J

    2009-08-01

    Alterations in salivary parameters may increase the caries risk in diabetic children, but, contradictory data on this issue have been reported. The aims of this study were to compare salivary parameters (flow rate, pH and calcium concentration) between healthy and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) individuals. The sample consisted of 7- to 18-year-old individuals divided into two groups: 30 subjects with T1DM (group A) and 30 healthy control subjects (group B). Fasting glucose levels were determined. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva was collected. The pH of unstimulated saliva was measured with paper strips and an electrode. Calcium concentrations in stimulated saliva were determined with a selective electrode. Group A individuals had inadequate blood glucose control (HbA(1C) >9%), with means +/- SD unstimulated salivary flow rate of 0.15 +/- 0.1 mL/min compared to 0.36 +/- 0.2 mL/min for group B (P Saliva pH was 6.0 +/- 0.8 for group A and significantly different from 7.0 +/- 0.6 for group B (P saliva, salivary parameters favoring caries such as low saliva pH and unstimulated salivary flow rate were observed in T1DM individuals.

  13. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis by modulating N-type calcium channel density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Cassidy, John S.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2014-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation, is characterized by synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic transmission depends critically on presynaptic calcium entry via voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels. Here we show that the functional expression of neuronal N-type CaV channels (CaV2.2) is regulated by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). We find that FMRP knockdown in dorsal root ganglion neurons increases CaV channel density in somata and in presynaptic terminals. We then show that FMRP controls CaV2.2 surface expression by targeting the channels to the proteasome for degradation. The interaction between FMRP and CaV2.2 occurs between the carboxy-terminal domain of FMRP and domains of CaV2.2 known to interact with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Finally, we show that FMRP controls synaptic exocytosis via CaV2.2 channels. Our data indicate that FMRP is a potent regulator of presynaptic activity, and its loss is likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunction in FXS.

  14. Alternative Splicing of L-type CaV1.2 Calcium Channels: Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available L-type Cav1.2 calcium channels are the major pathway for Ca2+ influx to initiate the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles. Alteration of Cav1.2 channel function has been implicated in multiple cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional mechanism that expands Cav1.2 channel structures to modify function, pharmacological and biophysical property such as calcium/voltage-dependent inactivation (C/VDI, or to influence its post-translational modulation by interacting proteins such as Galectin-1. Alternative splicing has generated functionally diverse Cav1.2 isoforms that can be developmentally regulated in the heart, or under pathophysiological conditions such as in heart failure. More importantly, alternative splicing of certain exons of Cav1.2 has been reported to be regulated by splicing factors such as RNA-binding Fox-1 homolog 1/2 (Rbfox 1/2, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1 and RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20. Understanding how Cav1.2 channel function is remodelled in disease will provide better information to guide the development of more targeted approaches to discover therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Alternative Splicing of L-type CaV1.2 Calcium Channels: Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-24

    L-type Cav1.2 calcium channels are the major pathway for Ca2+ influx to initiate the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles. Alteration of Cav1.2 channel function has been implicated in multiple cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional mechanism that expands Cav1.2 channel structures to modify function, pharmacological and biophysical property such as calcium/voltage-dependent inactivation (C/VDI), or to influence its post-translational modulation by interacting proteins such as Galectin-1. Alternative splicing has generated functionally diverse Cav1.2 isoforms that can be developmentally regulated in the heart, or under pathophysiological conditions such as in heart failure. More importantly, alternative splicing of certain exons of Cav1.2 has been reported to be regulated by splicing factors such as RNA-binding Fox-1 homolog 1/2 (Rbfox 1/2), polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) and RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20). Understanding how Cav1.2 channel function is remodelled in disease will provide better information to guide the development of more targeted approaches to discover therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. A conditional mutation affecting localization of the Menkes disease copper ATPase. Suppression by copper supplementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Byung-Eun; Smith, Kathryn; Meagher, Carisa K; Petris, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Copper is an essential co-factor for several key metabolic processes. This requirement in humans is underscored by Menkes disease, an X-linked copper deficiency disorder caused by mutations in the copper transporting P-type ATPase, MNK...

  17. Endogenous and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content and calsequestrin expression in type I and type II human skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, C R; Murphy, R M; McKenna, M J; Lamb, G D

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content and calsequestrin (CSQ) isoforms was investigated in human skeletal muscle. A fibre-lysing assay was used to quantify the endogenous Ca(2+) content and maximal Ca(2+) capacity of the SR in skinned segments of type I and type II fibres from vastus lateralis muscles of young healthy adults. Western blotting of individual fibres showed the great majority contained either all fast or all slow isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC), troponins C and I, tropomyosin and SERCA, and that the strontium sensitivity of the force response was closely indicative of the troponin C isoform present. The endogenous SR Ca(2+) content was slightly lower in type I compared to type II fibres (0.76 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.02 mmol Ca(2+) per litre of fibre, respectively), with virtually all of this Ca(2+) evidently being in the SR, as it could be rapidly released with a caffeine-low [Mg(2+)] solution (only 0.08 ± 0.01 and fibres, respectively (P fibres, where the SR remained functional, repeated cycles of caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release and subsequent Ca(2+) reloading similarly indicated that (i) maximal SR Ca(2+) content was lower in type I fibres than in type II fibres (P fibres compared to type II fibres (∼59% and 41%, respectively, P fibres were found on average to contain ∼3-fold more CSQ1 and ∼5-fold less CSQ2 than type I fibres (P fibres being primarily determined by the CSQ1 abundance, and in type I fibres by the combined amounts of both CSQ1 and CSQ2.

  18. Characterization of Bovine Brain ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    with a complex structure (presence of galactose, vannose and sialic acid ). This structure raises the possibility of immobilizing via immobilized...SYNAPIIC The (Ca2+ + M9*2)- dependent ATPase-Calcitu Channel Complex is found at the synaptic termini of neurons ( 1). With the exception of Mojave toxin...for 60% inhibition. We examined the effects of various phospholipids on catalytic activity (Table IX). With the exception of phosphatidic acid , all

  19. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  20. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  1. Curcumin modulation of Na,K-ATPase: phosphoenzyme accumulation, decreased K+ occlusion, and inhibition of hydrolytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the major constitute of tumeric, is an important nutraceutical that has been shown to be useful in the treatment of many diseases. As an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, curcumin was shown to correct cystic fibrosis (CF) defects in some model systems, whereas others...... have reported no or little effects on CF after curcumin treatment, suggesting that curcumin effect is not due to simple inhibition of the Ca2+-ATPase. We tested the hypothesis that curcumin may modulate other members of the P2-type ATPase superfamily by studying the effects of curcumin on the activity...... and kinetic properties of the Na,K-ATPase. Curcumin treatment inhibited Na,K-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner (K0.514.6 M). Curcumin decreased the apparent affinity of Na,K-ATPase for K+ and increased it for Na+ and ATP. Kinetic analyses indicated that curcumin induces a three-fold reduction...

  2. Calcium-dependent expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Hovsepian, Anahit

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether extracellular calcium may regulate the expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels in patients with chronic kidney disease. Using quantitative in-cell Western assay we compared the expression of TRPC3 channel protein in monocytes from 20...... patients with chronic kidney disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. TRPC3 channels were identified by immunoblotting using specific antibodies and TRPC3 protein was further confirmed by mass spectrometry. We observed a significant increase of TRPC3 channel protein expression...... in patients with chronic kidney disease compared to healthy control subjects (normalized expression, 0.42±0.06 vs. 0.19±0.03; p...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY OF A VITAMINE PREPARATION ENRICHED WITH CALCIUM IN CHILDREN WITH VARIOUS TYPES OF ORTHOPEDIC PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Taibulatov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides information on the efficacy of a multivitamin complex enriched with calcium and magnesium in children with orthopedic pathology. It highlights that incorporating a multivitamin complex into the course of rehabilitation treatment for children with various types of faults in posture and platy podia dramatically enhances the efficacy of therapy. The children who were administered the preparation had significantly improved parameters of endurance under exercise stress conditions in comparison with similar parameters in children, whose course of rehabilitation treatment did not include the multivitamin complex. The control study of the feet planta’s status using the computerized system in children from the main group where the preparation was administered, found improved podo scopy parameters by 65% compared with the benchmark group where subjects did not received the multivitamin complex.Key words: children, multivitamin, posture, platypodia, rehabilitation treatment.

  4. Postsynaptic GABABRs Inhibit L-Type Calcium Channels and Abolish Long-Term Potentiation in Hippocampal Somatostatin Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Sam A; Loreth, Desiree; Gee, Annabelle L; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kind, Peter C; Wyllie, David J A; Kulik, Ákos; Vida, Imre

    2018-01-02

    Inhibition provided by local GABAergic interneurons (INs) activates ionotropic GABAA and metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABABRs). Despite GABABRs representing a major source of inhibition, little is known of their function in distinct IN subtypes. Here, we show that, while the archetypal dendritic-inhibitory somatostatin-expressing INs (SOM-INs) possess high levels of GABABR on their somato-dendritic surface, they fail to produce significant postsynaptic inhibitory currents. Instead, GABABRs selectively inhibit dendritic CaV1.2 (L-type) Ca2+ channels on SOM-IN dendrites, leading to reduced calcium influx and loss of long-term potentiation at excitatory input synapses onto these INs. These data provide a mechanism by which GABABRs can contribute to disinhibition and control the efficacy of extrinsic inputs to hippocampal networks. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Response to Zinc, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiency in Specific Cell Types of Arabidopsis Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Fukao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteome profiles of specific cell types have recently been investigated using techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting and laser capture microdissection. However, quantitative proteomic analysis of specific cell types has not yet been performed. In this study, to investigate the response of the proteome to zinc, magnesium, and calcium deficiency in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics using GFP-expressing protoplasts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protoplasts were collected from the pGL2-GFPer and pMGP-GFPer marker lines for epidermis or inner cell lines (pericycle, endodermis, and cortex, respectively. To increase the number of proteins identified, iTRAQ-labeled peptides were separated into 24 fractions by OFFGFEL electrophoresis prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, 1039 and 737 proteins were identified and quantified in the epidermal and inner cell lines, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins was decreased in the epidermis by mineral deficiency, although a weaker effect was observed in inner cell lines such as the pericycle, endodermis, and cortex. Here, we report for the first time the quantitative proteomics of specific cell types in Arabidopsis roots.

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Adeyemi

    Full Text Available Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated.High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM. Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes.TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05 and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05 exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05, but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS. The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05. UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001, whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L.Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

  7. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oladipupo; Alvarez-Laviada, Anita; Schultz, Francisca; Ibrahim, Effendi; Trauner, Michael; Williamson, Catherine; Glukhov, Alexey V; Gorelik, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated. High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM). Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes. TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05) and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV) by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05) exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T) blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05), but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L) blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS). The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM) reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05). UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05) and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001), whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L. Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

  8. The alpha Na-2(+)/K+-ATPase is critical for skeletal and heart muscle function in zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doganli, Canan; Kjaer-Sorensen, K.; Knoeckel, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Na+/K+-ATPase generates ion gradients across the plasma membrane, essential for multiple cellular functions. In mammals, four different Na+/K+-ATPase alpha-subunit isoforms are associated with characteristic cell-type expression profiles and kinetics. We found the zebrafish alpha Na-2(+)/K......-and downregulation of specific phenotype-related proteins, such as parvalbumin, CaM, GFAP and multiple kinases, thus highlighting a potential proteome change associated with the dynamics of alpha Na-2(+)/K+-ATPase. Taken together, our findings show that zebrafish alpha Na-2(+)/K+-ATPase is important for skeletal...

  9. A Blocker of N- and T-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Intoxication, Place Preference, Self-Administration, and Reinstatement

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Philip M.; Zeng, Lily; Wang, Victoria; Connolly, Jacklyn; Wallace, Melisa Joellan; Kim, Chanki; Shin, Hee-sup; Belardetti, Francesco; Snutch, Terrance P; Messing, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    There is a clear need for new therapeutics to treat alcoholism. Here, we test our hypothesis that selective inhibitors of neuronal calcium channels will reduce ethanol consumption and intoxication, based on our previous studies using knock-out mice and cell culture systems. We demonstrate that pretreatment with the novel mixed N-type and T-type calcium channel antagonist 1-(6,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)hexyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine (NP078585) reduced ethanol intoxication. NP078585 als...

  10. Molecular basis for the binding and modulation of V-ATPase by a bacterial effector protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogenic bacteria evade the immune response by replicating within host cells. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' Disease, makes use of numerous effector proteins to construct a niche supportive of its replication within phagocytic cells. The L. pneumophila effector SidK was identified in a screen for proteins that reduce the activity of the proton pumping vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. SidK is secreted by L. pneumophila in the early stages of infection and by binding to and inhibiting the V-ATPase, SidK reduces phagosomal acidification and promotes survival of the bacterium inside macrophages. We determined crystal structures of the N-terminal region of SidK at 2.3 Å resolution and used single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM to determine structures of V-ATPase:SidK complexes at ~6.8 Å resolution. SidK is a flexible and elongated protein composed of an α-helical region that interacts with subunit A of the V-ATPase and a second region of unknown function that is flexibly-tethered to the first. SidK binds V-ATPase strongly by interacting via two α-helical bundles at its N terminus with subunit A. In vitro activity assays show that SidK does not inhibit the V-ATPase completely, but reduces its activity by ~40%, consistent with the partial V-ATPase deficiency phenotype its expression causes in yeast. The cryo-EM analysis shows that SidK reduces the flexibility of the A-subunit that is in the 'open' conformation. Fluorescence experiments indicate that SidK binding decreases the affinity of V-ATPase for a fluorescent analogue of ATP. Together, these results reveal the structural basis for the fine-tuning of V-ATPase activity by SidK.

  11. Sex and regional differences in rabbit right ventricular L-type calcium current levels and mathematical modelling of arrhythmia vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalik, Zane M; Mike, Joshua L; Slipski, Cassandra; Wright, Moriah; Jalics, Jozsi Z; Womble, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regional variations of ventricular L-type calcium current (ICa-L ) amplitude may underlie the increased arrhythmia risk in adult females. Current amplitude variations have been described for the left ventricle but not for the right ventricle. What is the main finding and its importance? Adult female rabbit right ventricular base myocytes exhibit elevated ICa-L compared with female apex or male myocytes. Oestrogen upregulated ICa-L in cultured female myocytes. Mathematical simulations modelling long QT syndrome type 2 demonstrated that elevated ICa-L prolonged action potentials and induced early after-depolarizations. Thus, ventricular arrhythmias in adult females may be associated with an oestrogen-induced upregulation of ICa-L . Previous studies have shown that adult rabbit left ventricular myocytes exhibit sex and regional differences in L-type calcium current (ICa-L ) levels that contribute to increased female susceptibility to arrhythmogenic early after-depolarizations (EADs). We used patch-clamp recordings from isolated adult male and female rabbit right ventricular myocytes to determine apex-base differences in ICa-L density and used mathematical modelling to examine the contribution of ICa-L to EAD formation. Current density measured at 0 mV in female base myocytes was 67% higher than in male base myocytes and 55% higher than in female apex myocytes. No differences were observed between male and female apex myocytes, between male apex and base myocytes, or in the voltage dependences of ICa-L activation or inactivation. The role of oestrogen was investigated using cultured adult female right ventricular base myocytes. After 2 days, 17β-estradiol (1 nm) produced a 65% increase in ICa-L density compared with untreated control myocytes, suggesting an oestrogen-induced upregulation of ICa-L . Action potential simulations using a modified Luo-Rudy cardiomyocyte model showed that increased ICa-L density, at the level

  12. An extended nomenclature for mammalian V-ATPase subunit genes and splice variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Miranda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The vacuolar-type H(+-ATPase (V-ATPase is a multisubunit proton pump that is involved in both intra- and extracellular acidification processes throughout the body. Multiple homologs and splice variants of V-ATPase subunits are thought to explain its varied spatial and temporal expression pattern in different cell types. Recently subunit nomenclature was standardized with a total of 22 subunit variants identified. However this standardization did not accommodate the existence of splice variants and is therefore incomplete. Thus, we propose here an extension of subunit nomenclature along with a literature and sequence database scan for additional V-ATPase subunits. An additional 17 variants were pulled from a literature search while 4 uncharacterized potential subunit variants were found in sequence databases. These findings have been integrated with the current V-ATPase knowledge base to create a new V-ATPase subunit catalogue. It is envisioned this catalogue will form a new platform on which future studies into tissue- and organelle-specific V-ATPase expression, localization and function can be based.

  13. Regulation of Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) Reassembly by Glycolysis Flow in 6-Phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1)-deficient Yeast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chun-Yuan; Dominguez, Dennis; Parra, Karlett J

    2016-07-22

    Yeast 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1) has two subunits, Pfk1p and Pfk2p. Deletion of Pfk2p alters glucose-dependent V-ATPase reassembly and vacuolar acidification (Chan, C. Y., and Parra, K. J. (2014) Yeast phosphofructokinase-1 subunit Pfk2p is necessary for pH homeostasis and glucose-dependent vacuolar ATPase reassembly. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 19448-19457). This study capitalized on the mechanisms suppressing vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in pfk2Δ to gain new knowledge of the mechanisms underlying glucose-dependent V-ATPase regulation. Because V-ATPase is fully assembled in pfk2Δ, and glycolysis partially suppressed at steady state, we manipulated glycolysis and assessed its direct involvement on V-ATPase function. At steady state, the ratio of proton transport to ATP hydrolysis increased 24% after increasing the glucose concentration from 2% to 4% to enhance the glycolysis flow in pfk2Δ. Tighter coupling restored vacuolar pH when glucose was abundant and glycolysis operated below capacity. After readdition of glucose to glucose-deprived cells, glucose-dependent V1Vo reassembly was proportional to the glycolysis flow. Readdition of 2% glucose to pfk2Δ cells, which restored 62% of ethanol concentration, led to equivalent 60% V1Vo reassembly levels. Steady-state level of assembly (100% reassembly) was reached at 4% glucose when glycolysis reached a threshold in pfk2Δ (≥40% the wild-type flow). At 4% glucose, the level of Pfk1p co-immunoprecipitated with V-ATPase decreased 58% in pfk2Δ, suggesting that Pfk1p binding to V-ATPase may be inhibitory in the mutant. We concluded that V-ATPase activity at steady state and V-ATPase reassembly after readdition of glucose to glucose-deprived cells are controlled by the glycolysis flow. We propose a new mechanism by which glucose regulates V-ATPase catalytic activity that occurs at steady state without changing V1Vo assembly. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. A Thapsigargin-Resistant Intracellular Calcium Sequestering Compartment in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-31

    Inesi, G., Characterization of the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ transport ATPases by thapsigargin, J Bioi Chern, 267 (1992) 12606-13. 116 Salvador ...J.M. and Mata , A.M., Characterization of the intracellular and the plasma membrane Ca2+- ATPases in fractionated pig brain membranes using calcium

  15. Short-Term Facilitation at a Detonator Synapse Requires the Distinct Contribution of Multiple Types of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Simon; Evstratova, Alesya; Tóth, Katalin

    2017-05-10

    Neuronal calcium elevations are shaped by several key parameters, including the properties, density, and the spatial location of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). These features allow presynaptic terminals to translate complex firing frequencies and tune the amount of neurotransmitter released. Although synchronous neurotransmitter release relies on both P/Q- and N-type VGCCs at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses, the specific contribution of VGCCs to calcium dynamics, neurotransmitter release, and short-term facilitation remains unknown. Here, we used random-access two-photon calcium imaging together with electrophysiology in acute mouse hippocampal slices to dissect the roles of P/Q- and N-type VGCCs. Our results show that N-type VGCCs control glutamate release at a limited number of release sites through highly localized Ca 2+ elevations and support short-term facilitation by enhancing multivesicular release. In contrast, Ca 2+ entry via P/Q-type VGCCs promotes the recruitment of additional release sites through spatially homogeneous Ca 2+ elevations. Altogether, our results highlight the specialized contribution of P/Q- and N-types VGCCs to neurotransmitter release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter release is dynamically regulated by the transient opening of different types of voltage-gated calcium channels. Hippocampal giant mossy fiber terminals display extensive short-term facilitation during repetitive activity, with a large several fold postsynaptic response increase. Though, how giant mossy fiber terminals leverage distinct types of voltage-gated calcium channels to mediate short-term facilitation remains unexplored. Here, we find that P/Q- and N-type VGCCs generate different spatial patterns of calcium elevations in giant mossy fiber terminals and support short-term facilitation through specific participation in two mechanisms. Whereas N-type VGCCs contribute only to the synchronization of multivesicular release

  16. Contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content in type I and type II skeletal muscle fibres in active aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, C R; Wyckelsma, V L; Dutka, T L; McKenna, M J; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2015-06-01

    Muscle weakness in old age is due in large part to an overall loss of skeletal muscle tissue, but it remains uncertain how much also stems from alterations in the properties of the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and amount of stored intracellular calcium in single muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) adults. The maximum level of force production (per unit cross-sectional area) in fast twitch fibres in Old subjects was lower than in Young subjects, and the fibres were also less sensitive to activation by calcium. The amount of calcium stored inside muscle fibres and available to trigger contraction was also lower in both fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres in the Old subjects. These findings indicate that muscle weakness in old age stems in part from an impaired capacity for force production in the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content in mechanically skinned vastus lateralis muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) humans to investigate whether changes in muscle fibre properties contribute to muscle weakness in old age. In type II fibres of Old subjects, specific force was reduced by ∼17% and Ca(2+) sensitivity was also reduced (pCa50 decreased ∼0.05 pCa units) relative to that in Young. S-Glutathionylation of fast troponin I (TnIf ) markedly increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in type II fibres, but the increase was significantly smaller in Old versus Young (+0.136 and +0.164 pCa unit increases, respectively). Endogenous and maximal SR Ca(2+) content were significantly smaller in both type I and type II fibres in Old subjects. In fibres of Young, the SR could be nearly fully depleted of Ca(2+) by a combined caffeine and low Mg(2+) stimulus, whereas in fibres of Old the amount of non-releasable Ca(2+) was significantly increased (by > 12% of endogenous Ca(2+) content). Western

  17. Lack of delta waves and sleep disturbances during non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice lacking α1G-subunit of T-type calcium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jungryun; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2004-01-01

    T-type calcium channels have been implicated as a pacemaker for brain rhythms during sleep but their contribution to behavioral states of sleep has been relatively uncertain. Here, we found that mice lacking α1G T-type Ca2+ channels showed a loss of the thalamic delta (1–4 Hz) waves and a reduction of sleep spindles (7–14 Hz), whereas slow (16 sec compared with the wild-type, whereas no difference was seen in BAs of

  18. Effect of therapeutic concentration of lithium on live HEK293 cells; increase of Na+/K+-ATPase, change of overall protein composition and alteration of surface layer of plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Ujcikova, Hana; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Brejchova, Jana; Roubalova, Lenka; Alda, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2017-05-01

    The effect of long-term exposure of live cells to lithium cations (Li) was studied in HEK293 cells cultivated in the presence of 1mM LiCl for 7 or 21days. The alteration of Na + /K + -ATPase level, protein composition and biophysical state of plasma membrane was determined with the aim to characterize the physiological state of Li-treated cells. Na + /K + -ATPase level was determined by [ 3 H]ouabain binding and immunoblot assays. Overall protein composition was determined by 2D electrophoresis followed by proteomic analysis by MALDI-TOF MS/MS and LFQ. Li interaction with plasma membrane was characterized by fluorescent probes DPH, TMA-DPH and Laurdan. Na + /K + -ATPase was increased in plasma membranes isolated from cells exposed to Li. Identification of Li-altered proteins by 2D electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS/MS and LFQ suggests a change of energy metabolism in mitochondria and cytosol and alteration of cell homeostasis of calcium. Measurement of Laurdan generalized polarization indicated a significant alteration of surface layer of isolated plasma membranes prepared from both types of Li-treated cells. Prolonged exposure of HEK293 cells to 1mM LiCl results in up-regulation of Na + /K + -ATPase expression, reorganization of overall cellular metabolism and alteration of the surface layer/polar head-group region of isolated plasma membranes. Our findings demonstrate adaptation of live HEK293 cell metabolism to prolonged exposure to therapeutic concentration of Li manifested as up-regulation of Na + /K + -ATPase expression, alteration of protein composition and change of the surface layer of plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RNAi silencing of P/Q-type calcium channels in Purkinje neurons of adult mouse leads to episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Julie; Bertaso, Federica; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Metz, Alexandra; Lemmers, Céline; Ango, Fabrice; Fagni, Laurent; Lory, Philippe; Mezghrani, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    Episodic ataxia type-2 (EA2) is a dominantly inherited human neurological disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the CACNA1A gene, which encodes the CaV2.1 subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels. It remains however unknown whether the deficit of cerebellar CaV2.1 in adult is in direct link with the disease. To address this issue, we have used lentiviral based-vector RNA interference (RNAi) to knock-down CaV2.1 expression in the cerebellum of adult mice. We show that suppression of the P/Q-type channels in Purkinje neurons induced motor abnormalities, such as imbalance and ataxic gait. Interestingly, moderate channel suppression caused no basal ataxia, while β-adrenergic activation and exercise mimicked stress induced motor disorders. Moreover, stress-induced ataxia was stable, non-progressive and totally abolished by acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat EA2. Altogether, these data reveal that P/Q-type channel suppression in adult mice supports the episodic status of EA2 disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulatory Mechanisms in the P4-ATPase Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Sara

    Eukaryotic cell membranes are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Several relevant physiological processes depend on trans-bilayer phospholipid asymmetry, including vesiculation in the se......Eukaryotic cell membranes are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Several relevant physiological processes depend on trans-bilayer phospholipid asymmetry, including vesiculation...... in the secretory and endocytic pathways. The inward-oriented translocation of phospholipids is catalyzed by proteins called P4-ATPases or flippases, which belong to a subfamily of P-type ATPases. P4-ATPases, together with their CDC50 β-subunits, are essential for eukaryotic life but the key features...... of their activity and regulation remain to be elucidated. Therefore, these studies focus on the role of the catalytic and CDC50 β-subunit in the phospholipid translocation and the regulation processes behind it. Recent studies suggested that P4-ATPase complex functionality is highly dependent on the conformation...

  1. T-type calcium channels, but not Cav3.2, in the peripheral sensory afferents are involved in acute itch in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Fang; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Feng-Ming; Fei, Yuan-Hui; Gu, Jia-Hui; Li, Jie; Bi, Ling-Bo; Liu, Xing-Jun

    2017-06-10

    T-type calcium channels are prominently expressed in primary nociceptive fibers and well characterized in pain processes. Although itch and pain share many similarities including primary sensory fibers, the function of T-type calcium channels on acute itch has not been explored. We investigated whether T-type calcium channels expressed within primary sensory fibers of mouse skin, especially Cav3.2 subtype, involve in chloroquine-, endothelin-1- and histamine-evoked acute itch using pharmacological, neuronal imaging and behavioral analyses. We found that pre-locally blocking three subtypes of T-type calcium channels in the peripheral afferents of skins, yielded an inhibition in acute itch or pain behaviors, while selectively blocking the Cav3.2 channel in the skin peripheral afferents only inhibited acute pain but not acute itch. These results suggest that T-type Cav3.1 or Cav3.3, but not Cav3.2 channel, have an important role in acute itch processing, and their distinctive roles in modulating acute itch are worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca2+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes D.; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca2+. Vanadate is bound at the cat...... nucleotide analogs in the E2·VO3− structure with that in E2·BeF3− (E2P ground state analog) reveals multiple binding modes to the Ca2+-ATPase....

  3. Metal fluoride complexes of Na,K-ATPase: characterization of fluoride-stabilized phosphoenzyme analogues and their interaction with cardiotonic steroids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2011-01-01

    .... Metal fluorides like magnesium-, beryllium-, and aluminum fluoride act as phosphate analogues and inhibit P-type ATPases by interacting with the phosphorylation site, stabilizing conformations...

  4. Six types of multistability in a neuronal model based on slow calcium current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Malashchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multistability of oscillatory and silent regimes is a ubiquitous phenomenon exhibited by excitable systems such as neurons and cardiac cells. Multistability can play functional roles in short-term memory and maintaining posture. It seems to pose an evolutionary advantage for neurons which are part of multifunctional Central Pattern Generators to possess multistability. The mechanisms supporting multistability of bursting regimes are not well understood or classified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is focused on determining the bio-physical mechanisms underlying different types of co-existence of the oscillatory and silent regimes observed in a neuronal model. We develop a low-dimensional model typifying the dynamics of a single leech heart interneuron. We carry out a bifurcation analysis of the model and show that it possesses six different types of multistability of dynamical regimes. These types are the co-existence of 1 bursting and silence, 2 tonic spiking and silence, 3 tonic spiking and subthreshold oscillations, 4 bursting and subthreshold oscillations, 5 bursting, subthreshold oscillations and silence, and 6 bursting and tonic spiking. These first five types of multistability occur due to the presence of a separating regime that is either a saddle periodic orbit or a saddle equilibrium. We found that the parameter range wherein multistability is observed is limited by the parameter values at which the separating regimes emerge and terminate. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a neuronal model which exhibits a rich variety of different types of multistability. We described a novel mechanism supporting the bistability of bursting and silence. This neuronal model provides a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of networks with neurons possessing different types of multistability.

  5. Six types of multistability in a neuronal model based on slow calcium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashchenko, Tatiana; Shilnikov, Andrey; Cymbalyuk, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    Multistability of oscillatory and silent regimes is a ubiquitous phenomenon exhibited by excitable systems such as neurons and cardiac cells. Multistability can play functional roles in short-term memory and maintaining posture. It seems to pose an evolutionary advantage for neurons which are part of multifunctional Central Pattern Generators to possess multistability. The mechanisms supporting multistability of bursting regimes are not well understood or classified. Our study is focused on determining the bio-physical mechanisms underlying different types of co-existence of the oscillatory and silent regimes observed in a neuronal model. We develop a low-dimensional model typifying the dynamics of a single leech heart interneuron. We carry out a bifurcation analysis of the model and show that it possesses six different types of multistability of dynamical regimes. These types are the co-existence of 1) bursting and silence, 2) tonic spiking and silence, 3) tonic spiking and subthreshold oscillations, 4) bursting and subthreshold oscillations, 5) bursting, subthreshold oscillations and silence, and 6) bursting and tonic spiking. These first five types of multistability occur due to the presence of a separating regime that is either a saddle periodic orbit or a saddle equilibrium. We found that the parameter range wherein multistability is observed is limited by the parameter values at which the separating regimes emerge and terminate. We developed a neuronal model which exhibits a rich variety of different types of multistability. We described a novel mechanism supporting the bistability of bursting and silence. This neuronal model provides a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of networks with neurons possessing different types of multistability.

  6. T-type calcium channels promote predictive homeostasis of input-output relations in thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Z. Hong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A general theory views the function of all neurons as prediction, and one component of this theory is that of predictive homeostasis or prediction error. It is well established that sensory systems adapt so that neuronal output maintains sensitivity to sensory input, in accord with information theory. Predictive homeostasis applies the same principle at the cellular level, where the challenge is to maintain membrane excitability at the optimal homeostatic level so that spike generation is maximally sensitive to small gradations in synaptic drive. Negative feedback is a hallmark of homeostatic mechanisms, as exemplified by depolarization-activated potassium channels. However, T-type calcium channels exhibit positive feedback that appears at odds with the theory. In thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, T-type channels are capable of causing bursts of spikes with an all-or-none character in response to excitation from a hyperpolarized potential. This burst mode would partially uncouple visual input from spike output and reduce the information spikes convey about gradations in visual input. However, past observations of T-type-driven bursts may have resulted from unnaturally high membrane excitability. By mimicking natural patterns of synaptic conductance that occur during vision, we found that T-type channels in rat brain slices did not cause bursts, but rather enabled retinogeniculate excitation to cause spikes despite sustained hyperpolarization, thereby restoring the homeostatic input-output relation observed at depolarized potentials. Our results suggest that T-type channels help to maintain a single optimal mode of transmission rather than creating a second mode. In addition, our results provide evidence for the general theory, which seeks to predict the properties of a neuron’s ion channels and synapses given knowledge of natural patterns of synaptic input.

  7. The L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Ca [subscript V] 1.2 Mediates Fear Extinction and Modulates Synaptic Tone in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Stephanie J.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, Ca[subscript V]1.2 and Ca[subscript V] 1.3, using transgenic mice have…

  8. ß-Adrenoceptor Activation Enhances L-Type Calcium Channel Currents in Anterior Piriform Cortex Pyramidal Cells of Neonatal Mice: Implication for Odor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhinaba; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Chen, Xihua; Yuan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Early odor preference learning occurs in one-week-old rodents when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation mimicking maternal care. ß-Adrenoceptors and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) are critically involved in this learning. However, whether ß-adrenoceptors interact directly with LTCCs in aPC…

  9. The effects of the calcium-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II on risk factors for kidney stones and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, A. van; Ploeg, E.M.C. van der; Habets, H.M.L.; Meer, R. van der; Hermus, R.J.J.; Janknegt, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The calcium (Ca)-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II may decrease Ca excretion but increase biochemical markers of risk for osteopenia. We randomly allocated 25 patients from six hospitals into an experimental group (Ca restriction to 500 mg/day,

  10. High glucose enhances transient receptor potential channel canonical type 6-dependent calcium influx in human platelets via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Maier, Alexandra; Scholze, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channels mediating 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)-induced calcium entry have been identified on human platelets. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia increases the expression of TRPC6 channels....

  11. Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage-dependent calcium channels and developing contractions through a second type of calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozuka, M.; Ito, T.; Hirose, S.; Takahashi, K.; Hagiwara, H.

    1989-02-28

    Effects of endothelin on nonvascular smooth muscle have been examined using rat uterine horns and two modes of endothelin action have been revealed. Endothelin (0.3 nM) caused rhythmic contractions of isolated uterus in the presence of extracellular calcium. The rhythmic contractions were completely inhibited by calcium channel antagonists. These characteristics of endothelin-induced contractions were very similar to those induced by oxytocin. Binding assays using /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that endothelin and the calcium channel blockers did not compete for the binding sites. However, endothelin was unique in that it caused, in addition to rhythmic contractions, a slowly developing monophasic contraction that was insensitive to calcium channel blockers. This developing contraction became dominant at higher concentrations of endothelin and was also calcium dependent.

  12. Autoantibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor and cytokines in autoimmune polyglandular syndromes types 2, 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, E Helen; Kahaly, George J; Porter, Julie A; Frommer, Lara; Weetman, Anthony P

    2018-01-01

    The frequency of autoimmunity against the parathyroid glands in patients with polyglandular autoimmunity that is not due to autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is unclear. To investigate this, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of autoantibodies against parathyroid autoantigens, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 (NALP5), in a large group of patients with non-APS1 polyendocrine autoimmunity. Possible occult APS1 was investigated by cytokine autoantibody measurement and AIRE gene analysis. Subjects were 178 patients with APS2, 3 or 4, and 80 healthy blood donors. Autoantibodies against the CaSR, NALP5 and cytokines were measured by immunoprecipitation, radioligand binding assays or ELISA, respectively. Four patient samples (2.2%), but none of the controls, were positive for CaSR autoantibodies. NALP5 autoantibodies were not detected in any participant. Eleven patients (6.2%) had cytokine autoantibodies, but none of the control samples was positive. None of the patients with cytokine autoantibodies had any known or novel mutations in the AIRE gene. The low prevalence of CaSR autoantibodies indicate a very low level of subclinical parathyroid autoimmunity in APS types 2, 3 and 4. In addition, autoantibodies against cytokines constitute an uncommon feature of non-APS1 polyglandular autoimmunity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Blockade of T-type calcium channels prevents tonic-clonic seizures in a maximal electroshock seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkaki, Sophie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Lerat, Benoit; Françon, Dominique; Forichon, Luc; Chemin, Jean; Valjent, Emmanuel; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Lory, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    T-type (Cav3) calcium channels play important roles in neuronal excitability, both in normal and pathological activities of the brain. In particular, they contribute to hyper-excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Here we have characterized the anticonvulsant properties of TTA-A2, a selective T-type channel blocker, in mouse. Using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as a model of tonic-clonic generalized seizures, we report that mice treated with TTA-A2 (0.3 mg/kg and higher doses) were significantly protected against tonic seizures. Although no major change in Local Field Potential (LFP) pattern was observed during the MES seizure, analysis of the late post-ictal period revealed a significant increase in the delta frequency power in animals treated with TTA-A2. Similar results were obtained for Cav3.1-/- mice, which were less prone to develop tonic seizures in the MES test, but not for Cav3.2-/- mice. Analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and c-Fos expression revealed a rapid and elevated neuronal activation in the hippocampus following MES clonic seizures, which was unchanged in TTA-A2 treated animals. Overall, our data indicate that TTA-A2 is a potent anticonvulsant and that the Cav3.1 isoform plays a prominent role in mediating TTA-A2 tonic seizure protection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The α2β2 isoform combination dominates the astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity and is rendered nonfunctional by the α2.G301R familial hemiplegic migraine type 2-associated mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Anca; Larsen, Brian Roland; Assentoft, Mette; Holm, Rikke; Holt, Leanne Melissa; Vilhardt, Frederik; Vilsen, Bente; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Olsen, Michelle Lynne; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-11-01

    Synaptic activity results in transient elevations in extracellular K+ , clearance of which is critical for sustained function of the nervous system. The K+ clearance is, in part, accomplished by the neighboring astrocytes by mechanisms involving the Na+ /K+ -ATPase. The Na+ /K+ -ATPase consists of an α and a β subunit, each with several isoforms present in the central nervous system, of which the α2β2 and α2β1 isoform combinations are kinetically geared for astrocytic K+ clearance. While transcript analysis data designate α2β2 as predominantly astrocytic, the relative quantitative protein distribution and isoform pairing remain unknown. As cultured astrocytes altered their isoform expression in vitro, we isolated a pure astrocytic fraction from rat brain by a novel immunomagnetic separation approach in order to determine the expression levels of α and β isoforms by immunoblotting. In order to compare the abundance of isoforms in astrocytic samples, semi-quantification was carried out with polyhistidine-tagged Na+ /K+ -ATPase subunit isoforms expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes as standards to obtain an efficiency factor for each antibody. Proximity ligation assay illustrated that α2 paired efficiently with both β1 and β2 and the semi-quantification of the astrocytic fraction indicated that the astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase is dominated by α2, paired with β1 or β2 (in a 1:9 ratio). We demonstrate that while the familial hemiplegic migraine-associated α2.G301R mutant was not functionally expressed at the plasma membrane in a heterologous expression system, α2+/G301R mice displayed normal protein levels of α2 and glutamate transporters and that the one functional allele suffices to manage the general K+ dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Enigma homolog 1 scaffolds protein kinase D1 to regulate the activity of the cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Andrés D; Wälchli, Sébastien; Iwata, Miki; Ryser, Stephan; Van Lint, Johannes; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Schlegel, Werner; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2008-06-01

    In cardiomyocytes, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) plays a central role in the response to stress signals. From a yeast two-hybrid assay, we have identified Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) as a new binding partner of PKD1. Since in neurons, ENH1, associated with protein kinase Cepsilon, was shown to modulate the activity of N-type calcium channels, and the pore-forming subunit of the cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel, alpha1C, possesses a potential phosphorylation site for PKD1, we studied here a possible role of ENH1 and PKD1 in the regulation of the cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel. PKD1-interacting proteins were searched by yeast two-hybrid screening. In vivo protein interactions in cardiomyocytes isolated from heart ventricles of newborn rats were tested by co-immunoprecipitation. Small interfering RNA and a dominant negative mutant of PKD1 were delivered into cardiomyocytes by use of an adenovirus. Calcium currents were measured by the patch-clamp technique. Both ENH1 and PKD1 interact with alpha1C in cardiomyocytes. This interaction is increased upon stimulation. Silencing of ENH1 prevented the binding of PKD1 to alpha1C. Moreover, a dominant negative mutant of PKD1 or the silencing of ENH1 inhibited the alpha-adrenergic-induced increase of L-type calcium currents. We found a new binding partner, ENH1, and a new target, alpha1C, for PKD1 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We propose a model where ENH1 scaffolds PKD1 to alpha1C in order to form a signalling complex that regulates the activity of cardiac L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

  16. Synthesis of Hollow Silver Spheres using Spherical Vaterite-type Calcium Carbonate as Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Minyoung; Go, Hani; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Rhee, Seog Woo [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of hollow silver spheres using vaterite-type CaCO{sub 3} as template. The spherical vaterite-type CaCO{sub 3} was selectively precipitated d reaction of aqueous CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the presence of the polyelectrolyte poly(4-styrenesulfonate). Aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution containing NH{sub 2}-functionalized CaCO{sub 3} particles was treated with reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, NaBH{sub 4}, and acetaldehyde, and the reduced silver particles were deposited on the surface of CaCO{sub 3}particles to form uniform silvershells. The CaCO{sub 3} used as template was removed from the CaCO{sub 3}/Ag composite by treatment with acid. Finally, the hollow silver sphere was obtained. The morphologies of product were investigated using electron microscopy, the chemical composition of the composite was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the vibration modes of the carbonate ion were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the thermal mass change was measured using the thermogravimetric analysis, and the solid phases were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction.

  17. Lack of delta waves and sleep disturbances during non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice lacking alpha1G-subunit of T-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungryun; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2004-12-28

    T-type calcium channels have been implicated as a pacemaker for brain rhythms during sleep but their contribution to behavioral states of sleep has been relatively uncertain. Here, we found that mice lacking alpha1(G) T-type Ca(2+) channels showed a loss of the thalamic delta (1-4 Hz) waves and a reduction of sleep spindles (7-14 Hz), whereas slow (sleep. Analysis of sleep disturbances, as defined by the occurrence of brief awakening (BA) episodes during NREM sleep, revealed that mutant mice exhibited a higher incidence of BAs of >16 sec compared with the wild-type, whereas no difference was seen in BAs of sleep spindles from cortically generated slow waves. These results also suggest that the alpha1(G)-subunit of T-type calcium channels plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations and contributes to the modulation of sleep states and the transition between NREM sleep and wake states.

  18. Inhibition of growth and metabolism of Chlorella and some other plant types by calcium dipicrylamine and other poisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierhuizen, J.F.

    1957-01-01

    If potassium is obtained from sea-water by precipitation with calcium dipicrylamine, potassium fertilizers and sea-water will be contaminated with a little dipicrylamine. The influence of calcium dipicrylamine on metabolism of Chlorella and some other aquatic and terrestrial plants was

  19. Immunocytolocalization of Plasma Membrane H-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parets-Soler, A; Pardo, J M; Serrano, R

    1990-08-01

    The localization of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase has been studied at the optical microscope level utilizing frozen and paraffin sections of Avena sativa and Pisum sativum, specific anti-ATPase polyclonal antibody, and second antibody coupled to alkaline phosphatase. In leaves and stems the ATPase is concentrated at the phloem, supporting the notion that it generates the driving force for phloem loading. In roots the ATPase is concentrated at both the periphery (rootcap and epidermis) and at the central cylinder, including endodermis and vascular cells. This supports a ;two-pump' mechanism for ion absorption, involving active uptake at the epidermis, symplast transport across the cortex, and active efflux at the xylem. The low ATPase content of root meristem and elongation zone may explain the observed transorgan H(+) currents, which leave nongrowing parts and enter growing tips.

  20. Influence of infrasound exposure on the whole L-type calcium currents in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhaohui; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Pingxi; Chen, Jingzao; Sang, Hanfei; Ren, Jun; Wu, Zhenbiao; Yan, Guangmei

    2009-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of infrasound exposure (5 Hz at 130 dB) on whole-cell L-type Ca2+ currents (WLCC) in rat ventricular myocytes and the underlying mechanism(s) involved. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to infrasound exposure and control groups. [Ca2+](i), WLCC, mRNA expression of the a(1c) subunit of L-type Ca2+ channels (LCC), and SERCA2 protein were examined on day 1, 7, and 14 after initiation of infrasound exposure. Fluo-3/AM fluorescence and the laser scanning confocal microscope techniques were used to measure [Ca2+](i) in freshly isolated ventricular myocytes. The Ca2+ fluorescence intensity (FI), denoting [Ca2+](i) in cardiomyocytes, was significantly elevated in a time-dependent manner in the exposure groups. There was a significant increase in WLCC in the 1-day group and a further significant increase in the 7- and 14-day groups. LCC mRNA expression measured by RT-PCR revealed a significant rise in the 1-day group and a significant additional rise in the 7- and 14-day groups compared with control group. SERCA2 expression was significantly upregulated in the 1-day group followed by an overt decrease in the 7- and 14-day groups. Prolonged exposure of infrasound altered WLCC in rat cardiomyocytes by shifting the steady-state inactivation curves to the right (more depolarized direction) without altering the slope and biophysical properties of I (Ca,L). Taken together, our data suggest that changes in [Ca2+](I) levels as well as expression of LCC and SERCA2 may contribute to the infrasound exposure-elicited cardiac response.

  1. N-type calcium channel/syntaxin/SNAP-25 complex probed by antibodies to II-III intracellular loop of the {alpha}{sub 1B} subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, C.L.; Begg, C.M.; Lee, W.-L.; Dubel, S.J. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH (United States); Copeland, T.D. [ABL-Basic Research Program, NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD (United States); Soennichsen, F.D.; McEnery, M.W. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1999-02-22

    Neuronal voltage-dependent calcium channels are integral components of cellular excitation and neurosecretion. In addition to mediating the entry of calcium across the plasma membrane, both N-type and P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels have been shown to form stable complexes with synaptic vesicle and presynaptic membrane proteins, indicating a structural role for the voltage-dependent calcium channels in secretion. Recently, detailed structural analyses of N-type calcium channels have identified residues amino acids 718-963 as the site in the rat {alpha}{sub 1B} subunit that mediates binding to syntaxin, synaptosome-associated protein of 25andpuncsp; omitted000 mol. wt and synaptotagmin [Sheng et al. (1996) Nature 379, 451-454]. The purpose of this study was to employ site-directed antibodies to target domains within and outside of the interaction site on the rat {alpha}{sub 1B} to probe potential binding sites for syntaxin/SNAP-25/synaptotagmin.Our results demonstrate that both antibodies employed in this study have access to their epitopes on the {alpha}{sub 1B} as evidenced by equivalent immunoprecipitation of native [{sup 125}I]omega-conotoxin GVIA-labeled {alpha}{sub 1B} protein from CHAPS-solubilized preparations. The N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel immunoprecipitated by Ab CW14, the antibody directed to a domain outside of the synprint site, is associated with syntaxin and SNAP-25 with the recovery of these proteins, increasing in parallel to the recovery of {alpha}{sub 1B}. However, when we used the antibody raised to an epitope within the synprint site (Ab CW8) to immunoprecipitate N-type calcium channels, the {alpha}{sub 1B} was depleted of more than 65% of syntaxin and 80% of SNAP-25 when compared to the recovery of these proteins using Ab CW14. This is the first report of a defined epitope on the {alpha}{sub 1B} subunit II-III loop (amino acids 863-875) whose perturbation by a site-directed antibody influences the dissociation of SNAP

  2. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Nedim; Gültürk, Sefa; Kaya, Tijen; Demir, Tuncer; Parlak, Mesut; Altun, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12-16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA. Beta, alpha, theta, and delta wave ratios of EEG recordings and frequency and duration of spike wave discharges (SWDs) were analyzed and compared between groups. Beta and delta recording ratios in 1 μM/5 μl mibefradil group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. Beta, alpha, and theta recordings in 0.2 μM/5 μl w-Conotoxin MVIIA group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. In w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group, beta, alpha, and theta recording ratios were significantly different from basal and mibefradil group. Mibefradil and w-Conotoxin MVIIA significantly decreased the frequency and duration of SWDs. The decrease of frequency and duration of SWDs in mibefradil group was significantly different from w-Conotoxin MVIIA group. The frequency and duration of SWDs significantly decreased in w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group compared with basal, mibefradil, and w-Conotoxin MVIIA groups. We concluded that both T and L type calcium channels play activator roles in SWDs and have positive effects on frequency and duration of these discharges. These results are related with their central effects more than peripheral effects.

  3. Rotary ATPases: models, machine elements and technical specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alastair G; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual "machine elements" to the requirement of the right "fuel" and "oil" for different types of motors.

  4. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  5. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  6. Structural model for dihydropyridine binding to L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S

    2009-07-10

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) constitute a major class of ligands for L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC). The DHPs have a boat-like, six-membered ring with an NH group at the stern, an aromatic moiety at the bow, and substituents at the port and starboard sides. Various DHPs exhibit antagonistic or agonistic activities, which were previously explained as stabilization or destabilization, respectively, of the closed activation gate by the portside substituents. Here we report a novel structural model in which agonist and antagonist activities are determined by different parts of the DHP molecule and have different mechanisms. In our model, which is based on Monte Carlo minimizations of DHP-LTCC complexes, the DHP moieties at the stern, bow, and starboard form H-bonds with side chains of the key DHP-sensing residues Tyr_IIIS6, Tyr_IVS6, and Gln_IIIS5, respectively. We propose that these H-bonds, which are common for agonists and antagonists, stabilize the LTCC conformation with the open activation gate. This explains why both agonists and antagonists increase probability of the long lasting channel openings and why even partial disruption of the contacts eliminates the agonistic action. In our model, the portside approaches the selectivity filter. Hydrophobic portside of antagonists may induce long lasting channel closings by destabilizing Ca(2+) binding to the selectivity filter glutamates. Agonists have either hydrophilic substituents or a hydrogen atom at their portside, and thus lack this destabilizing effect. The predicted orientation of the DHP core allows accommodation of long substituents in the domain interface or in the inner pore. Our model may be useful for developing novel clinically relevant LTCC blockers.

  7. Structural Model for Dihydropyridine Binding to L-type Calcium Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B.; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2009-01-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) constitute a major class of ligands for L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC). The DHPs have a boat-like, six-membered ring with an NH group at the stern, an aromatic moiety at the bow, and substituents at the port and starboard sides. Various DHPs exhibit antagonistic or agonistic activities, which were previously explained as stabilization or destabilization, respectively, of the closed activation gate by the portside substituents. Here we report a novel structural model in which agonist and antagonist activities are determined by different parts of the DHP molecule and have different mechanisms. In our model, which is based on Monte Carlo minimizations of DHP-LTCC complexes, the DHP moieties at the stern, bow, and starboard form H-bonds with side chains of the key DHP-sensing residues Tyr_IIIS6, Tyr_IVS6, and Gln_IIIS5, respectively. We propose that these H-bonds, which are common for agonists and antagonists, stabilize the LTCC conformation with the open activation gate. This explains why both agonists and antagonists increase probability of the long lasting channel openings and why even partial disruption of the contacts eliminates the agonistic action. In our model, the portside approaches the selectivity filter. Hydrophobic portside of antagonists may induce long lasting channel closings by destabilizing Ca2+ binding to the selectivity filter glutamates. Agonists have either hydrophilic substituents or a hydrogen atom at their portside, and thus lack this destabilizing effect. The predicted orientation of the DHP core allows accommodation of long substituents in the domain interface or in the inner pore. Our model may be useful for developing novel clinically relevant LTCC blockers. PMID:19416978

  8. Molecular Aspects of Modulation of L-type Calcium Channels by Protein Kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sharon; Dascal, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Ca(2+) influx via L-type Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC; CaV1.2) is required for cardiac and smooth muscle contraction. These channels are located in the plasma membrane and along the T-tubules (in cardiomyocytes), along with various scaffold and trafficking proteins. CaV1.2 is modulated by different hormones and transmitters and was implicated in a variety of cardiovascular pathologies, many of which also involve protein kinase C (PKC). One of the prominent pathways of PKC activation in cardiac and smooth muscle cells is via activation of Gq-coupled receptors and subsequent activation of protein lipase C (PLC). CaV1.2 was shown to be modulated, phosphorylated by, and associated with PKC both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the well documented enhancing effect of vasoconstrictors operating via Gq on CaV1.2 channels, the molecular mechanism by which PKC affects the channel has not yet been resolved. Furthermore, the nature of PKC modulation of CaV1.2 appears to be species-, age- and tissue-dependent. Results from experiments in heterologous expression systems are often contradicting and are difficult to coalesce. The choice of both the heterologous expression system and the CaV1.2 isoform expressed are at the core of this conundrum. Complete reconstitution of the enhancing effect of PKC was successful only in Xenopus oocytes and only when the long N-terminus (NT) isoform of the channel was expressed. This review summarizes past and new findings regarding the mechanism by which activated PKC modulates CaV1.2 channels in native tissues and heterologous expression systems, and suggests perspectives for future research.

  9. The structure of the peripheral stalk of Thermus thermophilus H+-ATPase/synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lawrence K; Stewart, Alastair G; Donohoe, Mhairi; Bernal, Ricardo A; Stock, Daniela (VCCRI); (New South); (Texas)

    2010-03-22

    Proton-translocating ATPases are ubiquitous protein complexes that couple ATP catalysis with proton translocation via a rotary catalytic mechanism. The peripheral stalks are essential components that counteract torque generated from proton translocation during ATP synthesis or from ATP hydrolysis during proton pumping. Despite their essential role, the peripheral stalks are the least conserved component of the complexes, differing substantially between subtypes in composition and stoichiometry. We have determined the crystal structure of the peripheral stalk of the A-type ATPase/synthase from Thermus thermophilus consisting of subunits E and G. The structure contains a heterodimeric right-handed coiled coil, a protein fold never observed before. We have fitted this structure into the 23 {angstrom} resolution EM density of the intact A-ATPase complex, revealing the precise location of the peripheral stalk and new implications for the function and assembly of proton-translocating ATPases.

  10. Cryo EM structure of intact rotary H+-ATPase/synthase from Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Atsuko; Kishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Ken

    2018-01-08

    Proton translocating rotary ATPases couple ATP hydrolysis/synthesis, which occurs in the soluble domain, with proton flow through the membrane domain via a rotation of the common central rotor complex against the surrounding peripheral stator apparatus. Here, we present a large data set of single particle cryo-electron micrograph images of the V/A type H+-rotary ATPase from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, enabling the identification of three rotational states based on the orientation of the rotor subunit. Using masked refinement and classification with signal subtractions, we obtain homogeneous reconstructions for the whole complexes and soluble V1 domains. These reconstructions are of higher resolution than any EM map of intact rotary ATPase reported previously, providing a detailed molecular basis for how the rotary ATPase maintains structural integrity of the peripheral stator apparatus, and confirming the existence of a clear proton translocation path from both sides of the membrane.

  11. Calcium fluxes in Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposed to different types of Amazonian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishes that live in the Amazonian environment may be exposed to several kinds of waters: "black waters", containing high dissolved organic carbon and acidic pH, "white waters", with ten fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and neutral pH, and "clear waters", with two fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and also neutral pH. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze Ca2+ fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposed to different Amazonian waters. Fishes were acclimated in well water (similar to clear water and later placed in individual chambers for Ca2+ fluxes measurements. After 4 h, water from the chambers was replaced by a different type of water. Transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor black or acidic black water resulted in net Ca2+ loss only in the first 2 h of experiment. However, transfer from black or acidic black water to white water led to only net Ca2+ influxes. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor waters (black and acidic black water led to transient net Ca2+ loss, while the amount of Ca2+ in the ion-rich white water seems adequate to prevent Ca2+ loss after transfer. Therefore, transfer of tamoatás between these Amazonian waters does not seem to result in serious Ca2+ disturbance.Os peixes que vivem na Amazônia são expostos a vários tipos de água: águas pretas, contendo grande quantidade de carbono orgânico dissolvido, águas brancas, com concentração de Ca2+ dez vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH neutro, e águas claras, com concentração de Ca2+ duas vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH também neutro. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o fluxo de Ca2+ no peixe de respiração aérea facultativa Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposto a diferentes tipos de águas amazônicas. Os peixes foram aclimatados em água de poço artesiano (semelhante à água clara e depois colocados

  12. Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs and calcium channel blockers (CCBs are widely used antihypertensive drugs. Many clinical studies have demonstrated and compared the organ-protection effects and adverse events of these drugs. However, few large-scale studies have focused on the effect of these drugs as monotherapy on laboratory parameters. We evaluated and compared the effects of ARB and CCB monotherapy on clinical laboratory parameters in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011, to identify cohorts of new ARB users (n = 601 and propensity-score matched new CCB users (n = 601, with concomitant mild to moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used a multivariate-adjusted regression model to adjust for differences between ARB and CCB users, and compared laboratory parameters including serum levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, non-fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, sodium, potassium, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC and platelet (PLT counts up to 12 months after the start of ARB or CCB monotherapy. Results We found a significant reduction of serum TC, HbA1c, hemoglobin and hematocrit and RBC count and a significant increase of serum potassium in ARB users, and a reduction of serum TC and hemoglobin in CCB users, from the baseline period to the exposure period. The reductions of RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in ARB users were significantly greater than those in CCB users. The increase of serum potassium in ARB users was significantly greater than that in CCB users. Conclusions Our study suggested that hematological adverse effects and

  13. Plasmodium falciparum from Pará state (Brazil) shows satisfactory in vitro response to artemisinin derivatives and absence of the S769N mutation in the SERCA-type PfATPase6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel D; Martinelli, Axel; Rodrigues, Louise A; do Carmo, Ediclei L; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Póvoa, Marinete M; Cravo, Pedro

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of artesunate (ATN) and artemether (ATH) against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Brazilian Amazon state of Pará and to search for mutations and/or altered copy numbers in the putative resistance-associated pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfATPase6 genes. In vitro efficacy of ATN and ATH was successfully measured in 56 freshly collected P. falciparum isolates, using a conventional WHO microtest with minor modifications. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the same isolates were inspected using DNA sequencing and/or PCR-RFLP. We used real-time quantitative PCR to assess gene copy numbers. ATN and ATH geometric mean IC(50)s were 0.85 nm, 95% CI (0.55-1.15) and 3.0 nm, 95% CI (1.5-4.5), respectively. There was extremely limited diversity of pfcrt and pfmdr1 genotypes and three SNPs were identified in the pfATPase6 gene: one T to A synonymous mutation at nucleotide 2694 and two non-synonymous (both G to A) mutations at nucleotides 110 and 1916, causing predicted aminoacid shifts of arginine to lysine and of glycine to aspartate, respectively. The previously reported S769N mutation was not detected in any of the isolates inspected. In addition, no gene amplifications were detected in a subset of eight isolates. Artemisinin derivatives display satisfactory in vitro activity locally and the pfATPase6 gene is distinct from that reported in French Guiana, suggesting that those haplotypes have not been introduced regionally.

  14. The α2β2 isoform combination dominates the astrocytic Na+/K+-ATPase activity and is rendered nonfunctional by the α2.G301R familial hemiplegic migraine type 2-associated mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoica, Anca; Larsen, Brian Roland; Assentoft, Mette

    2017-01-01

    and isoform pairing remain unknown. As cultured astrocytes altered their isoform expression in vitro, we isolated a pure astrocytic fraction from rat brain by a novel immunomagnetic separation approach in order to determine the expression levels of α and β isoforms by immunoblotting. In order to compare...... with both β1 and β2 and the semi-quantification of the astrocytic fraction indicated that the astrocytic Na+/K+-ATPase is dominated by α2, paired with β1 or β2 (in a 1:9 ratio). We demonstrate that while the familial hemiplegic migraine-associated α2.G301R mutant was not functionally expressed at the plasma...

  15. Cloning of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) from Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A; Arunachalam, S C; Meleshkevitch, E A; Mandal, P K; Boudko, D Y; Ahearn, G A

    2009-02-01

    We have previously reported on calcium transport mechanisms in American lobster, Homarus americanus, using (45)Ca(2+) coupled with vesicle preparations of hepatopancreatic endoplasmic reticulum. The active transport of calcium across membranes bordering calcium-sequestering stores such as sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by membrane-spanning proteins, the sarco-endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs). In the study described here we used advanced bioinformatics and molecular techniques to clone SERCA from the economically important Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. We report the complete cloning of a full-length SERCA from P. argus antenna cDNA (GenBank accession number AY702617). This cDNA has a 1020-amino acid residue open reading frame which is 90% identical to published sequences of other crustacean SERCA proteins. Our data support the hypothesis that one crustacean and three vertebrate genes controlling calcium transport were derived from a common ancestral gene.

  16. Structural evolution and tissue-specific expression of tetrapod-specific second isoform of secretory pathway Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestov, Nikolay B., E-mail: korn@mail.ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Kostina, Maria B. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Korneenko, Tatyana V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shakhparonov, Mikhail I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Modyanov, Nikolai N., E-mail: nikolai.modyanov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2) cloned from rat duodenum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP2C2 gene (encoding SPCA2) exists only in genomes of Tetrapoda. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rat and pig SPCA2 are expressed in intestines, lung and some secretory glands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subcellular localization of SPCA2 may depend on tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In rat duodenum, SPCA2 is localized in plasma membrane-associated compartments. -- Abstract: Secretory pathway Ca-ATPases are less characterized mammalian calcium pumps than plasma membrane Ca-ATPases and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPases. Here we report analysis of molecular evolution, alternative splicing, tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of the second isoform of the secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2), the product of the ATP2C2 gene. The primary structure of SPCA2 from rat duodenum deduced from full-length transcript contains 944 amino acid residues, and exhibits 65% sequence identity with known SPCA1. The rat SPCA2 sequence is also highly homologous to putative human protein KIAA0703, however, the latter seems to have an aberrant N-terminus originating from intron 2. The tissue-specificity of SPCA2 expression is different from ubiquitous SPCA1. Rat SPCA2 transcripts were detected predominantly in gastrointestinal tract, lung, trachea, lactating mammary gland, skin and preputial gland. In the newborn pig, the expression profile is very similar with one remarkable exception: porcine bulbourethral gland gave the strongest signal. Upon overexpression in cultured cells, SPCA2 shows an intracellular distribution with remarkable enrichment in Golgi. However, in vivo SPCA2 may be localized in compartments that differ among various tissues: it is intracellular in epidermis, but enriched in plasma membranes of the intestinal epithelium. Analysis of SPCA2 sequences from various vertebrate species argue that ATP2C2

  17. Ca-ATPase and ALPase activities at the initial calcification sites of dentin and enamel in the rat incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Y; Ozawa, H; Crenshaw, M A

    1986-01-01

    Enzymatic activities of calcium-magnesium dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca-ATPase) and nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) were localized at the initial calcification sites of dentin and enamel of rat incisor teeth using electron-microscopic cytochemistry. Ca-ATPase was localized in the Golgi cisternae, cytoplasmic vesicles and along the outer surface of the presecretory and secretory ameloblasts, whereas it was totally absent from the odontoblasts in the pulp. Inversely, ALPase reaction was localized along the outer surface of the odontoblasts, but almost completely absent from the ameloblasts. Diffuse extracellular reactions of both enzymes were distributed throughout the unmineralized fibrous matrix of mantle dentin in which a large number of matrix vesicles were scattered. Both Ca-ATPase and ALPase reactions, which appeared in the matrix vesicles in the process of formation of mantle dentin, became most conspicuous at the site of initial dentin calcification. At this stage, an intense Ca-ATPase reaction also appeared along some of the collagen fibrils adjacent to the reactive matrix vesicles. No ALPase reaction was localized along these Ca-ATPase reactive collagen fibrils. Our observations suggest strongly that Ca-ATPase in the matrix vesicles originates from the inner enamel epithelium and/or preameloblasts whereas ALPase originates from the odontoblasts in the pulp. The importance of the coexistence of both enzymes for the control of initial calcification of dental hard tissues is suggested.

  18. Genetic Tracing of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in the Peripheral Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal Sierra, Yinth A; Haseleu, Julia; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Bégay, Valérie; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Cav3.2 channel is predominantly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the peripheral nervous system, the activation of the promoter starts at E9.5 in neural crest cells that will give rise to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, but not sympathetic neurons. As development progresses the number of DRG cells expressing the Cav3.2 channel reaches around 7% of the DRG at E16.5, and remains constant until E18.5. Characterization of sensory neuron subpopulations at E18.5 showed that EGFP+ cells are a heterogeneous population consisting mainly of TrkB+ and TrkC+ cells, while only a small percentage of DRG cells were TrkA+. Genetic tracing of the sensory nerve end-organ innervation of the skin showed that the activity of the Cav3.2 channel promoter in sensory progenitors marks many mechanoreceptor and nociceptor endings, but spares slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with endings associated with Merkel cells. Our genetic analysis reveals for the first time that progenitors that express the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel, defines a sensory specific lineage that populates a large proportion of the DRG. Using our Cav3.2-Cre mice together with AAV viruses containing a conditional fluorescent reporter (tdTomato) we could also show that Cre expression is largely restricted to two functionally distinct sensory neuron types in the adult ganglia. Cav3.2 positive neurons innervating the skin were found to only form lanceolate endings on hair follicles and are probably identical to D

  19. Expression of the alpha(2)delta subunit interferes with prepulse facilitation in cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platano, D; Qin, N; Noceti, F; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E; Olcese, R

    2000-06-01

    We investigated the role of the accessory alpha(2)delta subunit on the voltage-dependent facilitation of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels (alpha(1C)). alpha(1C) Channels were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with beta(3) and alpha(2)delta calcium channel subunits. In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the amplitude of the ionic current (measured during pulses to 10 mV) was in average approximately 1.9-fold larger after the application of a 200-ms prepulse to +80 mV. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as voltage-dependent facilitation, was not observed when alpha(2)delta was coexpressed with alpha(1C) + beta(3). In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the prepulse produced a left shift ( approximately 40 mV) of the activation curve. Instead, the activation curve for alpha(1C) + beta(3) + alpha(2)delta was minimally affected by the prepulse and had a voltage dependence very similar to the G-V curve of the alpha(1C) + beta(3) channel facilitated by the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta with alpha(1C) + beta(3) seems to mimic the prepulse effect by shifting the activation curve toward more negative potentials, leaving little room for facilitation. The facilitation of alpha(1C) + beta(3) was associated with an increase of the charge movement. In the presence of alpha(2)delta, the charge remained unaffected after the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta seems to set all the channels in a conformational state from where the open state can be easily reached, even without prepulse.

  20. Incorporation of Calcium Containing Mesoporous (MCM-41-Type Particles in Electrospun PCL Fibers by Using Benign Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Liverani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrospinning technique is a versatile method for the production of fibrous scaffolds able to resemble the morphology of the native extra cellular matrix. In the present paper, electrospinning is used to fabricate novel SiO2 particles (type MCM-41 containing poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL fibers. The main aims of the present work are both the optimization of the particle synthesis and the fabrication of composite fibers, obtained using benign solvents, suitable as drug delivery systems and scaffolds for soft tissue engineering applications. The optimized synthesis and characterization of calcium-containing MCM-41 particles are reported. Homogeneous bead-free composite electrospun mats were obtained by using acetic acid and formic acid as solvents; neat PCL electrospun mats were used as control. Initially, an optimization of the electrospinning environmental parameters, like relative humidity, was performed. The obtained composite nanofibers were characterized from the morphological, chemical and mechanical points of view, the acellular bioactivity of the composite nanofibers was also investigated. Positive results were obtained in terms of mesoporous particle incorporation in the fibers and no significant differences in terms of average fiber diameter were detected between the neat and composite electrospun fibers. Even if the Ca-containing MCM-41 particles are bioactive, this property is not preserved in the composite fibers. In fact, during the bioactivity assessment, the particles were released confirming the potential application of the composite fibers as a drug delivery system. Preliminary in vitro tests with bone marrow stromal cells were performed to investigate cell adhesion on the fabricated composite mats, the positive obtained results confirmed the suitability of the composite fibers as scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.

  1. The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis has two plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases related to fungi and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Martínez, Leobarda; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Miranda, Manuel; Mendez, Tavis L; Matus-Ortega, Macario Genaro; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Guerra-Sánchez, Guadalupe

    2013-10-01

    The fungal and plant plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases play critical roles in the physiology of yeast, plant and protozoa cells. We identified two genes encoding two plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, one protein with higher identity to fungal (um02581) and the other to plant (um01205) H⁺-ATPases. Proton pumping activity was 5-fold higher when cells were grown in minimal medium with ethanol compared to cells cultured in rich YPD medium, but total vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was the same in both conditions. In contrast, the activity in cells cultured in minimal medium with glucose was 2-fold higher than in YPD or ethanol, implicating mechanisms for the regulation of the plasma membrane ATPase activity in U. maydis. Analysis of gene expression of the H⁺-ATPases from cells grown under different conditions, showed that the transcript expression of um01205 (plant-type) was higher than that of um02581 (fungal-type). The translation of the two proteins was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Unlike baker's yeast and plant H⁺-ATPases, where the activity is increased by a short incubation with glucose or sucrose, respectively, U. maydis H⁺-ATPase activity did not change in response to these sugars. Sequence analysis of the two U. maydis H⁺-ATPases revealed the lack of canonical threonine and serine residues which are targets of protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases, suggesting that phosphorylation of the U. maydis enzymes occurs at different amino acid residues.

  2. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  3. [Nonuniform distribution and contribution of the P- and P/Q-type calcium channels to short-term inhibitory synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizerna, O P; Fedulova, S A; Veselovs'kyĭ, M S

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of GABAergic short-term plasticity to the selective P- and P/Q-type calcium channels blocker omega-agatoxin-IVA. To block the P-type channels we used 30 nM of this toxin and 200 nM of the toxin was used to block the P/Q channel types. The evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSC) were studied using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration in postsynaptic neuron and local extracellular stimulation of single presynaptic axon by rectangular pulse. The present data show that the contribution of P- and P/Q-types channels to GABAergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons are 30% and 45%, respectively. It was shown that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to the amplitudes of eIPSC is different to every discovered neuron. It means that distribution of these channels is non-uniform. To study the short-term plasticity of inhibitory synaptic transmission, axons of presynaptic neurons were paired-pulse stimulated with the interpulse interval of 150 ms. Neurons demonstrated both the depression and facilitation. The application of 30 nM and 200 nM of the blocker decreased the depression and increased facilitation to 8% and 11%, respectively. In addition, we found that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to realization of synaptic transmission after the second stimuli is 4% less compared to that after the first one. Therefore, blocking of both P- and P/Q-types calcium channels can change the efficiency of synaptic transmission. In this instance it facilitates realization of the transmission via decreased depression or increased facilitation. These results confirm that the P- and P/Q-types calcium channels are involved in regulation of the short-term inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

  4. The development of new-onset type 2 diabetes associated with choosing a calcium channel blocker compared to a diuretic or beta-blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, Effie L; Baker, William L; White, C Michael

    2007-06-01

    It has been acknowledged that patients who receive a beta-blocker or diuretic based regimen are at increased risk of developing new-onset diabetes. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to decrease patients' odds of developing new-onset type 2 diabetes. A number of large placebo-controlled multi-center trials in post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patients have shown the ability of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system medications to reduce the onset of type 2 diabetes. Pharmacologic data has shown improved insulin sensitivity with ACEIs and ARBs. Controversy persists regarding the influence of calcium channel blockers on the development of new-onset diabetes. Two reviewers conducted a systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library (1966 to December 2006) to extract a consensus of trial data involving calcium channel blockers versus diuretics or beta-blockers with an endpoint of new-onset type 2 diabetes. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials versus routine treatment, not observational studies of clinical practice. A random-effects model was utilized. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Out of 1721 trials, six meeting inclusion criteria were identified, including 99 006 patients. Calcium channel blockers were associated with a reduced incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.90; p = 0.0001) compared with diuretic or beta-blocker therapy. The reduction in new-onset type 2 diabetes was maintained when a calcium channel blocker was compared to only thiazide diuretics (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.99; p = 0.0346). The meta-analysis was limited by the varying definition of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the potential for publication bias, which is a limit of any meta-analysis. Calcium channel blockers may be associated with reduced odds of developing

  5. Depression of cardiac L-type calcium current by a scorpion venom fraction M1 following muscarinic receptors interaction involving adenylate cyclase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Amani; Benkhalifa, Rym; Bescond, Jocelyn; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Raymond, Guy; Cognard, Christian; Potreau, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    The effects of a non-toxic fraction, called M1, from Buthus occitanus tunetanus (Bot) scorpion were studied on rat cardiac contraction and calcium transient and current. A decrease in both rate and tension on isolated intact hearts as well as in calcium transient induced by depolarizing 100 K(+) solution on isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes was firstly observed. Studies with the whole cell patch clamp method showed that M1 decreased the L-type calcium current (ICa(L)) in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.36 microg/mL and a Hill coefficient of 0.95. This effect was blocked and reversed by the specific muscarinic receptors antagonist atropine, 1 microM, and was completely prevented when cardiomyocytes were pretreated with Pertussis toxin, 1 microg/mL, to block the alpha subunit of the PTX-sensitive G proteins. These results show that M1 fraction of Bot inhibits basal calcium current by interacting with muscarinic receptors and suggest that this inhibition could be attributed to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by a mechanism involving PTX-sensitive G proteins.

  6. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  7. Structural determinants for the ouabain-stimulated increase in Na-K ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundmiri, Syed J; Salyer, Sarah A; Farmer, Brandon; Qipshidze-Kelm, Natia; Murray, Rebecca D; Clark, Barbara J; Xie, Zijian; Pressley, Thomas A; Lederer, Eleanor D

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that at low concentrations, ouabain increases Na-K ATPase and NHE1 activity and activates the Src signaling cascade in proximal tubule cells. Our laboratory demonstrated that low concentrations of ouabain increase blood pressure in rats. We hypothesize that ouabain-induced increase in blood pressure and Na-K ATPase activity requires NHE1 activity and association. To test this hypothesis we treated rats with ouabain (1μgkg body wt(-1)day(-1)) for 9days in the presence or absence of the NHE1 inhibitor, zoniporide. Ouabain stimulated a significant increase in blood pressure which was prevented by zoniporide. Using NHE1-expressing Human Kidney cells 2 (HK2), 8 (HK8) and 11 (HK11) and Mouse Kidney cells from Wild type (WT) and NHE1 knock-out mice (SWE) cell lines, we show that ouabain stimulated Na-K ATPase activity and surface expression in a Src-dependent manner in NHE1-expressing cells but not in NHE1-deplete cells. Zoniporide prevented ouabain-induced stimulation of (86)Rb uptake in the NHE1-expressing cells. FRET and TIRF microscopy showed that ouabain increased association between GFP-NHE1 and mCherry-Na-K ATPase transfected into NHE1-deficient SWE cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that the caveolin binding motif (CBM) of Na-K ATPase α1 is required for translocation of both Na-K ATPase α1 and NHE1 to the basolateral membrane. Mutations in activity or scaffold domains of NHE1 resulted in loss of ouabain-mediated regulation of Na-K ATPase. These results support that NHE1 is required for the ouabain-induced increase in blood pressure, and that the caveolin binding motif of Na-K ATPase α1 as well as the activity and scaffolding domains of NHE1 are required for their functional association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Andrew J. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Fedosova, Natalya U. [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Hoffmann, Søren V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Wallace, B.A. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Esmann, Mikael, E-mail: me@biophys.au.dk [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

  9. LASS2 inhibits growth and invasion of bladder cancer by regulating ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Zuo, Yigang; Ding, Mingxia; Ke, Changxing; Yan, Ruping; Zhan, Hui; Liu, Jingyu; Wang, Wei; Li, Ning; Wang, Jiansong

    2017-01-01

    Homo sapiens longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2) is a novel suppressor of human cancer metastasis, and downregulation of LASS2 has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer (BC). However, the molecular mechanism underlying LASS2-mediated inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis in BC remains unclear. LASS2 has been reported to directly bind to subunit C of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in various types of cancer, suggesting that LASS2 may inhibit cancer invasion and metastasis by regulating the function of V-ATPase. The present study investigated the effect of LASS2-specific small interfering (si)RNA on the invasion and metastasis of the RT4 human BC cell line, which has a low metastatic potential, and its functional interaction with V-ATPase. Silencing of LASS2 in RT4 cells was able to increase V-ATPase activity, the extracellular hydrogen ion concentration and, in turn, the activation of secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which occurred simultaneously with enhanced cell proliferation, cell survival and cell invasion in vitro, as well as acceleration of BC growth in vivo. In this process, it was found that siRNA-LASS2 treatment was able to suppress cell apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. These findings suggest that silencing of LASS2 may enhance the growth, invasion and metastasis of BC by regulating ATPase activity. PMID:28356943

  10. Changes induced by estradiol-ethylenediamine derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated rat heart: L-type calcium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Lauro Figueroa; Cedillo, Francisco Diaz; Ramos, Maria Lopez; Cervera, Elodia Garcia; Quijano, Karen; Cordoba, Johani

    2011-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of estradiol-ethylenediamine derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in rats. An additional aim was to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. The Langendorff model was used to measure perfusion pressure and coronary resistance changes in isolated rat heart after estradiol-ethylenediamine derivative alone and following compounds; tamoxifen (estrogen receptor antagonist), prazosin (alpha1 adrenoreceptor antagonist), metoprolol (selective beta1 receptor blocker), indomethacin (prostanglandin synthesis inhibitor) and nifedipine (L-type calcium-channel inhibitor). The results show that estradiol-ethylenediamine derivative [10(-9) mmol] significantly increased perfusion pressure (p = 0.005) and coronary resistance (p = 0.006) in isolated rat heart. Additionally, the effect of estradiolethylenediamine on perfusion pressure [10(-9) to 10(-4) mmol] was only blocked in the presence of the L-type calcium-channel (nifedipine). These data suggest that the effect of estradiol-ethylenediamine on perfusion pressure and vascular coronary involves activation of the L-type calcium channel through a non-genomic molecular mechanism.

  11. Overproduction in yeast and rapid and efficient purification of the rabbit SERCA1a Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Menguy, Thierry; Corre, Fabienne; Montigny, Cédric; Pedersen, Per A; Thinès, Denyse; le Maire, Marc; Falson, Pierre

    2002-02-18

    Large amounts of heterologous C-terminally his-tagged SERCA1a Ca(2+)-ATPase were expressed in yeast using a galactose-regulated promoter and purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography followed by Reactive red chromatography. Optimizing the number of galactose inductions and increasing the amount of Gal4p transcription factor improved expression. Lowering the temperature from 28 degrees C to 18 degrees C during expression enhanced the recovery of solubilized and active Ca(2+)-ATPase. In these conditions, a 4 l yeast culture produced 100 mg of Ca(2+)-ATPase, 60 and 22 mg being pelleted with the heavy and light membrane fractions respectively, representing 7 and 1.7% of total proteins. The Ca(2+)-ATPase expressed in light membranes was 100% solubilized with L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 50% with n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (DM) and 25% with octaethylene glycol mono-n-dodecyl ether (C(12)E(8)). Compared to LPC, DM preserved specific activity of the solubilized Ca(2+)-ATPase during the chromatographic steps. Starting from 1/6 (3.8 mg) of the total amount of Ca(2+)-ATPase expressed in light membranes, 800 microg could be routinely purified to 50% purity by metal affinity chromatography and then 200 microg to 70% with Reactive red chromatography. The purified Ca(2+)-ATPase displayed the same K(m) for calcium and ATP as the native enzyme but a reduced specific activity ranging from 4.5 to 7.3 micromol ATP hydrolyzed/min/mg Ca(2+)-ATPase. It was stable and active for several days at 4 degrees C or after removal of DM with Bio-beads and storage at -80 degrees C.

  12. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perut, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.perut@ior.it [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Hosogi, Shigekuni [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki [Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Baldini, Nicola [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  13. ESCRT components regulate the expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 through the Rim101/Nrg1 pathway in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunying; Du, Jingcai; Xiong, Bing; Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Linghuo

    2013-10-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes function to form multivesicular bodies for sorting of proteins destined for the yeast vacuole or the mammalian lysosome. ESCRT components are well conserved in eukaryotes, and their mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases and other cellular pathologies in humans. PMR1 is the orthologous gene of two human genes for calcium pumps secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1, ATP2C1) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, ATP2A2), which are mutated in Hailey-Hailey and Darier genetic diseases, respectively. Here we show that deletion mutation of ESCRT components Snf7, Snf8, Stp22, Vps20, Vps25, Vps28, or Vps36 activates the calcium/calcineurin signaling in yeast cells, but surprisingly leads to a nearly 50% reduction in expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 independent of calcium stress. These ESCRT mutants are known to have a defect in Rim101 activation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of Rim101 or further deletion of NRG1 in these mutants partially suppresses their calcium hypersensitivity. Deletion of NRG1 also completely rescues the expression of PMR1 in these mutants to the level of the wild type. Promoter mutagenesis, gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrate that Nrg1 binds to two motifs in the PMR1 promoter. In addition, expression of PMR1 under the control of its promoters with mutated Nrg1-binding motifs suppresses the calcium hypersensitivity of these ESCRT mutants. Collectively, these data have uncovered a function of ESCRT components in regulating PMR1 expression through the Nrg1/Rim101 pathway. Our findings provide important clues for understanding human diseases related to calcium homeostasis.

  14. The Requirement of L-Type Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel (L-VDCC) in the Rapid-Acting Antidepressant-Like Effects of Scopolamine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hanjie; Li, Mengmeng; Shen, Xinbei; Lv, Dan; Sun, Xin; Wang, Jinting; Gu, Xinmei; Hu, Jingning; Wang, Chuang

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that a low dose of scopolamine produces rapid-acting antidepressant-like actions in rodents. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this effect and the dose-dependent variations of drug responses remains an important task. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels were found to mediate rapid-acting antidepressant effects of certain medications (e.g., ketamine). Therefore, it is of great interest to determine the involvement of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in the action of scopolamine. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying behavioral responses to various doses of scopolamine in mice to clarify the involvement of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in its modes of action. Open field test, novel object recognition test, and forced swimming test were performed on mice administered varied doses of scopolamine (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 1, and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) alone or combined with L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker verapamil (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Then, the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide VGF (nonacronymic) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of these mice were analyzed. Low doses of scopolamine (0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg) produced significant antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test, while higher doses (1 and 3 mg/kg) resulted in significant memory deficits and depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, the behavioral changes in responses to various doses may be related to the upregulation (0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg) and downregulation (1 and 3 mg/kg) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and VGF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in mice. We further found that the rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and the upregulation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and VGF produced by a low dose of scopolamine (0.025 mg/kg) were completely blocked by verapamil. These results indicate that L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels are likely involved in the behavioral

  15. Cav3.1 T-type calcium channel modulates the epileptogenicity of hippocampal seizures in the kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong-Hyun

    2015-10-05

    The molecular mechanism of temporal lobe epilepsy has not been clearly identified. T-type calcium channels play a role in burst firing in neurons and have been implicated in several seizure models. In this study, the role of Cav3.1 T-type (α1G) calcium channel has been investigated in the kainic acid (KA)-induced temporal lobe epilepsy model (TLE) by using conventional α1G knock-out (ko) mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration or intrahippocampal injection of KA, depth hippocampal and cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral monitoring were recorded, and timm and Nissl staining of brain sections were made later. Seizure was mainly identified by EEG signals, rather than behaviorally, with analytic criteria. During the acute status epilepticus (SE) period, both the duration and the frequency of hippocampal seizures were significantly reduced and increased, respectively, in αlG ko mice compared to those of wild type mice. Epileptogenicity, the total period of seizures (hr(-1)), was also significantly reduced in α1G ko mice. However, the latency of seizure occurrence was not significantly different between wild type and ko mice. These differential effects were not observed in cortical seizures. Furthermore, the injection of KA caused a strong increase in δ rhythm power spectrum density (PSD) of EEG in αlG ko mice compared to that in wild type mice. The results with conventional ko mice indicate that α1G T-type calcium channel plays a modulatory role in the duration and frequency of hippocampal seizures as well as the epileptogenicity of KA-induced TLE in mice, mostly during acute periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The 32 kDa tonoplast polypeptide Di associated with the V-type H+-ATPase of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. in the CAM state: A proteolytically processed subunit B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigang, A; Löw, R; Rausch, T; Lüttge, U; Ratajczak, R

    1996-07-08

    In the facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, the salt- or age-induced transition to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) leads to the occurrence of a tonoplast-bound 32 kDa polypeptide (Di). The alignment of its N-terminal protein sequence with protein sequences of recently cloned higher plant V-ATPase B-subunits indicates that Di may be derived from subunit B by proteolytic removal of a protein fragment of about 20 kDa from its N-terminus. Furthermore, an antiserum directed against Di cross-reacts with subunit B from Nicotiana tabacum. It inhibits both proton pumping and ATP hydrolysis of the holoenzyme in M. crystallinum. As Di remains firmly attached to the holoenzyme the proteolytic processing may have functional implications.

  17. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...... levels are associated with low frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and good prognosis. The underlying causes of poor prognosis in patients with elevated NT-proBNP are not known; thus, we investigated the role of putative asymptomatic CAD in type 2 diabetic patients with UAER >30 mg/24 h...

  18. [Peroxidative vulnerability of synaptosomal high affinity Ca++-ATPase and pharmacologic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, M; Fischer, H D; Schmidt, J

    1988-01-01

    The high affinity Ca++-ATPase participates essentially in the regulation of intrasynaptosomal calcium homeostasis. Related to posthypoxically restricted transmitter release, we examined the influence of newly-generated free radicals (ascorbic acid-ferric salt mixture) or sodium dodecyl sulfate in vitro and of a mild hypobaric hypoxia in vivo on the activity of synaptosomal high affinity Ca++-ATPase. Moreover we tested the effectiveness of piracetam, meclofenoxate hydrochloride, pyritinol and verapamil on the changed enzyme activity subsequent to a hypoxic exposure. The activity of synaptosomal high affinity Ca++-ATPase (1.04 +/- 0.03 mumol Pi/mg.h) is reduced by not more than 40% depending on the concentration of the ascorbic acid-ferric salt mixture used but is nearly totally inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.2 mg/ml). Hypobaric hypoxia (18 h, 8.7 kPa) decreases the enzyme activity to 0.79 +/- 0.03 mumol Pi/mg.h. Piracetam, meclofenoxate hydrochloride and pyritinol are protectively effective on the decrease of enzyme activity induced by hypoxia. The results emphasize the importance of intact protein-phospholipid interactions for the enzyme activity and support relations between synaptosomal high affinity Ca++-ATPase and transmitter release.

  19. CO, Pb++ and SO2 effects on L-type calcium channel and action potential in human atrial myocytes. In silico study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Pachajoa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to air pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO, lead (Pb++ and sulfur dioxide (SO2 promotes the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Experimental studies have shown that CO, Pb++ and SO2 block L-type calcium channels, reducing the calcium current (ICaL and the action potential duration (APD, which favors the initiation of atrial arrhythmias. The goal is to study the effects of CO, Pb++ and SO2 at different concentrations on ICaL and action potential using computational simulation. For this purpose, models of the effects of the air pollutants on the atrial L-type calcium channel were developed and were incorporated into a mathematical model of a human atrial cell. The results suggest that CO, Pb++ and SO2 block the ICaL current in a fraction that increases along with the concentration, generating an APD shortening. These results are consistent with experimental studies. The combined effect of the three air pollutants produced an APD shortening, which is considered to be a pro-arrhythmic effect.

  20. Yeast phosphofructokinase-1 subunit Pfk2p is necessary for pH homeostasis and glucose-dependent vacuolar ATPase reassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chun-Yuan; Parra, Karlett J

    2014-07-11

    V-ATPases are conserved ATP-driven proton pumps that acidify organelles. Yeast V-ATPase assembly and activity are glucose-dependent. Glucose depletion causes V-ATPase disassembly and its inactivation. Glucose readdition triggers reassembly and resumes proton transport and organelle acidification. We investigated the roles of the yeast phosphofructokinase-1 subunits Pfk1p and Pfk2p for V-ATPase function. The pfk1Δ and pfk2Δ mutants grew on glucose and assembled wild-type levels of V-ATPase pumps at the membrane. Both phosphofructokinase-1 subunits co-immunoprecipitated with V-ATPase in wild-type cells; upon deletion of one subunit, the other subunit retained binding to V-ATPase. The pfk2Δ cells exhibited a partial vma growth phenotype. In vitro ATP hydrolysis and proton transport were reduced by 35% in pfk2Δ membrane fractions; they were normal in pfk1Δ. In vivo, the pfk1Δ and pfk2Δ vacuoles were alkalinized and the cytosol acidified, suggestive of impaired V-ATPase proton transport. Overall the pH alterations were more dramatic in pfk2Δ than pfk1Δ at steady state and after readdition of glucose to glucose-deprived cells. Glucose-dependent reassembly was 50% reduced in pfk2Δ, and the vacuolar lumen was not acidified after reassembly. RAVE-assisted glucose-dependent reassembly and/or glucose signals were disturbed in pfk2Δ. Binding of disassembled V-ATPase (V1 domain) to its assembly factor RAVE (subunit Rav1p) was 5-fold enhanced, indicating that Pfk2p is necessary for V-ATPase regulation by glucose. Because Pfk1p and Pfk2p are necessary for V-ATPase proton transport at the vacuole in vivo, a role for glycolysis at regulating V-ATPase proton transport is discussed. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood mutations have a differential effect on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and ouabain binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Karl M; Messchaert, Muriël; Swarts, Herman G P; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2014-07-01

    De novo mutations in ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3-subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, are associated with the neurodevelopmental disorder Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC). The aim of this study was to determine the functional consequences of six ATP1A3 mutations (S137Y, D220N, I274N, D801N, E815K, and G947R) associated with AHC. Wild type and mutant Na(+),K(+)-ATPases were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Ouabain binding, ATPase activity, and phosphorylation were absent in mutants I274N, E815K and G947R. Mutants S137Y and D801N were able to bind ouabain, although these mutants lacked ATPase activity, phosphorylation, and the K(+)/ouabain antagonism indicative of modifications in the cation binding site. Mutant D220N showed similar ouabain binding, ATPase activity, and phosphorylation to wild type Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Functional impairment of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in mutants S137Y, I274N, D801N, E815K, and G947R might explain why patients having these mutations suffer from AHC. Moreover, mutant D801N is able to bind ouabain, whereas mutant E815K shows a complete loss of function, possibly explaining the different phenotypes for these mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizae improve low temperature tolerance in cucumber via alterations in H2O2 accumulation and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Airong; Chen, Shuangchen; Chang, Rui; Liu, Dilin; Chen, Haoran; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Lin, Xiaomin; He, Chaoxing

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and low temperature (LT) on cucumber plants were investigated with respect to biomass production, H2O2 accumulation, NADPH oxidase, ATPase activity and related gene expression. Mycorrhizal colonization ratio was gradually increased after AMF-inoculation. However, LT significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization ability and mycorrhizal dependency. Regardless of temperature, the total fresh and dry mass, and root activity of AMF-inoculated plants were significantly higher than that of the non-AMF control. The H2O2 accumulation in AMF-inoculated roots was decreased by 42.44% compared with the control under LT. H2O2 predominantly accumulated on the cell walls of apoplast but was hardly detectable in the cytosol or organelles of roots. Again, NADPH oxidase activity involved in H2O2 production was significantly reduced by AMF inoculation under LT. AMF-inoculation remarkably increased the activities of P-type H(+)-ATPase, P-Ca(2+)-ATPase, V-type H(+)-ATPase, total ATPase activity, ATP concentration and plasma membrane protein content in the roots under LT. Additionally, ATP concentration and expression of plasma membrane ATPase genes were increased by AMF-inoculation. These results indicate that NADPH oxidase and ATPase might play an important role in AMF-mediated tolerance to chilling stress, thereby maintaining a lower H2O2 accumulation in the roots of cucumber.

  3. Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Associated with Intrahepatic Cholestatic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzel, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine

    The cholestatic disorders progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (BRIC1) are caused by mutation of the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 that flips phospholipid from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of canalicular membrane...

  4. Biochemical characterization of P4-ATPase mutations associated with Intrahepatic Cholestatic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzel, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (BRIC1) are caused by mutation of the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 that flips phospholipid from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of canalicular membranes. It is hypothesized that...

  5. Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Associated with Intrahepatic Cholestatic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzel, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine

    The cholestatic disorders progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1, also referred to as Byler’s disease) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (BRIC1) are caused by mutation of the P4-ATPase ATP8B1. The substrate of ATP8B1 is very likely to be phosphatidylserine ...

  6. SERCA pump isoforms: their role in calcium transport and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Muthu; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha

    2007-04-01

    The sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium transport ATPase (SERCA) is a pump that transports calcium ions from the cytoplasm into the SR. It is present in both animal and plant cells, although knowledge of SERCA in the latter is scant. The pump shares the catalytic properties of ion-motive ATPases of the P-type family, but has distinctive regulation properties. The SERCA pump is encoded by a family of three genes, SERCA1, 2, and 3, that are highly conserved but localized on different chromosomes. The SERCA isoform diversity is dramatically enhanced by alternative splicing of the transcripts, occurring mainly at the COOH-terminal. At present, more than 10 different SERCA isoforms have been detected at the protein level. These isoforms exhibit both tissue and developmental specificity, suggesting that they contribute to unique physiological properties of the tissue in which they are expressed. The function of the SERCA pump is modulated by the endogenous molecules phospholamban (PLB) and sarcolipin (SLN), expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles. The mechanism of action of PLB on SERCA is well characterized, whereas that of SLN is only beginning to be understood. Because the SERCA pump plays a major role in muscle contraction, a number of investigations have focused on understanding its role in cardiac and skeletal muscle disease. These studies document that SERCA pump expression and activity are decreased in aging and in a variety of pathophysiological conditions including heart failure. Recently, SERCA pump gene transfer was shown to be effective in restoring contractile function in failing heart muscle, thus emphasizing its importance in muscle physiology and its potential use as a therapeutic agent.

  7. The Role of L- and T-Type Calcium Channels in Local and Remote Calcium Responses in Rat Mesenteric Terminal Arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; Inoue, Ryuji; Cribbs, Leanne

    2009-01-01

    with micro-ejection of depolarizing KCl solution and VDCC blockers, and immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques were applied to isolated rat mesenteric terminal arterioles (n = 71 from 47 rats; intraluminal diameter: 24 +/- 1 mum; length: 550-700 mum). Results: Local application of KCl (at 0 mum) led...... on the arterioles (at 200-300 mum) using micro-application of VDCC blockers. Conclusion: Both L- and T-type channels mediate Ca(2+) entry during conducted vasoconstriction to local KCl in mesenteric arterioles. However, these channels do not participate in the conduction process per se....

  8. Congenital heart block maternal sera autoantibodies target an extracellular epitope on the α1G T-type calcium channel in human fetal hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn S Strandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital heart block (CHB is a transplacentally acquired autoimmune disease associated with anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB maternal autoantibodies and is characterized primarily by atrioventricular (AV block of the fetal heart. This study aims to investigate whether the T-type calcium channel subunit α1G may be a fetal target of maternal sera autoantibodies in CHB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate differential mRNA expression of the T-type calcium channel CACNA1G (α1G gene in the AV junction of human fetal hearts compared to the apex (18-22.6 weeks gestation. Using human fetal hearts (20-22 wks gestation, our immunoprecipitation (IP, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence (IF staining results, taken together, demonstrate accessibility of the α1G epitope on the surfaces of cardiomyocytes as well as reactivity of maternal serum from CHB affected pregnancies to the α1G protein. By ELISA we demonstrated maternal sera reactivity to α1G was significantly higher in CHB maternal sera compared to controls, and reactivity was epitope mapped to a peptide designated as p305 (corresponding to aa305-319 of the extracellular loop linking transmembrane segments S5-S6 in α1G repeat I. Maternal sera from CHB affected pregnancies also reacted more weakly to the homologous region (7/15 amino acids conserved of the α1H channel. Electrophysiology experiments with single-cell patch-clamp also demonstrated effects of CHB maternal sera on T-type current in mouse sinoatrial node (SAN cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results indicate that CHB maternal sera antibodies readily target an extracellular epitope of α1G T-type calcium channels in human fetal cardiomyocytes. CHB maternal sera also show reactivity for α1H suggesting that autoantibodies can target multiple fetal targets.

  9. C-peptide increases Na,K-ATPase expression via PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent activation of transcription factor ZEB in human renal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galuska, Dana; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Barres, Romain

    2011-01-01

    Replacement of proinsulin C-peptide in type 1 diabetes ameliorates nerve and kidney dysfunction, conditions which are associated with a decrease in Na,K-ATPase activity. We determined the molecular mechanism by which long term exposure to C-peptide stimulates Na,K-ATPase expression and activity...

  10. Cellular mechanisms that control pulmonary vascular tone during hypoxia and normoxia. Possible role of Ca2+ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, I S; Michael, J R

    1992-06-01

    We investigated cellular mechanisms that may be involved in controlling cytosol calcium and pulmonary artery pressure during hypoxia and normoxia in isolated blood-perfused ferret lungs. Alveolar hypoxia in ferret lungs causes an active increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction directly correlates with extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o), and the absence of [Ca2+]o in the perfusate markedly attenuates the hypoxemia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. Alveolar hypoxia does not potentiate the production of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) or 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Vanadate, a widely used inhibitor of Ca2+ATPases, increases pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) in the presence or absence of [Ca2+]o and without affecting the production of TxB2 or 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Vanadate and ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ATPase, produce synergistic increases in Ppa. Amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchange, reverses the increase in Ppa caused by ouabain, but not the increase caused by vanadate. The additional effect produced by ouabain on Ppa after near maximal vanadate effect and the ability of amiloride to reverse the pulmonary vasoconstriction caused by ouabain, but not vanadate, suggests that vanadate does not inhibit Na+/K+ATPase in ferret lungs. In addition, cyclic GMP (cGMP), which has been reported to increase the activity of Ca2+ATPases in vascular smooth muscle, was able to reverse and prevent the effect of vanadate on Ppa, but not the effect of ouabain. Inhibition of Ca2+ATPases with vanadate in ferret lungs increases pulmonary vascular resistance during both normoxia and hypoxia. The Ca2+ entry mediated by alveolar hypoxia appears to overpower the ability of Ca2+ATPases and other membrane Ca2+ transport proteins to translocate [Ca2+]i.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Lack of delta waves and sleep disturbances during non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice lacking α1G-subunit of T-type calcium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungryun; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2004-01-01

    T-type calcium channels have been implicated as a pacemaker for brain rhythms during sleep but their contribution to behavioral states of sleep has been relatively uncertain. Here, we found that mice lacking α1G T-type Ca2+ channels showed a loss of the thalamic delta (1–4 Hz) waves and a reduction of sleep spindles (7–14 Hz), whereas slow (sleep. Analysis of sleep disturbances, as defined by the occurrence of brief awakening (BA) episodes during NREM sleep, revealed that mutant mice exhibited a higher incidence of BAs of >16 sec compared with the wild-type, whereas no difference was seen in BAs of sleep spindles from cortically generated slow waves. These results also suggest that the α1G-subunit of T-type calcium channels plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations and contributes to the modulation of sleep states and the transition between NREM sleep and wake states. PMID:15601764

  12. Simultaneous phosphorylation of Ser11 and Ser18 in the alpha-subunit promotes the recruitment of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, R; Bertorello, A M; Pressley, T A; Rousselot, M; Féraille, E; Pedemonte, C H

    2000-08-15

    Renal sodium homeostasis is a major determinant of blood pressure and is regulated by several natriuretic and antinatriuretic hormones. These hormones, acting through intracellular second messengers, either activate or inhibit proximal tubule Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. We have shown previously that phorbol ester (PMA) stimulation of endogenous PKC leads to activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in cultured proximal tubule cells (OK cells) expressing the rodent Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit. We have now demonstrated that the treatment with PMA leads to an increased amount of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules in the plasmalemma, which is proportional to the increased enzyme activity. Colchicine, dinitrophenol, and potassium cyanide prevented the PMA-dependent stimulation of activity without affecting the increased level of phosphorylation of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit. This suggests that phosphorylation does not directly stimulate Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity; instead, phosphorylation may be the triggering mechanism for recruitment of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules to the plasma membrane. Transfected cells expressing either an S11A or S18A mutant had the same basal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity as cells expressing the wild-type rodent alpha-subunit, but PMA stimulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was completely abolished in either mutant. PMA treatment led to phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit by stimulation of PKC-beta, and the extent of this phosphorylation was greatly reduced in the S11A and S18A mutants. These results indicate that both Ser11 and Ser18 of the alpha-subunit are essential for PMA stimulation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, and that these amino acids are phosphorylated during this process. The results presented here support the hypothesis that PMA regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is the result of an increased number of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules in the plasma membrane.

  13. A solar-type star polluted by calcium-rich supernova ejecta inside the supernova remnant RCW 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Langer, Norbert; Fossati, Luca; Bock, Douglas C.-J.; Castro, Norberto; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Greiner, Jochen; Johnston, Simon; Rau, Arne; Tauris, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    When a massive star in a binary system explodes as a supernova, its companion star may be polluted with heavy elements from the supernova ejecta. Such pollution has been detected in a handful of post-supernova binaries 1 , but none of them is associated with a supernova remnant. We report the discovery of a binary G star strongly polluted with calcium and other elements at the position of the candidate neutron star [GV2003] N within the young galactic supernova remnant RCW 86. Our discovery suggests that the progenitor of the supernova that produced RCW 86 could have been a moving star, which exploded near the edge of its wind bubble and lost most of its initial mass because of common-envelope evolution shortly before core collapse, and that the supernova explosion might belong to the class of calcium-rich supernovae — faint and fast transients 2,3 , the origin of which is strongly debated 4-6 .

  14. N- and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels mediate fast calcium transients in axonal shafts of mouse peripheral nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra eBarzan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the peripheral nervous system a vast number of axons are accommodated within fiber bundles that constitute peripheral nerves. A major function of peripheral axons is to propagate action potentials along their length, and hence they are equipped with Na+ and K+ channels, which ensure successful generation, conduction and termination of each action potential. However little is known about Ca2+ ion channels expressed along peripheral axons and their possible functional significance. The goal of the present study was to test whether voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs are present along peripheral nerve axons in situ and mediate rapid activity-dependent Ca2+ elevations under physiological circumstances. To address this question we used mouse sciatic nerve slices, Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, and 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in fast line scan mode (500 Hz. We report that transient increases in intra-axonal Ca2+ concentration take place along peripheral nerve axons in situ when axons are stimulated electrically with single pulses. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are fast, i.e. occur in a millisecond time-domain. Combining Ca2+ imaging and pharmacology with specific blockers of different VGCCs subtypes we demonstrate that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are mediated mainly by N-type and L-type VGCCs. Discovery of fast Ca2+ entry into the axonal shafts through VGCCs in peripheral nerves suggests that Ca2+ may be involved in regulation of action potential propagation and/or properties in this system, or mediate neurotransmitter release along peripheral axons as it occurs in the optic nerve and white matter of the central nervous system.

  15. Effects of low-dose ionising radiation on pituitary adenoma: is there a role for L-type calcium channel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia]. E-mail: santosr@cdtn.br

    2005-10-15

    Pituitary adenomas constitute about 6-18% of brain tumours in adults. Activation of voltage gated calcium currents can account for growth hormone over secretion in some GH-secreting pituitary adenomas that produce an acromegaly appearance and increase mortality. Ca{sup 2+} ions, as mediators of intracellular signalling, are crucial for the development of apoptosis. However, the role of [Ca{sup 2+}] in the development of apoptosis is ambiguous. In this study, the effects of low-dose ionising gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) on rat pituitary adenoma cells survival and proliferation and the role of calcium channels on the apoptosis radio-induced were evaluated. Doses as low as 3 Gy were found to inhibit GH3 cell proliferation. Even though there was a significant number of live cells,168 hours following irradiation, they were not able to proliferate. The results indicate that the blockade of extracellular calcium influx through these channels does not interfere in the radiation-induced apoptosis in GH3 cells. (author)

  16. New ATPase regulators-p97 goes to the PUB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise; Seeger, Michael; Semple, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic AAA-type ATPase complex, known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast, is involved in a number of cellular pathways, including fusion of homotypic membranes, protein degradation, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. Most likely, p97 is directed....... Recently, a small, conserved family of proteins, containing PUB domains, was found to function as p97 adaptors. Intriguingly, their association with p97 is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that they act as a relay between signalling pathways and p97 functions. Here we give an overview...

  17. Identification of Domains within the V-ATPase Accessory Subunit Ac45 Involved in V-ATPase Transport and Ca2+-dependent Exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Eric J. R.; van Bakel, Nick. H. M.; Loohuis, Nikkie F. M. Olde; Hafmans, Theo G. M.; Arentsen, Tim; Coenen, Anthon J. M.; Scheenen, Wim J. J. M.; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is crucial for maintenance of the acidic microenvironment in intracellular organelles, whereas its membrane-bound V0-sector is involved in Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion. In the secretory pathway, the V-ATPase is regulated by its type I transmembrane and V0-associated accessory subunit Ac45. To execute its function, the intact-Ac45 protein is proteolytically processed to cleaved-Ac45 thereby releasing its N-terminal domain. Here, we searched for the functional domains within Ac45 by analyzing a set of deletion mutants close to the in vivo situation, namely in transgenic Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells. Intact-Ac45 was poorly processed and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of the transgenic melanotrope cells. In contrast, cleaved-Ac45 was efficiently transported through the secretory pathway, caused an accumulation of the V-ATPase at the plasma membrane and reduced dopaminergic inhibition of Ca2+-dependent peptide secretion. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail from intact-Ac45 caused cellular phenotypes also found for cleaved-Ac45, whereas C-tail removal from cleaved-Ac45 still allowed its transport to the plasma membrane, but abolished V-ATPase recruitment into the secretory pathway and left dopaminergic inhibition of the cells unaffected. We conclude that domains located in the N- and C-terminal portions of the Ac45 protein direct its trafficking, V-ATPase recruitment and Ca2+-dependent-regulated exocytosis. PMID:22736765

  18. The plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekberg, Kira

      The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded H+-ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. A recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Together with biochemical and structural data presented in this thesis we are now able...... to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H+-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. Moreover, a completely new paradigm for post-translational activation of these proteins is presented. The talk will focus on the following themes...

  19. Activation of MrgC receptor inhibits N-type calcium channels in small-diameter primary sensory neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; He, Shao-Qiu; Xu, Qian; Yang, Fei; Tiwari, Vinod; Liu, Qin; Tang, Zongxiang; Han, Liang; Chu, Yu-Xia; Wang, Yun; Hin, Niyada; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara; Guan, Xiaowei; Wei, Feng; Raja, Srinivasa N; Dong, Xinzhong; Guan, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor subtype C (mouse MrgC11 and rat rMrgC), expressed specifically in small-diameter primary sensory neurons, may constitute a novel pain inhibitory mechanism. We have shown previously that intrathecal administration of MrgC-selective agonists can strongly attenuate persistent pain in various animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms for MrgC agonist-induced analgesia remain elusive. Here, we conducted patch-clamp recordings to test the effect of MrgC agonists on high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium current in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Using pharmacological approaches, we show for the first time that an MrgC agonist (JHU58) selectively and dose-dependently inhibits N-type, but not L- or P/Q-type, HVA calcium channels in mouse DRG neurons. Activation of HVA calcium channels is important to neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission. Patch-clamp recordings in spinal cord slices showed that JHU58 attenuated the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in wild-type mice, but not in Mrg knockout mice, after peripheral nerve injury. These findings indicate that activation of endogenously expressed MrgC receptors at central terminals of primary sensory fibers may decrease peripheral excitatory inputs onto SG neurons. Together, these results suggest potential cellular and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to intrathecal MrgC agonist-induced analgesia. Because MrgC shares substantial genetic homogeneity with human MrgX1, our findings may suggest a rationale for developing intrathecally delivered MrgX1 receptor agonists to treat pathological pain in humans and provide critical insight regarding potential mechanisms that may underlie its analgesic effects. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) increases L-type calcium current via protein kinase A signaling and modulates calcium cycling and contractility in isolated mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, María; Manzanares, Esmeralda; Bas, Manuel; Martín-Nunes, Laura; Val-Blasco, Almudena; Jesús Larriba, María; Fernández-Velasco, María; Delgado, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    Calcitriol, the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its effects through interaction with the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) to induce genomic responses. Calcitriol may also induce rapid responses via plasma membrane-associated VDR, involving the activation of second messengers and modulation of voltage-dependent channels. VDR is expressed in cardiomyocytes, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the rapid responses of calcitriol in the heart are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to analyze the rapid nongenomic effect of calcitriol on L-type calcium channels, intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients, and cell contractility in ventricular myocytes. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record L-type calcium current (ICaL) and confocal microscopy to study global [Ca(2+)]i transients evoked by electrical stimulation and cell shortening in adult mouse ventricular myocytes treated with vehicle or with calcitriol. In some experiments, ICaL was recorded using the perforated patch-clamp technique. Calcitriol treatment of cardiomyocytes induced a concentration-dependent increase in ICaL density (Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) = 0.23 nM) and a significant increase in peak [Ca(2+)]i transients and cell contraction. The effect of calcitriol on ICaL was prevented by pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 but not with the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol. The effect of calcitriol on ICaL was absent in myocytes isolated from VDR knockout mice. Calcitriol induces a rapid response in mouse ventricular myocytes that involves a VDR-PKA-dependent increase in ICaL density, enhancing [Ca(2+)]i transients and contraction. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cisplatin-induced neuropathic pain is mediated by upregulation of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Markus; Schmitt, Linda-Isabell; Erkel, Martin; Melnikova, Margarita; Thomale, Jürgen; Hagenacker, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Cisplatin is important in the treatment of various types of cancer. Although it is highly effective, it also has severe side effects, with neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons being one of the most common. The key mechanisms of neurotoxicity are still controversially discussed; however, disturbances of the calcium homeostasis in DRG neurons have been suggested to mediate cisplatin neurotoxicity. By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, immunostaining and behavioral experiments with Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined the influence of short- and long-term exposure to cisplatin on voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) currents (ICa(V)) in small DRG neurons. In vitro exposure to cisplatin reduced ICa(V) in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-50μM; 13.8-77.3%; IC50 5.07μM). Subtype-specific measurements of VGCCs showed differential effects on ICa(V). While the ICa(V) of P/Q-, L- and T-type VGCCs were reduced, ICa(V) of N-type VGCCs were increased by 30.3% during depolarization to 0mV. Exposure of DRG neurons to cisplatin (0.5 or 5μM) for 24-48h in vitro significantly increased a CaMK II-mediated ICa(V) current density. Immunostaining and western blot analysis revealed an increase of N-type VGCC protein level in DRG neurons 24h after cisplatin exposure. Cisplatin-mediated activation of caspase-3 was prevented by inhibition of N-type VGCCs using Ɯ-conotoxin MVIIA. Behavioral experiments showed that Ɯ-conotoxin MVIIA treatment prevented neuropathic syndromes in vivo by inhibiting upregulation of the N-type protein level. Here we show evidence for the first time for a crucial role of N-type VGCC in the genesis of cisplatin-induced polyneuropathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between intracellular Na+ concentration and reduced Na+ affinity in Na+,K+-ATPase mutants causing neurological disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Einholm, Anja P.; Schack, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    The neurological disorders familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) are caused by mutations of Na+,K+-ATPase α2- and α3-isoforms, expressed in glial and neuronal cells, respectively. Although these disorders...... mutations that increase Na+ affinity were found to reduce [Na+]i. It is concluded that the Na+ affinity of the Na+,K+-ATPase is an important determinant of [Na+]i....

  3. Studies of Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inesi, Giuseppe; Hua, Suming; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Hailun; Seth, Malini; Prasad, Anand M; Sumbilla, Carlota

    2005-12-01

    The Ca(2+) transport ATPase of intracellular membranes (SERCA) can be inhibited by a series of chemical compounds such as Thapsigargin (TG), 2,5-di(tert-butyl)hydroquinone (DBHQ) and 1,3-dibromo-2,4,6-tris (methyl-isothio-uronium) benzene (Br(2)-TITU). These compounds have specific binding sites in the ATPase protein, and different mechanisms of inhibition. On the other hand, SERCA gene silencing offers a convenient and specific method for suppression of SERCA activity in cells. The physiological and pharmacological implications of SERCA inhibition are discussed.

  4. Effect of articaine on calcium transport in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from medial pterygoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Di Croce, Daniel E; Richard, Susana B; Takara, Delia

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics used in dentistry have myotoxic effects. Articaine, also known as carticaine, is one of the local anesthetics most widely used in clinical dentistry. The aim of this work was to describe its effect on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase isolated from medial pterygoid muscle. Ca-ATPase enzymatic activity was determined by a colorimetric method and ATP-dependent calcium uptake with a radioisotopic technique. Articaine inhibited both Ca-ATPase activity and calcium uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. Both inhibitory effects became evident at articaine concentrations lower than those employed in clinical dentistry. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (K) were 15.1 +/- 1.8 mM (n = 6) and 25.2 +/- 1.6 mM (n = 6) for enzymatic activity and calcium uptake, respectively. Preincubation of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes with articaine enhanced Ca-ATPase activity in the absence of calcium ionophore, suggesting an ionophoric-like effect of the local anesthetic. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of articaine on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase isolated from medial pterygoid muscle is due to a direct interaction of the anesthetic with the enzyme and to the increased membrane permeability to calcium induced by this drug.

  5. Plasma membrane calcium pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in maintenance and control of calcium concentrations in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juska, Alfonsas

    2010-01-29

    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the activity of the mechanisms responsible for control of cytosolic calcium concentration in platelets by modeling the time-course of the concentration changing in response to discharge of the intracellular stores or store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). The parameters estimated as a result of model fitting to experimental data are related to physiological or pathological state of the cells. It has been shown that: (a) the time-course is determined by the passive calcium fluxes and activities of the corresponding mechanisms; (b) the decline in the concentration (after its rise) develops due to activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) both in the case of discharge of the stores of platelets contained in calcium-free medium and in the case of SOCE; (c) impulsive extrusion of calcium in response to its sudden influx, presumably, is the main function of PMCA; (d) the function of sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is to extrude calcium excess by permanent counteracting its influx. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  7. Structure and function of Cu(I)- and Zn(II)-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Grønberg, Christina; Autzen, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Copper and zinc are micronutrients essential for the function of many enzymes while also being toxic at elevated concentrations. Cu(I)- and Zn(II)-transporting P-type ATPases of subclass 1B are of key importance for the homeostasis of these transition metals, allowing ion transport across cellular...... membranes at the expense of ATP. Recent biochemical studies and crystal structures have significantly improved our understanding of the transport mechanisms of these proteins, but many details about their structure and function remain elusive. Here we compare the Cu(I)- and Zn(II)-ATPases, scrutinizing...

  8. Single-molecule, structural and functional studies of Listeria monocytogenes Ca2+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyla, Mateusz

    -ion transport (e.g. H+ for Ca2+-ATPases). P-type ATPases undergo major conformational changes during their functional cycle, as has been learned from a wealth of atomic-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures (4). In this work, single-molecule, structural and functional studies were employed to investigate...... of Cy3 and Cy5 in an optimized form of LMCA1 with reduced background labeling. LMCA1 was found to reside in the high-FRET E1 conformational state through most of its functional cycle, even in the absence of Ca2+. Binding of Ca2+ brought the cytoplasmic domains of LMCA1 closer together, whereas...... of single vesicles, providing complementary read-out of the single-molecule dynamics. Furthermore, the effects of metal fluorides on the ATPase activity of the pump were characterized to validate the possibility of trapping LMCA1 in specific functional states analogous to the well-studied sarco...

  9. Statin, calcium channel blocker and Beta blocker therapy may decrease the incidence of tuberculosis infection in elderly Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Yueh; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Chang, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2015-05-18

    It is well known that diabetes mellitus impairs immunity and therefore is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis. However, the influence of associated metabolic factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and gout has yet to be confirmed. This study aimed to investigate whether the strong association between tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus is independent from the influence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and its treatment in elderly Taiwanese patients. A total of 27,958 patients aged more than 65 years were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NIHRD) in 1997 and were followed from 1998 to 2009. The demographic characteristics between the patients with and without diabetes were analyzed using the χ2 test. A total of 13,981 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of diabetes on the risk of tuberculosis. After adjusting for age, sex, other co-morbidities and medications, calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin users had a lower independent association, with risk ratios of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.58-0.98), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58-0.91) and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60-0.97), respectively. Calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin therapy may decrease the incidence of tuberculosis infection in elderly Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. The effects of template rigidity and amino acid type on heterogeneous calcium-phosphate mineralization by langmuir films of amphiphilic and acidic β-sheet peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segman-Magidovich, Shlomit; Rapaport, Hanna

    2012-09-13

    Calcium-phosphate mineralization was monitored in systems composed of designed amphiphilic and acidic β-sheet-forming peptides, namely Pro-Phe-(Asp-Phe)(5)-Pro (PFD-5), Pro-Phe-(Glu-Phe)(5)-Pro (PFE-5) and Pro-Glu-(Phe-PSer)(4)-Phe-Glu-Pro (PPS). The three peptides differ solely in terms of their hydrophilic amino acids and therefore, serve as good model for assessment of the effect of the anionic amino acid type on mineralization within the context of the β-sheet structure. Monolayers of the peptides were deposited over simulated body solution (SBF(1.5)), and the effect of the adsorbing minerals over time was detected by Langmuir isotherm measurements, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The results provide insight into mineralized film morphology and peptide lattice behavior during mineralization. The rigidity of the peptide template, along with the type of amino acid side chain, were found to significantly affect mineralization morphology and peptide structure. The results will contribute to a better understanding of calcium-phosphate mineralization in nature and in the context of biomaterials for applications in bone tissue regeneration.

  11. Statin, Calcium Channel Blocker and Beta Blocker Therapy May Decrease the Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in Elderly Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yueh Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that diabetes mellitus impairs immunity and therefore is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis. However, the influence of associated metabolic factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and gout has yet to be confirmed. This study aimed to investigate whether the strong association between tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus is independent from the influence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and its treatment in elderly Taiwanese patients. Methods: A total of 27,958 patients aged more than 65 years were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NIHRD in 1997 and were followed from 1998 to 2009. The demographic characteristics between the patients with and without diabetes were analyzed using the χ2 test. A total of 13,981 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of diabetes on the risk of tuberculosis. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, other co-morbidities and medications, calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin users had a lower independent association, with risk ratios of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.58–0.98, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58–0.91 and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60–0.97, respectively. Conclusion: Calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin therapy may decrease the incidence of tuberculosis infection in elderly Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. RIN4 functions with plasma membrane H+-ATPases to regulate stomatal apertures during pathogen attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Elmore, James M.; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pathogen perception by the plant innate immune system is of central importance to plant survival and productivity. The Arabidopsis protein RIN4 is a negative regulator of plant immunity. In order to identify additional proteins involved in RIN4- mediated immune signal transduction, we...... exhibit differential PM H+-ATPase activity. PM H+-ATPase activation induces stomatal opening, enabling bacteria to gain entry into the plant leaf; inactivation induces stomatal closure thus restricting bacterial invasion. The rin4 knockout line exhibited reduced PM H+-ATPase activity and, importantly, its...... stomata could not be re-opened by virulent Pseudomonas syringae. We also demonstrate that RIN4 is expressed in guard cells, highlighting the importance of this cell type in innate immunity. These results indicate that the Arabidopsis protein RIN4 functions with the PM H+-ATPase to regulate stomatal...

  13. Experimental determination of control by the H+-ATPase in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole; Westerhoff, H. V.

    1995-01-01

    Strains carrying deletions in the atp genes, encoding the H+-ATPase, were unable to grow on nonfermentable substrates such as succinate, whereas with glucose as the substrate the growth rate of an atp deletion mutant was surprisingly high (some 75-80% of wild-type growth rate). The rate of glucos...

  14. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

  15. CACNA1H missense mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alter Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel activity and reticular thalamic neuron firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Blesneac, Iulia; Pamphlett, Roger; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. In a recent study by Steinberg and colleagues, 2 recessive missense mutations were identified in the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene (CACNA1H), in a family with an affected proband (early onset, long duration ALS) and 2 unaffected parents. We have introduced and functionally characterized these mutations using transiently expressed human Cav3.2 channels in tsA-201 cells. Both of these mutations produced mild but significant changes on T-type channel activity that are consistent with a loss of channel function. Computer modeling in thalamic reticular neurons suggested that these mutations result in decreased neuronal excitability of thalamic structures. Taken together, these findings implicate CACNA1H as a susceptibility gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  16. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun-Hwan; You, Changkook; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2015-03-16

    In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell proliferation and ALP activity on the modified BCP scaffolds. The modified microporous surfaces showed low contact angles and large surface areas, which enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. Coating of the BCP scaffolds with type I collagen led to enhanced cell-material interactions and improved MG63 functions, such as spreading, proliferation, and differentiation. The micropore/collagen-coated scaffold showed the highest rate of cell response. These results indicate that a combination of micropores and collagen enhances cellular function on bioengineered bone allograft tissue.

  17. Effects of low-dose ionising radiation on pituitary adenoma: is there a role for L-type calcium channel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Araugio Soares

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas constitute about 6-18% of brain tumours in adults. Activation of voltage gated calcium currents can account for growth hormone oversecretion in some GH-secreting pituitary adenomas that produce an acromegaly appearance and increase mortality. Ca2+ ions, as mediators of intracellular signalling, are crucial for the development of apoptosis. However, the role of [Ca2+] in the development of apoptosis is ambiguous. In this study, the effects of low-dose ionising gamma radiation (60Co on rat pituitary adenoma cells survival and proliferation and the role of calcium channels on the apoptosis radio-induced were evaluated. Doses as low as 3 Gy were found to inhibit GH3 cell proliferation. Even though there was a significant number of live cells,168 hours following irradiation, they were not able to proliferate. The results indicate that the blockade of extracellular calcium influx through these channels does not interfere in the radiation-induced apoptosis in GH3 cells.Adenomas de pituitária constituem cerca de 6-18% dos tumores cerebrais em adultos. A ativação de correntes de cálcio dependentes de voltagem podem levar à super-excreção de hormônio do crescimento produzindo acromegalia e aumentando a mortalidade. Íons Ca2+ como mediadores de sinalização intracelular são cruciais no desenvolvimento da apoptose. No entanto, o papel da [Ca 2+] no desenvolvimento da apoptose é ambíguo. Neste estudo nós avaliamos os efeitos de baixas doses de radiação gama (60Co na sobrevivência e proliferação de células de adenoma de pituitária de rato e o papel do cálcio na apoptose radio-induzida. Nossos resultados mostraram que a dose de 3Gy foi suficiente para inibir a proliferação das células GH3. Apesar de existir um número significativo de células vivas após 168 horas do tratamento com radiação, elas não estavam aptas a proliferar. Nossos resultados também indicaram que bloqueio do influxo de cálcio extracelular n

  18. Differential cerebellar GABAA receptor expression in mice with mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaja, S; Payne, A J; Nielsen, E Ø; Thompson, C L; van den Maagdenberg, A M J M; Koulen, P; Snutch, T P

    2015-09-24

    Ataxia is the predominant clinical manifestation of cerebellar dysfunction. Mutations in the human CACNA1A gene, encoding the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, underlie several neurological disorders, including Episodic Ataxia type 2 and Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 1 (FHM1). Several mouse mutants exist that harbor mutations in the orthologous Cacna1a gene. The spontaneous Cacna1a mutants Rolling Nagoya (tg(rol)), Tottering (tg) and Leaner (tg(ln)) mice exhibit behavioral motor phenotypes, including ataxia. Transgenic knock-in (KI) mouse strains with the human FHM1 R192Q and S218L missense mutations have been generated. R192Q KI mice are non-ataxic, whereas S218L KI mice display a complex behavioral phenotype that includes cerebellar ataxia. Given the dependence of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit functioning on localized calcium currents, and the functional link between GABAergic inhibition and ataxia, we hypothesized that cerebellar GABAA receptor expression is differentially affected in Cacna1a mutants and contributes to the ataxic phenotype. Herein we quantified functional GABAA receptors and pharmacologically dissociated cerebellar GABAA receptors in several Cacna1a mutants. We did not identify differences in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits or in the number of functional GABAA receptors in the non-ataxic R192Q KI strain. In contrast, tg(rol) mice had a ∼15% decrease in the number of functional GABAA receptors, whereas S218L KI mice showed a ∼29% increase. Our data suggest that differential changes in cerebellar GABAA receptor expression profile may contribute to the neurological phenotype of cerebellar ataxia and that targeting GABAA receptors might represent a feasible complementary strategy to treat cerebellar ataxia. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cisplatin alters the function and expression of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the absence of morphological damage of sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Markus; Schmitt, Linda-Isabell; Jastrow, Holger; Thomale, Jürgen; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Hagenacker, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, are still frequently used for treating various types of cancer. Besides its high effectiveness, cisplatin has several serious side effects. One of the most common side effects is dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying this neurotoxicity are still unclear and controversially discussed. Cisplatin-mediated modulation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the DRG neurons has been shown to alter intracellular calcium homeostasis, a process critical for the induction of neurotoxicity. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, immunostaining, behavioural experiments and electron microscopy (EM) of rat DRGs, we here demonstrate that cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity is due to functional alteration of VGCC, but not due to morphological damage. In vitro application of cisplatin (0.5 µM) increased N-type VGCC currents ( ICa(V)) in small DRG neurons. Repetitive in vivo administration of cisplatin (1.5 mg/kg, cumulative 12 mg/kg) increased the protein level of N-type VGCC over 26 days, with the protein level being increased for at least 14 days after the final cisplatin administration. Behavioural studies revealed that N-type VGCCs are crucial for inducing symptoms of cisplatin-related neuropathic pain, such as thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. EM and histology showed no evidence of any structural damage, apoptosis or necrosis in DRG cells after cisplatin exposure for 26 days. Furthermore, no nuclear DNA damage in sensory neurons was observed. Here, we provide evidence for a mainly functionally driven induction of neuropathic pain by cisplatin.

  20. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations.

  1. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Sara; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian Buhl

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous...... and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues...... in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase....

  2. Standardization of metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin to skeletal striated muscle of mules and donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora H.F. D'Angelis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at standardizing the pre-incubation and incubation pH and temperature used in the metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin (mATPase used for asses and mules. Twenty four donkeys and 10 mules, seven females and three males, were used in the study. From each animal, fragments from the Gluteus medius muscle were collected and percutaneous muscle biopsy was performed using a 6.0-mm Bergström-type needle. In addition to the metachromatic staining method of mATPase, the technique of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR was also performed to confirm the histochemical data. The histochemical result of mATPase for acidic pre-incubation (pH=4.50 and alkaline incubation (pH=10.50, at a temperature of 37ºC, yielded the best differentiation of fibers stained with toluidine blue. Muscle fibers were identified according to the following colors: type I (oxidative, light blue, type IIA (oxidative-glycolytic, intermediate blue and type IIX (glycolytic, dark blue. There are no reports in the literature regarding the characterization and distribution of different types of muscle fibers used by donkeys and mules when performing traction work, cargo transportation, endurance sports (horseback riding and marching competitions. Therefore, this study is the first report on the standardization of the mATPase technique for donkeys and mules.

  3. Changes of calcium binding proteins, c-Fos and COX in hippocampal formation and cerebellum of Niemann-Pick, type C mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Daesik; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjaigal; Oh, Jeehyun; Kim, Jisun; Kwak, Grace; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Jo, Seung-Mook; Lee, Bonghee

    2013-09-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) is an intractable disease that is accompanied by ataxia, dystonia, neurodegeneration, and dementia due to an NPC gene defect. Disruption of calcium homeostasis in neurons is important in patients with NPC. Thus, we used immunohistochemistry to assess the expression levels of calcium binding proteins (calbindin D28K, parvalbumin, and calretinin), c-Fos and cyclooxygenase-1,2 (COX-1,2) in the hippocampal formation and cerebellum of 4 and 8 week old NPC+/+, NPC+/-, and NPC-/- mice. General expression of these proteins decreased in the hippocampus and cerebellum of NPC-/- compared to that in both young and adult NPC+/+ or NPC+/- mice. Parvalbumin, COX-1,2 or c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons were widely detected in the CA1, CA3, and DG of the hippocampus, but the immunoreactivities were decreased sharply in all areas of hippocampus of NPC-/- compared to NPC+/+ and NPC+/- mice. Taken together, reduction of these proteins may be one of the strong phenotypes related to the neuronal degeneration in NPC-/- mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Peng-Tao; Jiao, Bo; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Xie, Man-Jiang; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (I Ca,L) in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal I Ca,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal I Ca,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal I Ca,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50 min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P < 0.01), inactivation (P < 0.01), and recovery (P < 0.05) characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation.

  5. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jie Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS on L-type calcium channel (LTCC gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (ICa,L in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal ICa,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal ICa,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal ICa,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50 min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P<0.01, inactivation (P<0.01, and recovery (P<0.05 characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation.

  6. Differential rescue of spatial memory deficits in aged rats by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel and ryanodine receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, S C; D'Angelo, H M; Royer, S E; Kaercher, R M; Adzovic, L; Wenk, G L

    2014-11-07

    Age-associated memory impairments may result as a consequence of neuroinflammatory induction of intracellular calcium (Ca(+2)) dysregulation. Altered L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) activity may underlie age-associated learning and memory impairments. Various neuroinflammatory markers are associated with increased activity of both L-VDCCs and RyRs, and increased neuroinflammation is associated with normal aging. In vitro, pharmacological blockade of L-VDCCs and RyRs has been shown to be anti-inflammatory. Here, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of L-VDCCs or RyRs with the drugs nimodipine and dantrolene, respectively, could improve spatial memory and reduce age-associated increases in microglia activation. Dantrolene and nimodipine differentially attenuated age-associated spatial memory deficits but were not anti-inflammatory in vivo. Furthermore, RyR gene expression was inversely correlated with spatial memory, highlighting the central role of Ca(+2) dysregulation in age-associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing effect of L-type calcium channel blockade on electrophysiological alterations in dentate gyrus granule cells induced by entorhinal amyloid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholami Pourbadie

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC is one of the earliest affected brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD. EC-amyloid pathology induces synaptic failure in the dentate gyrus (DG with resultant behavioral impairment, but there is little known about its impact on neuronal properties in the DG. It is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis plays a pivotal role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on cellular properties of DG granule cells and also possible neuroprotective role of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs, nimodipine and isradipine, were investigated. The amyloid beta (Aβ 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, electrophysiological properties of DG granule cells were assessed. Voltage clamp recording revealed appearance of giant sIPSC in combination with a decrease in sEPSC frequency which was partially reversed by CCBs in granule cells from Aβ treated rats. EC amyloid pathogenesis induced a significant reduction of input resistance (Rin accompanied by a profound decreased excitability in the DG granule cells. However, daily administration of CCBs, isradipine or nimodipine (i.c.v. for 6 days, almost preserved the normal excitability against Aβ. In conclusion, lower tendency to fire AP along with reduced Rin suggest that DG granule cells might undergo an alteration in the membrane ion channel activities which finally lead to the behavioral deficits observed in animal models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Colonic overexpression of the T-type calcium channel Cav 3.2 in a mouse model of visceral hypersensitivity and in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanzi, J; Accarie, A; Muller, E; Pereira, B; Aissouni, Y; Goutte, M; Joubert-Zakeyh, J; Picard, E; Boudieu, L; Mallet, C; Gelot, A; Ardid, D; Carvalho, F A; Dapoigny, M

    2016-11-01

    Among the different mechanisms involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) physiopathology, visceral hypersensitivity seems to play a key role. It involves sensitization of the colonic primary afferent fibers, especially through an overexpression of ion channels. The aims of this translational study were to investigate the colonic expression of Cav 3.2 calcium channels and their involvement in an animal model of colonic hypersensitivity, and to assess their expression in the colonic mucosa of symptomatic IBS patients. This bench-to-bed study combined a preclinical experimental study on mice and a case-control clinical study. Preclinical studies were performed on wild-type and Cav 3.2-KO mice. Colonic sensitivity and Cav 3.2 expression were studied after a low-dose treatment of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS 0.5%). Regarding the clinical study, colonic biopsies were performed in 14 IBS patients and 16 controls during a colonoscopy to analyze the mucosal Cav 3.2 expression. Wild-type, but not Cav 3.2-KO, mice developed visceral hypersensitivity without colonic inflammation, after 0.5% DSS treatment. A significant increase of Cav 3.2 mRNA (p = 0.04) was found in the colon of low-dose DSS-treated wild-type (WT) mice compared to their controls. In human colonic biopsies, the Cav 3.2 mRNA level was significantly higher in the IBS group compared to the control group (p = 0.01). The immunofluorescence staining revealed their protein expression in colonic mucosa, particularly in nerve fibers. This translational study supports the involvement of the calcium channels Cav 3.2 in abdominal pain, as observed in IBS patients. It opens new therapeutic perspectives based on molecules specifically blocking these channels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum ATPase is a molecular partner of Wolfram syndrome 1 protein, which negatively regulates its expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatyka, Malgorzata; Da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Bellomo, Elisa A.; Leadbeater, Wendy; Astuti, Dewi; Smith, Joel; Michelangeli, Frank; Rutter, Guy A.; Barrett, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and diabetes mellitus. The gene responsible for the syndrome (WFS1) encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident transmembrane protein that is involved in the regulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), intracellular ion homeostasis, cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and regulation of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. In this study, single cell Ca2+ imaging with fura-2 and direct measurements of free cytosolic ATP concentration ([ATP]CYT) with adenovirally expressed luciferase confirmed a reduced and delayed rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]CYT), and additionally, diminished [ATP]CYT rises in response to elevated glucose concentrations in WFS1-depleted MIN6 cells. We also observed that sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA) expression was elevated in several WFS1-depleted cell models and primary islets. We demonstrated a novel interaction between WFS1 and SERCA by co-immunoprecipitation in Cos7 cells and with endogenous proteins in human neuroblastoma cells. This interaction was reduced when cells were treated with the ER stress inducer dithiothreitol. Treatment of WFS1-depleted neuroblastoma cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 resulted in reduced accumulation of SERCA levels compared with wild-type cells. Together these results reveal a role for WFS1 in the negative regulation of SERCA and provide further insights into the function of WFS1 in calcium homeostasis. PMID:25274773

  10. Age-dependent impact of CaV3.2 T-type calcium channel deletion on myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilatation in small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miriam F.; Björling, Karl; Jensen, Lars Jørn

    2016-01-01

    The myogenic response and flow-mediated vasodilatation are important regulators of local blood perfusion and total peripheral resistance, and are known to entail a calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), respectively. CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels...... are expressed in both VSMCs and ECs of small arteries. The T-type channels are important drug targets but due to the lack of specific antagonists our understanding of the role of CaV3.2 channels in vasomotor tone at various ages is scarce. We evaluated the myogenic response, flow-mediated vasodilatation....... Our study shows important roles of the CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilation that disappear with aging. Since increased arterial tone is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease we conclude that CaV3.2 channels, by modulating pressure- and flow...

  11. Partial Purification of a Tonoplast ATPase from Corn Coleoptiles 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Suzanne; Taiz, Lincoln

    1985-01-01

    The tonoplast ATPase from corn coleoptile membranes was solubilized using a two-step procedure consisting of a pretreatment with 0.15% (w/v) deoxycholate to remove 60% of the protein, and 40 millimolar octyl-glucoside to solubilize the ATPase. During ultracentrifugation, the solublized ATPase entered a linear sucrose gradient faster than the majority of the protein, resulting in an 11-fold purification over the initial specific activity. The partially purified ATPase was almost completely inhibited by KNO3 with an estimated Ki of 10 millimolar. The specific activity of the KNO3-sensitive ATPase was increased 29-fold during purification. N,N′-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide also completely inhibited the ATPase with half-maximal effects at a concentration of 4 micromolar. Neither vanadate nor azide inhibited enzyme activity. The purified ATPase was stimulated by Cl− and preferred Mg-ATP as substrate. Analysis of frations from the sucrose gradient by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis led to the identification of two major polypeptides at 72,000 and 62,000 daltons which were best correlated with ATPase activity. Several minor bands also appeared to copurify with enzyme activity, but were less consistent. Radiation inactivation experiments with intact membranes indicated that the functional molecular size of the tonoplast ATPase was nearly 400,000 daltons. This suggests that the ATPase is composed of several polypeptides, possibly including the 72,000- and 62,000-dalton proteins. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16664239

  12. Osseointegration aspects of placed implant in bone reconstruction with newly developed block-type interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya DOI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Artificial bone has been employed to reconstruct bone defects. However, only few reports on implant placement after block bone grafting exist. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of dental implant in bone reconstructions with interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA. Material and Methods The IP-CHA cylinders (D; 4.3 mm, H; 10.0 mm were placed into bone sockets in each side of the femurs of four male dogs. The IP-CHA on the right side was a 24-week sample. Twelve weeks after placement, a titanium implant was placed into a socket that was prepared in half of the placed IP-CHA cylinder on the right side. On the left side, another IP-CHA cylinder was placed as a 12-week sample. After another 12 weeks, the samples were harvested, and the bone regeneration and bone-implant contact (BIC ratios were measured. Results New bone formation area was superior in the 24-week IP-CHA compared with the 12-week IP-CHA. BIC was not significantly different between IP-CHA and the parent sites. Osseointegration was detected around the implant in IP-CHA-reconstructed bone. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that IP-CHA may be a suitable bone graft material for reconstructing bones that require implant placement.

  13. Amino Acid Availability Modulates Vacuolar H+-ATPase Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, Laura A.; Forgac, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-dependent proton pump composed of a peripheral ATPase domain (V1) and a membrane-integral proton-translocating domain (V0) and is involved in many normal and disease processes. An important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity is reversible assembly of the V1 and V0 domains. Increased assembly in mammalian cells occurs under various conditions and has been shown to involve PI3K. The V-ATPase is necessary for amino acid-induced activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is important in controlling cell growth in response to nutrient availability and growth signals. The V-ATPase undergoes amino acid-dependent interactions with the Ragulator complex, which is involved in recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal membrane during amino acid sensing. We hypothesized that changes in the V-ATPase/Ragulator interaction might involve amino acid-dependent changes in V-ATPase assembly. To test this, we measured V-ATPase assembly by cell fractionation in HEK293T cells treated with and without amino acids. V-ATPase assembly increases upon amino acid starvation, and this effect is reversed upon readdition of amino acids. Lysosomes from amino acid-starved cells possess greater V-ATPase-dependent proton transport, indicating that assembled pumps are catalytically active. Amino acid-dependent changes in both V-ATPase assembly and activity are independent of PI3K and mTORC1 activity, indicating the involvement of signaling pathways distinct from those implicated previously in controlling assembly. By contrast, lysosomal neutralization blocks the amino acid-dependent change in assembly and reactivation of mTORC1 after amino acid starvation. These results identify an important new stimulus for controlling V-ATPase assembly. PMID:26378229

  14. Mechanisms of NMDA Receptor- and Voltage-Gated L-Type Calcium Channel-Dependent Hippocampal LTP Critically Rely on Proteolysis That Is Mediated by Distinct Metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiera, Grzegorz; Nowak, Daria; van Hove, Inge; Dziegiel, Piotr; Moons, Lieve; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2017-02-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely perceived as a memory substrate and in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway, distinct forms of LTP depend on NMDA receptors (nmdaLTP) or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (vdccLTP). LTP is also known to be effectively regulated by extracellular proteolysis that is mediated by various enzymes. Herein, we investigated whether in mice hippocampal slices these distinct forms of LTP are specifically regulated by different metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that MMP-3 inhibition or knock-out impaired late-phase LTP in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Interestingly, late-phase LTP was also decreased by MMP-9 blockade. When both MMP-3 and MMP-9 were inhibited, both early- and late-phase LTP was impaired. Using immunoblotting, in situ zymography, and immunofluorescence, we found that LTP induction was associated with an increase in MMP-3 expression and activity in CA1 stratum radiatum. MMP-3 inhibition and knock-out prevented the induction of vdccLTP, with no effect on nmdaLTP. L-type channel-dependent LTP is known to be impaired by hyaluronic acid digestion. We found that slice treatment with hyaluronidase occluded the effect of MMP-3 blockade on LTP, further confirming a critical role for MMP-3 in this form of LTP. In contrast to the CA3-CA1 pathway, LTP in the mossy fiber-CA3 projection did not depend on MMP-3, indicating the pathway specificity of the actions of MMPs. Overall, our study indicates that the activation of perisynaptic MMP-3 supports L-type channel-dependent LTP in the CA1 region, whereas nmdaLTP depends solely on MMP-9. Various types of long-term potentiation (LTP) are correlated with distinct phases of memory formation and retrieval, but the underlying molecular signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Extracellular proteases have emerged as key players in neuroplasticity phenomena. The present study found that L-type calcium channel-dependent LTP in the CA3-CA1 hippocampal projection is critically regulated by the activity

  15. A novel role of the L-type calcium channel α1D subunit as a gatekeeper for intracellular zinc signaling: zinc wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yamasaki

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that zinc ion (Zn can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule. We previously demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and we named this phenomenon the "Zn wave". However, the molecules responsible for releasing Zn and the roles of the Zn wave were elusive. Here we identified the pore-forming α(1 subunit of the Cav1.3 (α(1D L-type calcium channel (LTCC as the gatekeeper for the Zn wave. LTCC antagonists inhibited the Zn wave, and an agonist was sufficient to induce it. Notably, α(1D was mainly localized to the ER rather than the plasma membrane in mast cells, and the Zn wave was impaired by α(1D knockdown. We further found that the LTCC-mediated Zn wave positively controlled cytokine gene induction by enhancing the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Consistent with this finding, LTCC antagonists inhibited the cytokine-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction in mice without affecting the immediate-type allergic reaction. These findings indicated that the LTCC α(1D subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction.

  16. Lead reduces tension development and the myosin ATPase activity of the rat right ventricular myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Vassallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb2+ poisoning causes hypertension, but little is known regarding its acute effects on cardiac contractility. To evaluate these effects, force was measured in right ventricular strips that were contracting isometrically in 45 male Wistar rats (250-300 g before and after the addition of increasing concentrations of lead acetate (3, 7, 10, 30, 70, 100, and 300 µM to the bath. Changes in rate of stimulation (0.1-1.5 Hz, relative potentiation after pauses of 15, 30, and 60 s, effect of Ca2+ concentration (0.62, 1.25, and 2.5 mM, and the effect of isoproterenol (20 ng/mL were determined before and after the addition of 100 µM Pb2+. Effects on contractile proteins were evaluated after caffeine treatment using tetanic stimulation (10 Hz and measuring the activity of the myosin ATPase. Pb2+ produced concentration-dependent force reduction, significant at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The force developed in response to increasing rates of stimulation became smaller at 0.5 and 0.8 Hz. Relative potentiation increased after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment. Extracellular Ca2+ increment and isoproterenol administration increased force development but after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment the force was significantly reduced suggesting an effect of the metal on the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. Concentration of 100 µM Pb2+ also reduced the peak and plateau force of tetanic contractions and reduced the activity of the myosin ATPase. Results showed that acute Pb2+ administration, although not affecting the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, produces a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect and reduces myosin ATPase activity. Results suggest that acute lead administration reduced myocardial contractility by reducing sarcolemmal calcium influx and the myosin ATPase activity. These results also suggest that lead exposure is hazardous and has toxicological consequences affecting cardiac muscle.

  17. Structural, morphological and surface characteristics of two types of octacalcium phosphate-derived fluoride-containing apatitic calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwaku, Y; Anada, T; Yamazaki, H; Honda, Y; Morimoto, S; Sasaki, K; Suzuki, O

    2012-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been reported to stimulate bone regeneration during hydrolysis into hydroxyapatite (HA). The present study was designed to characterize structural, morphological and surface properties of fluoride-containing apatitic calcium phosphates (CaP) obtained through OCP hydrolysis or direct precipitation of OCP in the presence of 12-230ppm of fluoride (F). The products were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as measurements of surface area, solubility, osteoblastic activities and bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption. XRD analysis re-confirmed that both preparations yielded more apatitic CaP with a higher concentration of F. However, the co-precipitated products (CF-CaP) maintained the properties of OCP, in particular the solubility, whereas the hydrolysis products (HF-CaP) had the characteristics of fluoridated apatite. The crystals of plate-like OCP were changed to the crystals of rod-like CF-CaP and small irregular HF-CaP with the advance of the hydrolysis. The SAED analysis detected both OCP and apatite crystals even in the most hydrolyzed CF-CaP. Mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells grew better on CF-CaP compared with HF-CaP. BSA adsorption was inhibited on HF-CaP more than on CF-CaP. These results show that OCP produces physicochemically distinct apatitic fluoridated CaP during hydrolysis, regarding the structure, the crystal morphology and the protein adsorption, depending on the fluoride introduction route, which provides biologically interesting material. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  19. Common evolutionary origin for the rotor domain of rotary ATPases and flagellar protein export apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kishikawa

    Full Text Available The V1- and F1- rotary ATPases contain a rotor that rotates against a catalytic A3B3 or α3β3 stator. The rotor F(1-γ or V1-DF is composed of both anti-parallel coiled coil and globular-loop parts. The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus contains a V1/F1-like ATPase ring structure composed of FliI6 homo-hexamer and FliJ which adopts an anti-parallel coiled coil structure without the globular-loop part. Here we report that FliJ of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium shows a rotor like function in Thermus thermophilus A3B3 based on both biochemical and structural analysis. Single molecular analysis indicates that an anti-parallel coiled-coil structure protein (FliJ structure protein functions as a rotor in A3B3. A rotary ATPase possessing an F1-γ-like protein generated by fusion of the D and F subunits of V1 rotates, suggesting F(1-γ could be the result of a fusion of the genes encoding two separate rotor subunits. Together with sequence comparison among the globular part proteins, the data strongly suggest that the rotor domains of the rotary ATPases and the flagellar export apparatus share a common evolutionary origin.

  20. Sepsis impairs alveolar epithelial function by downregulating Na-K-ATPase pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gidon; Guetta, Julia; Klorin, Geula; Badarneh, Reem; Braun, Eyal; Brod, Vera; Saleh, Niroz Abu; Katz, Adriana; Bitterman, Haim; Azzam, Zaher S

    2011-07-01

    Widespread vascular endothelial injury is the major mechanism for multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Following this process, the permeability of the alveolar capillaries is augmented with subsequent increase in water content and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nevertheless, the role of alveolar epithelium is less known. Therefore, we examined alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) using isolated perfused rat lung model in septic rats without ARDS. Sepsis was induced by ligating and puncturing the cecum with a 21-gauge needle. AFC was examined 24 and 48 h later. The expression of Na-K-ATPase proteins was examined in type II alveolar epithelial cells (ATII) and basolateral membrane (BLM). The rate of AFC in control rats was 0.51 ± 0.02 ml/h (means ± SE) and decreased to 0.3 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.03 ml/h in 24 and 48 h after sepsis induction, respectively (P sodium channel and Na-K-ATPase proteins in whole ATII cells was not different in both cecal ligation and puncture and control groups; however, the abundance of Na-K-ATPase proteins was significantly decreased in BLMs of ATII cells in sepsis. Early decrease in AFC in remote sepsis is probably related to endocytosis of the Na-K-ATPase proteins from the cell plasma membrane into intracellular pools, with resultant inhibition of active sodium transport in ATII cells.

  1. Differential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel and ryanodine receptor antagonists in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Sarah C; Royer, Sarah E; D'Angelo, Heather M; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Fisher, David A; Wenk, Gary L

    2015-03-01

    Neuroinflammation and degeneration of catecholaminergic brainstem nuclei occur early in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Neuroinflammation increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal calcium (Ca(+2)) homoeostasis via L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Alterations in Ca(+2) channel activity in the SN and LC can lead to disruption of normal pacemaking activity in these areas, contributing to behavioral deficits. Here, we utilized an in vivo model of chronic neuroinflammation: rats were infused intraventricularly with a continuous small dose (0.25 μg/h) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) for 28 days. Rats were treated with either the L-VDCC antagonist nimodipine or the RyR antagonist dantrolene. LPS-infused rats had significant motor deficits in the accelerating rotarod task as well as abnormal behavioral agitation in the forced swim task and open field. Corresponding with these behavioral deficits, LPS-infused rats also had significant increases in microglia activation and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and locus coeruleus (LC). Treatment with nimodipine or dantrolene normalized LPS-induced abnormalities in the rotarod and forced swim, restored the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the LC, and significantly reduced microglia activation in the SNpc. Only nimodipine significantly reduced microglia activation in the LC, and neither drug increased TH immunoreactivity in the SNpc. These findings demonstrate that the Ca(+2) dysregulation in the LC and SN brainstem nuclei is differentially altered by chronic neuroinflammation. Overall, targeting Ca + 2 dysregulation may be an important target for ameliorating neurodegeneration in the SNpc and LC.

  2. Differential effects of thapsigargin analogues on apoptosis of prostate cancer cells: complex regulation by intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Charlotte; Vanden Abeele, Fabien; Sehgal, Pankaj; Olesen, Claus; Junker, Steffen; Christensen, Søren B; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Møller, Jesper V

    2013-11-01

    The inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) by thapsigargin (Tg) and Tg-type analogues is considered to trigger cell death by activation of apoptotic pathways. Some of these analogues may be useful as antineoplastic agents after appropriate targeting as peptide conjugated prodrugs to cancer cells. With this in mind, this study evaluates the effect on LNCaP androgen-sensitive cancer cells of thapsigargin substituted with 12-aminododecanoyl linkers and Leu (Leu-8ADT), aspartate (Asp-8ADT) or Boc-8ADT. Our results show that both Leu-8ADT and Asp-8ADT result in rapid ER calcium depletion and an influx of calcium across the plasma membrane by activation of store-operated calcium entry. By contrast, ER Ca(2+) depletion by Boc-8ADT is a very slow process that does not perceptibly increase cytosolic Ca(2+) and activate store-operated calcium entry, because the inhibition of SERCA with this compound is very slow. Nevertheless, we find that Boc-8ADT is a more efficient inducer of apoptosis than both Tg and Leu-8ADT. Compared with Tg and the other analogues, apoptosis induced by Asp-8ADT is very modest, although this compound also activates store-operated calcium entry and at high concentrations (1 μm) causes severe morphological changes, reflecting decreased cell viability. We conclude that many factors need to be considered for optimization of these compounds in antineoplastic drug design. Among these ER stress induced by Ca(2+) endoplasmic reticulum mobilization seems particularly important, whereas the early cytosolic increase of Ca(2+) concentration preceding the executive phase of apoptosis appears to be of no, or little, consequence for a subsequent apoptotic effect. © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Comparison of Frequency and Duration of Periodontal Disease With Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With and Without Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Daniel W; Krantz, Mori J; Hokanson, John E; Johnson, Lonnie R; Eckel, Robert H; Kinney, Gregory L; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Alman, Amy C

    2015-09-15

    People with type 1 diabetes mellitus manifest a greater burden of both periodontal disease and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, little is known about their interrelation. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) measures subclinical atherosclerosis and predicts major adverse coronary events. The relation between periodontal disease and CAC progression in individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been previously described. We determined the prevalence and progression of CAC in relation to self-reported periodontal disease. Multivariate logistic and tobit regression models were used to examine the relation between periodontal disease duration and CAC progression and whether this relation differs by diabetes status after controlling for age, gender, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, and baseline CAC. A total of 473 patients with type 1 diabetes and 548 without diabetes were followed for a mean of 6.1 years. At baseline, the prevalence and duration of periodontal disease did not differ between subjects with and without diabetes (14.5% vs 13.4%, p = 0.60; 6 vs 9 years, p = 0.18). Duration of periodontal disease was not significantly associated with baseline CAC prevalence. In patients with type 1 diabetes, periodontal disease duration was significantly related to CAC progression (p = 0.004) but not in subjects without diabetes (p = 0.63). In conclusion, this study suggests that periodontal disease is an independent predictor of long-term progression of CAC in patients with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete brain-type creatine kinase deficiency in mice blocks seizure activity and affects intracellular calcium kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streijger, F.; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Oerlemans, F.T.J.J.; Wieringa, B.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Brain-type creatine kinase (CK-B) and ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (UbCKmit) act as components of local phosphocreatine ATP shuttles that help in the compartmentalization and maintenance of pools of high-energy phosphate molecules in both neurons and glial cells. We investigated

  5. Complete brain-type creatine kinase deficiency in mice blocks seizure activity and affects intracellular calcium kinetics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streijger, F.; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Luijtelaar, G. van; Oerlemans, F.T.J.J.; Wieringa, B.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain-type creatine kinase (CK-B) and ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (UbCKmit) act as components of local phosphocreatine ATP shuttles that help in the compartmentalization and maintenance of pools of high-energy phosphate molecules in both neurons and glial cells. We investigated

  6. TRANSPARENT TESTA 13 is a tonoplast P3A -ATPase required for vacuolar deposition of proanthocyanidins in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhagen, Ingo; Nordholt, Niclas; Seidel, Thorsten; Spelt, Kees; Koes, Ronald; Quattrochio, Francesca; Sagasser, Martin; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Intracellular pH homeostasis is essential for all living cells. In plants, pH is usually maintained by three structurally distinct and differentially localized types of proton pump: P-type H(+) -ATPases in the plasma membrane, and multimeric vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPases (V-ATPases) and vacuolar H(+) -pyrophosphatases (H(+) -PPases) in endomembranes. Here, we show that reduced accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and hence the diminished brown seed coloration found in the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant transparent testa 13 (tt13) is caused by disruption of the gene encoding the P3A -ATPase AHA10. Identification of the gene encoded by the tt13 locus completes the molecular characterization of the classical set of transparent testa mutants. Cells of the tt13 seed coat endothelium do not contain PA-filled central vacuoles as observed in the wild-type. tt13 phenocopies tt12, a mutant that is defective in vacuolar import of the PA precursor epicatechin. Our data show that vacuolar loading with PA precursors depends on TT13. Consistent with the tt13 phenotype, but in contrast to other isoforms of P-type H(+) -ATPases, TT13 localizes to the tonoplast. PA accumulation in tt13 is partially restored by expression of the tonoplast localized H(+) -PPase VHP1. Our findings indicate that the P3A -ATPase TT13 functions as a proton pump in the tonoplast of seed coat endothelium cells, and generates the driving force for TT12-mediated transport of PA precursors to the vacuole. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Structural studies of the vacuolar membrane ATPase from Neurospora crassa and comparison with the tonoplast membrane ATPase and Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, E.J.; Mandala, S.; Taiz, L.; Bowman, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The H translocating ATPase located on vacuolar membranes of Neurospora crassa was partially purified by solubilization in two detergents, Triton X-100 and N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, followed by centrifugation on sucrose density gradients. Two polypeptides of M/sub r/ approx. = 70,000 and approx. = 62,000 consistently migrated with activity, along with several minor bands of lower molecular weight. Radioactively labeled inhibitors of ATPase activity, N-( UC)ethylmaleimide and 7-chloro-4-nitro( UC)benzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, labeled the M/sub r/ approx. = 70,000 polypeptide; this labeling was reduced in the presence of ATP. N,N'-( UC)dicyclohexylcarbodiimide labeled a polypeptide of M/sub r/ approx. = 15,000. Estimation of the functional size of the vacuolar membrane ATPase by radiation inactivation gave a value of M/sub r/ 5.2 x 10V, 10-15% larger than the mitochondrial ATPase. The Neurospora vacuolar ATPase showed no crossreactivity with antiserum to plasma membrane or mitochrondrial ATPase but stongly crossreacted with antiserum against a polypeptide of M/sub r/ approx. = 70,000 associated with the tonoplast ATPase of corn coleoptiles. These results suggest that fungal and plant vacuolar ATPases may be large multisubunit complexes, somewhat similar to, but immunologically distinct from, known F0F1 ATPases.

  8. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    to the conclusion that Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels have important, but different, functions in mice. T-type Cav3.1 channels affect heart rate, whereas Cav3.2 channels are involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the vascular system, Cav3.2 activation leads to dilation of blood vessels, whereas Cav3.1 channels are mainly...

  9. Phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben; Jensen, Jan Egebjerg

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a widely used, reversible means of regulating enzymatic activity. Among the important phosphorylation targets are the Na(+),K(+)- and H(+),K(+)-ATPases that pump ions against their chemical gradients to uphold ionic concentration differences over the plasma membrane. The two...

  10. Capsazepine, a synthetic vanilloid that converts the Na,K-ATPase to Na-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Capsazepine (CPZ), a synthetic capsaicin analogue, inhibits ATP hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase in the presence, but not in the absence of K+. Studies with purified membranes revealed that CPZ reduced Na+-dependent phosphorylation by interference with Na+ binding from the intracellular side of the memb...

  11. Impact of phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutations of phospholemman on L-type calcium channels gating in HEK 293T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Yue-Peng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Bo; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Meng; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-03-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is an important phosphorylation substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart. Until now, the association between PLM phosphorylation status and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) gating has not been fully understood. We investigated the kinetics of LTCCs in HEK 293T cells expressing phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants. The LTCCs gating was measured in HEK 293T cells transfected with LTCC and wild-type (WT) PLM, phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants: 6263AA, 6869AA, AAAA, 6263DD, 6869DD or DDDD. WT PLM significantly slowed LTCCs activation and deactivation while enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). PLM mutants 6869DD and DDDD significantly increased the peak of the currents. 6263DD accelerated channel activation, while 6263AA slowed it more than WT PLM. 6869DD significantly enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. AAAA slowed the channel activation more than 6263AA, and DDDD accelerated the channel VDI more than 6869DD. Our results demonstrate that phosphomimetic PLM could stimulate LTCCs and alter their dynamics, while PLM nonphosphorylatable mutant produced the opposite effects. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Molecular and functional identification of cyclic AMP-sensitive BKCa potassium channels (ZERO variant) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in single rat juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulla G; Jørgensen, Finn; Andreasen, Ditte

    2003-01-01

    , respectively. Double immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of BKCa and renin in the same cell. cAMP increased the outward current by 1.6-fold, and this was inhibited by 74% with iberiotoxin. Expression of the cAMP-sensitive splice variant (ZERO) of BKCa was confirmed in single-sampled JG cells by RT......-PCR. The resting membrane potential of JG cells was -32 mV and activation of BKCa with cAMP hyperpolarized cells on average 16 mV, and inhibition with TEA depolarized cells by 17 mV. The cells displayed typical high-voltage activated calcium currents sensitive to the L-type Ca(v) blocker calciseptine. RT......-PCR analysis and double-immunofluorescence labeling showed coexpression of renin and L-type Ca(v) 1.2. The cAMP-mediated increase in exocytosis (measured as membrane capacitance) was inhibited by depolarization to +10 mV, and this inhibitory effect was blocked with calciseptine, whereas K+-blockers had...

  13. Antidepressants Rescue Stress-Induced Disruption of Synaptic Plasticity via Serotonin Transporter-Independent Inhibition of L-Type Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, Claus; Frase, Sibylle; Haug, Verena; von Wolff, Gregor; Clark, Kristin; Münzer, Patrick; Dorner, Alexandra; Scholliers, Jonas; Horn, Max; Vo Van, Tanja; Seifert, Gabriel; Serchov, Tsvetan; Biber, Knut; Nissen, Christoph; Klugbauer, Norbert; Bischofberger, Josef

    2017-10-19

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a basic ability of the brain to dynamically adapt to external stimuli and regulate synaptic strength and ultimately network function. It is dysregulated by behavioral stress in animal models of depression and in humans with major depressive disorder. Antidepressants have been shown to restore disrupted synaptic plasticity in both animal models and humans; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We examined modulation of synaptic plasticity by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in hippocampal brain slices from wild-type rats and serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice. Recombinant voltage-gated calcium (Ca 2+ ) channels in heterologous expression systems were used to determine the modulation of Ca 2+ channels by SSRIs. We tested the behavioral effects of SSRIs in the chronic behavioral despair model of depression both in the presence and in the absence of SERT. SSRIs selectively inhibited hippocampal long-term depression. The inhibition of long-term depression by SSRIs was mediated by a direct block of voltage-activated L-type Ca 2+ channels and was independent of SERT. Furthermore, SSRIs protected both wild-type and SERT knockout mice from behavioral despair induced by chronic stress. Finally, long-term depression was facilitated in animals subjected to the behavioral despair model, which was prevented by SSRI treatment. These results showed that antidepressants protected synaptic plasticity and neuronal circuitry from the effects of stress via a modulation of Ca 2+ channels and synaptic plasticity independent of SERT. Thus, L-type Ca 2+ channels might constitute an important signaling hub for stress response and for pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Review: P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases-Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens P; Vestergaard, Anna L; Mikkelsen, Stine A

    2016-01-01

    coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases...... on properties of mammalian and yeast P4-ATPases for which most mechanistic insight is available. However, the structure, function and enigmas associated with mammalian and yeast P4-ATPases most likely extend to P4-ATPases of plants and other organisms....

  15. A novel dihydropyridine with 3-aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution blocks L-type calcium channels in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis-Pareja, David [Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas and Facultad Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro Estudios Moleculares de la Célula (CEMC), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas and Facultad Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Zapata-Torres, Gerald [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Hidalgo, Jorge [Centro Estudios Moleculares de la Célula (CEMC), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas and Facultad Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Ayala, Pedro [Centro Estudios Moleculares de la Célula (CEMC), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas and Facultad Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2014-08-15

    Rationale: Dihydropyridines are widely used for the treatment of several cardiac diseases due to their blocking activity on L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels and their renowned antioxidant properties. Methods: We synthesized six novel dihydropyridine molecules and performed docking studies on the binding site of the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel. We used biochemical techniques on isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes to assess the efficacy of these molecules on their Ca{sup 2+} channel-blocking activity and antioxidant properties. The Ca{sup 2+} channel-blocking activity was evaluated by confocal microscopy on fluo-3AM loaded cardiomyocytes, as well as using patch clamp experiments. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by flow cytometry using the ROS sensitive dye 1,2,3 DHR. Results: Our docking studies show that a novel compound with 3-OH substitution inserts into the active binding site of the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel previously described for nitrendipine. In biochemical assays, the novel meta-OH group in the aryl in C4 showed a high blocking effect on L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel as opposed to para-substituted compounds. In the tests we performed, none of the molecules showed antioxidant properties. Conclusions: Only substitutions in C2, C3 and C5 of the aryl ring render dihydropyridine compounds with the capacity of blocking LTCC. Based on our docking studies, we postulate that the antioxidant activity requires a larger group than the meta-OH substitution in C2, C3 or C5 of the dihydropyridine ring. - Highlights: • Dihydropyridine (DHP) molecules are widely used in cardiovascular disease. • DHPs block Ca{sup 2+} entry through LTCC—some DHPs have antioxidant activity as well. • We synthesized 6 new DHPs and tested their Ca{sup 2+} blocking and antioxidant activities. • 3-Aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution strongly increases their Ca{sup 2+} blocking activity. • 3-Aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution did not affect the antioxidant properties.

  16. Genetic Tracing of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Sierra, Yinth A.; Haseleu, Julia; Kozlenkov, Alexey; B?gay, Val?rie; Lewin, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Ca...

  17. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  18. Toward an understanding of the Cdc48/p97 ATPase [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Bodnar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A conserved AAA+ ATPase, called Cdc48 in yeast and p97 or VCP in metazoans, plays an essential role in many cellular processes by segregating polyubiquitinated proteins from complexes or membranes. For example, in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD, Cdc48/p97 pulls polyubiquitinated, misfolded proteins out of the ER and transfers them to the proteasome. Cdc48/p97 consists of an N-terminal domain and two ATPase domains (D1 and D2. Six Cdc48 monomers form a double-ring structure surrounding a central pore. Cdc48/p97 cooperates with a number of different cofactors, which bind either to the N-terminal domain or to the C-terminal tail. The mechanism of Cdc48/p97 action is poorly understood, despite its critical role in many cellular systems. Recent in vitro experiments using yeast Cdc48 and its heterodimeric cofactor Ufd1/Npl4 (UN have resulted in novel mechanistic insight. After interaction of the substrate-attached polyubiquitin chain with UN, Cdc48 uses ATP hydrolysis in the D2 domain to move the polypeptide through its central pore, thereby unfolding the substrate. ATP hydrolysis in the D1 domain is involved in substrate release from the Cdc48 complex, which requires the cooperation of the ATPase with a deubiquitinase (DUB. Surprisingly, the DUB does not completely remove all ubiquitin molecules; the remaining oligoubiquitin chain is also translocated through the pore. Cdc48 action bears similarities to the translocation mechanisms employed by bacterial AAA ATPases and the eukaryotic 19S subunit of the proteasome, but differs significantly from that of a related type II ATPase, the NEM-sensitive fusion protein (NSF. Many questions about Cdc48/p97 remain unanswered, including how it handles well-folded substrate proteins, how it passes substrates to the proteasome, and how various cofactors modify substrates and regulate its function.

  19. Effects of lanthanum carbonate versus calcium carbonate on vascular stiffness and bone mineral metabolism in hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kentaro Wada,1 Yuko Wada,2 Haruhito Adam Uchida,3 Shuichi Tsuruoka4 1Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Internal Medicine, Nippon Kokan Fukuyama Hospital, Hiroshima, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Central Hospital, Hiroshima, 3Department of Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Background: Vascular calcification contributes to cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD patients with diabetes. The randomized controlled trial reported here compared the effects of lanthanum carbonate (LC and calcium carbonate (CC on vascular stiffness assessed using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV, intima-media thickness (IMT, bone mineral density (BMD, and serum markers of chronic kidney disease – mineral and bone disorder in such patients. Methods: Ba-PWV, IMT, BMD, and the biomarkers osteocalcin (OC and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP were examined in 43 type 2 diabetes HD patients treated with LC (n=21 or CC (n=22 for 2 years. Results: Forty-one patients completed the study (19, LC; 22, CC. The mean ba-PWV significantly increased only in the CC group (median: 2,280.5 to 2,402.5 cm/s, P<0.05, after 24-month treatment; it remained unchanged in the LC group (median: 1,830.5 to 2,018.3 cm/s. However, the difference between the groups did not reach statistical significance. Changes in IMT and BMD were not different between the two groups. Changes in serum phosphorus, corrected calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone levels were similar between the groups. The incidence of fracture was 0% (0/19 in the LC group, and 13.6% (3/22 in the CC group (P=0.2478. The OC/BAP ratio increased significantly in the LC group (median: 0.83 to 2.47, compared with in the CC group (median: 0.77 to 1.40 (P=0.036. Conclusion: From

  20. Cav2.3 (R-Type Calcium Channels are Critical for Mediating Anticonvulsive and Neuroprotective Properties of Lamotrigine In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Dibué-Adjei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lamotrigine (LTG is a popular modern antiepileptic drug (AED, however, its mechanism of action has yet to be fully understood, as it is known to modulate many members of several ion channel families. In heterologous systems, LTG inhibits Cav2.3 (R-type calcium currents, which contribute to kainic-acid- (KA induced epilepsy in vivo. To gain insight into the role of R-type currents in LTG drug action in vivo, we compared the effects of LTG to topiramate and lacosamide in Cav2.3-deficient mice and controls on KA-induced seizures. Methods: Behavioral seizure rating and quantitative electrocorticography were performed after injection of 20 mg/kg [and 30 mg/kg] KA. One hour before KA injection, mice were pretreated with either 30 mg/kg LTG, 50 mg/kg topiramate (TPM or 30 mg/kg lacosamide (LSM. Results: Ablation of Cav2.3 reduced total seizure scores by 28.6% (p=0.0012 and pretreatment with LTG reduced seizure activity of control mice by 23.2% (p=0.02. In Cav2.3-deficient mice LTG pretreatment increased seizure activity by 22.1% (p=0.018 and increased the percentage of degenerated CA1 pyramidal neurons (p=0.02. All three tested AEDs reduced seizure activity in control mice, however only the non-calcium channel modulating AED, LSM had an anticonvulsive effect in Cav2.3-deficient mice. Furthermore LTG altered electrocorticographic parameters differently in the two genotypes, decreasing relative power of ictal spikes in control mice compared to Cav2.3-defcient mice. Conclusion: These findings give first in vivo evidence for an essential role for Cav2.3 in LTG pharmacology and shed light on a paradoxical effect of LTG in their absence. Furthermore, LTG appears to promote ictal activity in Cav2.3-deficient mice resulting in increased neurotoxicity in the CA1 region. This paradoxical mechanism, possibly reflecting rebound hyperexcitation of pyramidal CA1 neurons after increased inhibition, may be key in understanding LTG-induced seizure

  1. Gastrin decreases Na+,K+-ATPase activity via a PI 3-kinase- and PKC-dependent pathway in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbing; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Yang, Yu; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-04-01

    The natriuretic effect of gastrin suggests a role in the coordinated regulation of sodium balance by the gastrointestinal tract and the kidney. The renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways for such an effect of gastrin are largely unknown. Recently, we reported that gastrin induces NHE3 phosphorylation and internalization via phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and PKCα. In this study, we show that gastrin induced the phosphorylation of human Na(+),K(+)-ATPase at serine 16, resulting in its endocytosis via Rab5 and Rab7 endosomes. The gastrin-stimulated phosphorylation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was dependent on PI 3-kinase because the phosphorylation was blocked by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. The phosphorylation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was also blocked by chelerythrine, a pan-PKC inhibitor, Gö-6976, a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor, and BAPTA-AM, an intracellular calcium chelator, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was also inhibited by U-73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. These results suggest that gastrin regulates sodium hydrogen exchanger and pump in renal proximal tubule cells at the apical and basolateral membranes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Inactivation of gating currents of L-type calcium channels. Specific role of the alpha 2 delta subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, R; Ferreira, G; Yi, J; Ríos, E

    1998-06-01

    In studies of gating currents of rabbit cardiac Ca channels expressed as alpha 1C/beta 2a or alpha 1C/beta 2a/alpha 2 delta subunit combinations in tsA201 cells, we found that long-lasting depolarization shifted the distribution of mobile charge to very negative potentials. The phenomenon has been termed charge interconversion in native skeletal muscle (Brum, G., and E. Ríos. 1987. J. Physiol. (Camb.). 387:489-517) and cardiac Ca channels (Shirokov, R., R. Levis, N. Shirokova, and E. Ríos. 1992. J. Gen. Physiol. 99:863-895). Charge 1 (voltage of half-maximal transfer, V1/2 approximately 0 mV) gates noninactivated channels, while charge 2 (V1/2 approximately -90 mV) is generated in inactivated channels. In alpha 1C/beta 2a cells, the available charge 1 decreased upon inactivating depolarization with a time constant tau approximately 8, while the available charge 2 decreased upon recovery from inactivation (at -200 mV) with tau approximately 0.3 s. These processes therefore are much slower than charge movement, which takes charge movement and that of changes in their availability, which was even wider in the presence of alpha 2 delta, implies that charges 1 and 2 originate from separate channel modes. Because clear modal separation characterizes slow (C-type) inactivation of Na and K channels, this observation establishes the nature of voltage-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca channels as slow or C-type. The presence of the alpha 2 delta subunit did not change the V1/2 of charge 2, but sped up the reduction of charge 1 upon inactivation at 40 mV (to tau approximately 2 s), while slowing the reduction of charge 2 upon recovery (tau approximately 2 s). The observations were well simulated with a model that describes activation as continuous electrodiffusion (Levitt, D. 1989. Biophys. J. 55:489-498) and inactivation as discrete modal change. The effects of alpha 2 delta are reproduced assuming that the subunit lowers the free energy of the inactivated mode.

  3. A plasma membrane H + ATPase gene is germinationinduced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expression pattern of a germination specific plasma membrane H+-ATPase was analyzed by RTPCR and in situ RNA hybridization methods. RT-PCR results revealed that germination specific plasma membrane H+-ATPase accumulation was detectable in all organs and tissues of germinating wheat embryos.

  4. Changes in erythrocyte ATPase activity under different pathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Na+- K+ATPase specific activity is a biomarker for the diagnosis of individuals with different physiological diseases. Keywords: Na+-K+ATPase ... aging and that changes in young females were more re- markable than that in young .... activity which might be due to increased / decreased con- centration of ions ...

  5. Structural and magnetic Properties of TbZn-substituted calcium barium M-type nano-structured hexa-ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Islam, M.U., E-mail: dr.misbahulislam@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Xu, Yongbing [Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Nanjing–York International Centre of Spintronics and Nano-Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Asif Iqbal, M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); National University of Science and Technology, College of E and ME, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Tb–Zn substituted Ca{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples exhibit single magnetoplumbite phase. • Lattice parameters a and c have increasing values. • Coercivity can be tuned at lower substitution level • Crystallites size was found in the range 18–25 nm by TEM and by Scherrer formula. • These hexa-ferrites are suitable for microwave devices and magnetic recording media. -- Abstract: Effect of TbZn substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5−x}Tb{sub x}Zn{sub y}Fe{sub 12−y}O{sub 19}, (x = 0.00–0.10; y = 0.00–1.00) ferrites prepared by sol–gel auto combustion is reported. The synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Vibrating Sample magnetometery. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed single phase M-type hexa-ferrite structure. The lattice parameters were found to increase as TbZn contents increases, which is attributed to the ionic sizes of the implicated cations. The TbZn seems to be completely soluble in the lattice. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy shows that the grain size decreases with increase of TbZn substitution. The coercivity values (1277–2025 Oe) of all samples lies in the range of M-type hexa-ferrite and indicate that an increase of anisotropy was achieved by substitution of TbZn, while the size of nanoparticles was drastically reduced between 18 and 25 nm. The increased anisotropy and fine particle size are useful for many applications, such as improving signal noise ratio of recording devices.

  6. Role of the T-type calcium channel CaV3.2 in the chronotropic action of corticosteroids in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Andrés; Lenglet, Sébastien; Python, Magaly; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Rossier, Michel F

    2009-08-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor is involved in the development of several cardiac dysfunctions, including lethal ventricular arrhythmias associated with heart failure or hyperaldosteronism, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be clarified. Reexpression of low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels in ventricular myocytes together with other fetal genes during cardiac pathologies could confer automaticity to these cells and would represent a pro-arrhythmogenic condition if occurring in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrated that in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, corticosteroids selectively induced the expression of a particular isoform of T channel, Ca(V)3.2/alpha1H. This response was accompanied by an increase of the Ca(V)3.2 T-type current, identified with the patch clamp technique by its sensitivity to nickel, and a concomitant acceleration of the myocyte spontaneous contractions. Silencing Ca(V)3.2 expression markedly reduced the chronotropic response to steroids. Moreover, modulation of the frequency of cell contractions by different redox agents was independent of channel expression but involved a direct regulation of channel activity. Although oxidants increased both Ca(V)3.2 current amplitude and beating frequency, they decreased L-type channel activity. Reducing agents had the opposite effect on these parameters. In conclusion, the acceleration of ventricular myocyte spontaneous contractions induced by corticosteroids in vitro appears dependent on the expression of the Ca(V)3.2 T channel isoform and modulated by the redox potential of the cells. These results provide a molecular model that could explain the high incidence of arrhythmias observed in patients upon combination of inappropriate activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor and oxidative stress.

  7. Inhibitory effect of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker on response of urinary bladder with acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Mi; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Je Jong; Kim, Hyung Jee; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker (dilitiazem) on the response of the urinary bladder with ethanol intoxication in in vivo and in vitro studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were used for in vivo and in vitro studies. The strips were divided into 5 groups according to pretreatment. Group I-A was treated with ethanol (0.1%), group I-B with ethanol (0.5%), group II with diltiazem treatment (10(-6) M), group III-A with pretreatment of diltiazem (10(-6) M) with ethanol intoxication (0.1%) and group III-B with pretreatment of diltiazem with ethanol intoxication (0.5%). The carbachol-induced tension was compared before and after each pretreatment. In separate in vivo experiments, the changes of maximal vesical pressure and intercontraction interval after intra-arterial administration of each agent (identical grouping with in vitro study) were monitored. The carbachol-induced contractions in group I-A, group I-B, group II, group III-A and group III-B were significantly decreased after each pretreatment (95 ± 2.73%, 92.6 ± 2.5%, 65.4 ± 2.0%, 52.61 ± 5.16%, 14.9 ± 1.4% of the control). The degree of increment of intercontraction interval and decrement of maximal vesical pressure showed a significant difference in the presence of diltiazem and ethanol intoxication (0.5%) compared with the diltiazem-treated and ethanol-intoxicated groups (0.5%). There is a possibility that ethanol and L-type VDCC blockers have synergistic depressive effect on bladder contractility and that ethanol and L-type VDCC blockers act through a common ionic pathway. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaj, Miloslav; Zhang, Li; Renaud, Leo P

    2016-06-01

    In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K (GIRK)-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. Here, we investigated the calcium (Ca(2+)) contribution to the components of this TRH-induced response. TRH-induced membrane depolarization was reduced in the presence of intracellular BAPTA, also in media containing nominally zero [Ca(2+)]o, suggesting a critical role for both intracellular Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) influx. TRH-induced inward current was unchanged by T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade, but was decreased by blockade of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (HVACCs). Both the pharmacologically isolated GIRK-like and the TRPC-like components of the TRH-induced response were decreased by nifedipine and increased by BayK8644, implying Ca(2+) influx via L-type Ca(2+) channels. Only the TRPC-like conductance was reduced by either thapsigargin or dantrolene, suggesting a role for ryanodine receptors and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release in this component of the TRH-induced response. In pituitary and other cell lines, TRH stimulates MAPK. In PVT neurons, only the GIRK-like component of the TRH-induced current was selectively decreased in the presence of PD98059, a MAPK inhibitor. Collectively, the data imply that TRH-induced depolarization and inward current in PVT neurons involve both a dependency on extracellular Ca(2+) influx via opening of L-type Ca(2+) channels, a sensitivity of a TRPC-like component to intracellular Ca(2+) release via ryanodine channels, and a modulation by MAPK of a GIRK-like conductance component. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  10. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  11. N-type calcium current, Cav2.2, is enhanced in small-diameter sensory neurons isolated from Nf1+/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J-H; Hodgdon, K E; Hingtgen, C M; Nicol, G D

    2014-06-13

    Major aspects of neuronal function are regulated by Ca(2+) including neurotransmitter release, excitability, developmental plasticity, and gene expression. We reported previously that sensory neurons isolated from a mouse model with a heterozygous mutation of the Nf1 gene (Nf1+/-) exhibited both greater excitability and evoked release of neuropeptides compared to wildtype mice. Furthermore, augmented voltage-dependent sodium currents but not potassium currents contribute to the enhanced excitability. To determine the mechanisms giving rise to the enhanced release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the Nf1+/- sensory neurons, the potential differences in the total voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) as well as the contributions of individual Ca(2+) channel subtypes were assessed. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from small-diameter capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons demonstrated that the average peak ICa densities were not different between the two genotypes. However, by using selective blockers of channel subtypes, the current density of N-type (Cav2.2) ICa was significantly larger in Nf1+/- neurons compared to wildtype neurons. In contrast, there were no significant differences in L-, P/Q- and R-type currents between the two genotypes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction measurements made from the isolated but intact dorsal root ganglia indicated that N-type (Cav2.2) and P/Q-type (Cav2.1) Ca(2+) channels exhibited the highest mRNA expression levels although there were no significant differences in the levels of mRNA expression between the genotypes. These results suggest that the augmented N-type (Cav2.2) ICa observed in the Nf1+/- sensory neurons does not result from genomic differences but may reflect post-translational or some other non-genomic modifications. Thus, our results demonstrate that sensory neurons from Nf1+/- mice, exhibit increased N-type ICa and likely account for the increased release of substance P and

  12. Nanoparticulate vacuolar ATPase blocker exhibits potent host-targeted antiviral activity against feline coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Che-Ming Jack; Chang, Wei-Shan; Fang, Zih-Syun; Chen, You-Ting; Wang, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Hsiao-Han; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Takano, Tomomi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu; Chen, Hui-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by a mutated feline coronavirus, is one of the most serious and fatal viral diseases in cats. The disease remains incurable, and there is no effective vaccine available. In light of the pathogenic mechanism of feline coronavirus that relies on endosomal acidification for cytoplasmic entry, a novel vacuolar ATPase blocker, diphyllin, and its nanoformulation are herein investigated for their antiviral activity against the type II feline infectious per...

  13. Influence of silver nanoparticles on the activity of rat liver mitochondrial ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichova, Mariela; Shkodrova, Milena; Vasileva, Penka; Kirilova, Katerina; Doncheva-Stoimenova, Diliana

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondria are one of the most sensitive targets for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Limited studies have demonstrated nanoparticle-induced impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production can be due to inhibition of the respiratory chain and/or to direct effects of AgNPs on the activity of mitochondrial ATP synthase/ATPase. In this regard, we synthesized and evaluated the in vitro effects of two types of AgNPs with various environmental friendly coatings—polysaccharide starch (AgNPs/Starch, D av = 15.4 ± 3.9 nm) and trisaccharide raffinose (AgNPs/Raff, D av = 24.8 ± 6.8 nm), with an emphasis on their potential action on rat liver mitochondrial ATPase. Both types of AgNPs showed decoupling effect on intact mitochondria. Unlike AgNPs/Raff, AgNPs/Starch reduced 2,4-dinitrophenol-stimulated ATPase activity of intact mitochondria, which suggests that they are able to penetrate the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both types of AgNPs inhibited ATPase activity of freeze/thawed mitochondria and submitochondrial particles as the effects of AgNPs/Starch were more pronounced. UV-Visible absorption measurements showed changes in the absorption spectrum of AgNPs/Raff added to the reaction medium. This suggests nanoparticle aggregation and thus a possible reduction in their reactivity. The distinction in the effects of the two types AgNPs studied may be due to their different sizes and/or to the stabilizing agents used for their synthesis, which determine AgNPs colloidal stability in the assay media. This study suggests the need for further research into the importance of surface modifications of AgNPs for their interaction with cellular components. Our findings could contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying AgNPs toxicity.

  14. siRNA-induced in vivo downregulation of L-type calcium channels in rat small mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kate; Aalkjær, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Previous gene deletion studies have provided insight into the critical role of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav1.2) in regulation of blood pressure. Homozygous knockout is, however, lethal but this limitation can be overcome by a small RNA interference (siRNA). A specific downregulation...... of gene expression with siRNA can be a helpful tool in investigations of proteins in the vascular bed.   The 1st to 3rd order branches of the mesenteric artery of anestisized Wistar rats were transfected with siRNAs targeting Cav1.2 or with the control non-related siRNAs. The effect of transfection...... was evaluated after 3 days using qPCR and isometric myography.   In comparison to some other genes the expression of Cav1.2 is very sensitive to transfection procedure (see abstract Broegger et al.). The optimization has been made to avoid the unwanted changes in mRNA in the controls transfected with non...

  15. Genetically heterogeneous mice show age-related vision deficits not related to increased rod cell L-type calcium channel function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Miller, Richard A; Roberts, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Visual performance declines over time in humans and 2-18 months outbred Long-Evans (LE) rats; vision is maintained in inbred 2-18 months C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Increased rod L-type calcium channel (LTCC) function predicts visual decline in LE rats but does not occur in B6 mice. Genetic diversity may contribute to rod LTCC function escalation time. To test this hypothesis, 4 and 18 months genetically heterogeneous UM-HET3 mice were studied. Rod LTCC function (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and ocular anatomy (MRI, optical coherence tomography) were measured in vivo. Light-evoked subretinal space and choroid thickness changes were measured (diffusion-weighted MRI). Visual performance declined over time in the absence of (1) increased rod LTCC function; (2) changes in light-dependent expansion of the subretinal space and choroidal thickness; and (3) retinal thinning. Aging changed anterior and vitreous chambers' axial length and decreased light-stimulated choroidal expansion. Species differences appear to contribute to the LTCC function differences. Aging-related declines in vision in the UM-HET3 mice deserve more attention than they have received so far. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure of thrombospondin type 3 repeats in bacterial outer membrane protein A reveals its intra-repeat disulfide bond-dependent calcium-binding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuyan; Sun, Cancan; Tan, Kemin; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2017-09-01

    Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca2+) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca2+-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of OmpA from Capnocytophaga gingivalis, which contains a linker region comprising five consecutive TT3Rs. The structure of OmpA-TT3R exhibits a well-ordered architecture organized around two tightly-coordinated Ca2+ and confirms the presence of abnormal intra-repeat disulfide bonds. Further mutagenesis studies showed that the Ca2+-binding capability of OmpA-TT3R is indeed dependent on the proper formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, which help to fix a conserved glycine residue at its proper position for Ca2+ coordination. Additionally, despite lacking inter repeat disulfide bonds, the interfaces between adjacent OmpA-TT3Rs are enhanced by both hydrophobic and conserved aromatic-proline interactions.

  17. Preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of radiogallium-labeled DTPA-amlodipine complex for possible L-type calcium channel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firuzyar, Tahereh; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Pharmacy; Jalilian, Amir R.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiopharmacy Research Group

    2014-07-01

    A DTPA-conjugated amlodipine analog (DTPA-AMLO) 3, was prepared for possible voltage gated calcium channel imaging after radiolabeling with Ga-67. [{sup 67}Ga]-DTPA-AMLO complex was prepared starting [{sup 67}Ga]gallium chloride and DTPA-AMLO in 60-90 min at 50-60 C in phosphate buffer. The partition co-efficient and stability of the tracer was determined in final solution (25 C) and presence of human serum (37 C) up to 24 h. The biodistribution of the labeled compound in wild-type rats were determined up to 72 h using organ counting and SPECT. The radiolabled complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (>96%, RTLC and >98% HPLC) and significant specific activity (7-10 GBq/mmol). The log P for the complex was calculated as -0.594, consistent with a water soluble complex. The tracer is mostly washed out through kidneys which were in full compliance with the amlodipine metabolism and imaging studies demonstrated the same behavior. The tracer uptake in organs with smooth muscles was observed in stomach, colon as well as intestine.

  18. Removal of calcium hydroxide from Weine Type II systems using photon-induced photoacoustic streaming, passive ultrasonic, and needle irrigation: a microcomputed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam LLOYD

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation (PIPS, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI with EndoUltra and standard needle irrigation (SNI in the removal of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] from the mesial roots of Weine Type II mandibular molars. Material and Methods Thirty mandibular molars were screened by µCT for the presence of mesial roots with complex intra-canal anatomy and a common apical foramen. The teeth were enlarged to a standardized 25/.06 preparation and filled with Ca(OH2 paste. Specimens were divided into three groups (n=10 according to the technique used for Ca(OH2 removal: PIPS, at 15 Hz and 20 mJ using a 9 mm long, 600 µm diameter tip; PUI using a 15/.02 tip; and SNI (30 Ga. side-vented needle. Equal volumes of 8.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were used in all groups. µCT was used to measure the initial amount of Ca(OH2 present and to assess the residual volume of Ca(OH2 following each irrigation protocol. Data were analyzed using Tukey HSD and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=5%. Results The mean volume of Ca(OH2 before removal was significantly higher in the coronal third than in the middle and apical third (p0.05. PIPS (median 0%; IQR: 0-0 showed significant higher Ca(OH2 removal in the apical third than PUI (median 100%, IQR: 85-100 and SNI (median 47%; IQR: 16-72 (p<0.001. Conclusions PIPS laser-activation was more effective for the removal of Ca(OH2 from mesial roots of mandibular molars with Weine Type II canal configurations than PUI with EndoUltra and SNI.

  19. Effect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Britten, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Calcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. T-type calcium channels cause bursts of spikes in motor but not sensory thalamic neurons during mimicry of natural patterns of synaptic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haram R; Hong, Su Z; Fiorillo, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Although neurons within intact nervous systems can be classified as 'sensory' or 'motor,' it is not known whether there is any general distinction between sensory and motor neurons at the cellular or molecular levels. Here, we extend and test a theory according to which activation of certain subtypes of voltage-gated ion channel (VGC) generate patterns of spikes in neurons of motor systems, whereas VGC are proposed to counteract patterns in sensory neurons. We previously reported experimental evidence for the theory from visual thalamus, where we found that T-type calcium channels (TtCCs) did not cause bursts of spikes but instead served the function of 'predictive homeostasis' to maximize the causal and informational link between retinogeniculate excitation and spike output. Here, we have recorded neurons in brain slices from eight sensory and motor regions of rat thalamus while mimicking key features of natural excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. As predicted by theory, TtCC did cause bursts of spikes in motor thalamus. TtCC-mediated responses in motor thalamus were activated at more hyperpolarized potentials and caused larger depolarizations with more spikes than in visual and auditory thalamus. Somatosensory thalamus is known to be more closely connected to motor regions relative to auditory and visual thalamus, and likewise the strength of its TtCC responses was intermediate between these regions and motor thalamus. We also observed lower input resistance, as well as limited evidence of stronger hyperpolarization-induced ('H-type') depolarization, in nuclei closer to motor output. These findings support our theory of a specific difference between sensory and motor neurons at the cellular level.

  1. Inhibition of CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels in peripheral sensory neurons contributes to analgesic properties of epipregnanolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Christine; Hwang, Sung Mi; Hong, Sung Jun; Rose, Kirstin E; Boyd, Christopher; Bozic, Neda; Park, Ji-Yong; Osuru, Hari Prasad; DiGruccio, Michael R; Covey, Douglas F; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M

    2014-09-01

    T-type calcium channels (T-channels) play an important role in controlling excitability of nociceptors. We have previously shown that a synthetic series of 5β-reduced steroids induce a voltage-dependent blockade of T-currents in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells in vitro and induce potent analgesia to thermal stimuli in rats in vivo (Mol Pharmacol 66:1223-1235, 2004). Here, we investigated the effects of the endogenous 5β-reduced neuroactive steroid molecule, epipregnanolone [(3β,5β)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one], on peripheral nociception. We used acutely dissociated DRG cells in vitro from adult rats as well as in vivo pain studies in mice and rats to investigate the effects of epipregnanolone on DRG T-channels. We found that epipregnanolone reversibly blocked DRG T-currents with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2 μM and stabilized the channel in the inactive state. However, sodium, potassium, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated ionic currents were not sensitive to the blocking effects of epipregnanolone even at 10 μM. In ensuing in vivo studies, we found that intraplantar (i.pl.) injections of epipregnanolone directly into peripheral receptive fields reduced responses to nociceptive heat stimuli in rats in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, i.pl. epipregnanolone injections effectively reduced responses to peripheral nociceptive thermal and mechanical stimuli in wild-type mice but had no effect on the responses of CaV3.2 knockout mice. We conclude that the inhibition of peripheral CaV3.2 T-channels contributes to the potent analgesic effect of the endogenous steroid epipregnanolone.

  2. Non-free ionic transport of sodium, magnesium, and calcium in streams of two adjacent headwater catchments with different vegetation types in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terajima, Tomomi; Moriizumi, Mihoko; Nakamura, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) are usually believed to occur mostly as free ions in the fresh water and consequently little is known about their chemical species. To understand the importance of non-free ionic fractions (NIF) of major metals in freshwater streams, Na, Mg, Ca, silicon (Si), and fulvic acid-like materials (FAM) were measured in streams of mountainous adjacent headwater catchments dominated by different vegetation types (planted evergreen coniferous forest and natural deciduous broadleaf forest). During both no rainfall periods and rainstorms, the proportion of NIF relative to total elements was lower in the coniferous catchment than in the deciduous catchment, although it sometimes accounted for half or more of the total concentrations of Na, Mg, and Ca in both catchments. The solubility of metal compounds was higher than the measured maximum concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ to the extent that inorganic bonding was hardly possible. During no rainfall periods when FAM was slightly produced into the streams, the fluxes of NIF and Si were highly correlated (r > 0.92, p NIF correlated weakly with that of Si but did not correlate with that of FAM in both catchments. In contrast, during a heavy rainstorm, the flux of NIF correlated strongly (r ⩾ 0.83, p NIF originated in the quick-flow component (i.e., surface or near-surface water) in stream water (ΔNIF) correlated strongly (r ⩾ 0.81, p < 0.0001, n = 22) with that of FAM. These findings imply that heavy rainstorms may enhance the bonding of the major metals with humic substances mainly in the deciduous catchment; and also exhibit that, in the headwater catchments, both water flow pathways resulted from the different vegetation types play a very important role to promote the bonding of major metals with humic substances in stream water.

  3. Alteration in expression of the rat mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene during Pneumocystis carinii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Marilyn S

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia in immunocompromised patients with a high morbidity and mortality rate, but the interaction between this organism and the host cell is not well understood. The purpose of this research was to study the response of host cells to P. carinii infection on a molecular level. Results The technique of mRNA differential display was used to detect genes whose expression may be affected by P. carinii infection. The nucleotide sequence of one differentially displayed DNA fragment was found to be identical to that of the rat mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene, which is a subunit of the F0F1-ATP synthase complex. A four-fold increase in expression of this gene was verified by Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from P. carinii-infected rat lung versus that from mock-infected rat lung. Localization of the cells containing ATPase 6 mRNA was accomplished by in situ hybridization. In sections of non-infected rat lung, these cells were found lining the distal parts of the respiratory tree and in apical areas of the alveoli. Histological location of these cells suggested that they were Clara cells and type II pneumocytes. This hypothesis was confirmed by co-localizing the mRNAs for ATPase 6 and surfactant protein B (SP-B to the same cells by two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization. Conclusions The ATPase 6 gene is over expressed during P. carinii infection, and type II pneumocytes and Clara cells are the cell types responsible for this over-expression.

  4. Regulatory interplay of Cockayne syndrome B ATPase and stress-response gene ATF3 following genotoxic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans-Ulrik Svejstrup; Epanchintsev, Alexey; Rauschendorf, Marc-Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome type B ATPase (CSB) belongs to the SwItch/Sucrose nonfermentable family. Its mutations are linked to Cockayne syndrome phenotypes and classically are thought to be caused by defects in transcription-coupled repair, a subtype of DNA repair. Here we show that after UV-C irradiation...

  5. In Vivo Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction Is Supported by Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II-Mediated Calcium Long-Term Potentiation and Mitigated by Alda-1, an Agonist of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Christopher; Shang, Ching; Taghavi, Fouad; Downey, Peter; Zalewski, Adrian; Rubio, Gabriel R; Liu, Jing; Homburger, Julian R; Grunwald, Zachary; Qi, Wei; Bollensdorff, Christian; Thanaporn, Porama; Ali, Ayyaz; Riemer, Kirk; Kohl, Peter; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Gerstenfeld, Edward; Large, Stephen; Ali, Ziad; Ashley, Euan

    2016-09-27

    Survival after sudden cardiac arrest is limited by postarrest myocardial dysfunction, but understanding of this phenomenon is constrained by a lack of data from a physiological model of disease. In this study, we established an in vivo model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation, characterized the biology of the associated myocardial dysfunction, and tested novel therapeutic strategies. We developed rodent models of in vivo postarrest myocardial dysfunction using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation followed by invasive hemodynamics measurement. In postarrest isolated cardiomyocytes, we assessed mechanical load and Ca(2) (+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) simultaneously using the microcarbon fiber technique and observed reduced function and myofilament calcium sensitivity. We used a novel fiberoptic catheter imaging system and a genetically encoded calcium sensor, GCaMP6f, to image CICR in vivo. We found potentiation of CICR in isolated cells from this extracorporeal membrane oxygenation model and in cells isolated from an ischemia/reperfusion Langendorff model perfused with oxygenated blood from an arrested animal but not when reperfused in saline. We established that CICR potentiation begins in vivo. The augmented CICR observed after arrest was mediated by the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Increased phosphorylation of CaMKII, phospholamban, and ryanodine receptor 2 was detected in the postarrest period. Exogenous adrenergic activation in vivo recapitulated Ca(2+) potentiation but was associated with lesser CaMKII activation. Because oxidative stress and aldehydic adduct formation were high after arrest, we tested a small-molecule activator of aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2, Alda-1, which reduced oxidative stress, restored calcium and CaMKII homeostasis, and improved cardiac function and postarrest outcome in vivo. Cardiac arrest and reperfusion lead to CaMKII activation and calcium long-term potentiation, which

  6. Citrate Secretion Coupled with the Modulation of Soybean Root Tip under Aluminum Stress. Up-Regulation of Transcription, Translation, and Threonine-Oriented Phosphorylation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; He, Long Fei; Sasaki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Zheng, Shao Jian; Ligaba, Ayalew; Yan, Xiao Long; Ahn, Sung Ju; Yamaguchi, Mineo; Sasakawa, Hideo; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    The aluminum (Al)-induced secretion of citrate has been regarded as an important mechanism for Al resistance in soybean (Glycine max). However, the mechanism of how Al induces citrate secretion remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of plasma membrane H+-ATPase on the Al-induced secretion of citrate from soybean roots. Experiments performed with plants grown in full nutrient solution showed that Al-induced activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase paralleled secretion of citrate. Vanadate and fusicoccin, an inhibitor and an activator, respectively, of plasma membrane H+-ATPase, exerted inhibitory and stimulatory effects on the Al-induced secretion of citrate. Higher activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase coincided with more citrate secretion in Al-resistant than Al-sensitive soybean cultivars. These results suggested that the effects of Al stress on citrate secretion were mediated via modulation of the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase. The relationship between the Al-induced secretion of citrate and the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase was further demonstrated by analysis of plasma membrane H+-ATPase transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). When plants were grown on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 μm Al (9.1 μm Al3+ activity), transgenic plants exuded more citrate compared with wild-type Arabidopsis. Results from real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunodetection analysis indicated that the increase of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity by Al is caused by transcriptional and translational regulation. Furthermore, plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and expression were higher in an Al-resistant cultivar than in an Al-sensitive cultivar. Al activated the threonine-oriented phosphorylation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that up-regulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity was associated with the secretion of citrate from soybean roots

  7. Expression of sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase isoforms in masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Trinks, Pablo W; Richard, Susana B; Di Croce, Daniel E; Takara, Delia

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) isoforms in rabbit masticatory muscles compared with those in fast-twitch muscle. It was hypothesized that combined expression of the SERCA isoforms in fast- and slow-twitch muscles accounts for lower Ca-ATPase activity. SERCA was isolated by differential centrifugation, the isoforms were determined by ELISA, and the activity of each isoform was measured using a colorimetric method. Activity was tested for significance by anova, and the distribution of isoforms was assessed using the chi-square test (P < 0.05) and correlated to SERCA activity using Spearman's rank correlation. SERCA1 was predominant (90.5%) in fast-twitch muscle, whereas a mixture of SERCA isoforms was found in masticatory muscles: 62-78% was SERCA2, 20-37% was SERCA1, and the SERCA3 content was negligible. Depressor muscles showed a significantly higher content (77.8%) of SERCA2, and elevator muscles showed a higher content (35.4%) of SERCA1. Elevator muscles showed higher expression of SERCA2a (58%), and depressor muscles showed higher expression of SERCA2b (20%). The SERCA1 content was mainly SERCA1a and significantly higher for elevator muscles (33%), whereas depressor muscles showed a higher content of SERCA1b (4%). The SERCA1 content of fast-twitch muscle was mainly SERCA1a (88.5%). It is concluded that the mixture of different SERCA isoforms, along with a substantial content of SERCA2b, in masticatory muscles would support lower Ca-ATPase activity and calcium transport. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  9. Ammonium transport and the role of the Na,K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, S M

    1996-01-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) excretion varies appropriately with changes in acid-base balance and represents the major regulatable component of net acid excretion. The transport of ammonium can occur by 'diffusion trapping', or active H+ secretion in parallel with passive NH3 diffusion. In addition, direct NH4+ transport is important in many nephron segments. Since NH4+ and K+ have a similar hydrated radius, these ions share common transport pathways in many renal and nonrenal cell types. For example, these ions compete for a common binding site on the Na,K-ATPase. In addition to Na+ pump-mediated NH4+ transport, the Na,K-ATPase generates an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane which affects other H+ and NH4+ transport pathways. In this review, the role of the Na+ pump on each of these renal ammonium transport mechanisms will be reviewed.

  10. Sex differences in pain-related behavior and expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in dorsal root ganglia of rats with diabetes type 1 and type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhatovic, Lejla; Banozic, Adriana; Kostic, Sandra; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2013-06-01

    Sex differences in pain-related behavior and expression of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in dorsal root ganglia were studied in rat models of Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2). DM1 was induced with 55mg/kg streptozotocin, and DM2 with a combination of high-fat diet and 35mg/kg of streptozotocin. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal and mechanical stimuli. The expression of CaMKII was analyzed with immunofluorescence. Sexual dimorphism in glycemia, and expression of CaMKII was observed in the rat model of DM1, but not in DM2 animals. Increased expression of total CaMKII (tCaMKII) in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia neurons, which are associated with nociception, was found only in male DM1 rats. None of the animals showed increased expression of the phosphorylated alpha CaMKII isoform in small-diameter neurons. The expression of gamma and delta isoforms of CaMKII remained unchanged in all analyzed animal groups. Different patterns of glycemia and tCaMKII expression in male and female model of DM1 were not associated with sexual dimorphism in pain-related behavior. The present findings do not suggest sex-related differences in diabetic painful peripheral neuropathy in male and female diabetic rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The Na, K-ATPase β-Subunit Isoforms Expression in Glioblastoma Multiforme: Moonlighting Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotoli, Deborah; Cejas, Mariana-Mayela; Maeso, María-del-Carmen; Pérez-Rodríguez, Natalia-Dolores; Morales, Manuel; Ávila, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma. Recent studies point out that gliomas exploit ion channels and transporters, including Na, K-ATPase, to sustain their singular growth and invasion as they invade the brain parenchyma. Moreover, the different isoforms of the β-subunit of Na, K-ATPase have been implicated in regulating cellular dynamics, particularly during cancer progression. The aim of this study was to determine the Na, K-ATPase β subunit isoform subcellular expression patterns in all cell types responsible for microenvironment heterogeneity of GBM using immunohistochemical analysis. All three isoforms, β1, β2/AMOG (Adhesion Molecule On Glia) and β3, were found to be expressed in GBM samples. Generally, β1 isoform was not expressed by astrocytes, in both primary and secondary GBM, although other cell types (endothelial cells, pericytes, telocytes, macrophages) did express this isoform. β2/AMOG and β3 positive expression was observed in the cytoplasm, membrane and nuclear envelope of astrocytes and GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein) negative cells. Interestingly, differences in isoforms expression have been observed between primary and secondary GBM: in secondary GBM, β2 isoform expression in astrocytes was lower than that observed in primary GBM, while the expression of the β3 subunit was more intense. These changes in β subunit isoforms expression in GBM could be related to a different ionic handling, to a different relationship between astrocyte and neuron (β2/AMOG) and to changes in the moonlighting roles of Na, K-ATPase β subunits as adaptor proteins and transcription factors. PMID:29117147

  12. Z944, a Novel Selective T-Type Calcium Channel Antagonist Delays the Progression of Seizures in the Amygdala Kindling Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Miguel Casillas-Espinosa

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most common form of drug resistant epilepsy. Current treatment is symptomatic, suppressing seizures, but has no disease modifying effect on epileptogenesis. We examined the effects of Z944, a potent T-type calcium channel antagonist, as an anti-seizure agent and against the progression of kindling in the amygdala kindling model of TLE. The anti-seizure efficacy of Z944 (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg, 30mg/kg and 100mg/kg was assessed in fully kindled rats (5 class V seizures as compared to vehicle, ethosuximide (ETX, 100mg/kg and carbamazepine (30mg/kg. Each animal received the seven treatments in a randomised manner. Seizure class and duration elicited by six post-drug stimulations was determined. To investigate for effects in delaying the progression of kindling, naive animals received Z944 (30mg/kg, ETX (100mg/kg or vehicle 30-minutes prior to each kindling stimulation up to a maximum of 30 stimulations, with seizure class and duration recorded after each stimulation. At the completion of drug treatment, CaV3.1, CaV3.2 and CaV3.3 mRNA expression levels were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala using qPCR. Z944 was not effective at suppressing seizures in fully kindled rats compared to vehicle. Animals receiving Z944 required significantly more stimulations to evoke a class III (p<0.05, IV (p<0.01 or V (p<0.0001 seizure, and to reach a fully kindled state (p<0.01, than animals receiving vehicle. There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression of the T-type Ca2+ channels in the hippocampus or amygdala. Our results show that selectively targeting T-type Ca2+ channels with Z944 inhibits the progression of amygdala kindling. This could be a potential for a new therapeutic intervention to mitigate the development and progression of epilepsy.

  13. L-type Calcium Channel Blockers Enhance Trafficking and Function of Epilepsy-associated α1(D219N) Subunits of GABA(A) Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Yun; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Wang, Ya-Juan; Hatzoglou, Maria; Mu, Ting-Wei

    2015-09-18

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are the primary inhibitory ion channels in the mammalian central nervous system and play an essential role in regulating inhibition-excitation balance in neural circuits. The α1 subunit harboring the D219N mutation of GABAA receptors was reported to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic inefficiently to the plasma membrane, leading to a loss of function of α1(D219N) subunits and thus idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). We present the use of small molecule proteostasis regulators to enhance the forward trafficking of α1(D219N) subunits to restore their function. We showed that treatment with verapamil (4 μM, 24 h), an L-type calcium channel blocker, substantially increases the α1(D219N) subunit cell surface level in both HEK293 cells and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells and remarkably restores the GABA-induced maximal chloride current in HEK293 cells expressing α1(D219N)β2γ2 receptors to a level that is comparable to wild type receptors. Our drug mechanism study revealed that verapamil treatment promotes the ER to Golgi trafficking of the α1(D219N) subunits post-translationally. To achieve that, verapamil treatment enhances the interaction between the α1(D219N) subunit and β2 subunit and prevents the aggregation of the mutant protein by shifting the protein from the detergent-insoluble fractions to detergent-soluble fractions. By combining (35)S pulse-chase labeling and MG-132 inhibition experiments, we demonstrated that verapamil treatment does not inhibit the ER-associated degradation of the α1(D219N) subunit. In addition, its effect does not involve a dynamin-1 dependent endocytosis. To gain further mechanistic insight, we showed that verapamil increases the interaction between the mutant protein and calnexin and calreticulin, two major lectin chaperones in the ER. Moreover, calnexin binding promotes the forward trafficking of the mutant subunit. Taken together, our data indicate that

  14. Role of tumour necrosis factor-a in the regulation of T-type calcium channel current in HL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Fang; Xue, Yu-Mei; Wei, Wei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Fang-Zhou; Chen, Shao-Xian; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhu, Jie-Ning; Wu, Shu-Lin; Deng, Chun-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation contributes to the initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels are increased in patients with AF, the role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of AF remains unclear. Besides L-type Ca(2+) currents (IC a,L ), T-type Ca(2+) currents (IC a,T ) also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AF. This study was designed to use the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique and biochemical assays to explore if TNF-α is involved in the pathogenesis of AF through regulating IC a,T in atrial myocytes. It was found that compared with sinus rhythm (SR) controls, T-type calcium channel (TCC) subunit mRNA levels were decreased, while TNF-α expression levels were increased, in human atrial tissue from patients with AF. In murine atrial myocyte HL-1 cells, after culturing for 24 h, 12.5, 25 and 50 ng/mL TNF-α significantly reduced the protein expression levels of the TCC α1G subunit in a concentration-dependent manner. The peak current was reduced by the application of 12.5 or 25 ng/mL TNF-α in a concentration-dependent manner (from -15.08 ± 1.11 pA/pF in controls to -11.89 ± 0.83 pA/pF and -8.54 ± 1.55 pA/pF in 12.5 or 25 ng/mL TNF-α group respectively). TNF-α application also inhibited voltage-dependent inactivation of IC a,T, shifted the inactivation curve to the left. These results suggest that TNF-α is involved in the pathogenesis of AF, probably via decreasing IC a,T current density in atrium-derived myocytes through impaired channel function and down-regulation of channel protein expression. This pathway thus represents a potential pathogenic mechanism in AF. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Proteasome Inhibition Contributed to the Cytotoxicity of Arenobufagin after Its Binding with Na, K-ATPase in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxi Yue

    Full Text Available Although the possibility of developing cardiac steroids/cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents has been recognized, the mechanism of their anticancer activity is still not clear enough. Toad venom extract containing bufadienolides, which belong to cardiac steroids, has actually long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for cancer therapy in China. The cytotoxicity of arenobufagin, a bufadienolide isolated from toad venom, on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was checked. And, the protein expression profile of control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin for 48 h was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. Differently expressed proteins in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin were identified and the pathways related to these proteins were mapped from KEGG database. Computational molecular docking was performed to verify the binding of arenobufagin and Na, K-ATPase. The effects of arenobufagin on Na, K-ATPase activity and proteasome activity of HeLa cells were checked. The protein-protein interaction network between Na, K-ATPase and proteasome was constructed and the expression of possible intermediate proteins ataxin-1 and translationally-controlled tumor protein in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin was then checked. Arenobufagin induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. The cytotoxic effect of arenobufagin was associated with 25 differently expressed proteins including proteasome-related proteins, calcium ion binding-related proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, metabolism-related enzymes and others. The results of computational molecular docking revealed that arenobufagin was bound in the cavity formed by the transmembrane alpha subunits of Na, K-ATPase, which blocked the pathway of extracellular Na+/K+ cation exchange and inhibited the function of ion exchange. Arenobufagin inhibited the activity of Na, K-ATPase and proteasome, decreased the

  16. ANG II-dependent HCO3- reabsorption in surviving rat distal tubules: expression/activation of H(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Buckman, S; Hincke, M T; Luck, B; Fryer, J N

    1997-06-01

    Distal tubules (DT) from sham or five-sixths nephrectomized (Nx) rats were perfused in vivo to evaluate the hypothesis that, after Nx, endogenous angiotensin II (ANG II) modulates DT in vivo bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCO2) via H(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase) and Na+/H+ exchange. In Nx rats JtCO2 was increased (65 +/- 7 vs. -24 +/- 21 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.01). Both luminal and intravenous AT1-receptor blockade by losartan reduced Nx DT JtCO2 (41 +/- 6 and 34 +/- 4 pmol.min-1.min-1, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas neither 10(-9) M nor 10(-11) M ANG II luminal perfusion increased JtCO2, suggesting preexisting high endogenous ANG II levels. The Na+/H+ antiporter inhibitors 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride and 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride were without effect. Luminal perfusion of 5 nM concanamycin A, a V-type H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, reduced Nx DT JtCO2 (45 +/- 8 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.05). In Nx A-type intercalated cells, we demonstrated cellular hypertrophy, elaboration of apical microplicae, and enhanced expression/apical polarization of H(+)-ATPase. Thus ANG II is an important determinant in sustaining brisk DT JtCO2 following Nx and is associated with enhanced expression and A-type intercalated cell apical polarization of H(+)-ATPase.

  17. Regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility by phospholemman: Na+/Ca2+ exchange versus Na+ -K+ -ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Cheskis, Ellina; Chan, Tung O; Feldman, Arthur M; Tucker, Amy L; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2008-10-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) regulates cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cardiac myocytes. PLM, when phosphorylated at Ser(68), disinhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits NCX1. PLM regulates cardiac contractility by modulating Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and/or NCX1. In this study, we first demonstrated that adult mouse cardiac myocytes cultured for 48 h had normal surface membrane areas, t-tubules, and NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase levels, and retained near normal contractility, but alpha(1)-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was slightly decreased. Differences in contractility between myocytes isolated from wild-type (WT) and PLM knockout (KO) hearts were preserved after 48 h of culture. Infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) did not affect contractility at 48 h. When WT PLM was overexpressed in PLM KO myocytes, contractility and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients reverted back to those observed in cultured WT myocytes. Both Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current (I(pump)) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (I(NaCa)) in PLM KO myocytes rescued with WT PLM were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes. Overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant (phosphomimetic) in PLM KO myocytes resulted in the suppression of I(NaCa) but had no effect on I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. Overexpressing the PLMS68A mutant (mimicking unphosphorylated PLM) in PLM KO myocytes had no effect on I(NaCa) but decreased I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the S68A mutant were similar to PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. We conclude that at the single-myocyte level, PLM affects cardiac contractility and [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis primarily by its direct

  18. Anion-sensitive regions of L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Babai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L-type calcium currents (I(Ca are influenced by changes in extracellular chloride, but sites of anion effects have not been identified. Our experiments showed that CaV1.2 currents expressed in HEK293 cells are strongly inhibited by replacing extracellular chloride with gluconate or perchlorate. Variance-mean analysis of I(Ca and cell-attached patch single channel recordings indicate that gluconate-induced inhibition is due to intracellular anion effects on Ca(2+ channel open probability, not conductance. Inhibition of CaV1.2 currents produced by replacing chloride with gluconate was reduced from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% by omitting beta subunits but unaffected by omitting alpha(2delta subunits. Similarly, gluconate inhibition was reduced to approximately 50% by deleting an alpha1 subunit N-terminal region of 15 residues critical for beta subunit interactions regulating open probability. Omitting beta subunits with this mutant alpha1 subunit did not further diminish inhibition. Gluconate inhibition was unchanged with expression of different beta subunits. Truncating the C terminus at AA1665 reduced gluconate inhibition from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% whereas truncating it at AA1700 had no effect. Neutralizing arginines at AA1696 and 1697 by replacement with glutamines reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 60% indicating these residues are particularly important for anion effects. Expressing CaV1.2 channels that lacked both N and C termini reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 25% consistent with additive interactions between the two tail regions. Our results suggest that modest changes in intracellular anion concentration can produce significant effects on CaV1.2 currents mediated by changes in channel open probability involving beta subunit interactions with the N terminus and a short C terminal region.

  19. T-type calcium channels cause bursts of spikes in motor but not sensory thalamic neurons during mimicry of natural patterns of synaptic input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haram R.; Hong, Su Z.; Fiorillo, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Although neurons within intact nervous systems can be classified as ‘sensory’ or ‘motor,’ it is not known whether there is any general distinction between sensory and motor neurons at the cellular or molecular levels. Here, we extend and test a theory according to which activation of certain subtypes of voltage-gated ion channel (VGC) generate patterns of spikes in neurons of motor systems, whereas VGC are proposed to counteract patterns in sensory neurons. We previously reported experimental evidence for the theory from visual thalamus, where we found that T-type calcium channels (TtCCs) did not cause bursts of spikes but instead served the function of ‘predictive homeostasis’ to maximize the causal and informational link between retinogeniculate excitation and spike output. Here, we have recorded neurons in brain slices from eight sensory and motor regions of rat thalamus while mimicking key features of natural excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. As predicted by theory, TtCC did cause bursts of spikes in motor thalamus. TtCC-mediated responses in motor thalamus were activated at more hyperpolarized potentials and caused larger depolarizations with more spikes than in visual and auditory thalamus. Somatosensory thalamus is known to be more closely connected to motor regions relative to auditory and visual thalamus, and likewise the strength of its TtCC responses was intermediate between these regions and motor thalamus. We also observed lower input resistance, as well as limited evidence of stronger hyperpolarization-induced (‘H-type’) depolarization, in nuclei closer to motor output. These findings support our theory of a specific difference between sensory and motor neurons at the cellular level. PMID:26582654

  20. Reactivity to the p305 Epitope of the α1G T-Type Calcium Channel and Autoimmune-Associated Congenital Heart Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Androo J; Rasmussen, Sara E; Salmon, Jane E; Martinez-Ortiz, Wilnelly; Cardozo, Timothy J; Clancy, Robert M; Buyon, Jill P

    2015-05-20

    Only 2% of mothers positive for anti-SSA/Ro (Ro) antibodies have children with congenital heart block (CHB). This study aimed to determine whether reactivity with p305, an epitope within the α1G T-type calcium channel, confers added risk over anti-Ro antibodies. Using sera from anti-Ro-exposed pregnancies resulting in offspring with CHB, no disease but CHB-sibling, and no disease and no CHB-sibling, as well as disease (lupus without anti-Ro) and healthy controls, reactivities were determined for binding to Ro60, p305, and an epitope within Ro60, p133-Ro60, which shares structural properties with p305, including key amino acids and an α-helical structure. Candidate peptides were further evaluated in an in vitro model that assessed the binding of maternal antibodies to apoptotic cells. In anti-Ro-positive mothers, anti-p305 autoantibodies (>3 SD above healthy controls) were detected in 3/59 (5%) CHB pregnancies, 4/30 (13%) unaffected pregnancies with a CHB-sibling, and 0/42 (0%) of unaffected pregnancies with no CHB-sibling. For umbilical bloods (61 CHB, 41 healthy with CHB sibling), no association of anti-p305 with outcome was detected; however, overall levels of anti-p305 were elevated compared to mothers during pregnancy in all groups studied. For anti-p133-Ro60, reactivity paralleled that of anti-p305. In the screen employing apoptotic cells, p133-Ro60, but not p305, significantly attenuated the binding of immunoglobulin G isolated from a mother whose child had CHB (42.1% reduced to 13.9%, absence/presence of p133-Ro60, respectively, PHeart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase for anti-fungal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer R. Hayek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans (C. albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens.

  2. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  3. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    Full Text Available Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase (SnRK, a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109, which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  4. translocating V-type ATPase from Enterococcus hirae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Different expression systems have been developed for expression of proteins such as E. coli prokaryotic system, yeast expression system, insect and mammalian cell expression systems. Each of these systems has its own advantages and disadvantages (Sambrook and Russell,. 2001). It has been shown ...

  5. IgG from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Increases Current Through P-Type Calcium Channels in Mammalian Cerebellar Purkinje Cells and in Isolated Channel Protein in Lipid Bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, R.; Sugimori, M.; Cherksey, B. D.; Smith, R. Glenn; Delbono, O.; Stefani, E.; Appel, S.

    1993-12-01

    The effect of the IgG from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients was tested on the voltage-dependent barium currents (IBa) in mammalian dissociated Purkinje cells and in isolated P-type calcium channels in lipid bilayers. Whole cell clamp of Purkinje cells demonstrates that ALS IgG increases the amplitude of IBa without modifying their voltage kinetics. This increased IBa could be blocked by a purified nonpeptide toxin from Agelenopsis aperta venom (purified funnel-web spider toxin) or by a synthetic polyamine analog (synthetic funnel-web spider toxin) and by a peptide toxin from the same spider venom, ω-Aga-IVA. Similar results were obtained on single-channel recordings from purified P channel protein. The addition of ALS IgG increased single-channel IBa open time without affecting slope conductance. The results described above were not seen with normal human IgG nor with boiled ALS IgG. It is concluded that ALS IgG enhances inward current through P-type calcium channels. Since P-type Ca2+ channels are present in motoneuron axon terminals, we propose that the enhanced calcium current triggered by ALS IgG may contribute to neuronal damage in ALS.

  6. OSMOTIC FRAGILITY AND Na + -K + + ATPase ACTIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    + -K+ ATPase activity of the erythrocytes of HIV/AIDS patients. Whole blood was taken from subjects at the Human Virology Laboratory of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. Subjects were judged suitable for the various investigations by ...

  7. Cohesin Releases DNA through Asymmetric ATPase-Driven Ring Opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbatsh, Ahmed M O; Haarhuis, Judith H I; Petela, Naomi; Chapard, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Celie, Patrick H; Stadnik, Magda; Ristic, Dejan; Wyman, Claire; Medema, René H; Nasmyth, Kim; Rowland, Benjamin D

    2016-02-18

    Cohesin stably holds together the sister chromatids from S phase until mitosis. To do so, cohesin must be protected against its cellular antagonist Wapl. Eco1 acetylates cohesin's Smc3 subunit, which locks together the sister DNAs. We used yeast genetics to dissect how Wapl drives cohesin from chromatin and identified mutants of cohesin that are impaired in ATPase activity but remarkably confer robust cohesion that bypasses the need for the cohesin protectors Eco1 in yeast and Sororin in human cells. We uncover a functional asymmetry within the heart of cohesin's highly conserved ABC-like ATPase machinery and find that both ATPase sites contribute to DNA loading, whereas DNA release is controlled specifically by one site. We propose that Smc3 acetylation locks cohesin rings around the sister chromatids by counteracting an activity associated with one of cohesin's two ATPase sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of ouabain and alpha angelica lactone on calcium metabolism of dog cardiac microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entman, Mark L.; Cook, Joseph W.; Bressler, Rubin

    1969-01-01

    The influence of ouabain and alpha angelica lactone on 45calcium accumulation in cardiac microsomes was studied. Calcium binding (accumulation in the absence of excess oxalate or phosphate) was augmented by both ouabain and alpha angelica lactone in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) but unaffected in its absence. Calcium turnover (defined as the change in 45Ca++ bound to the microsomes after the specific activity is changed) was studied to determine if the augmented bound pool was freely exchangeable at equilibrium. Ouabain and alpha angelica lactone augmented calcium turnover in both the presence and absence of ATP. Calcium-stimulated ATPase was increased by both agents. It is proposed that these two unsaturated lactones, with known cardiotonic activity, may exert their effects by providing an increased contraction-dependent calcium pool to be released upon systolic depolarization. PMID:4236805

  9. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  10. Model of intracellular calcium cycling in ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Y; Watanabe, M A; Garfinkel, A; Weiss, J N; Karma, A

    2003-12-01

    We present a mathematical model of calcium cycling that takes into account the spatially localized nature of release events that correspond to experimentally observed calcium sparks. This model naturally incorporates graded release by making the rate at which calcium sparks are recruited proportional to the whole cell L-type calcium current, with the total release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) being just the sum of local releases. The dynamics of calcium cycling is studied by pacing the model with a clamped action potential waveform. Experimentally observed calcium alternans are obtained at high pacing rates. The results show that the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is a steep nonlinear dependence of the calcium released from the SR on the diastolic SR calcium concentration (SR load) and/or the diastolic calcium level in the cytosol, where the dependence on diastolic calcium is due to calcium-induced inactivation of the L-type calcium current. In addition, the results reveal that the calcium dynamics can become chaotic even though the voltage pacing is periodic. We reduce the equations of the model to a two-dimensional discrete map that relates the SR and cytosolic concentrations at one beat and the previous beat. From this map, we obtain a condition for the onset of calcium alternans in terms of the slopes of the release-versus-SR load and release-versus-diastolic-calcium curves. From an analysis of this map, we also obtain an understanding of the origin of chaotic dynamics.

  11. Proton Pumping of the Yeast Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-16

    eucaryotic cells would be more resistant to damage by expression of the ATPase. We started with a plasmid from Dr. Fink’s laboratory tnat uontains the...have begun construction of a Baculovirus expression vector that we will ti-ansfect into insect cells . We hope that this 6 system will not suffer from...causes the bacteria to stop growing. We decided to try to produce the ATPase in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system hoping that the

  12. Structural divergence between the two subgroups of P5 ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Danny Mollerup; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2010-01-01

    been identified in the endoplasmic reticulum and seem to have basic functions in protein maturation and secretion. P5B ATPases localize to vacuolar/lysosomal or apical membranes and in animals play a role in hereditary neuronal diseases. Here we have used a bioinformatical approach to identify....... Together these findings indicate that P5A and P5B ATPases are structurally and functionally different....

  13. Zinc and ATP Binding of the Hexameric AAA-ATPase PilF from Thermus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ralf; Herzberg, Martin; Nies, Dietrich H.; Joos, Friederike; Rathmann, Barbara; Thielmann, Yvonne; Averhoff, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The traffic AAA-ATPase PilF is essential for pilus biogenesis and natural transformation of Thermus thermophilus HB27. Recently, we showed that PilF forms hexameric complexes containing six zinc atoms coordinated by conserved tetracysteine motifs. Here we report that zinc binding is essential for complex stability. However, zinc binding is neither required for pilus biogenesis nor natural transformation. A number of the mutants did not exhibit any pili during growth at 64 °C but still were transformable. This leads to the conclusion that type 4 pili and the DNA translocator are distinct systems. At lower growth temperatures (55 °C) the zinc-depleted multiple cysteine mutants were hyperpiliated but defective in pilus-mediated twitching motility. This provides evidence that zinc binding is essential for the role of PilF in pilus dynamics. Moreover, we found that zinc binding is essential for complex stability but dispensable for ATPase activity. In contrast to many polymerization ATPases from mesophilic bacteria, ATP binding is not required for PilF complex formation; however, it significantly increases complex stability. These data suggest that zinc and ATP binding increase complex stability that is important for functionality of PilF under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:25202014

  14. Renal Na-K-ATPase hyperactivity in diabetic Psammomys obesus is related to glomerular hyperfiltration but is insulin-independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, P; Nachliel, I; Bar-On, H; Popovtzer, M M; Ziv, E

    2000-11-01

    Psammomys obesus, a desert rodent, develops diabetes when displaced from its natural environment and fed a high energy diet in the laboratory. This study was designed to examine variations in renal function in relation to the diabetic state with emphasis on changes in Na-K-ATPase activity. The following groups of Psammomys were studied: (1) Animals fed a saltbush diet; a low energy/high salt diet (natural). (2) Animals fed a low energy/low salt diet (laboratory). Both 1 and 2 were normoglycemic and normoinsulinemic and thus served as control. (3) Animals fed a high energy diet (group C) who were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; this group was divided into two subgroups: C1 presented with glomerular hyperfiltration rate and C2 with glomerular hypofiltration rate. (4) Animals fed a high energy diet presenting with hyperglycemia-hypoinsulinemia (group D). (5) Group D+I, similar to group D but treated with external insulin (2 U/24 h). Groups D and C1, whose glomerular filtration rose above normal by 30% and 70% respectively, exhibited metabolic similarity to Type I and Type II diabetes. In these groups, Na-K-ATPase activity in the cortex increased by 80-100% and in the medulla by 180% (Pmodel of diabetes mellitus. Variations in glucose and in insulin did not correlate with Na-K-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrated that Na-K-ATPase activity in the diabetic Psammomys was determined by glomerular filtration but was independent of plasma glucose or insulin levels.

  15. Autolysosome biogenesis and developmental senescence are regulated by both Spns1 and v-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Lian, Shanshan; Khan, Alam; Llop, Jesse R; Samuelson, Andrew V; Chen, Wenbiao; Klionsky, Daniel J; Kishi, Shuji

    2017-02-01

    Spns1 (Spinster homolog 1 [Drosophila]) in vertebrates, as well as Spin (Spinster) in Drosophila, is a hypothetical lysosomal H+-carbohydrate transporter, which functions at a late stage of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy). The Spin/Spns1 defect induces aberrant autolysosome formation that leads to developmental senescence in the embryonic stage and premature aging symptoms in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanism by which loss of Spin/Spns1 leads to the specific pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Using chemical, genetic and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-editing approaches in zebrafish, we investigated and determined a mechanism that suppresses embryonic senescence as well as autolysosomal impairment mediated by Spns1 deficiency. Unexpectedly, we found that a concurrent disruption of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) subunit gene, atp6v0ca (ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal, V0 subunit ca) led to suppression of the senescence induced by the Spns1 defect, whereas the sole loss of Atp6v0ca led to senescent embryos similar to the single spns1 mutation. Moreover, we discovered that the combined stable defect seen in the presence of both the spns1 and atp6v0ca mutant genes still subsequently induced premature autophagosome-lysosome fusion marked by insufficient acidity, while extending developmental life span, compared with the solely mutated spns1 defect. Our data suggest that Spns1 and the v-ATPase orchestrate proper autolysosomal biogenesis with optimal acidification that is critically linked to developmental senescence and survival.

  16. Monoclonal antibody modification of the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli F1 ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeler, R; Mendel-Hartvig, J; Capaldi, R A

    1990-11-13

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been made against each of the five subunits of ECF1 (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon), and these have been used in topology studies and for examination of the role of individual subunits in the functioning of the enzyme. All of the mAbs obtained reacted with ECF1, while several failed to react with ECF1F0, including three mAbs against the gamma subunit (gamma II, gamma III, and gamma IV), one mAb against delta, and two mAbs against epsilon (epsilon I and epsilon II). These topology data are consistent with the gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits being located at the interface between the F1 and F0 parts of the complex. Two forms of ECF1 were used to study the effects of mAbs on the ATPase activity of the enzyme: ECF1 with the epsilon subunit tightly bound and acting to inhibit activity and ECF1* in which the delta and epsilon subunits had been removed by organic solvent treatment. ECF1* had an ATPase activity under standard conditions of 93 mumol of ATP hydrolyzed min-1 m