Sample records for calcium additions

  1. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustinova Yulia Valer’evna


    Full Text Available Currently, functional additives are widely spread in the production of inorganic dry mixtures. However, their impact on the microstructure of products, generated in the process of hardening of inorganic binders, is understudied. In this context, the goal of the work is the study of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO •2H O crystallization. Super plasticizer based on sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resin, methylcellulose and vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride copolymer powder were selected for studies. First, pure calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were synthesized. Then, synthesized calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were exposed to the X-ray analysis to determine the nature of influence of polymer additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals. Possible combinations of simple forms of CaSO •2H O were identified by the X-ray analysis and the special software. Electronic microscopy analysis was performed to validate models of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals. All plasticizers influence the crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The influence of additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals of calcium sulfate dihydrate can be explained by the fact that molecules of sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resins, methylcellulose, and copolymers of vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride are absorbed by crystal faces. It is proven that the method of X-ray analysis can be used to predict the shape and habitus of crystals.

  3. Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications (United States)

    Krausher, Jennifer Lynn

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of drug-loaded CPP into a CPC is under consideration as a method of minimizing adverse interactions and extending drug release. This thesis represents the first investigation into the effects of CPP addition on the properties, setting and antibiotic release profile of a conventional apatitic calcium phosphate cement. As-made, gelled and vancomycin-loaded CPP particulate were added to the powder component of a conventional dicalcium phosphate/tetracalcium phosphate CPC. The setting behaviour, set properties and microstructure of the resulting CPP-CPCs were evaluated with setting time testing (Gilmore needle method), pH testing, mechanical testing, SEM imaging, XRD and FTIR analysis. In vitro degradation and elution behaviour were evaluated by monitoring calcium release (atomic absorbance spectroscopy), mechanical strength and vancomycin release (UV-visual spectrophotometry). CPP addition was found to increase the setting time, reduce the mechanical strength and inhibit the conversion of the CPC starting powders to the set apatitic phase. The most likely mechanism for the observed effect of CPP addition was the adsorption of polyphosphate chains on the particle surfaces, which would inhibit the dissolution of the starting powders and the conversion of apatite precursor phases to apatite, leading to reduced mechanical properties. The detrimental effects of CPP were reduced by limiting the CPP fraction to less than a few weight per cent and increasing the size of the CPP particulate. CPP

  4. Effect of Calcium Additive on the Crystallization of Struvite

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    Perwitasari Dyah Suci


    Full Text Available Crystallization of struvite [MgNH4PO4.6H2O] may lead to the deposition of scale which may create significant problems in the process pipes, pumps and other industrial equipment. However, struvite precipitation can be benefited for phosphate recovery for use of fertilizer. The aim at the present work was to investigate calcium additive on struvite precipitation. The experiment was carried out in a batch mode using a 1-liter Pyrex glass vessel mechanically agitated for 200 rpm. The scale-forming solution was prepared for mixing solutions to MgCl2 and NH4H2PO4 with Mg+2 , NH4+ and PO4-3 in a molar ratio of 1: 1:1. The crystallization temperature of 30 and 40 °C was selected. Ca was added into the crystallizing solution to chloride dihydrate 0.4M (CaCl2•2H2O. Then each solution was pH adjusted to 9 by addition of KOH. The crystals obtained were characterized using SEM for morphology, EDS for elemental analysis as well as XRPD Rietveld analysis for crystaline phases. The induction periods varied from 10 to 90 min, which means that the struvite crystals began forming 10 to 90 min after mixing of the solution. It was observed that the Ca additive may inhibit the struvite crystallization. SEM analysis revealed that the struvite crystals obtained were predominantly of irregular prismatic morphology. Furthermore, the EDS pattern revealed that the elemental composition of the crystals consisted of Ca, Cl, S Mg, N, and P, providing that many crystalline phase found in the crystals such as Gypsum, CaCl2, struvite, struvite-(K and sylvite. It was observed that the Ca additive appeared to inhibit the struvite crystallization.

  5. Effects of Calcium Superphosphate Additive on Nitrogen Conservation During Dead-pig Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Ping


    Full Text Available To study the effects of calcium superphosphate additive on nitrogen conservation, an experiment of 30 days dead-pig composting was carried out. Three mixtures were treated with different amount of calcium superphosphate additive of 0%(CK, 5%(T1 and 10%(T2. The results showed that each composte temperature higher than 50 ℃ remained above 10 days, meeting the requirements of hygiene index about the compost rotten. The pH of composting with calcium superphosphate was significantly decreased, while NH4+-N, NH3-N, total nitrogen contents were significant higher than the control. 5% and 10% calcium superphosphate addition increased the total nitrogen contents by 10.7%, 10.1%, respectively. The seed germination index(GI of 5% calcium superphosphate addition was up to 101.4% on the 14th day, which was significant higher than the contrast. It demonstrated that calcium superphosphate could accelerate maturity during dead-pig compositng. Thus, calcium superphosphate as an additive in dead-pig composting could decrease nitrogen losses, which would bring prospects of application in dead-pig composting.

  6. Calcium Lactate addition in Bioconcrete: Effect on Compressive strength and Water penetration

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    Irwan J.M


    Full Text Available This paper presents compressive strength and water penetration of bioconcrete with addition of calcium lactate. Bioconcrete has higher engineering concrete properties and durability compared to normal concrete but the natural production of calcium carbonate is limited to the calcium content in cement. Therefore, additional calcium is added as an additional calcium source to study the influence towards compressive strength and water penetration. The bacteria used in this research are Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus sp. Calcium lactate was added into concrete mix in concentrations of 0.001mol/l, 0.005mol/l and 0.01mol/l of liquid used. The concentration of bacteria added into the mix is by partial replacement of water used in casting, which are 3% for Enterococcus faecalis and 5% for Bacillus sp. Both compressive strength and water penetration test used cubes of 150mm × 150mm × 150mm. The cubes were tested after 28 days. The result of compressive strength for control is 36 MPa while partial replacement of bacteria yields 38.2 MPa for 3% Enterococcus faecalis and 37.0 MPa for 5% Bacillus sp. Calcium lactate with 0.005 mol/L has the best performance with 42.8 MPa for Enterococcus faecalis and 39.6 MPa for Bacillus sp. Whereas for water penetration, the best concentration of calcium lactate which yielded the lowest water penetration is 0.01 mol/l for both Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus sp which are 8.7 cm and 8 cm respectively. The addition of calcium lactate into bioconcrete is quite promising for improvement of concrete properties and durability.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian


    Dosage of small amounts of calcium chloride to fluoride water prior to contact with bone char which has already been saturated with fluoride is shown to provide an additional fluoride removal capacity. The additionally obtained removal capacity increases with slower filtration velocities and incr......Dosage of small amounts of calcium chloride to fluoride water prior to contact with bone char which has already been saturated with fluoride is shown to provide an additional fluoride removal capacity. The additionally obtained removal capacity increases with slower filtration velocities...... to be capable of reducing the fluoride concentration form 10 to about 0.5 mgF/L. The additionally saturated column is shown to be regenerated by simple adjustment of the pH of the water to 11 and allowing to flow for a few bed volumes. The useful regeneration capacity, where the fluoride concentration...

  8. Influence of polymeric additives on the cohesion and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, J.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.


    To expand the clinical applicability of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) to load-bearing anatomical sites, the mechanical and setting properties of CPCs need to be improved. Specifically, organic additives need to be developed that can overcome the disintegration and brittleness of CPCs. Hence, we

  9. The effect of inorganic additives to calcium phosphate on in vitro behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liang; Perez-Amodio, Soledad; Barrère, F.; Everts, Vincent; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela


    This study describes a medium-throughput system based on deposition of calcium phosphate films in multi-well tissue culture plates that can be used to study the effect of inorganic additives on the behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in a standardized manner. All tested elements, copper, zinc,

  10. The effects of inorganic additives to calcium phosphate on in vitro behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Perez-Amodio, S.; Barrere-de Groot, F.Y.F.; Everts, V.; van Blitterswijk, C.A.; Habibovic, P.


    This study describes a medium-throughput system based on deposition of calcium phosphate films in multi-well tissue culture plates that can be used to study the effect of inorganic additives on the behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in a standardized manner. All tested elements, copper, zinc,

  11. Calcium (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  12. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

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    Fernando Estellés Barber


    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  13. Physiological behaviour of loquat and anger rootstocks in relation to salinity and calcium addition. (United States)

    García-Legaz, Manuel F; López-Gómez, Elvira; Mataix Beneyto, Jorge; Navarro, Alejandra; Sánchez-Blanco, M Jesús


    The salinity tolerance of two commercial rootstocks used for loquat plants (Eribotrya japonica Lindl.), loquat and anger, was studied in a pot experiment. The plants were irrigated using solutions containing 5 and 50mM NaCl and 5 and 25mM calcium acetate for 4 months. The growth, tissue mineral content, water status, and leaf gas exchange responses to salt treatment with and without additional calcium were examined. Plant growth was not modified by salinity in anger (50mM), but was reduced in loquat; leaf biomass and stem diameter were particularly affected. However, Cl(-) levels leaf increased with salinity to a greater extent in anger, while the Na(+) content increased to the same extent in both species, indicating that ion transport from root to leaves was not inhibited in either species. Additional calcium (25mM) reduced Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations in both species, but did not minimise the effects of salinity on the growth of salt-treated loquat plants. The decrease in K(+) concentrations had no effect on growth, as anger was the most tolerant rootstock and had lowest leaf K(+) content. Salinity reduced the Ca(2+) concentration in the roots of both species. However, when calcium was added, the concentration of Ca(2+) increased in the roots of salinised plants. Leaf water potential at pre-dawn decreased significantly in both species under saline conditions. Leaf gas exchange, stomatal conductance and, in particular, net CO(2) assimilation, decreased with salinity only in loquat, indicating that photosynthesis could be the growth-limiting factor in this species.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of PEO Coatings Formed on AZ31 Alloy in Phosphate-Based Electrolytes with Calcium Acetate Additive (United States)

    Ziyaei, E.; Atapour, M.; Edris, H.; Hakimizad, A.


    The PEO coating started on magnesium AZ31 using a unipolar DC power source. The coating was generated in the electrolyte based on Na3PO4·12H2O and KOH with calcium acetate as additive. The x-ray diffraction method showed some phases containing calcium and phosphate, which was created in the presence of additive. Also, the EDS tests of the sample's surfaces proved the existence of calcium on the surface. Based on the electrochemical tests results, the most corrosion resistance belongs to the sample with calcium acetate additive. In fact, the results of the EIS tests showed the coating with calcium acetate has the highest resistance but the lowest capacitance. However, this state belongs to the surface morphology, the lower porosity, and surface chemical composition.

  15. The addition of calcium ions to starch/Carbopol mixtures enhances the nasal bioavailability of insulin. (United States)

    Pringels, E; Vervaet, C; Verbeeck, R; Foreman, P; Remon, J P


    To evaluate the influence of calcium poly(acrylates) on the nasal absorption of insulin in rabbits, starch/poly(acrylic acid) (ratio 25/75) (SD 25/75) was neutralised with NaOH and/or Ca(OH)(2). After neutralisation, a mixture of sodium and/or calcium carboxylate was formed depending on the Ca(OH)(2) concentration in the formulation. IR spectroscopy confirmed that most of the calcium molecules in the formulation interacted with acid groups of the acrylic acid polymer. Addition of Ca(OH)(2) to aqueous dispersions containing starch/poly(acrylic acid) yielded powders with an enhanced absorption of insulin after nasal delivery to rabbits in comparison with the equivalent powder without Ca(OH)(2). A mixture of SD 25/75 and Ca(OH)(2) at a ratio of 90/10 neutralised to pH 7.4 with NaOH induced the highest absorption of insulin, obtaining a bioavailability of +/-29% (vs. 19% for an equivalent formulation without Ca(OH)(2)). This increase in nasal delivery was possibly due to a higher elasticity after dispersing this formulation in nasal fluid and to a higher water absorbing capacity. Furthermore, after nasal delivery of (SD 25/75)/Ca(OH)(2) 90/10, a decrease in t(max) was observed, possibly due to a progressive dissociation of Ca(2+)-ions after hydration of the powder resulting in the closing of the tight junctions.

  16. Calcium (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  17. Characterization of a calcium-soluble protein fraction from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal with potential application as an additive to calcium-rich drinks. (United States)

    Aluko, Rotimi E; Reaney, Martin; McIntosh, Tara; Ouellet, François; Katepa-Mupondwa, Felicitas


    A calcium-soluble protein isolate (CSPI) was prepared from the supernatant obtained after addition of 0.75 M calcium chloride to a pH 5.0 aqueous extract of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal. Total amino acid analysis showed that the CSPI has significantly higher (p proteins. Peptide mass fingerprinting of tryptic peptides of the major polypeptides by mass spectrometry indicated that the CSPI is composed mainly of cruciferin proteins with a contribution from napins (the major allergenic proteins of S. alba). The S. alba CSPI had significantly higher (p protein solubility and emulsion formation ability in the presence of 0.75 M calcium chloride when compared to similar isolates prepared from Brassica juncea (brown mustard) and soybean seed meals. We suggest that the S. alba CSPI could be used to prepare calcium-fortified high protein liquid products. However, the presence of allergenic proteins in this extract may limit its widespread food use.

  18. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuyper, L


    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging in combination with the addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms was investigated. A modified atmosphere which slowed down discolouration...

  19. Investigation of organic desulfurization additives affecting the calcium sulfate crystals formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Lina


    Full Text Available In the study, the optimal experimental conditions for gypsum crystals formation were 323 K, 300 rpm stirring speed. The major impurities of Mg2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ were found to inhibit calcium sulfate crystals formation. Fe3+ caused the strongest inhibition, followed by Mg2+ and Al3+. The influence of desulfurization additives on the gypsum crystals formation was explored with the properties of moisture content, particle size distribution and crystal morphology. The organic desulfurization additives of adipic acid, citric acid, sodium citrate and benzoic acid were investigated. Citric acid and sodium citrate were found to improve the quality of gypsum. Moisture contents were reduced by more than 50%, gypsum particle sizes were respectively enlarged by 9.1 and 22.8%, induction time extended from 4.3 (blank to 5.3 and 7.8 min, and crystal morphology trended to be thicker.

  20. Calcium polyphosphate as an additive to zinc-silicate glass ionomer cements. (United States)

    Valliant, Esther Mae; Gagnier, David; Dickey, Brett Thomas; Boyd, Daniel; Filiaggi, Mark Joseph


    Aluminum-free glass ionomer cements (GICs) are under development for orthopedic applications, but are limited by their insufficient handling properties. Here, the addition of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) was investigated as an additive to an experimental zinc-silicate glass ionomer cement. A 50% maximum increase in working time was observed with CPP addition, though this was not clinically significant due to the short working times of the starting zinc-silicate GIC. Surprisingly, CPP also improved the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength which increased by ∼33% after 30 days in TRIS buffer solution upon CPP addition up to 37.5 wt%. This strengthening may have been due to the formation of ionic crosslinks between the polyphosphate chains and polyacrylic acid. Thus, CPP is a potential additive to future GIC compositions as it has been shown to improve handling and mechanical properties. In addition, CPP may stimulate new bone growth and provide the ability for drug delivery, which are desirable modifications for an orthopedic cement. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:

  1. Calcium (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  2. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating of additively manufactured porous CoCr implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Carl [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Xia, Wei, E-mail: [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Snis, Anders [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arcam AB, Krokslätts Fabriker 27 A, SE-431 37 Mölndal (Sweden); Lausmaa, Jukka [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås (Sweden); Palmquist, Anders [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Highlights: • A route for coating complex shaped electron beam melted implants is presented. • Biomimetic HA coatings were deposited on CoCr alloys using a solution method. • Deposited biomimetic coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient. • Coating morphology was plate-like with crystallites forming roundish flowers. • Present coating procedure could be useful for porous implants made by EBM. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the feasibility to use a biomimetic method to prepare biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on CoCr substrates with short soaking times and to characterize the properties of such coatings. A second objective was to investigate if the coatings could be applied to porous CoCr implants manufactured by electron beam melting (EBM). The coating was prepared by immersing the pretreated CoCr substrates and EBM implants into the phosphate-buffered solution with Ca{sup 2+} in sealed plastic bottles, kept at 60 °C for 3 days. The formed coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient and composed of plate-like crystallites forming roundish flowers in the size range of 300–500 nm. Cross-section imaging showed a thickness of 300–500 nm. In addition, dissolution tests in Tris–HCl up to 28 days showed that a substantial amount of the coating had dissolved, however, undergoing only minor morphological changes. A uniform coating was formed within the porous network of the additive manufactured implants having similar thickness and morphology as for the flat samples. In conclusion, the present coating procedure allows coatings to be formed on CoCr and could be used for complex shaped, porous implants made by additive manufacturing.

  3. The influence of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of calcium carbonate phosphor (United States)

    Mou, Yongren; Kang, Ming; Liu, Min; Wang, Feng; Chen, Kexu; Sun, Rong


    In order to investigate the effect of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology (particle shape, particle size and particle size distribution) and photoluminescence performance of calcium carbonate phosphor, the phosphors AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ (AA = glycerol or sodium dodecyl sulfate) were synthesized by the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method using glycerol (Gly) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as amphiphilic additional agents (AA), respectively. The phase structure, morphology and luminescent properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, laser diffraction particle size analyzer and Fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that the phase structure and morphology of AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ changed along with different types and amount of amphiphilic additional agents evidently. The particle size of Gly-CaCO3 decreased to 1.383 µm when the volume ratio reached 8:2 (Gly:H2O). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that all the AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ phosphors exhibit strong red emission peak originating from electric-dipole transition 5D0 → 7F2 (614 nm) of Eu3+ ions and the amphiphilic molecules (Gly and SDS) had a huge influence on photoluminescence intensity.

  4. Virucidal efficacy of food additive grade calcium hydroxide against surrogate of human norovirus. (United States)

    Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Toyofuku, Chiharu; Suzuki, Mayuko; Komura, Miyuki; Yamada, Masashi; Alam, Md Shahin; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Shoham, Dany; Sakai, Kouji; Takehara, Kazuaki


    An alkaline agent, namely, food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH) 2 ) in the solution, powder and suspension forms was evaluated as a virucidal agent, using a murine norovirus (MNV) as the surrogate for human norovirus. The main constituent of FdCa(OH) 2 is Ca(OH) 2 , which has pH 13 in 0.17% solution. The results showed that 0.17% FdCa(OH) 2 solution could inactivate MNV within 30s even in the presence of organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum (FBS)). In a contaminated surface experiment, MNV with 5% FBS was inoculated on rayon sheets, and the result showed FdCa(OH) 2 solution could markedly reduce virus titer within 1min. When mouse feces were spiked with MNV and FdCa(OH) 2 powder as 10% and 20% w/w was added to the feces, these concentrations could inactivate the virus within 30min and 15min, respectively. Whereas, FdCa(OH) 2 suspension at 2.5% and 5% could inactivate the virus within 30min and at 1% within 45min. These and additional results obtained here indicate that FdCa(OH) 2 is an effective virucidal agent against MNV, and can serve as a useful alternative disinfectant for inactivation and prevention of human norovirus in house and hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes with Portland cement as an additive (United States)

    Phoo-ngernkham, Tanakorn; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Sata, Vanchai; Pangdaeng, Saengsuree; Sinsiri, Theerawat


    The effect of Portland cement (OPC) addition on the properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes was investigated in the paper. OPC partially replaced fly ash (FA) at the dosages of 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% by mass of binder. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions were used as the liquid portion in the mixture: NaOH 10 mol/L, Na2SiO3/NaOH with a mass ratio of 2.0, and alkaline liquid/binder (L/B) with a mass ratio of 0.6. The curing at 60°C for 24 h was used to accelerate the geopolymerization. The setting time of all fresh pastes, porosity, and compressive strength of the pastes at the stages of 1, 7, 28, and 90 d were tested. The elastic modulus and strain capacity of the pastes at the stage of 7 d were determined. It is revealed that the use of OPC as an additive to replace part of FA results in the decreases in the setting time, porosity, and strain capacity of the paste specimens, while the compressive strength and elastic modulus seem to increase.

  6. The Influence of Limestone and Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture


    Gunaran Danny; Nasus K. Y; Napitupulu J. P. F; Amelia Makmur


    As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradation...

  7. The Influence of Limestone And Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaran Danny


    Full Text Available As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradations, filler and liquid asphalt mixed and solidified in a heat state. Limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture is used because both materials included in the most numerous sedimentary rock. Concrete asphalt mixture with the filler combination of limestone and calciumhydroxide is made with optimum asphalt 5.4%, one variation level of limestone (15%, and calcium hydroxide (15%, and three variation levels of fillers (5%, 7.5%, and 15% to get optimum asphalt levels and filler levels that are compatible with flood condition. Based on optimum asphalt 5.4% towards aggregate total weight and combined level of limestone and calcium hydroxide suitable for the conditions, 8.75 % towards fine aggregate weight. The characteristic value of limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture in maximum condition is VIM 4.55%, VMA 18.83%, stability 1031.26 kg and flow 4.93 mm, where the characteristic value meets the established specifications standard by Pekerjaan Umum Bina Marga. From the result, it is showed that the use of the mixture can decrease the value of stability and increase the value of flow, compared with asphalt and filler with normal levels.

  8. Effect of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Addition on the Properties of Hydrothermal Derived Calcium Phosphate Cement for Bone Filling Materials (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.


    The effect of addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) on hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement has been studied. The precursors used to prepare the cement were calcium oxide (CaO) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4); the reaction was conducted in water at 80-100°C. To improve properties of CPC, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) of 1wt% and 2wt% was added to the liquid phase of CPC and the results were compared to CPC without PVA addition. The addition of PVA was proved to bring remarkable effects on cohesion, setting time and mechanical strength of CPC which make it suitable physically for injectable bone filler applications.

  9. An investigation on the rheological and sulfur-retention characteristics of desulfurizing coal water slurry with calcium-based additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianzhong; Zhao, Weidong; Zhou, Junhu; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Guangxue; Feng, Yungang; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    Desulphurizing coal water slurry is a kind of new clean coal water slurry(CWS), which has good performance on SO{sub 2} emission during combustion and gasification process. But, the addition of sulfur-retention agents have some effects on the stability and fluid characters of the coal water slurry. In this paper, the viscosity, stability and rheology of Xinwen coal water slurry have been studied by adding different kinds of calcium-based sulfur-retention agents and different dosage. The results show that the sulfur-retention agents have little effect on rheological nature of CWS, which still presents pseudoplastic fluid. The addition of sulfur-retention agents will increase the viscosity of CWS, but the stability will decrease a little. The results also show that inorganic calcium has less negative effect on the performance of CWS than the organic calcium. The viscosity of the CWS with organic calcium agent keeps 1000-1200 mPa s when Ca/S molar ratio is 2. Sulfur release of the CWS with CaCO{sub 3} reduces to 52% at Ca/S = 2 compared to original of 98%. (author)

  10. Calcium addition to increase the production of phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, Jorge Ricardo; Schott, Chris; Weijden, van der Renata D.; Leal, Lucía Hernández; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees


    Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) and methane from vacuum collected black water (BW), using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was previously investigated. It was calculated that only 2% of the total phosphorus (P) fed was present as CaP granules

  11. Preparation of calcium carbonate as nanoparticles from inorganic precursors and sucrose as additive with potential application as biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabaita, F.; Mahtout, L.; Perez Villarejo, L.; Carrasco Hurtado, B.; Sanchez Soto, P.J.


    In this communication, it is reported the first relevant results on a broad study on the preparation of calcium carbonate as precipitated nanoparticles of the polymorphs vaterite and calcite. The inorganic precursors are calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and sodium hydrogencarbonate, and the organic additive is sucrose in aqueous solution. The crystalline phases are studied by X-Ray powder diffraction, using a quantitative method, and the particle morphologies using scanning electron microscopy. When the organic additive is not used, calcite as the most thermodynamically stable polymorph is precipitated as nanocrystalline predominant phase (83%) mixed with vaterite. Using a high concentration of the organic additive (67%), vaterite is precipitated as the nanocrystalline predominant phase (>98%). Using the additive in variable proportion produces the precipitation of the 2 polymorphs, being vaterite always the predominant phase. The morphology of the precipitated calcium carbonate shows nanospherical uniform particles with irregular contourns of vaterite and characteristic rhomboedral particles of calcite when this phase is present. According to the biocompatibility, this material shows interest in applications as biomaterial in bone implants. (Author)

  12. Influence of calcium addition on growth of highly purified syntrophic cultures degrading long-chain Fatty acids. (United States)

    Roy, F; Albagnac, G; Samain, E


    Two highly purified syntrophic associations resulting in acetogenesis from stearate (SM) and oleate (OM) were obtained from the sludges of a sewage digestor. In both cases, Methanospirillum hungatei together with short, motile, gram-negative, nonfluorescent rods morphologically similar to Syntrophomonas wolfei were identified by microscopic examination. Besides growing on volatile fatty acids (butyrate through caproate), both cultures grew on oleate (C(18:1)) and numerous even-numbered, saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA [decanoate through stearate]). In addition, during growth on LCFA, supplementation of the culture media with calcium chloride was an absolute requirement. The sole difference between the associations was observed when SM and OM cultures were transferred from a stearate to an oleate medium. The SM culture needed 10 days before starting to degrade oleate, whereas the OM culture grew immediately, but the OM culture also grew immediately when transferred to stearate medium. Saturated LCFA degradation occurred in the presence of equinormal amounts of calcium (fatty acid/Ca ratio, 2). On the other hand, OM degradation only took place in the presence of an equimolar amount of calcium (fatty acid/Ca ratio, 1). These observations are discussed by considering the solubility constants of LCFA as calcium salts and the toxicity of the free acids against microorganisms.

  13. Calcium phosphate holmium-166 ceramic to addition in bone cement: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donanzam, Blanda A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade do Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dalmazio, Ilza; Valente, Eduardo S., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: valente@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Spine metastases are a common and painful complication of cancer. The treatment often consists of bone cement injection (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) within vertebral body for vertebrae stabilization, followed by external beam radiation therapy. Recently, researchers introduced the concept of radioactive bone cement for spine tumors therapy. Then, investigations about bioactive and radioactive materials became interesting. In this study, we present the synthesis of calcium phosphate incorporated holmium (CaP-Ho) via sol-gel technique, and its characterization by XRD, FT-IR, NA and SEM. Results showed a multiphasic bioceramic composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate, holmium phosphate and traces of calcium pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the nuclide Ho-166 was the major radioisotope produced. Despite that, the radioactive bioceramic CaP-{sup 166}Ho must be investigated in clinical trials to assure its efficacy and safety on spine tumors treatment (author)

  14. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics


    Lou Ching-Wen; Lee Mong-Chuan; Chen Chih-Kuang; Wen Shih-Peng; Jian Bai-Chen; Lin Jia-Horng


    Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA) and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS) micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples...

  15. Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest. (United States)

    Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D


    Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is

  16. Characterization of an additional articular cartilage vesicle fraction that generates calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in vitro. (United States)

    Derfus, B; Steinberg, M; Mandel, N; Buday, M; Daft, L; Ryan, L


    We previously identified a unique fraction of porcine articular cartilage vesicles, sedimentable at 8 x 10(6) g/min, which generate calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals (CPPD) in vitro. We sought to identify and characterize other fractions of articular cartilage digest, sedimentable at lower g forces, which may also contain mineralizing vesicles. Electron microscopy and alkaline phosphatase and nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (NTPPPH) assays were used to analyze each fraction. Radiometric mineralization assays, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and compensated polarized light microscopy were used to analyze crystals formed by these fractions. Vesicles of varying sizes identical to epiphyseal cartilage matrix vesicles were seen in all sedimentable fractions examined, but were the exclusive component of fractions sedimentable at 3 x 10(6) g/min, termed the heavy vesicle fraction (HVF), and at 8 x 10(6) g/min, now termed the light vesicle fraction (LVF). All vesicle containing fractions supported ATP dependent calcium pyrophosphate precipitation. The HVF and LVF precipitated 30 x more calcium than vesicle poor supernatant (p < 0.01) and 1.5-4 x more than cell-free unfractionated digest (p < 0.01). HVF differed from LVF in that it contained 3-4 x higher NTPPPH specific activity (p < 0.05). HVF resembled LVF in that both precipitated crystals consistent with CPPD by FTIR spectroscopy and compensated polarized light microscopy. These data expand our previous estimate of the total number of vesicles available for biologic mineralization and demonstrate heterogeneity of vesicle fractions. They support a key role for vesicles in CPPD crystal formation.

  17. Inhibition of calcium carbonate crystal growth by organic additives using the constant composition method in conditions of recirculating cooling circuits (United States)

    Chhim, Norinda; Kharbachi, Chams; Neveux, Thibaut; Bouteleux, Céline; Teychené, Sébastien; Biscans, Béatrice


    The cooling circuits used in power plants are subject to mineral crystallization which can cause scaling on the surfaces of equipment and construction materials reducing their heat exchange efficiency. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the predominant mineral scale commonly observed in cooling systems. Supersaturation is the key parameter controlling the nucleation and growth of calcite in these systems. The present work focuses on the precipitation of calcite using the constant composition method at constant supersaturation, through controlled addition of reactants to a semi-batch crystallizer, in order to maintain constant solution pH. The determination of the thermodynamic driving force (supersaturation) was based on the relevant chemical equilibria, total alkalinity and calculation of the activity coefficients. Calcite crystallization rates were derived from the experiments performed at supersaturation levels similar to those found in industrial station cooling circuits. Several types of seeds particles were added into the aqueous solution to mimic natural river water conditions in terms of suspended particulate matters content, typically: calcite, silica or illite particles. The effect of citric and copolycarboxylic additive inhibitors added to the aqueous solution was studied. The calcium carbonate growth rate was reduced by 38.6% in the presence of the citric additive and a reduction of 92.7% was observed when the copolycarboxylic additive was used under identical experimental conditions. These results are explained by the location of the adsorbed inhibitor at the crystal surface and by the degree of chemical bonding to the surface.

  18. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens) (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher Eagar


    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO3, a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition...

  19. Effect of calcium phosphate addition on sintering of El-Oued sand quartz raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Foughali


    Full Text Available This work addresses the development of an eventual low cost ceramic insulating or microfiltration membrane supports from inexpensive raw materials such Eloued quartz sand (EQS and calcium phosphate (CP using uniaxially dry compaction method. The prepared samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging between 1200 and 1550 ºC. Subsequently, the effects of sintering temperature and amount of CP on samples proprieties were investigated. It is observed that X-ray diffracion measurements confirmed that EQS was transformed into cristobalite and tridymite phases when both sintering temperature and holding time were increased. This transformation is favored with increasing amount of CP, it is observed also formation of CaSiO3 and Ca(Fe(AlPO4. The SEM images of the samples sintered at different temperatures illustrate that silica grains, CP grains, intergranular phase contents (Si, Ca, P, and O and an important open porosity depend on the sintering temperature. The porosity ratio changes in the range between 37% and 34% according to sintering temperature and to CP content; these values are in good agreement with SEM images. The thermal expansion behavior shows a weak expansion in the range of temperature between 600 and 1000 ºC which is situated between 1.27% and 1.33% (variation of 0.05% at 400 ºC.

  20. Influence of addition of calcium sulfate dihydrate on drying of autoclaved aerated concrete (United States)

    Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Chojnowski, Jacek


    The quality of the autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) strongly depends on the chemical composition of the raw materials, as well as on the process of the hydrothermal reaction during autoclaving. Performance parameters depend on material structure: fine micron-scale matrix porosity generated by the packing of thin tobermorite plates and coarse aeration pores arising from the foaming of wet mix. In this study the binder varied in calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) content. Five series of AAC specimens were produced, with gypsum content 0; 0.55; 1.15; 2.3 and 3.5% of dry mass respectively. AAC units were produced in UNIPOL technology. The study presents experimental results of AAC moisture stabilization. The initial moisture content was determined directly after autoclaving. Slower drying process was observed for samples containing over 2% of gypsum. Whereas other performance parameters, compressive and tensile strength, as well as water absorption and capillary rise, were significantly better comparing to the reference AAC samples.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustinova Yuliya Valer'evna


    A. It is identified that additives based on polymers of different origin affect processes of crystallization, the size and shape of crystals. B. The X-ray diffraction analysis has proven that molecules of polymer additives do not penetrate into the gypsum structure and the chemical composition of the product does not change. C. Methods of thermal analysis have proven that the introduction of polymer additives does not produce any adverse impact on the stability of gypsum crystals, if exposed to temperature fluctuations. D. The major impact produced onto crystallization is the one of the super plasticizer based on the sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resin.

  2. Calcium phosphate cements properties with polymers addition; Propriedades do cimento de fosfato de calcio com adicao de polimeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.M.; Trajano, W.T.; Escobar, C.F.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)


    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have attracted great interest to use in orthopedics and dentistry as replacements for damaged parts of the skeletal system, showing good biocompatibility and osseointegration, allowing its use as bone graft. Several studies have shown that the addition of polymer additives have a strong influence on the cement properties. The low mechanical strength is the main obstacle to greater use of CPC as an implant material. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of a cement based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), added polymers. PVA (10%, 8%, 6%), sodium alginate (2%) and polyacrylate ammonia (3%), all in weight, were added to the synthesized α-TCP powder. The samples were molded and evaluated for density, porosity in vitro test (Simulated Body Fluid), crystalline phases and mechanical strength. The results show increased the mechanical properties of the cement when added these polymers.

  3. Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene-styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev


    Full Text Available Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene – styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate. This paper presents the results of the study of physical – mechanical and service properties of the asphaltic concrete modified with the mineral polymeric composition. Calcium carbonate is used both as a filler and a coagulant. The chalk was preliminarily ground and hydrophobizated by stearic acid. These operations contribute to even distribution of the filler and interfere with lump coagulation. As a result of the experiments, it was found that the best results were obtained by combining the operations of dispersion and hydrophobization. The optimal amount of stearic acid providing the finest grinding in a ball mill is a content from 3 to 5% by weight. The optimal grinding time of the filler was found (4–6 hours. With increasing dispersion time the particles form agglomerates. Filling the butadiene styrene latex with the hydrophobic fine-grained calcium carbonate was carried out in the laboratory mixer. As a result of the experimental works, it was found that the best distribution of the filler takes place with ratio of rubber: chalk – 100:400. The resulting modifier was subjected to the thermal analysis on the derivatograph to determine its application temperature interval. A marked reduction in weight of the mineral polymeric modifier begins at 350 °C. Thus, high temperature of the modifier destruction allows to use it at the temperature of the technological process of asphaltic concrete preparation (up to 170 °C. It was found that an increase in the amount of the carbonate filler in the rubber SKS 30АRК significantly increases its thermal resistance and connection of the polymer with the chalk in the composition.

  4. Optimizing and evaluating the biocompatibility of fiber composites with calcium phosphate additives. (United States)

    Suchý, Tomáš; Balík, Karel; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Sochor, Miroslav; Lapčíková, Monika; Sedláček, Radek


    Composite materials based on a polyamide fabric (aramid) and a polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix were designed for application in bone surgery. In order to increase the bioactivity, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 vol.% of nano/micro hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were added. We studied the effect of the additives on the biocompatibility of the composite. It appears that nano additives have a more favorable effect on mechanical properties than microparticles. 15 vol.% of nano hydroxyapatite additive is an optimum amount for final application of the composites as substitutes for bone tissue: in this case both the mechanical properties and the biological properties are optimized without distinct changes in the inner structure of the composite.

  5. In situ electron microscopy studies of calcium carbonate precipitation from aqueous solution with and without organic additives. (United States)

    Verch, Andreas; Morrison, Ian E G; Locht, Renee van de; Kröger, Roland


    For the understanding of mineral formation processes from solution it is important to obtain a deeper insight into the dynamics of crystal growth. In this study we applied for this purpose a novel atmospheric scanning electron microscope that allows the investigation of CaCO3 particle formation in solution under atmospheric conditions with a resolution of approximately 10nm. Furthermore it permits the in situ observation of the dynamics of crystal evolution. With this tool the precipitation of CaCO3 was studied in the absence and presence of additives, namely poly(acrylic acid) and poly(styrene sulfonate-co-maleic acid) which are known to influence the crystal growth rate and morphology. We determined particle growth rates and investigated the formation and dissolution dynamics of an observed transient phase, believed to be amorphous calcium carbonate. This technique also enabled us to study the depletion zones, areas of lower intensity due to reduced ion concentrations. Ion flux rates were obtained from the depletion zone width, which amounted to several μm assuming the formation and dissolution dynamics of amorphous calcium carbonate being the rate determining process. This assumption was confirmed since the obtained fluxes were found to be in good agreement with fluxes derived from the experimentally observed crystal growth rates. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of glycerol concentrations on the mechanical properties of additive manufactured porous calcium polyphosphate structures for bone substitute applications. (United States)

    Sheydaeian, Esmat; Vlasea, Mihaela; Woo, Ami; Pilliar, Robert; Hu, Eugene; Toyserkani, Ehsan


    This article addresses the effects of glycerol (GLY) concentrations on the mechanical properties of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute structures manufactured using binder jetting additive manufacturing. To achieve this goal, nine types of water-based binder solutions were prepared with 10, 12.5, and 15 wt % GLY liquid-binding agent, mixed, respectively, with 0, 0.75, and 1.5 wt % ethylene glycol diacetate (EGD) flow enhancer. The print quality of each of the solutions was established quantitatively using an image processing algorithm. The print quality analysis narrowed down the solutions to three batches containing 1.5 wt % EGD and variable amount of GLY. These solutions were used to manufacture porous CPP bone substitute samples, which were characterized physically to determine shrinkage, porosity, microstructure, and compression strength. The 12.5 wt % GLY, 1.5 wt % EGD solution resulted in the highest mechanical strength after sintering (34.6 ± 5.8 MPa), illustrating similar mechanical properties when compared to previous studies (33.9 ± 6.3 MPa) of additively manufactured CPP bone substitutes using a commercially available binder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 828-835, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen


    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  8. Effect of additive calcium administration on FGF23 levels in patients with mild chronic kidney disease treated with calcitriol: a randomized, open-labeled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han N


    Full Text Available Nayoung Han,1,* Su Hyun Hong,1,2,* Yon Su Kim,3 Dong Ki Kim,3 In-Wha Kim,1 Eunhee Ji,4 Jung Mi Oh1 1Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 2Pharmaceutical Standardization Division, Drug Evaluation Department, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Chungcheongbuk-do, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 4College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of additional calcium carbonate treatment on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 levels in patients treated with calcitriol.Methods: In this randomized, open-labeled, and parallel-group study, a total of 30 patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD and vitamin D deficiency were randomly assigned to two groups and received interventions for 8 weeks: 1 a combination of calcium carbonate and calcitriol group; and 2 calcitriol only group. The primary outcome was the difference in percentage change of serum FGF23 levels from baseline between the two groups. Secondary end points included the changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD from baseline.Results: Serum FGF23 levels were more elevated in the combination group than in the calcitriol-alone group. However, both mean change and percentage change in the serum FGF23 levels during the 8-week period were not significantly different between the two groups. Serum calcium level was increased significantly only in the combination treatment group. There was no significant difference in percentage change of serum calcium levels between the two groups. In addition, changes in serum levels of phosphate, 25(OHD, or PTH were not significantly different between the two groups. In

  9. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings with the addition of trace elements and polyaspartic acid by a low-thermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Sanzhong; Lin Xiangjin [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Yang Xianyan; Chen Xiaoyi; Gao Changyou; Gou Zhongru [Zhejiang-California International NanoSystems Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Lei; Yang Guojing, E-mail: [Rui' an People' s Hospital and the 3rd Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College, Rui' an 325200 (China)


    Research in the field of orthopedic implantology is currently focused on developing methodologies to potentiate osseointegration and to expedite the reestablishment of full functionality. We have developed a simple biomimetic approach for preparing trace elements-codoped calcium phosphate (teCaP) coatings on a titanium substrate. The reaction proceeded via low-thermal incubation in trace elements (TEs)-added simulated body fluid (teSBF) at 90 and 120 deg. C. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses demonstrated that the teCaP coating was the composite of hydroxyapatite and whitlockite, simultaneously doped with magnesium, strontium, zinc and silicon. The addition of polyaspartic acid and TEs into SBF significantly densified the coating. The incubation temperature is another important factor controlling the coating precipitation rate and bonding strength. An incubation temperature of 120 deg. C could accelerate the coating precipitation and improve the interface bonding strength. The in vitro cell culture investigation indicated that the teCaP coating supported the adhesion and spreading of ovariectomized rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and particularly, promoted rMSCs proliferation compared to the CaP coating prepared in SBF. Collectively, from such a biomimetic route there potentially arises a general procedure to prepare a wide range of bioactive teCaP coatings of different composition for osteoporotic osteogenic cells activation response.

  10. Synthesis of Ag doped calcium phosphate particles and their antibacterial effect as additives in dental glass ionomer cements. (United States)

    Chen, Song; Gururaj, Satwik; Xia, Wei; Engqvist, Håkan


    Developing dental restorations with enhanced antibacterial properties has been a constant quest for materials scientists. The aim of this study was to synthesize silver doped calcium phosphate particles and use them to improve antibacterial properties of conventional glass ionomer cement. The Ag doped monetite (Ag-DCPA) and hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) were synthesized by precipitation method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The antibacterial properties of the cements aged for 1 day and 7 days were evaluated by direct contact measurement using staphylococcus epidermis Xen 43. Ion concentrations (F- and Ag+) and pH were measured to correlate to the results of the antibacterial study. The compressive strength of the cements was evaluated with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The glass ionomer cements containing silver doped hydroxyapatite or monetite showed improved antibacterial properties. Addition of silver doped hydroxyapatite or monetite did not change the pH and ion release of F-. Concentration of Ag+ was under the detection limit (0.001 mg/L) for all samples. Silver doped hydroxyapatite or monetite had no effect on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement.

  11. Addition of a Synthetically Fabricated Osteoinductive Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft to BMP2 Improves New Bone Formation. (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Wei; Fu, Hang; Qian, Li; Miron, Richard J


    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) has been successfully utilized in dentistry to promote new bone formation because of its osteoinductive ability to recruit mesenchymal progenitor cells and induce their differentiation to bone-forming osteoblasts. Recently, novel biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds have been developed with similar osteoinductive properties capable of forming ectopic bone formation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the combination of BMP2 with this novel Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) scaffold may additionally promote new bone regeneration. Cylindrical bone defects measuring 2.5 mm were created bilaterally in the femurs of 18 Wistar rats. After 4 weeks, the following six groups were assessed for new bone formation by micro-computed tomography (CT) as well as histological assessment: 1) collagen scaffolds + 20 μg of BMP2; 2) collagen scaffolds + 50 μg of BMP2; 3) collagen scaffolds + 100 μg of BMP2; 4) BCP scaffolds + 20 μg of BMP2; 5) BCP scaffolds + 50 μg of BMP2; and 6) BCP scaffolds + 100 μg of BMP2. Furthermore, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was utilized to assess osteoclast activity and osteoclast number. The release kinetics of BMP2 from both BCP and collagen scaffolds was investigated over a 14-day period. The results from present study demonstrate that BMP2 is able to promote new bone formation in a concentration dependant manner when loaded with either a collagen scaffolds or BCP scaffolds. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated significantly higher levels of new bone formation in groups containing BCP + BMP2 when compared with collagen scaffolds + BMP2. BMP2 had little effect on osteoclast activity; however, less TRAP staining and osteoclast number was observed in the defects receiving collagen scaffolds when compared with BCP scaffolds. The release of BMP2 over time was rapidly released after 1 day on BCP scaffolds whereas a gradually release over

  12. Synthesis of calcium aluminate with silicon addition for application in biomaterials; Sintese de aluminato de calcio com adicao de prata para aplicacao em biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, P.J.; Almeida, L.H.S.; Pappen, F.G.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Cava, S.S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil); Veiga, F.C.T.; Jurado, J., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Ceramic materials have biocompatibility have been studied, researched and applied in various treatments such as endodontics and orthopedics. This study aims to carry out the synthesis by the polymeric precursor method for post calcium trialuminato (C3A) and with addition of 1% and 5% silver, them the powders were calcined in de temperature 1000°C, carried out a comparative study between them. The ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, having a phase composition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) associated with EDS observed grain morphology and quantity of the chemical elements. The analysis flow, pH, release of calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) and silver ions (Ag{sup +}) were evaluated with the sealer MTA Fillapex result that calcium aluminate addition of silver improved the MTA Fillapex stream with the release of ions Ca{sup +2}, being a material that allows applications in the field of endodontics. (author)

  13. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher. Eagar


    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar...

  14. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn. Material and Methods White MTA (Angelus, Brazil; PC (70%+ZrO2 (30%; PC (60%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (10%; PC (50%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (20% were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1 in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. Results There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p>0.05 and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05. The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p<0.05. MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05. All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05. Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05 after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. Conclusions The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%, the final setting time and

  15. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of conventional glass ionomer cement after the addition of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate: An in vitro study

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    Shalini Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Background: Casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP products have gained much importance in restorative dentistry and minimally invasive dentistry. Addition of CPP into glass ionomer cement (GIC has been shown to interact with fluoride ions to produce an additive anticariogenic effect through the formation of stabilized amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate phase. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the additive effect of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of conventional GIC. Materials and Methods: The control GIC was prepared with self-curing GIC. The GIC containing CPP-ACP was prepared from the same batch, with 1.56% w/w CPP-ACP incorporated. Compressive strength and microtensile bond strength tests were done. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis was used to determine the composition of various structural phases. Results: Incorporation of 1.56% w/w CPP-ACP into the GIC resulted in an increase in compressive strength and microtensile bond strength. The representative EDX spectra taken showed enhanced release of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions.

  16. The application of chitosan/collagen/hyaluronic acid sponge cross-linked by dialdehyde starch addition as a matrix for calcium phosphate in situ precipitation. (United States)

    Kaczmarek, B; Sionkowska, A; Osyczka, A M


    Scaffolds based on chitosan, collagen and hyaluronic acid, cross-linked by dialdehyde starch were obtained through the freeze-drying method. The porous structures were used as matrixes for calcium phosphate in situ precipitation. Composites were characterized by different analyses, e.g. infrared spectroscopy, SEM images, porosity, density, and mechanical tests. Moreover, an examination involving the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic method was carried out for the calcium and phosphorus ratio determination. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells were examined on the obtained scaffolds. The results showed that the properties of the scaffolds based on chitosan, collagen, and hyaluronic acid can be modified by dialdehyde starch addition. The mechanical parameters (i.e. compressive modulus and maximum compressive force), porosity, and density of the material were improved. Calcium phosphate was deposited in the scaffolds at the Ca/P ratio ∼2. SEM images showed the homogeneous structure, with interconnected pores. The cross-linker addition and an inorganic compound precipitation improved the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. The obtained materials can provide the support required in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Addition of Wollastonite Fibers to Calcium Phosphate Cement Increases Cell Viability and Stimulates Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells

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    Juliana Almeida Domingues


    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate cement (CPC that is based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP is considered desirable for bone tissue engineering because of its relatively rapid degradation properties. However, such cement is relatively weak, restricting its use to areas of low mechanical stress. Wollastonite fibers (WF have been used to improve the mechanical strength of biomaterials. However, the biological properties of WF remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the response of osteoblast-like cells to being cultured on CPC reinforced with 5% of WF (CPC-WF. We found that both types of cement studied achieved an ion balance for calcium and phosphate after 3 days of immersion in culture medium and this allowed subsequent long-term cell culture. CPC-WF increased cell viability and stimulated cell differentiation, compared to nonreinforced CPC. We hypothesize that late silicon release by CPC-WF induces increased cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on our findings, we propose that CPC-WF is a promising material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  18. Guanosine 5′-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers


    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, Heekyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun; Koh, Hong Bum


    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate wer...

  19. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome: Appraising the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in addition to calcium supplement plus vitamin D. (United States)

    Karimi, Zahra; Dehkordi, Mahnaz Aliakbari; Alipour, Ahmad; Mohtashami, Tayebeh


    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) consists of repetitious physical and psychological symptoms. The symptoms occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual period and cease when the menstrual period starts. This study included pre-test and post-test experiments between a control group and a test group. The statistical population involved 40 females, chosen based on multistage cluster sampling. The participants were then divided into four groups to undergo treatment with calcium supplement plus vitamin D together with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and were screened with the Premenstrual Syndrome Screening Test (PSST). The pre-test and post-test scores in the PSST, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and Bell's Adjustment Inventory (BAI) were used as assessment tools (p MANCOVA) results collected from the pre-test and post-test scores revealed that the method of treatment was beneficial for PMS, adjustment, and general health. © 2018 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Effects of the addition of nanoparticulate calcium carbonate on setting time, dimensional change, compressive strength, solubility and pH of MTA. (United States)

    Bernardi, A; Bortoluzzi, E A; Felippe, W T; Felippe, M C S; Wan, W S; Teixeira, C S


    To evaluate nanoparticulate calcium carbonate (NPCC) using transmission electron microscopy and the effects of NPCC addition to MTA in regard to the setting time, dimensional change, compressive strength, solubility and pH. The experimental groups were G1 (MTA), G2 (MTA with 5% NPCC) and G3 (MTA with 10% NPCC). The tests followed ISO and ADA standards. The specimens in the dimensional change and compressive strength tests were measured immediately after setting, after 24 h and after 30 days. In the solubility test, rings filled with cement were weighed after setting and after 30 days. The pH was measured after 24 h and 30 days. The data were analysed with the ANOVA, Tukey's and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 5%). The setting time was reduced (P  G2 > G3). The solubility test revealed a difference amongst the groups when the specimens were hydrated: G2 > G1 > G3 and dehydrated: G3 > G2 > G1. The pH of the groups was similar at 24 h with higher values in each group after 30 days (P calcium carbonate had a cubic morphology with few impurities. The addition of nanoparticulate calcium carbonate to MTA accelerated the setting time, decreased compressive strength and, after 30 days, resulted in lower dimensional change (G2), higher solubility and a higher pH. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens). (United States)

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Eagar, Christopher


    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO(3), a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition watershed) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH). We analyzed nutrition, soluble sugar concentrations, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and cold tolerance, to evaluate the basis of recent (2003) differences between watersheds in red spruce foliar winter injury. Foliar Ca and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed during both fall (P=0.037 and 0.035, respectively) and winter (P=0.055 and 0.036, respectively). The Ca-addition treatment significantly increased foliar fructose and glucose concentrations in November (P=0.013 and 0.007, respectively) and foliar sucrose concentrations in winter (P=0.040). Foliar APX activity was similar in trees in both watersheds during fall (P=0.28), but higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed during winter (P=0.063). Cold tolerance of foliage was significantly greater in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed (P<0.001). Our results suggest that low foliar sugar concentrations and APX activity, and reduced cold tolerance in trees in the reference watershed contributed to their high vulnerability to winter injury in 2003. Because the reference watershed reflects forest conditions in the region, the consequences of impaired physiological function caused by soil Ca depletion may have widespread implications for forest health.

  2. Reduction of calcium flux from the extracellular region and endoplasmic reticulum by amorphous nano-silica particles owing to carboxy group addition on their surface

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    Akira Onodera


    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that amorphous nano-silica particles (nano-SPs modulate calcium flux, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. We thus analyzed the relationship between calcium flux and particle surface properties and determined the calcium flux route. Treatment of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts with nano-SPs with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70 increased cytosolic calcium concentration, but that with SPs with a diameter of 300 or 1000 nm did not. Surface modification of nSP70 with a carboxy group also did not modulate calcium flux. Pretreatment with a general calcium entry blocker almost completely suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. Preconditioning by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium stores slightly suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. These results indicate that nSP70 mainly modulates calcium flux across plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent activation of the ER calcium pump, and that the potential of calcium flux by nano-SPs is determined by the particle surface charge.

  3. Reduction of calcium flux from the extracellular region and endoplasmic reticulum by amorphous nano-silica particles owing to carboxy group addition on their surface. (United States)

    Onodera, Akira; Yayama, Katsutoshi; Morosawa, Hideto; Ishii, Yukina; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Kawai, Yuichi


    Several studies have reported that amorphous nano-silica particles (nano-SPs) modulate calcium flux, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. We thus analyzed the relationship between calcium flux and particle surface properties and determined the calcium flux route. Treatment of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts with nano-SPs with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) increased cytosolic calcium concentration, but that with SPs with a diameter of 300 or 1000 nm did not. Surface modification of nSP70 with a carboxy group also did not modulate calcium flux. Pretreatment with a general calcium entry blocker almost completely suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. Preconditioning by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores slightly suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. These results indicate that nSP70 mainly modulates calcium flux across plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent activation of the ER calcium pump, and that the potential of calcium flux by nano-SPs is determined by the particle surface charge.

  4. Guanosine 5'-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers. (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, HeeKyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun; Koh, Hong Bum


    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate were observed, and Salmonella Gallinarum was re-isolated from the liver, spleen, and cecum of the layers. All tested internal organs for the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited significantly lower re-isolation numbers of Salmonella Gallinarum and less severe pathological changes than those in the control group, indicating that the CaFe-GMP feed supplement induced bacterial clearance and increased resistance to Salmonella Gallinarum. Additionally, due to the inhibitory action of CaFe-GMP on the growth of Salmonella Gallinarum, the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited better egg production, including a higher laying rate and fewer broken eggs. The results suggest that a 0.16% CaFe-GMP additive may help prevent salmonellosis in the poultry industry.

  5. Guanosine 5′-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, HeeKyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun


    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate were observed, and Salmonella Gallinarum was re-isolated from the liver, spleen, and cecum of the layers. All tested internal organs for the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited significantly lower re-isolation numbers of Salmonella Gallinarum and less severe pathological changes than those in the control group, indicating that the CaFe-GMP feed supplement induced bacterial clearance and increased resistance to Salmonella Gallinarum. Additionally, due to the inhibitory action of CaFe-GMP on the growth of Salmonella Gallinarum, the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited better egg production, including a higher laying rate and fewer broken eggs. The results suggest that a 0.16% CaFe-GMP additive may help prevent salmonellosis in the poultry industry. PMID:28057911

  6. Evaluation of calcium cyanamide addition during co-composting of manure and maize straw in a forced-aeration static-pile system. (United States)

    Simujide, Huasai; Aorigele, Chen; Wang, Chun-Jie; Zhang, Tian-Hua; Manda, Bai


    Composting is one of the most environmentally friendly treatments to inactivate pathogenic organisms or reduce them to acceptable levels. However, even under thermal conditions, some pathogenic organisms such as E. coli could exist for a long time in composting. Such great persistence may increase the possibility of outbreaks of these organisms and further increase the environmental load. Calcium cyanamide (CaCN2) has recently been recognized to have the fungicidal effect on the pathogens of the soilborne diseases. So, the present study determined the effect of CaCN2 addition on composting progress as an antimicrobial agent and an amendment during forced-aeration static-pile composting of cow manure, which was mainly aimed to inhibit the pathogens that had not been inactivated by heat during composting. The mixtures of dairy cow manure and maize straw with addition of 2 % CaCN2 or no addition were composted for 63 days. The physical, chemical and biological changes in compost mixtures were examined during composting. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA procedure from SAS software (version 9.0). The results showed that the addition of CaCN2 significantly increased the maximum temperature and lengthened the duration of the thermophilic phase, and increased the percent T-N but decreased C/N ratio. For microbiological test, the addition of CaCN2 shortened the time to inactivate E. coli, and increased the total average population of thermophilic bacteria but did not significantly influence that of mesophilic bacteria. The results indicated that the addition of CaCN2, at least at the additive content of 2 % could benefit the thermophilic phase and the composting could quickly reach the sanitary standard during the composting of manure with maize straw in a forced-aeration static-pile system. This finding will contribute to solve the feces disposal problems.

  7. Additive effect of calcium depletion and low resource quality on Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) life history traits. (United States)

    Rollin, Marc; Coulaud, Romain; Danger, Michael; Sohm, Bénédicte; Flayac, Justine; Bec, Alexandre; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Felten, Vincent


    Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G. fossarum. To investigate the effects of food resources quality, we experimentally manipulated the P content of sycamore leaves and also used diatoms because they contain high amounts of HUFAs. Three resource quality treatments were tested: low quality (LQ, unmanipulated leaves: low P content), high quality 1 (HQ1; P-manipulated leaves: high P content), and high quality 2 (unmanipulated leaves supplemented with a pellet containing diatoms: high P and HUFA content). Naturally, demineralised stream water was supplemented with CaSO 4 to obtain three Ca concentrations (2, 3.5, and 10.5 mg Ca L -1 ). For 21 days, pairs of G. fossarum were individually exposed to one of the nine treatments (3 [Ca] × 3 resource qualities). At the individual level, strong and significant delays in moult stage were observed in gammarids exposed to lower [Ca] and to lower resource quality, with additive effects lengthening the duration of the reproductive cycle. Effects at the molecular level were investigated by measuring expression of 12 genes involved in energy production, translation, or Ca or P homeostasis. Expression of ATP synthase beta (higher in HQ2), calcified cuticle protein (higher in HQ1 and HQ2), and tropomyosin (higher in HQ2 compared to HQ1) was significantly affected by resource quality, and significant additive effects on Ca transporting ATPase expression were induced by

  8. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives (United States)

    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru


    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  9. Copolymer SJ-1 as a Fluid Loss Additive for Drilling Fluid with High Content of Salt and Calcium

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    Hongping Quan


    Full Text Available A ternary copolymer of 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS, acrylamide (AM, and allyl alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (APEG with a side chain polyoxyethylene ether (C2H4On SJ-1 were designed and synthesized in this work. Good temperature resistance and salt tolerance of “–SO3-” of AMPS, strong absorption ability of “amino-group” of AM, and good hydrability of side chain polyoxyethylene ether (C2H4On of APEG provide SJ-1 excellent properties as a fluid loss additive. The chemical structure of ternary copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and its distribution were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The API fluid loss of drilling fluid decreased gradually with the increasing concentration of NaCl and CaCl2 in the mud system. SJ-1 was applied well in the drilling fluid even at a high temperature of 220°C. Results of zeta potential of modified drilling fluid showed the dispersion stability of drilling fluid system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis showed the microstructure of the surface of the filter cake obtained from the drilling fluid modified by SJ-1.

  10. Addition of Phenylboronic Acid to Malus domestica Pollen Tubes Alters Calcium Dynamics, Disrupts Actin Filaments and Affects Cell Wall Architecture.

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    Kefeng Fang

    Full Text Available A key role of boron in plants is to cross-link the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II through borate diester linkages. Phenylboronic acid (PBA can form the same reversible ester bonds but cannot cross-link two molecules, so can be used as an antagonist to study the function of boron. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PBA on apple (Malus domestica pollen tube growth and the underlying regulatory mechanism. We observed that PBA caused an inhibition of pollen germination, tube growth and led to pollen tube morphological abnormalities. Fluorescent labeling, coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique, revealed that PBA induced an increase in extracellular Ca2+ influx, thereby elevating the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]c and disrupting the [Ca2+]c gradient, which is critical for pollen tube growth. Moreover the organization of actin filaments was severely perturbed by the PBA treatment. Immunolocalization studies and fluorescent labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR suggested that PBA caused an increase in the abundance of callose, de-esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs at the tip. However, it had no effect on the deposition of the wall polymers cellulose. These effects are similar to those of boron deficiency in roots and other organs, indicating that PBA can induce boron deficiency symptoms. The results provide new insights into the roles of boron in pollen tube development, which likely include regulating [Ca2+]c and the formation of the actin cytoskeleton, in addition to the synthesis and assembly of cell wall components.

  11. Effects of the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed


    Recently, the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into glass ionomer cements (GICs) has attracted interest due to its remineralization of teeth and its antibacterial effects. However, it should be investigated to ensure that the incorporation of CPP-ACP does not have significant adverse effects on its mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC. The first step was to synthesize the CPP-ACP. Then the CPP-ACP at concentrations of 1%, 1.56% and 2% of CPP-ACP was added into a luting and lining GIC. GIC without CPP-ACP was used as a control group. The results revealed that the incorporation of CPP-ACP up to 1.56%(w/w) increased the flexural strength (29%), diametral tensile strength (36%) and microhardness (18%), followed by a reduction in these mechanical properties at 2%(w/w) CPP-ACP. The wear rate was significantly decreased (23%) in 1.56%(w/w) concentration of CPP-ACP and it was increased in 2%(w/w). Accordingly, the addition of 1.56%(w/w) CPP-ACP into luting and lining GIC had no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC and could be used in clinical practice.

  12. Calcium - urine (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  13. Determination of Iron (Fe and Calcium (Ca in NIST SRM 1566b (Oyster tissue using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS by Standard Addition Method

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    Fitri Dara


    Full Text Available NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1566b was employed for the determination of Iron (Fe andCalcium (Ca as nutrients in food matrix using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS. Thecertified value of SRM 1566b for Fe and Ca are 205.8 ± 6.8 mg/kg and 0.0838 ± 0.0020 (% or 838 ±20 mg/kg, respectively. This certified values are based on results obtained by single primary method(Isotope Dilution Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry at NIST with confirmation by othermethods at National Metrology Institute of P.R. China. This paper proposed a method fordetermination of Fe and Ca in food matrix as recommended by AOAC official with a littlemodification. The method was commenced from the destruction of all organic matter by dry oxidationbefore analysis by standard addition. Under optimum condition, the results of the determination of Feand Ca in SRM 1566b were agreed well with the certificate value. This method would be useful forroutine analysis in food testing laboratories.

  14. Inhibition of iron absorption by calcium is modest in an iron-fortified, casein- and whey-based drink in Indian children and is easily compensated for by addition of ascorbic acid. (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Muthayya, Sumithra; Wegmüller, Rita; Thankachan, Prashanth; Sierksma, Aafje; Frenken, Leon G J; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura; Hurrell, Richard F


    Calcium inhibits and ascorbic acid (AA) enhances iron absorption from iron-fortified foods. Absorption efficiency depends on iron status, although the interaction is unclear. We investigated the ability of AA to overcome calcium-induced inhibition of iron absorption in children differing in iron status. The effect of calcium (0, 100, and 200 mg/test meal) on iron absorption in the absence and presence of AA (0, 42.5, and 85 mg/test meal) from a casein/whey-based drink fortified with ferrous sulfate was assessed in a series of randomized crossover studies both in iron-replete (IR) Indian schoolchildren and in children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (6-11 y; n = 14-16/group) by using stable isotopes. In the absence of calcium and AA, iron absorption from the casein/whey-based drink was 20% lower in IR children than in children with IDA. The addition of calcium reduced mean iron absorption by 18-27%, with the effect being stronger for high added calcium (P < 0.01). AA at a 2:1 or 4:1 molar ratio enhanced iron absorption by a factor of 2-4 and greatly overcompensated for the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). The dose-response effect tended to be stronger (P < 0.1) in the IDA group, and iron status was of far less influence on iron absorption than the enhancing effect of AA. When adding AA to iron-fortified milk products, care should be taken not to provide absorbable iron in excess of needs. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H


    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  16. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA. (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Greg B; Sullivan, Joseph H


    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  17. Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  18. Calcium supplements (United States)

    ... this page: // Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate. (United States)


    ... precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with calcium carbonate... precipitated calcium carbonate in the United States Pharmacopeia XX (1980). (c) Uses and restrictions. Calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070 Food...

  20. Gene delivery using calcium phosphate nanoparticles: Optimization of the transfection process and the effects of citrate and poly(l-lysine) as additives. (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed A; Wu, Victoria M; Ghosh, Shreya; Uskoković, Vuk


    Despite the long history of nanoparticulate calcium phosphate (CaP) as a non-viral transfection agent, there has been limited success in attempts to optimize its properties for transfection comparable in efficiency to that of viral vectors. Here we focus on the optimization of: (a) CaP nanoparticle precipitation conditions, predominantly supersaturation and Ca/P molar ratios; (b) transfection conditions, mainly the concentrations of the carrier and plasmid DNA; (c) the presence of surface additives, including citrate anion and cationic poly(l-lysine) (PLL). CaP nanoparticles significantly improved transfection with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells compared to a commercial non-viral carrier. At the same time they elicited significantly lesser cytotoxicity than the commercial carrier. Plasmid DNA acted as a nucleation promoter, decreasing the nucleation lag time of metastable CaP solutions and leading to a higher rate of nucleation and a lower size of the precipitated particles. The degree of supersaturation (DS) of 15 was found to be more optimal for transfection than that of 12.5 or 17.5 and higher. Because CaP particles precipitated at DS 15 were spherical, while DS 17.5 and 21 yielded acicular particles, it was concluded that spherical particle morphologies were more conducive to transfection than the anisotropic ones. Even though the yield at DS 15 was 10 and 100 times lower than that at DS 17.5 and 21, respectively, transfection rates were higher using CaP nanoparticle colloids prepared at DS 15 than using those made at higher or lower DS, indicating that the right particle morphology can outweigh the difference in the amount of the carrier, even when this difference is close to 100×. In contrast to the commercial carrier, the concentration of CaP-pDNA delivered to the cells was directly proportional to the transfection rate. Osteosarcoma K7M2 cells were four times more easily transfectable with

  1. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.


    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  2. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Suzuki


    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  3. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  4. Determination of Iron (Fe) and Calcium (Ca) in NIST SRM 1566b (Oyster tissue) using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS) by Standard Addition Method


    Fitri Dara; Y Susanto Ridwan


    NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1566b) was employed for the determination of Iron (Fe) andCalcium (Ca) as nutrients in food matrix using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS). Thecertified value of SRM 1566b for Fe and Ca are 205.8 ± 6.8 mg/kg and 0.0838 ± 0.0020 (%) or 838 ±20 mg/kg, respectively. This certified values are based on results obtained by single primary method(Isotope Dilution Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry) at NIST with confirmation by othermethods at ...

  5. Addition of 1, 2 and 3% in mass of sodium alginate in calcium phosphate cement; Adicao de alginato de sodio a cimento de fosfato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LABIOMAT/UFRS), RS (Brazil)


    The calcium phosphate cement (CFC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity and osteotransdutivity, and a paste that can be easily molded and placed into the surgical site. However, CFCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. Aiming to evaluate the strength and time to handle a CFC phase composed mainly of alpha were added to sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator handle in an aqueous medium. The cement powder was mixed with liquid takes 2 minutes and resigned in specimens and assessed for apparent density and porosity by the Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and mechanical strength. We noticed a significant increase in mechanical properties of cement added sodium alginate. (author)

  6. Assessment of the acute toxicity of eutrophic sediments after the addition of calcium nitrate (Ibirité reservoir, Minas Gerais-SE Brazil: initial laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Janke

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acute toxicity of sediment in a eutrophic reservoir after remediation with a calcium nitrate solution to retain phosphorus. The study involved microcosms of surface sediments and water from the sediment-water interface in the Ibirité reservoir. This reservoir, located in the vicinity of metropolitan Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, SE Brazil, is a water body that receives treated effluents from an oil refinery (REGAP-Petrobras, as well as high loads of untreated urban effluents from the city of Ibirité and surrounding areas and industrial effluents from a major industrial park. Incubation times of the treatment experiments were: t = 0, t = 5, t = 10, t = 25, t = 50, t = 85 and t = 135 days. One control microcosm and three treated microcosms were analysed in each time interval. Acute toxicity of water samples was assessed with Ceriodaphnia silvestrii Daday, 1902 and that of bulk sediment samples with Chironomus xanthus Rempel, 1939. Toxicity tests were carried out concomitantly with chemical analyses of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species (ammonia, nitrate and nitrite, sulfate and metals in the water samples of the microcosms. Acid volatile sulfides (AVS, simultaneously extracted metal (SEM and potentially bioavailable metal were analyzed in bulk sediment samples. Neither of the tested organisms showed toxicity in the control microcosm samples. The water column of the treated microcosm showed toxicity to C. silvestrii, starting at t = 10 days, while the sediment pore water toxicity started at t = 0 day. However, toxicity was found to decline from t = 85 days to t = 135 days. Sediments showed toxicity to C. xanthus during the entire experiment, except at the longest incubation time (t = 135 days. The overall results indicate that nitrate, which reached concentrations exceeding 1,200 mg N-NO3- L-1 in the sediment pore water of the treated microcosms, was most probably responsible for the toxicity of the samples. Although

  7. Additive prognostic value of coronary artery calcium score and renal function in patients with acute chest pain without known coronary artery disease: up to 5-year follow-up. (United States)

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J; Chang, Su Min


    Long-term incremental prognostic value of renal function over coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine additive prognostic value of renal function over CACS in patients with acute chest pain suspected of CAD. Renal function and CACS were assessed in patients without known CAD who presented to the emergency department with chest pain from 2005 to 2008. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as eGFR 400: HR 8.88, p renal function and CACS significantly improved the overall predictive performance (p renal function were independent predictors for future cardiac events and provided additive prognostic value to each other and over either Framingham risk categories or TIMI risk score.

  8. Study of mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement with addition of sodium alginate and dispersant; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de cimento de fosfato de calcio com adicao de alginato de sodio e defloculante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.M.; Coelho, W.T.; Thurmer, M.B.; Vieira, P.S.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), RS (Brazil)


    Several studies in literature have shown that the addition of polymer additives and deflocculant has a strong influence on the mechanical properties of cements in general.The low mechanical strength is the main impediment to wider use of bone cement of calcium phosphate (CFCs) as the implant material, since they have mechanical strength which equals the maximum of trabecular bone.In order to evaluate the strength of a CFC compound alpha-tricalcium phosphate, sodium alginate were added (1%, 2% and 3% by weight) and dispersant ammonium polyacrylate (3%) in aqueous solution.Specimens were made and evaluated for density, porosity, crystalline phases and mechanical strength.The results show the increase of the mechanical properties of cement when added sodium alginate and dispersant. (author)

  9. Optimization of properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from cotton stalk and sawdust containing calcium chloride CaCl2 as an additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza nazerian


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of hydration behavior and mechanical properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from different ratio of cotton stalk to poplar wood particle, sawdust content and CaCl2 as additive at different weight ratios. At the first, curing time of cement paste containing different amount of additive (CaCl2 and wood and cotton fines was determined. Besides, the effect of additive (CaCl2 content, weight ratio of cotton to poplar wood particles and percentage of sawdust on modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE and internal bonding (IB of cement-bonded particleboard was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. In order to optimize the properties of panels, a mathematical model equation (second order plan was done by a computer simulation program. According to results, there is a good coincidence between predicted values and actual values (R2 for MOR, MOE and IB was 0.93, 0.90 and 0.95, respectively. This study showed that the response surface methodology (RSM can be effectively used for modeling of panel properties. Results showed that using weight ratio of cotton to poplar particle 43:57 the MOR, MOE and IB of panels can be reached to maximum values (12.5, 2545 and 0.35 MPa, respectively. Simultaneously, application of 4.5% additive and 9% sawdust at had a positive effect on the properties of the panels.

  10. Effect of various additives on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro bioactivity of sodium oxide-calcium oxide-silica-phosphorus pentoxide glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z


    The partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, or CaF2 for CaO in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 (45S5) system was conducted by the sol-gel method and a comparative study on structural, mechanical properties, and bioactivity of the glasses was reported. Based on thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, the gels were sintered with a suitable heat treatment procedure. The glass-ceramic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and so on, and the bioactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by in vitro assays in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results indicate that with the partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, CaF2 for CaO in glass composition, the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics have been significantly improved. Furthermore, CaF2 promotes glass crystallization and the crystallization does not inhibit the glass-ceramic bioactivity. All samples possess bioactivity; however, the bioactivity of these glass-ceramics is quite different. Compared with 45S5, the introduction of MgO decreases the ability of apatite induction. The addition of TiO2 does not significantly improve the bioactivity, and the replacement of CaO by CaF2 shows a higher bioactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha


    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  12. Morphological Investigation of Calcium Carbonate during Ammonification-Carbonization Process of Low Concentration Calcium Solution


    Huaigang Cheng; Xiaoxi Zhang; Huiping Song


    Ultrafine calcium carbonate is a widely used cheap additive. The research is conducted in low degree supersaturation solution in order to study the polymorphic phases’ change and its factors of the calcium carbonate precipitate in the ammonification-carbonization process of the solution with calcium. Fine particles of calcium carbonate are made in the solution containing 0.015 mol/L of Ca2+. Over 98% of the calcium carbonate precipitate without ammonification resembles the morphology of calci...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1191 - Calcium carbonate. (United States)


    ... Additives § 582.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.1191 Section 582.1191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  15. Get Enough Calcium (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  16. Calcium carbonate overdose (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  17. Influência de aditivos dispersantes e acelerador na hidratação de cimento e cimento-matriz Influence of dispersant and accelerator additives on hydration of calcium aluminate cement and cement-matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Oliveira


    Full Text Available A aplicação de concretos refratários, principalmente na siderurgia, é um processo em constante evolução, que apresenta uma forte dependência dos avanços dos conhecimentos sobre os ligantes hidráulicos. Isso se deve a influência exercida por estes ligantes nas propriedades reológicas e desenvolvimento de resistência mecânica de concretos. O processo de hidratação dos ligantes é sensivelmente influenciado pela presença de aditivos, afetando o tempo requerido para efetuar a desmoldagem do corpo conformado. Além disso, a adição de alumina ao cimento também influencia o seu comportamento de hidratação, bem como a extensão do período de indução, a composição das fases e dos produtos de hidratação. Assim, neste trabalho foi estudada a influência da presença de aditivos dispersantes e/ou acelerador no processo de hidratação de cimento e cimento-matriz. Independente do sistema, os aditivos dispersantes atuaram como retardadores do processo de hidratação, principalmente para o caso do ácido cítrico e citrato de diamônio. Tais aditivos apresentaram-se também como os mais eficientes para a combinação com o acelerador Li2CO3, resultando em um tempo de pega intermediário. Isto mostra ser possível controlar a trabalhabilidade reduzindo o tempo para a desmoldagem.A growing demand for refractory castables with specific behaviors has been promoting a continuous technological evolution, in which, one of the most important aspects concerns in a deep knowledge of hydraulic binders. These materials present a great influence on the rheological properties and mechanical strength development of castables, defining their workability periods and demoulding times, respectively. The hydration process of calcium aluminate cement is influenced by the presence of additives, which affects the setting and demoulding time of the shaped body. Besides that, the alumina addition to cement also influences the hydration behaviour, as well

  18. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.


    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  19. A Closer look at calcium absorption and the benefits and risks of dietary versus supplemental calcium. (United States)

    Booth, Anna; Camacho, Pauline


    To perform a thorough search of the literature on calcium research and specifically address the topic of calcium absorption. PubMed and Ovid were the main engines used for primary literature searches; textbooks, review articles, and book chapters are examples of the other sources used for supplemental information. Regarding calcium absorption, it seems apparent that the absorption efficiency of all calcium salts, regardless of solubility, is fairly equivalent and not significantly less than the absorption efficiency of dietary calcium. However, dietary calcium has been shown to have greater impact in bone building than supplemental calcium. This is likely due to improved absorption with meals and the tendency of people to intake smaller amounts more frequently, which is more ideal for the body's method of absorption. In addition, the cardiovascular risks of excessive calcium intake appear to be more closely related to calcium supplements than dietary calcium; this relationship continues to be controversial in the literature. We conclude that further studies are needed for direct comparison of supplemental and dietary calcium to fully establish if one is superior to the other with regard to improving bone density. We also propose further studies on the cardiovascular risk of long-term increased calcium intake and on physician estimates of patients' daily calcium intake to better pinpoint those patients who require calcium supplementation.

  20. Calcium gluconate supplementation is effective to balance calcium homeostasis in patients with gastrectomy. (United States)

    Krause, M; Keller, J; Beil, B; van Driel, I; Zustin, J; Barvencik, F; Schinke, T; Amling, M


    We demonstrate histological evidence for hyperparathyroidism in patients with gastrectomy. This is, at least in part, explained by impaired calcium absorption, resulting in mineralization defects and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Additionally, we demonstrate improved bone mineralization in patients with gastrectomy after gluconate therapy and showed the effectiveness of calcium gluconate over carbonate to balance impaired calcium hemostasis in mice. Gastrectomy and hypochlorhydria due to long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are associated with increased fracture risk because of intestinal calcium malabsorption. Hence, our objectives were to histologically investigate bone metabolism in patients with gastrectomy and to analyze the impact of calcium gluconate supplementation on skeletal integrity in the setting of impaired gastric acidification. Undecalcified bone biopsies of 26 gastrectomized individuals were histologically analyzed. In the clinical setting, we retrospectively identified 5 gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level, who were additionally supplemented with calcium gluconate and had a real bone mineral density (aBMD) follow-up assessments. A mouse model of achlorhydria (ATP4b-/-) was used to compare the effect of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate supplementation on bone metabolism. Biopsies from gastrectomized individuals showed significantly increased osteoid, osteoclast, and osteoblast indices and fibroosteoclasia (p < 0.05) as well as impaired calcium distribution in mineralized bone matrix compared to healthy controls. Five gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level demonstrated a significant increase in aBMD after a treatment with calcium gluconate alone for at least 6 months (p < 0.05). Calcium gluconate was superior to calcium carbonate in maintaining calcium metabolism in a mouse model of achlorhydria. Gastrectomy is associated with severe osteomalacia, marrow fibrosis, and impaired calcium distribution

  1. Coronary Calcium Scan (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  2. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebbar El-houcine


    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  3. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    Calcium is one of the several elements that can be found in milk distributed between the micellar and the serum milk phase. Calcium is important from a nutritional point of view, but its contribution to the functional and structural properties of dairy products has only recently been...... acknowledgement. The presence of calcium in a dynamic equilibrium between the serum and the micellar milk phase make the distribution susceptible to certain physicochemical conditions and to technological treatments of milk resulting in fluctuations in pH and temperature and also sensitive to addition of calcium...... salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...

  4. Calcium source (image) (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  5. Calcium and bones (image) (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  6. Calcium hydroxide poisoning (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  7. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  8. Calcium blood test (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  9. Presynaptic calcium dynamics of learning neurons


    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Erler, Frido; Soff, Gerhard


    We present a new model for the dynamics of the presynaptic intracellular calcium concentration in neurons evoked by various stimulation protocols. The aim of the model is twofold: We want to discuss the calcium transients during and after specific stimulation protocols as they are used to induce long-term-depression and long-term-potentiation. In addition we would like to provide a general tool which allows the comparison of different calcium experiments. This may help to draw conclusions on ...

  10. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate


    Izabela Polowczyk; Anna Bastrzyk; Marta Fiedot


    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquire...

  11. Model of intracellular calcium cycling in ventricular myocytes. (United States)

    Shiferaw, Y; Watanabe, M A; Garfinkel, A; Weiss, J N; Karma, A


    We present a mathematical model of calcium cycling that takes into account the spatially localized nature of release events that correspond to experimentally observed calcium sparks. This model naturally incorporates graded release by making the rate at which calcium sparks are recruited proportional to the whole cell L-type calcium current, with the total release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) being just the sum of local releases. The dynamics of calcium cycling is studied by pacing the model with a clamped action potential waveform. Experimentally observed calcium alternans are obtained at high pacing rates. The results show that the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is a steep nonlinear dependence of the calcium released from the SR on the diastolic SR calcium concentration (SR load) and/or the diastolic calcium level in the cytosol, where the dependence on diastolic calcium is due to calcium-induced inactivation of the L-type calcium current. In addition, the results reveal that the calcium dynamics can become chaotic even though the voltage pacing is periodic. We reduce the equations of the model to a two-dimensional discrete map that relates the SR and cytosolic concentrations at one beat and the previous beat. From this map, we obtain a condition for the onset of calcium alternans in terms of the slopes of the release-versus-SR load and release-versus-diastolic-calcium curves. From an analysis of this map, we also obtain an understanding of the origin of chaotic dynamics.

  12. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms. (United States)

    Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika; Varenganayil, Muth M; Decho, Alan W; Waltimo, Tuomas; Braissant, Olivier


    Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  13. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer

    Full Text Available Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  14. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin


    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  15. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaishali B


    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.

  16. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate. (United States)

    Polowczyk, Izabela; Bastrzyk, Anna; Fiedot, Marta


    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure's growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO₃ particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to 'stack-like' structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO₃ formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein.

  17. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stoichiometric quantities of aqueous solutions of calcium maleate, iron(III) maleate and maleic acid. The reaction mixture was concentrated on a water bath until a brown coloured product formed after the addition of excess of acetone. The complex was vacuum dried and its identity was established by chemical analysis.

  18. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites. (United States)


  19. The spatial pattern of atrial cardiomyocyte calcium signalling modulates contraction. (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lauren; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Berridge, Michael J; Conway, Stuart J; Bootman, Martin D


    We examined the regulation of calcium signalling in atrial cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling, and how changes in the distribution of calcium impacts on contractility. Under control conditions, calcium transients originated in subsarcolemmal locations and showed local regeneration through activation of calcium-induced calcium release from ryanodine receptors. Despite functional ryanodine receptors being expressed at regular (approximately 2 microm) intervals throughout atrial myocytes, the subsarcolemmal calcium signal did not spread in a fully regenerative manner through the interior of a cell. Rather, there was a diminishing centripetal propagation of calcium. The lack of regeneration was due to mitochondria and SERCA pumps preventing the inward movement of calcium. Inhibiting these calcium buffering mechanisms allowed the globalisation of action potential-evoked responses. In addition, physiological positive inotropic agents, such as endothelin-1 and beta-adrenergic agonists, as well as enhanced calcium current, calcium store loading and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate infusion also led to regenerative global responses. The consequence of globalising calcium signals was a significant increase in cellular contraction. These data indicate how calcium signals and their consequences are determined by the interplay of multiple subcellular calcium management systems.

  20. Tuning local calcium availability: cell-type-specific immobile calcium buffer capacity in hippocampal neurons. (United States)

    Matthews, Elizabeth A; Schoch, Susanne; Dietrich, Dirk


    It has remained difficult to ascribe a specific functional role to immobile or fixed intracellular calcium buffers in central neurons because the amount of these buffers is unknown. Here, we explicitly isolated the fixed buffer fraction by prolonged whole-cell patch-clamp dialysis and quantified its buffering capacity in murine hippocampal slices using confocal calcium imaging and the "added-buffer" approach. In dentate granule cells, the calcium binding ratio (κ) after complete washout of calbindin D28k (Cb), κfixed, displayed a substantial value of ∼100. In contrast, in CA1 oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) interneurons, which do not contain any known calcium-binding protein(s), κfixed amounted to only ∼30. Based on these values, a theoretical analysis of dendritic spread of calcium after local entry showed that fixed buffers, in the absence of mobile species, decrease intracellular calcium mobility 100- and 30-fold in granule cells and OLM cells, respectively, and thereby strongly slow calcium signals. Although the large κfixed alone strongly delays the spread of calcium in granule cells, this value optimizes the benefits of additionally expressing the mobile calcium binding protein Cb. With such high κfixed, Cb effectively increases the propagation velocity to levels seen in OLM cells and, contrary to expectation, does not affect the peak calcium concentration close to the source but sharpens the spatial and temporal calcium gradients. The data suggest that the amount of fixed buffers determines the temporal availability of calcium for calcium-binding partners and plays a pivotal role in setting the repertoire of cellular calcium signaling regimens.

  1. Calcium channel blocker overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  2. Fenoprofen calcium overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  3. Calcium and Mitosis (United States)

    Hepler, P.


    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  4. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.


    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  5. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk. (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J


    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  6. Morphological Investigation of Calcium Carbonate during Ammonification-Carbonization Process of Low Concentration Calcium Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaigang Cheng


    Full Text Available Ultrafine calcium carbonate is a widely used cheap additive. The research is conducted in low degree supersaturation solution in order to study the polymorphic phases’ change and its factors of the calcium carbonate precipitate in the ammonification-carbonization process of the solution with calcium. Fine particles of calcium carbonate are made in the solution containing 0.015 mol/L of Ca2+. Over 98% of the calcium carbonate precipitate without ammonification resembles the morphology of calcite, while the introduction of ammonia can benefit the formation of vaterite. It was inferred that the main cause should be serious partial oversaturation or steric effects. Ammonia also helps to form the twin spherical calcium carbonate. However, particles formed in the process of ammonification-carbonization in solution with low concentration degree of calcium are not even with a scale of the particle diameter from 5 to 12 μm. Inorganic salts, alcohol, or organic acid salts have significant controlling effect on the particle diameter of calcium carbonate and can help to decrease the particle diameter to about 3 μm. Anionic surfactants can prevent the conglobation of calcium carbonate particles and shrink its diameter to 500 nm–1 μm.

  7. Calcium-induced calcium release supports recruitment of synaptic vesicles in auditory hair cells. (United States)

    Castellano-Muñoz, Manuel; Schnee, Michael E; Ricci, Anthony J


    Hair cells from auditory and vestibular systems transmit continuous sound and balance information to the central nervous system through the release of synaptic vesicles at ribbon synapses. The high activity experienced by hair cells requires a unique mechanism to sustain recruitment and replenishment of synaptic vesicles for continuous release. Using pre- and postsynaptic electrophysiological recordings, we explored the potential contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in modulating the recruitment of vesicles to auditory hair cell ribbon synapses. Pharmacological manipulation of CICR with agents targeting endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores reduced both spontaneous postsynaptic multiunit activity and the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Pharmacological treatments had no effect on hair cell resting potential or activation curves for calcium and potassium channels. However, these drugs exerted a reduction in vesicle release measured by dual-sine capacitance methods. In addition, calcium substitution by barium reduced release efficacy by delaying release onset and diminishing vesicle recruitment. Together these results demonstrate a role for calcium stores in hair cell ribbon synaptic transmission and suggest a novel contribution of CICR in hair cell vesicle recruitment. We hypothesize that calcium entry via calcium channels is tightly regulated to control timing of vesicle fusion at the synapse, whereas CICR is used to maintain a tonic calcium signal to modulate vesicle trafficking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  9. Calcium-mediated differentiation of ameloblast lineage cells in vitro. (United States)

    Chen, James; Zhang, Yan; Mendoza, Joseph; Denbesten, Pamela


    Calcium is a key component of the mineralized enamel matrix, but may also have a role in ameloblast cell differentiation. In this study we used human ameloblast lineage cells to determine the effect of calcium on cell function. Primary human ameloblast lineage cells were isolated from human fetal tooth buds. Cells were treated with calcium ranging from 0.05 to -1.8 mM. Cell morphology was imaged by phase contrast microscopy, and amelogenin was immunolocalized. Proliferation of cells treated with calcium was measured by BrdU immunoassay. The effect of calcium on mRNA expression of amelogenin, Type 1 collagen, DSPP, amelotin, and KLK-4 was compared by PCR analysis. Von Kossa staining was used to detect mineral formation after cells were pretreated with calcium. Calcium induced cell organization and clustering at 0.1 and 0.3 mM concentrations. Increasing concentrations of calcium significantly reduced ameloblast lineage cell proliferation. The addition of 0.1 mM calcium to the cultures upregulated expression of amelogenin, Type I collagen, and amelotin. After pretreatment with 0.3 mM calcium, the cells could form a mineralized matrix. These studies, which utilized human ameloblast lineage cells grown in vitro, showed that the addition of calcium at 0.1 and 0.3 mM, induced cell differentiation and upregulation of amelogenin Type I collagen and amelotin. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Polowczyk


    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure’s growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO3 particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to ‘stack-like’ structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO3 formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein.

  11. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    Polowczyk, Izabela; Bastrzyk, Anna; Fiedot, Marta


    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure’s growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO3 particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to ‘stack-like’ structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO3 formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein. PMID:28774065

  12. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate. (United States)

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik


    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Embryonic mobilization of calcium in a viviparous reptile: evidence for a novel pattern of placental calcium secretion. (United States)

    Fregoso, Santiago P; Stewart, James R; Ecay, Tom W


    Yolk reserves supply the majority of embryonic nutrition in squamate reptiles, including calcium. Embryos of oviparous squamates exploit the eggshell for supplemental calcium, while embryos of viviparous species may receive additional calcium via the placenta. Developmental uptake of calcium in oviparous snakes increases during the interval of greatest embryonic growth (stage 35 to parturition). However, the pattern of embryonic calcium acquisition is unknown for viviparous snakes. Furthermore, while the uterus of oviparous species transports calcium early in embryonic development during mineralization of the eggshell, the timing of uterine calcium secretion in viviparous snakes is unknown. We studied a viviparous snake, Virginia striatula, to determine the ontogenetic pattern of yolk and embryonic calcium content. The pattern of embryonic calcium uptake of V. striatula is similar to that of oviparous snakes but the sources of calcium differ. In contrast to oviparous species, embryos of V. striatula acquire half of total neonatal calcium via placental provision, of which 71% is mobilized between stage 35 and parturition. Furthermore, we report for the first time in a viviparous squamate an increase in yolk calcium content during early stages of embryonic development, indicating that uterine secretion of calcium occurs in V. striatula coincident with shelling in oviparous squamates. Thus, uterine calcium secretion in this viviparous species may either occur continuously or in two phases, coincident with the timing of shelling in oviparous species and again during the last stages of development. Whereas, the pattern of embryonic calcium acquisition in V. striatula is plesiomorphic for squamates, the pattern of uterine calcium secretion includes both retention of a plesiomorphic trait and the evolution of a novel trait. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Propriedades mecânicas e estrutura celular de melão desidratado osmoticamente em soluções de sacarose ou maltose, com adição de lactato de cálcio Mechanical properties and cellular structure of osmodehydrated melon in sucrose or maltose solutions with calcium lactate addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Caroline Ferrari


    rupture and structure by light microscopy. Maltose treatments in combination with the salt action promoted higher water loss and lower solids gain rates. The calcium lactate addition in the sucrose or maltose solution resulted in higher stress at rupture values. This increase was more pronounced for sucrose treatments, due to the higher calcium uptake observed in these experiments. Calcium lactate was efficient in the maintenance of melon cellular structure when used at concentrations up to 1,0%. Maltose showed a higher protector effect in cellular membrane functionality, while the treatment performed only with sucrose solution as well as both treatments with salt concentration at 1,5%caused an intense cytoplasm plasmolysis and cell wall damages.

  15. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates. (United States)

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A


    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

  16. Characterization of a process for the in-furnace reduction of NOx, SO2, and HCl by carboxylic salts of calcium


    Nimmo, W.; Patsias, A.A.; Hall, W.J.


    Calcium magnesium acetate has been assessed as an agent for the reduction of NOx, SO2, and HCl, at the pilot scale, in a down-fired combustor operating at 80 kWth. In addition to this, the chemical and physical processes that occur during heating have been investigated. Benchmarking of calcium magnesium acetate with a suite of five other carboxylic salts (calcium magnesium acetate, calcium propionate, calcium acetate, calcium benzoate, magnesium acetate, and calcium formate) has been performe...

  17. Do calcium buffers always slow down the propagation of calcium waves? (United States)

    Tsai, Je-Chiang


    Calcium buffers are large proteins that act as binding sites for free cytosolic calcium. Since a large fraction of cytosolic calcium is bound to calcium buffers, calcium waves are widely observed under the condition that free cytosolic calcium is heavily buffered. In addition, all physiological buffered excitable systems contain multiple buffers with different affinities. It is thus important to understand the properties of waves in excitable systems with the inclusion of buffers. There is an ongoing controversy about whether or not the addition of calcium buffers into the system always slows down the propagation of calcium waves. To solve this controversy, we incorporate the buffering effect into the generic excitable system, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, to get the buffered FitzHugh-Nagumo model, and then to study the effect of the added buffer with large diffusivity on traveling waves of such a model in one spatial dimension. We can find a critical dissociation constant (K = K(a)) characterized by system excitability parameter a such that calcium buffers can be classified into two types: weak buffers (K ∈ (K(a), ∞)) and strong buffers (K ∈ (0, K(a))). We analytically show that the addition of weak buffers or strong buffers but with its total concentration b(0)(1) below some critical total concentration b(0,c)(1) into the system can generate a traveling wave of the resulting system which propagates faster than that of the origin system, provided that the diffusivity D1 of the added buffers is sufficiently large. Further, the magnitude of the wave speed of traveling waves of the resulting system is proportional to √D1 as D1 --> ∞. In contrast, the addition of strong buffers with the total concentration b(0)(1) > b(0,c)(1) into the system may not be able to support the formation of a biologically acceptable wave provided that the diffusivity D1 of the added buffers is sufficiently large.

  18. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine


    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  19. Calcium and bones (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  20. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt


    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  1. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  2. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is NCT


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  4. Effect of calcium chelators on physical changes in casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.H.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.


    The effect of calcium chelators on physical changes of casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions was investigated by measuring calcium-ion activity, viscosity and turbidity, and performing ultracentrifugation. The highest viscosities were measured on addition of sodium

  5. Protein kinase C interaction with calcium: a phospholipid-dependent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bazzi, M D


    The calcium-binding properties of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated by equilibrium dialysis in the presence and the absence of phospholipids. Calcium binding to PKC displayed striking and unexpected behavior; the free proteins bound virtually no calcium at intracellular calcium concentrations and bound limited calcium (about 1 mol\\/mol of PKC) at 200 microM calcium. However, in the presence of membranes containing acidic phospholipids, PKC bound at least eight calcium ions per protein. The presence of 1 microM phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) in the dialysis buffer had little effect on these calcium-binding properties. Analysis of PKC-calcium binding by gel filtration under equilibrium conditions gave similar results; only membrane-associated PKC bound significant amounts of calcium. Consequently, PKC is a member of what may be a large group of proteins that bind calcium in a phospholipid-dependent manner. The calcium concentrations needed to induce PKC-membrane binding were similar to those needed for calcium binding (about 40 microM calcium at the midpoint). However, the calcium concentration required for PKC-membrane binding was strongly influenced by the phosphatidylserine composition of the membranes. Membranes with higher percentages of phosphatidylserine required lower concentrations of calcium. These properties suggested that the calcium sites may be generated at the interface between PKC and the membrane. Calcium may function as a bridge between PKC and phospholipids. These studies also suggested that calcium-dependent PKC-membrane binding and PKC function could be regulated by a number of factors in addition to calcium levels and diacylglycerol content of the membrane.

  6. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping


    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles. This complex and highly regulated process is orchestrated by SNAREs and their associated proteins. The triggering signal for regulated exocytosis is usually...... an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...

  7. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.


    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  8. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium. (United States)

    Hämäläinen, M M


    The potential value of xylitol in calcium therapy was evaluated by comparing the effect of dietary xylitol (50 g/kg diet) + calcium carbonate with the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on bone repair of young male rats after the rats consumed for 3 wk a calcium-deficient diet (0.2 g Ca/kg diet). After this calcium-depletion period, the rats were fed for 2 wk one of four diets, each containing 5 g Ca/kg diet as one of the four dietary calcium sources. The diet of the control animals was supplemented with CaCO3 (5 g Ca/kg diet) throughout the study. The Ca-deficient rats showed low bone mass, low serum calcium and high serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, parathyroid hormone (1-34 fraction) and osteocalcin concentrations. They also excreted magnesium, phosphate and hydroxyproline in the urine in high concentrations, and had high bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. Most of these changes were reversed by the administered of the calcium salts. The highest recoveries of femoral dry weight, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were observed in the groups receiving xylitol+CaCO3 and calcium lactate. Calcium lactate and calcium citrate caused low serum phosphate concentration compared with rats receiving CaCO3 and with the age-matched Ca-replete controls. Xylitol-treated rats excreted more calcium and magnesium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of these minerals from the gut. These results suggest that dietary xylitol improves the bioavailability of calcium salts.

  9. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears ...

  10. Calcium and Your Child (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Figuring Out Food Labels What's a Vegetarian? Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Mineral Chart Vitamin D ... Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium Bones, Muscles, and ...

  11. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel


    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  12. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J


    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  13. Calcium supplementation and prevention of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Dall'asta, Andrea; Gizzo, Salvatore; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Piantelli, Giovanni; Jasonni, Valerio Maria; Modena, Alberto Bacchi


    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological evidence has suggested a connection between low calcium intake and preeclampsia The purpose of this meta-analysis is to summarize current evidence regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy in predicting preeclampsia and associated maternal-fetal complications. Literature revision of all RCT (random allocation of calcium versus placebo) available in MEDLINE/PUBMED up to 2/29/2012 regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing preeclampsia. We used the Mantel-Haenszel's Method for four subgroup of patients: Adequate calcium intake; Low calcium intake; Low risk of preeclampsia; High risk of preeclampsia. We considered p prevention of preeclampsia, (2) other/adverse/long-term effects of calcium supplementation in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is likely to be a multifactorial disease. However, inadequate calcium intake represents a factor associated with an increased incidence of hypertensive disease. The results of our meta-analysis demonstrate that the additional intake of calcium during pregnancy is an effective measure to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia, especially in populations at high risk of preeclampsia due to ethnicity, gender, age, high BMI and in those with low baseline calcium intake.

  14. Calcium in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: EMAS clinical guide. (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Rees, Margaret; Lambrinoudaki, Irene


    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease. Prevention through lifestyle measures includes an adequate calcium intake. Despite the guidance provided by scientific societies and governmental bodies worldwide, many issues remain unresolved. To provide evidence regarding the impact of calcium intake on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and critically appraise current guidelines. Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies between 700 and 1200mg of elemental calcium, depending on the endorsing source. Although calcium can be derived either from the diet or supplements, the former source is preferred. Intake below the recommended amount may increase fragility fracture risk; however, there is no consistent evidence that calcium supplementation at, or above, recommended levels reduces risk. The addition of vitamin D may minimally reduce fractures, mainly among institutionalised people. Excessive intake of calcium, defined as higher than 2000mg/day, can be potentially harmful. Some studies demonstrated harm even at lower dosages. An increased risk for cardiovascular events, urolithiasis and even fractures has been found in association with excessive calcium intake, but this issue remains unresolved. In conclusion, an adequate intake of calcium is recommended for general bone health. Excessive calcium intake seems of no benefit, and could possibly be harmful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Yeast respond to hypotonic shock with a calcium pulse (United States)

    Batiza, A. F.; Schulz, T.; Masson, P. H.


    We have used the transgenic AEQUORIN calcium reporter system to monitor the cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypotonic shock. Such a shock generates an almost immediate and transient rise in [Ca2+]cyt which is eliminated by gadolinium, a blocker of stretch-activated channels. In addition, this transient rise in [Ca2+]cyt is initially insensitive to 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), an extracellular calcium chelator. However, BAPTA abruptly attenuates the maintenance of that transient rise. These data show that hypotonic shock generates a stretch-activated channel-dependent calcium pulse in yeast. They also suggest that the immediate calcium influx is primarily generated from intracellular stores, and that a sustained increase in [Ca2+]cyt depends upon extracellular calcium.

  16. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina


    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  17. Calcium carbonate phase transformations during the carbonation reaction of calcium heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate overbased nanodetergents preparation. (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Feng; Chen, Dongzhong; Fang, Jianglin; Zhao, Min


    The preparation and application of overbased nanodetergents with excess alkaline calcium carbonate is a good example of nanotechnology in practice. The phase transformation of calcium carbonate is of extensive concern since CaCO(3) serves both as an important industrial filling material and as the most abundant biomineral in nature. Industrially valuable overbased nanodetergents have been prepared based on calcium salts of heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate by a one-step process under ambient pressure, the carbonation reaction has been monitored by the instantaneous temperature changes and total base number (TBN). A number of analytical techniques such as TGA, DLS, SLS, TEM, FTIR, and XRD have been utilized to explore the carbonation reaction process and phase transformation mechanism of calcium carbonate. An enhanced understanding on the phase transformation of calcium carbonate involved in calcium sulfonate nanodetergents has been achieved and it has been unambiguously demonstrated that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) transforms into the vaterite polymorph rather than calcite, which would be of crucial importance for the preparation and quality control of lubricant additives and greases. Our results also show that a certain amount of residual Ca(OH)(2) prevents the phase transformation from ACC to crystalline polymorphs. Moreover, a vaterite nanodetergent has been prepared for the first time with low viscosity, high base number, and uniform particle size, nevertheless a notable improvement on its thermal stability is required for potential applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solubility of Calcium Phosphate in Concentrated Dairy Effluent Brines. (United States)

    Kezia, K; Lee, J; Zisu, B; Chen, G Q; Gras, S L; Kentish, S E


    The solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy brine streams is important in understanding mineral scaling on equipment, such as membrane modules, evaporators, and heat exchangers, and in brine pond operation. In this study, the solubility of calcium phosphate has been assessed in the presence of up to 300 g/L sodium chloride as well as lactose, organic acids, and anions at 10, 30, and 50 °C. As a neutral molecule, lactose has a marginal but still detectable effect upon calcium solubility. However, additions of sodium chloride up to 100 g/L result in a much greater increase in calcium solubility. Beyond this point, the concentrations of ions in the solution decrease significantly. These changes in calcium solubility can readily be explained through changes in the activity coefficients. There is little difference in calcium phosphate speciation between 10 and 30 °C. However, at 50 °C, the ratio of calcium to phosphate in the solution is lower than at the other temperatures and varies less with ionic strength. While the addition of sodium lactate has less effect upon calcium solubility than sodium citrate, it still has a greater effect than sodium chloride at an equivalent ionic strength. Conversely, when these organic anions are present in the solution in the acid form, the effect of pH dominates and results in much higher solubility and a calcium/phosphate ratio close to one, indicative of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as the dominant solid phase.

  19. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.


    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  20. Homer regulates calcium signalling in growth cone turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Michael JW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homer proteins are post-synaptic density proteins with known functions in receptor trafficking and calcium homeostasis. While they are key mediators of synaptic plasticity, they are also known to function in axon guidance, albeit by mechanisms that are yet to be elucidated. Homer proteins couple extracellular receptors – such as metabotropic glutamate receptors and the transient receptor potential canonical family of cation channels – to intracellular receptors such as inositol triphosphate and ryanodine receptors on intracellular calcium stores and, therefore, are well placed to regulate calcium dynamics within the neural growth cone. Here we used growth cones from dorsal root ganglia, a well established model in the field of axon guidance, and a growth cone turning assay to examine Homer1 function in axon guidance. Results Homer1 knockdown reversed growth cone turning from attraction to repulsion in response to the calcium-dependent guidance cues brain derived neurotrophic factor and netrin-1. Conversely, Homer1 knockdown had no effect on repulsion to the calcium-independent guidance cue Semaphorin-3A. This reversal of attractive turning suggested a requirement for Homer1 in a molecular switch. Pharmacological experiments confirmed that the operational state of a calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II/calcineurin phosphatase molecular switch was dependent on Homer1 expression. Calcium imaging of motile growth cones revealed that Homer1 is required for guidance-cue-induced rise of cytosolic calcium and the attenuation of spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients. Homer1 knockdown-induced calcium transients and turning were inhibited by antagonists of store-operated channels. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed the close association of Homer1 with the store-operated proteins TRPC1 and STIM1 within dorsal root ganglia growth cones. Conclusion These experiments provide evidence that Homer1 is an essential

  1. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.


    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of

  2. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau


    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  3. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle]. (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A


    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  4. Food labeling: health claims; calcium and osteoporosis, and calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. Final rule. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its labeling regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to include vitamin D so that, in addition to the claim for calcium and osteoporosis, an additional claim can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim list sex, race, and age as specific risk factors for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim does not state or imply that the risk of osteoporosis is equally applicable to the general U.S. population, and that the claim identify the populations at particular risk for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim identify the mechanism by which calcium reduces the risk of osteoporosis and instead make it optional; eliminate the requirement that the claim include a statement that a total dietary intake greater than 200 percent of the recommended daily intake (2,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium) has no further benefit to bone health when the food contains 400 mg or more of calcium per reference amount customarily consumed or per total daily recommended supplement intake; and allow reference for the need of physical activity in either of the health claims to be optional rather then required. This final rule is, in part, in response to a health claim petition submitted by The Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness, LLC.

  5. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K


    'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect...

  6. Physicochemical characterization of zinc-substituted calcium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the contrary, no changes of the crystallinity were observed for the brushite doped with Zn ions. Morphology of attained powders, visualized using scanningelectron microscopy exemplified structural changes between calcium phosphates conjugated with zinc ions. Many authors report that the addition of small amounts of ...

  7. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller


    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry. (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V


    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  9. Recent nutritional trends of calcium and vitamin D in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ohta


    Full Text Available Calcium intake may play an important role on bone health. The recent national nutritional survey in Japan revealed the gradual decrease in calcium intake to around 480 mg/day. In addition, the patients with low level of vitamin D become too large in proportion. The present perspective proposes to increase calcium intake in Asian population.

  10. Calcium Signalling: Fishing Out Molecules of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport


    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György


    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins — MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 — to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport.

  11. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate. (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.


    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  12. Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate (United States)

    Gong, Yutao

    Geological calcium carbonate exists in both crystalline phases and amorphous phases. Compared with crystalline calcium carbonate, such as calcite, aragonite and vaterite, the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is unstable. Unlike geological calcium carbonate crystals, crystalline sea urchin spicules (99.9 wt % calcium carbonate and 0.1 wt % proteins) do not present facets. To explain this property, crystal formation via amorphous precursors was proposed in theory. And previous research reported experimental evidence of ACC on the surface of forming sea urchin spicules. By using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), we studied cross-sections of fresh sea urchin spicules at different stages (36h, 48h and 72h after fertilization) and observed the transition sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated ACC → dehydrated ACC → biogenic calcite. In addition, we unexpectedly found hydrated ACC nanoparticles that are surrounded by biogenic calcite. This observation indicates the dehydration from hydrated ACC to dehydrated ACC is inhibited, resulting in stabilization of hydrated ACC nanoparticles. We thought that the dehydration was inhibited by protein matrix components occluded within the biomineral, and we designed an in vitro assay to test the hypothesis. By utilizing XANES-PEEM, we found that SM50, the most abundant occluded matrix protein in sea urchin spicules, has the function to stabilize hydrated ACC in vitro.

  13. Children's Bone Health and Calcium (United States)

    ... Email Share Dialog × Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  14. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters


    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut


    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate...

  15. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.


    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  16. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  17. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.


    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  18. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.


    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  19. Calcium signaling in lymphocytes and ELF fields. Evidence for an electric field metric and a site of interaction involving the calcium ion channel. (United States)

    Liburdy, R P


    Calcium influx increased during mitogen-activated signal transduction in thymic lymphocytes exposed to a 22 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field (E induced = 1.7 mV/cm, 37 degrees C, 60 min). To distinguish between an electric or a magnetic field dependence a special multi-ring annular cell culture plate based on Faraday's Law of Induction was employed. Studies show a dependence on the strength of the induced electric field at constant magnetic flux density. Moreover, exposure to a pure 60 Hz electric field or to a magnetically-induced electric field of identical strength resulted in similar changes in calcium transport. The first real-time monitoring of [Ca2+]i during application of a 60 Hz electric field revealed an increase in [Ca2+]i observed 100 s after mitogen stimulation; this suggests that the plateau phase rather than the early phase of calcium signaling was influenced. The hypothesis was tested by separating, in time, the early release of calcium from intracellular stores from the influx of extracellular calcium. In calcium-free buffer, 60 Hz field exerted little influence on the early release of calcium from intracellular stores. In contrast, addition of extracellular calcium during exposure enhanced calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Alteration of the plateau phase of calcium signaling implicates the calcium channel as a site of field interaction. In addition, an electric field exposure metric is mechanistically consistent with a cell-surface interaction site.

  20. Calcium in Gluten-Free Life: Health-Related and Nutritional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Krupa-Kozak


    Full Text Available Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD. Gluten-free diet (GFD is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the main etiological factors responsible for calcium deficiency in CD were presented. Additionally, the research on the application of calcium supplements in the gluten-free breadmaking was reviewed, and its effect on the technological and sensory properties of baked products was indicated. Calcium-fortified gluten-free products could increase the calcium content in the diet of CD patients, supplying the amount of calcium they need for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Apart from this, the consumption of the naturally GF products as well as functional ingredients beneficially affecting calcium absorption need to be encouraged.

  1. Mineral deposition in bacteria-filled and bacteria-free calcium bodies in the crustacean Hyloniscus riparius (Isopoda: Oniscidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Vittori

    Full Text Available Crustacean calcium bodies are epithelial sacs which contain a mineralized matrix. The objectives of this study were to describe the microscopic anatomy of calcium bodies in the terrestrial isopod Hyloniscus riparius and to establish whether they undergo molt-related structural changes. We performed 3D reconstruction of the calcium bodies from paraffin sections and analyzed their structure with light and electron microscopy. In addition, we analyzed the chemical composition of their mineralized matrices with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two pairs of these organs are present in H. riparius. One pair is filled with bacteria while the other pair is not. In non-molting animals, the bacteria-filled calcium bodies contain apatite crystals and the bacteria-free calcium bodies enclose CaCO3-containing concretions with little organic matrix. During preparation for molt, an additional matrix layer is deposited in both pairs of calcium bodies. In the bacteria-filled calcium bodies it contains a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, whereas only calcium carbonate is present in bacteria-free calcium bodies. After ecdysis, all mineral components in bacteria-free calcium bodies and the additional matrix layer in bacteria-filled calcium bodies are completely resorbed. During calcium resorption, the apical surface of the calcium body epithelium is deeply folded and electron dense granules are present in spaces between epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the presence of bacteria might be linked to calcium phosphate mineralization. Calcium bodies likely provide a source of calcium and potentially phosphate for the mineralization of the new cuticle after molt. Unlike other terrestrial isopods, H. riparius does not form sternal CaCO3 deposits and the bacteria-free calcium bodies might functionally replace them in this species.

  2. Calcium from plant sources is beneficial to lowering the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Moo; Heo, Jumi; Park, Yongsoon


    Osteoporosis, which has become a serious public health concern, is influenced by diet, especially calcium intake. Dairy products are a good source of calcium, but plant calcium may also be important in populations that do not consume a large amount of milk. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that calcium from vegetable sources is associated with osteoporosis risk and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women with osteoporosis and age-matched controls (N = 144). The results of multivariate-adjusted regression analyses indicated that the intake of calcium, plant calcium, potassium, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin B(1), niacin, vitamin E, vitamin C, and vegetables was associated with significantly reduced risk of osteoporosis after adjusting for age, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, and energy intake. In addition, intake of vegetables alone, as well as calcium, plant calcium, potassium, and antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene), which are abundant in vegetables, was significantly and positively associated with bone mineral density. However, in this population of low-dairy consumers, intake of calcium from meat and dairy products was not related to risk of osteoporosis and bone mineral density. Our results suggest that high dietary intake of calcium, especially plant calcium, reduces the risk of osteoporosis and increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women. Vegetables may be an important source of calcium and may also provide vitamins and minerals that exert additional beneficial effects on the bone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium signaling in taste cells. (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F


    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced levels of intracellular calcium releasing in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Juan F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthenozoospermia is one of the most common findings present in infertile males characterized by reduced or absent sperm motility, but its aetiology remains unknown in most cases. In addition, calcium is one of the most important ions regulating sperm motility. In this study we have investigated the progesterone-evoked intracellular calcium signal in ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normospermia or asthenozoospermia. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from healthy volunteers and asthenospermic men by masturbation after 4–5 days of abstinence. For determination of cytosolic free calcium concentration, spermatozoa were loaded with the fluorescent ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2. Results Treatment of spermatozoa from normospermic men with 20 micromolar progesterone plus 1 micromolar thapsigargin in a calcium free medium induced a typical transient increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration due to calcium release from internal stores. Similar results were obtained when spermatozoa were stimulated with progesterone alone. Subsequent addition of calcium to the external medium evoked a sustained elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration indicative of capacitative calcium entry. However, when progesterone plus thapsigargin were administered to spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia, calcium signal and subsequent calcium entry was much smaller compared to normospermic patients. As expected, pretreatment of normospermic spermatozoa with both the anti-progesterone receptor c262 antibody and with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-38486 decreased the calcium release induced by progesterone. Treatment of spermatozoa with cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide decreased the calcium entry evoked by depletion of internal calcium stores in normospermic patients, whereas these treatments proved to be ineffective at modifying the calcium entry in patients with asthenozoospermia. Conclusion Our results suggest

  5. Calcium ion-protein interactions in prothrombin activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenckle, G.M.; Carlisle, T.L.; Jackson, C.M.


    1. The protein concentration dependence observed in the calcium binding to fragment 1 indicates that calcium-mediated dimerization is responsible for the cooperative calcium binding behavior usually observed. ''Unusual'' fragment 1, which exhibits negative cooperativity (the type of binding behavior expected for ions interacting with a charged protein) at high concentration, also exhibit altered self-association behavior. 2. The calcium-induced spectral perturbations that are observed by fluorescence and ultraviolet difference spectroscopy are influenced by calcium-mediated dimerization. Similar spectral perturbations may also be induced by other divalent, trivalent, and monovalent ions, as well as changes in pH. Because this is a multi-site system, only limited interpretation of the spectral data is possible without calcium binding data. 3. Although strong side chain CD signals make estimation of fragment 1 secondary structure ambiguous, the CD data do indicate small changes in structure during calcium binding. Similar changes are observed upon addition of monovalent ions at high concentration or after lowering the pH. No coupling between changes in conformation and the cooperative calcium binding behavior has yet been observed to exist.

  6. Effects of somatostatin on intestinal calcium transport in the rat. (United States)

    Favus, M J; Berelowitz, M; Coe, F L


    The addition of somatostatin (SRIF) to rat descending colon in vitro increased the calcium secretory flux from serosa to mucosa (Js leads to m) and reduced tissue short-circuit current (Isc) but did not alter the absorptive flux from mucosa to serosa (Js leads to m). Js leads to m increased by 37% at 10(-9) M SRIF and by 48% at 10(-6) M. The response to SRIF was not altered by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and SRIF did not interfere with stimulation of calcium Jm leads to s by 1,25(OH)2D3. Removal of sodium from the buffer abolished the stimulation of Js leads to m by SRIF without reducing basal Js leads to m. Secretory fluxes of mannitol and calcium were strongly correlated in the presence and absence of SRIF, suggesting that SRIF stimulates a paracellular transepithelial pathway for calcium. In the duodenum, SRIF altered neither calcium Js leads to m nor Isc. In the ileum, calcium Js leads to m increased and Isc decreased, as in the colon, but only by 28 and 12%, respectively. The maximal change in calcium Js leads to m caused by SRIF in these three intestinal segments was negatively correlated with the tissue concentration of immunoreactive SRIF. These results suggest that intestinal calcium secretion could, in part, be regulated by intestinal SRIF.


    Barton, J.


    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  8. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide


    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  9. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai


    Full Text Available Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives.

  10. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James


    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  11. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 (United States)


    ... g. Grain products and pasta 90 IU/100 g. Milk 42 IU/100 g. Milk products 89 IU/100 g. Additionally... calcium-fortified fruit juices and fruit juice drinks; meal replacement and other type bars, soy protein... or osteomalacia in adults. Excessive intake of vitamin D elevates blood plasma calcium levels by...

  12. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian


    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  13. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems


    Bizzozero, Julien; Scrivener, Karen


    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate ...

  14. Mixed calcium-magnesium pre-nucleation clusters enrich calcium


    Verch, Andreas; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut


    It is demonstrated that magnesium and carbonate ions can form pre-nucleation clusters in analogy to calcium carbonate. If a mixed calcium and magnesium solution is brought in contact with carbonate ions, mixed pre-nucleation clusters form. The equilibrium constants for their formation are reported revealing that over the entire range of possible cation mixing ratios, calcium gets enriched over magnesium in the pre-nucleation clusters. This can explain high magnesium contents in amorphous calc...

  15. Biological Reactions to Calcium Phosphate-coated Calcium Carbonate Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tetsunari NISHIKAWA; Kazuya MASUNO; Tomoharu OKAMURA; Kazuya TOMINAGA; Masahiro WATO; Mayu KOKUBU; Koichi IMAI; Shoji TAKEDA; Yoichro TAGUCHI; Masatoshi UEDA; Akio TANAKA


    [SYNOPSIS][Objectives]: In order to histopathologically investigate biological reactions to materials used for scaffolds, we examined the cytotoxicity to calcium particles in vitro and bioabsorption in vivo...

  16. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.


    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  17. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.


    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S


    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  18. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid


    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  19. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil


    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium carbonate. 184.1191 Section 184.1191 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, CAS Reg... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation...

  1. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg


    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  2. Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    %, 1%, 2% or 3% additional. MZ. ... yield of the animals, but affects serum total protein, calcium and phosphorus concentrations. ... that carry no risk of leaving harmful residues in the course of vegetable and animal production.

  3. Calcium signalling: fishing out molecules of mitochondrial calcium transport. (United States)

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György


    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins - MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 - to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille


    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation off...

  5. Effect of acid rain on calcium carbonate saturation in the Albemarle sound of North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, K.A.; Burgess, S.K.; Willey, J.D.; Kieber, R.J. [Univ. of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC (United States)


    The effects of acidic rainwater additions on calcium carbonate solubility and alkalinity in the poorly buffered, biologically active and commercially important waters of the Albemarle Sound, NC are reported. Samples collected monthly at four sites were analyzed for salinity, pK total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations. Five percent and 10% dilutions of sulfuric acid at pH 4, mimicking acid rain additions, were added and total alkalinity and calcium concentrations again determined. The addition of acid decreased the alkalinity in the Albemarle samples by as much as 15%, although the magnitude of the impact depended both on site and season. The effects of acid additions on dissolved calcium concentrations were more variable,. and also displayed a site and season dependency. Calcium concentrations, alkalinity, and pH values were also determined during controlled laboratory experiments, where 25 mg/L Callinectes sapidus shells were added to Albemarle Sound water. All three analytes increased significantly upon acid additions relative to controls.

  6. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source. (United States)

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah


    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance.

  7. Nutritional aspects of calcium and vitamin D from infancy to adolescence. (United States)

    Saggese, G; Igli Baroncelli, G


    Calcium is an essential nutrient for normal growth and development. Growing individuals must be in positive calcium balance to satisfy their calcium needs. Calcium requirements are higher during infancy and adolescence than childhood and adulthood. The achievement of a higher calcium balance in infancy and adolescence is likely due to the increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration occurring during these periods. The main determinants of calcium balance in infancy are dietary calcium intake and vitamin D. In normal circumstances, breast milk and formulas supply sufficient amounts of calcium. In the post-natal life, the major sources of vitamin D are sunlight exposure and supplemented formulas; in fact, the amount of vitamin D in breast milk, cow's milk, and common foods is poor. Although sunlight exposure should be able to maintain adequate vitamin D stores, a supplement with 400 IU/day of vitamin D from birth to the second year of life is recommended to assure the prophylaxis of rickets in all breast-fed infants. A dose of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is safe and appropriate. During childhood and adolescence, currently recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for calcium might be augmented, as suggested by calcium balance studies. The higher amount of calcium intake may lead to achieve maximal peak bone mass. The main source of vitamin D in children and adolescents is the casual sunlight exposure; therefore, a sistematical vitamin D supplementation is not usually needed. The major sources of calcium are milk and dairy products. However, if calcium intake is reduced, an additional calcium intake to reach the RDA may be provided by calcium supplements.

  8. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza


    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  9. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  10. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too? (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  11. The Formation Process of Silico-Ferrite of Calcium (SFC) from Binary Calcium Ferrite (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Guo, Xing-Min


    Silico-ferrite of calcium (SFC) is a significant equilibrium crystalline phase in the Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 (FCS) ternary system and a key bonding phase in the sintering process of fine iron ore. In this work, the formation process of SFC from binary calcium ferrite has been determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were carried out under air at 1473 K (1200 °C) by adding SiO2 and Fe2O3 into CaO·Fe2O3 (CF). It was found that the formation of SFC is dominated by solid-state reactions in the FCS ternary system, in which Fe2O3 reacts with CaO·Fe2O3 to form the binary calcium ferrite phase. The chemical composition of binary calcium ferrite is Ca2.5Fe15.5O25 and approximately Ca2Fe12O20 (CaO·3Fe2O3). Then Si4+ and Ca2+ ions take the place of Fe3+ ion in preference located on the octahedral layers which belongs to (0 0 18) plane of binary calcium ferrite. The crystal structure of binary calcium ferrite gradually transforms from orthorhombic to triclinic, and the grain is refined with the addition of silica due to the smaller radius of Si4+ ion. A solid solution SFC forms completely when the content of SiO2 reaches approximately 3.37 wt pct at 1473 K (1200 °C).

  12. Kinetic characteristics of calcium absorption and secretion by rat colon. (United States)

    Favus, M J; Kathpalia, S C; Coe, F L


    The kinetic characteristics of calcium active transport in rat descending colon were determined by measuring unidirectional transmural calcium fluxes in vitro. The absorptive flux from mucosa to serosa (Jm leads to s) was saturable, with a calculated affinity (Kt) of calcium for the transport system of 1.6 mM and a maximal transport capacity (Vmax) of 133 The administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] increased Jm leads to s by increasing Vmax to 236 without changing Kt (1.8 mM). The secretory flux from serosa to mucosa (Js leads to m) was not saturable and was not increased by 1,25(OH)2D3. Mannitol, a marker of transepithelial extracellular flux, underwent net absorption in the absence of electrochemical gradients, and its Jm leads to s and Js leads to m were not altered by 1,25(OH)2D3 administration. Addition of 11 mM D-glucose to the bathing medium consistently increased calcium Js leads to m and mannitol Jm leads to s and Js leads to m. Glucose reduced net calcium absorption except when sodium was removed from the medium. Calcium Js leads to m varied linearly with mannitol Js leads to m over the range of medium calcium from 0.125 to 5.0 mM. The behavior of calcium absorption by descending colon is compatible with a carrier-mediated, active-transport mechanism, whereas calcium secretion occurs by a nonsaturable process via a predominately paracellular pathway.

  13. Urinary calcium excretion in treated and untreated essential hypertension. (United States)

    Quereda, C; Orte, L; Sabater, J; Navarro-Antolin, J; Villafruela, J J; Ortuño, J


    A high prevalence of hypercalciuria has been reported in patients with essential hypertension. Nevertheless, the clinical and therapeutic implications of this finding have scarcely been studied. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypercalciuria in an unselected population with essential hypertension and to analyze the relationship between the urinary calcium and the clinical and therapeutic status of these patients. This article presents a prospective study of 112 patients with essential hypertension and 49 healthy normotensive control subjects. Urinary excretion rates of calcium, sodium, chloride, potassium, urinary calcium/creatinine index, the fractional excretion of sodium, potassium and uric acid, the creatinine clearance and serum values of creatinine, urea, uric acid, electrolytes, total proteins, parathormone (intact molecule), plasma renin activity, aldosterone, glucose, and insulin (fasting and after an oral glucose load) were performed in every patient and control subject. Untreated hypertensive patients had a higher prevalence of hypercalciuria (35% had a urinary calcium/creatinine ratio > 0.20 versus 20% of treated hypertensives and 2% of control subjects; P < 0.001). Patients on thiazide or beta-blocker monotherapy had lower urinary excretion rates of calcium and urate than patients on calcium-antagonist monotherapy or untreated patients. Urinary calcium, sodium, and urate correlated positively both in treated and untreated essential hypertension patients. Patients with the higher urinary calcium levels also had higher excretion rates of sodium and urate, higher creatinine clearance rates, and lower serum creatinine and serum uric acid levels. It was concluded that hypercalciuria is a frequent finding of untreated essential hypertension. The association of high urinary calcium levels with high urinary urate excretion rates in the same patient may predispose to development of lithiasis in patients with essential hypertension

  14. Effect of calcium in brine on salt diffusion and water distribution of Mozzarella cheese during brining. (United States)

    Luo, J; Pan, T; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z


    A soft, pasty, high-moisture surface defect occurs with progressive brining of Mozzarella cheese. Addition of calcium is traditionally used to prevent this defect but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Mozzarella cheese was formed into a cylinder inside brine on its plane surface to ensure semi-infinite, unidirectional mass transfer and placed into brine containing 0, 0.1, or 0.25% (wt/wt) calcium chloride. To monitor the effect on cheese composition of calcium in brine, we measured calcium and water contents of the cheese during brining. The extent of calcium loss from the cheese decreased significantly with the addition of calcium. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% decreased the loss of calcium from 94.13 to 18.22% from the outside region of the cheese after 30 d, and the water content of the cheese was decreased from 67.8 to 48.8%. To further elucidate the effect of calcium in brine, the Boltzmann method was used to determine the effective diffusion coefficient value, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the cheese transversal relaxation time. The migration of calcium interfered with salt diffusion. At the end of brining, the amount of water bound to the protein of the cheese significantly increased. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% diminished the proportion of bound water by 20.96%. In conclusion, addition of calcium hinders the diffusion of sodium and modifies the distribution of water in Mozzarella cheese during brining. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electron imaging of calcium oxalate crystals in beagle dogs’ urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa I. Mohamaden


    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria appears to be a common problem in most of small animal clinics. This current study aimed at inducing a condition of oxalate crystalluria in beagles and record the primary changes in canine blood and urine on response to oxalates injection. 15 dogs were divided into two groups; those in the treatment group were injected intravenously with 0.5 M potassium oxalate and the dogs of control group were injected with physiological saline for five successive days. Urine test revealed a significant decrease in urinary creatinine and urinary urea nitrogen levels. The ultrastructural examination of urine sediment showed typical and atypical phases of calcium oxalate crystals and the X-ray defractionation of these crystals showed high content of calcium in addition to other minerals. Therefore potassium oxalate injection may provide an example of calcium oxalate crystalluria which may answer some question around the pathogenesis of this problem in dogs.

  16. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters. (United States)

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut


    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate in fact contains stable prenucleation ion clusters forming even in undersaturated solution. The cluster formation can be characterized by means of equilibrium thermodynamics, applying a multiple-binding model, which allows for structural preformation. Stable clusters are the relevant species in calcium carbonate nucleation. Such mechanisms may also be important for the crystallization of other minerals.

  17. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    to acidic amino acids and dipeptides was also investigated. It was found that aspartate binds calcium stronger than glutamate. This was confirmed by electrochemical determination of the association constants for aqueous solutions at ionic strength 0.20 and 1.0. The mixed dipeptides Asp/Glu showed additive...... affinity of calcium binding as determined by the association constants and also compared with the values predicted from the individual amino acids. In contrast, the AspAsp dipeptide showed an affinity less than additive, while the GluGlu dipeptide showed affinity of calcium binding to be more than additive....... Additionally, the affinity of calcium to serine was small but was increased for the SerGlu dipeptide and the values became comparable to phosphorylated serine. An increase in ionic strength lead to decreased calcium binding of the studied free amino acids, dipeptides and phosphorylated serine as expected...

  18. Effects of polymer intercalation in calcium silicate hydrates on drug loading capacities and drug release kinetics: an X-ray absorption near edge structure study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Hu, Yongfeng; Wu, Jin; Yiu, Yun-Mui; Sham, Tsun-Kong


    Different calcium silicate hydrate (CSH)/polymer composites are synthesized by using a controlled precipitation reaction between calcium salt and silicate salt, followed by the addition of various polymer solutions at room temperature...

  19. Calcium metabolism & hypercalcemia in adults. (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Motta, R; Cecchin, D; Ave, S; Camozzi, V; Basso, S M M; Luisetto, G


    Calcium is essential for many metabolic process, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. The metabolic pathways that contribute to maintain serum calcium levels are bone remodeling processes, intestinal absorption and secretion, and renal handling, but hypercalcemia occurs when at least 2 of these 3 metabolic pathways are altered. Calcium metabolism mainly depends on the activity of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Its secretion is strictly controlled by the ionized serum calcium levels through a negative feed-back, which is achieved by the activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) mainly expressed on the surface of the parathyroid cells. The PTH receptor in bone and kidney is now referred as PTHR1. The balance of PTH, calcitonin, and vitamin D has long been considered the main regulator of calcium metabolism, but the function of other actors, such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), Klotho, and TPRV5 should be considered. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common causes of hypercalcemia, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia may cause renal impairment, both temporary (alteration of renal tubular function) and progressive (relapsing nephrolithiasis), leading to a progressive loss of renal function, as well as severe bone diseases, and heart damages. Advances in the understanding of all actors of calcium homeostasis will be crucial, having several practical consequences in the treatment and prevention of hypercalcemia. This would allow to move from a support therapy, sometimes ineffective, to a specific and addressed therapy, especially in patients with chronic hypercalcemic conditions unsuitable for surgery.

  20. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.


    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  1. Calcium Signaling and Cardiac Arrhythmias. (United States)

    Landstrom, Andrew P; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wehrens, Xander H T


    There has been a significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which calcium (Ca2+) ions mediate various types of cardiac arrhythmias. A growing list of inherited gene defects can cause potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, congenital long QT syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In addition, acquired deficits of multiple Ca2+-handling proteins can contribute to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in patients with various types of heart disease. In this review article, we will first review the key role of Ca2+ in normal cardiac function-in particular, excitation-contraction coupling and normal electric rhythms. The functional involvement of Ca2+ in distinct arrhythmia mechanisms will be discussed, followed by various inherited arrhythmia syndromes caused by mutations in Ca2+-handling proteins. Finally, we will discuss how changes in the expression of regulation of Ca2+ channels and transporters can cause acquired arrhythmias, and how these mechanisms might be targeted for therapeutic purposes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Variations in Calcium and Alginate Ions Concentration in Relation to the Properties of Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Daemi


    Full Text Available Alginate belongs to a group of natural polymers called polysaccharides. They have carboxylic functional groups beside hydroxyls which are common in all polysaccharides. These materials show interesting properties due to theirfunctional groups. One of these properties is the ability of this polymer as a suitable carrier of protecting and transferring drugs and biomolecules. The particle sizes of these polymers are very important for their applications, so different techniques were used for preparation of these materials. In this way polymeric nanoparticles of calcium alginate which are excellent carriers in drug delivery systems were prepared by addition of calcium chloride solution to dilute solution of sodium alginate. Investigation of the size and distribution of nanoparticles were analyzed by SEM method. The concentration effects of both alginate and calcium ions on the size and distribution of  nanoparticles were studied in this research. Results showed that the size of nanoparticles obviously decreased with decreasing polymeric alginate concentration because of lower active sites in polymer chain. On the other hand, thesize and distribution of nanoparticles are significantly improved with increase of calcium cation concentrations. The mean particle size 40-70 nm and spherical shape are the main characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles.

  3. FT-Raman spectroscopy of calcium hydroxide medicament in root canals. (United States)

    Kwon, T Y; Fujishima, T; Imai, Y


    To investigate chemical changes in calcium hydroxide introduced into human root canals as a medicament using Fourier transform-(FT) Raman spectroscopy. Ten necrotic maxillary anterior teeth were selected in 10 patients. The teeth were divided into five treatment groups, according to the survey time. Root canal instrumentation was performed with hand instruments until the master apical file was size 40. Calcium hydroxide paste, in a 1 : 1.25 mixture by weight of powder and distilled water, was introduced directly into the root canal with a lentulo-spiral filler and then condensed with a finger plugger. The access cavity was sealed with a temporary dressing. After 2 and 4 days, then 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the calcium hydroxide paste was sampled with a K-file and then analysed using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The excitation source was an Nd : YAG laser with an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. All spectra were taken with a laser power of 200 mW, 275-1185 scans, and 4 cm(-1) resolution. The conversion of calcium hydroxide to calcium carbonate was calculated on the basis of the spectral data obtained from the mixtures of both compounds. The calcium hydroxide paste in the apical region showed weak bands at 1088 and 284 cm(-1), in addition to bands associated with calcium hydroxide. The weak bands, assigned to calcium carbonate, became stronger with time. Calcium carbonate content increased rapidly in the first 2 days and then tended to increase slowly. Approximately 11% of the calcium hydroxide at the apical portion of the canal was converted to calcium carbonate after 6 weeks. However, little alteration of the paste was noticed in the samples from the middle portion of the canal. Calcium hydroxide medicament in root canals became transformed into calcium carbonate in the apical region within 2 days. Although the transformation continued with time, approximately 90% of the calcium hydroxide remained unchanged after 6 weeks.

  4. Influencia de la adición de carbonato de calcio en la eficiencia energética de la producción de ladrillos de cerámica roja The influence of the addition of calcium carbonate on the energy efficiency of fired clay bricks manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Betancourt


    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre el efecto de la adición de pequeñas cantidades de carbonato de calcio como fundente en la producción de ladrillos rojos de cerámica cocida, con el objetivo de mejorar el perfil energético de la producción a través de la disminución de la temperatura y el tiempo de quema. La adición de cantidades de carbonato de calcio que oscilen entre el 2-5% de la masa de arcilla mejora la resistencia a compresión de los ladrillos a temperaturas cercanas a los 900°C, y tiempos de sinterización de 1-3 horas. Este efecto se atribuye a las modificaciones de las reacciones que se producen en las arcillas durante el tratamiento térmico por la presencia del mineral calcita, que permite que la sinterización ocurra a temperaturas más bajas en las arcillas estudiadas, que tienen composición mineralógica donde predomina el mineral motmorillonita. El trabajo hizo un amplio estudio de los cambios en las propiedades físico-químico-mecánicas que se producen a escala microscópica y macroscópica. Estos estudios muestran un incremento consistente de la resistencia mecánica, que se atribuye a la formación de la fase anorthita entre los productos de reacción. Los resultados del trabajo fueron puestos a prueba en talleres prototipo reales, donde se demostró que se producen incrementos de la resistencia a compresión entre 40-50%, y una reducción de los costos energéticos que oscilan entre un 30-50%The results of a study that assesses the effect of adding small amounts of calcium carbonate as fluxing agent on fired Clay bricks are presented. The paper aims to improve the energy demand of fire clay bricks manufacture through the reduction of firing temperature and process duration. The paper shows that additions in the range of 2-5 % (wt of clay improves compressive strength of bricks fired at temperature around 900 °C and sintering times between 1-3 hours. This effect would be caused by modifications of

  5. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance (United States)

    ... Duyff RL. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons; 2012:140. Rosen HN. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis. ...

  6. Copper and calcium uptake in colored hair. (United States)

    Smart, K E; Kilburn, M; Schroeder, M; Martin, B G H; Hawes, C; Marsh, J M; Grovenor, C R M


    During hair coloring a number of disulfide bonds in cystine are oxidized (1) to create cysteic acid, forming binding sites for metal ions such as Ca(2+ )and Cu(2+ )from tap water (2). The increased uptake of these metals can have a detrimental impact on fiber properties-for example, reducing shine and causing a poor wet and dry feel (3). In addition, the increased uptake of copper can also contribute to further fiber damage during subsequent coloring due to its ability to take part in metal-induced radical chemistry (4). It is important to know where in the fibers these metals are located in order to either effectively remove these metals or control their chemistry. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) has been used to locate the calcium and copper within hair that has been treated with a colorant and washed multiple times in tap water containing these ions. Untreated hair is used as a baseline standard material. Images with up to 50-nm spatial resolution of the preferential locations of calcium uptake were obtained, showing a high concentration of calcium in the cuticle region of colored hair, specifically in the sulfur-rich regions (A-layer and exocuticle).

  7. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in Martian meteorite EETA79001 (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Wentworth, S. J.


    Chips of glassy Lithology C of EETA79001 were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the mineralogy and petrogenesis of the glass that was shown by others to contain trapped Mars-like gases. Calcium carbonite was identified as massive to acicular crystals for which Ca, C, and O were the major elements. Calcium sulfate was identified as prismatic-acicular crystals with Ca and S as the major elements.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Calcium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control...

  9. Extracellular and Intracellular Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bronner


    Full Text Available An organism with an internal skeleton must accumulate calcium while maintaining body fluids at a well-regulated, constant calcium concentration. Neither calcium absorption nor excretion plays a significant regulatory role. Instead, isoionic calcium uptake and release by bone surfaces causes plasma calcium to be well regulated. Very rapid shape changes of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in response to hormonal signals, modulate the available bone surfaces so that plasma calcium can increase when more low-affinity bone calcium binding sites are made available and can decrease when more high-affinity binding sites are exposed. The intracellular free calcium concentration of body cells is also regulated, but because cells are bathed by fluids with vastly higher calcium concentration, their major regulatory mechanism is severe entry restriction. All cells have a calcium-sensing receptor that modulates cell function via its response to extracellular calcium. In duodenal cells, the apical calcium entry structure functions as both transporter and a vitamin D–responsive channel. The channel upregulates calcium entry, with intracellular transport mediated by the mobile, vitamin D–dependent buffer, calbindin D9K, which binds and transports more than 90% of the transcellular calcium flux. Fixed intracellular calcium binding sites can, like the body's skeleton, take up and release calcium that has entered the cell, but the principal regulatory tool of the cell is restricted entry.

  10. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.


    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  11. Polysulfide calcium as multyfunctional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abramova


    Full Text Available A modified method of producing of polysulfide calcium, the influence of various factors on the degree of polysulfide of product, as well as possible directions for its use as a multifunctional compound were considered.

  12. [Calcium metabolism after the menopause]. (United States)

    Kanovitch, D; Klotz, H P


    The authors recall the antagonism between estradiol and parathormone. Estradiol tends to lower serum calcium and fix calcium in the bones as shown by one of us 25 years ago. The mechanism of this action of estrogen on calcium metabolism has been determined by numerous authors but some points are still not clear, e.g. the interferences between estrogen and calcitonin. Classically, parathormone is known to increase bony reabsorption and raise serum calcium. After the menopause the gradual reduction in estradiol secretion leads to post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is better to administer estrogens prophylactically to women after the menopause provided a cervical smear and mammography have been carried out to eliminate latent carcinoma of the breast or uterine cervix.

  13. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping


    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  14. The role of uncoupling protein 3 regulating calcium ion uptake into mitochondria during sarcopenia (United States)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Choi, Inho; Haruna, Marie; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Maita Ohno, Ayako; Kondo Teshima, Shigetada

    Overloaded mitochondrial calcium concentration contributes to progression of mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle, leading to sarcopenia. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is primarily expressed in the inner membrane of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Recently, it has been reported that UCP3 is associated with calcium uptake into mitochondria. However, the mechanisms by which UCP3 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake are not well understood. Here we report that UCP3 interacts with HS-1 associated protein X-1 (Hax-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that is localized in mitochondria, which is involved in cellular responses to calcium ion. The hydrophilic sequences within the loop 2, matrix-localized hydrophilic domain of mouse UCP3 are necessary for binding to Hax-1 of the C-terminal domain in adjacent to mitochondrial innermembrane. Interestingly, these proteins interaction occur the calcium-dependent manner. Indeed, overexpression of UCP3 significantly enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, Hax-1 knock-down enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on both UCP3 and Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myotubes, but not myoblasts. Finally, the dissociation of UCP3 and Hax-1 enhances calcium uptake into mitochondria in aged muscle. These studies identify a novel UCP3-Hax-1 complex regulates the influx of calcium ion into mitochondria in muscle. Thus, the efficacy of UCP3-Hax-1 in mitochondrial calcium regulation may provide a novel therapeutic approach against mitochondrial dysfunction-related disease containing sarcopenia.

  15. A toxin from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer that blocks calcium channels coupled to exocytosis (United States)

    Guatimosim, C; Romano-Silva, M A; Cruz, J S; Beirão, P S L; Kalapothakis, E; Moraes-Santos, T; Cordeiro, M N; Diniz, C R; Gomez, M V; Prado, M A M


    The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the pharmacological action of a toxin from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, Tx3-3, on the function of calcium channels that control exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Tx3-3, in confirmation of previous work, diminished the intracellular calcium increase induced by membrane depolarization with KCl (25 mM) in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The toxin was very potent (IC50 0.9 nM) at inhibiting calcium channels that regulate calcium entry in synaptosomes. In addition, Tx3-3 blocked the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, as measured with the fluorescent dye FM1-43. Using ω-toxins that interact selectively with distinct neuronal calcium channels, we investigated whether the target of Tx3-3 overlaps with known channels that mediate exocytosis. The results indicate that the main population of voltage-sensitive calcium channels altered by Tx3-3 can also be inhibited by ω-agatoxin IVA, an antagonist of P/Q calcium channels. ω-conotoxin GVIA, which inhibits N type calcium channels did not decrease significantly the entry of calcium or exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in depolarized synaptosomes. It is concluded that Tx3-3 potently inhibits ω-agatoxin IVA-sensitive calcium channels, which are involved in controlling exocytosis in rat brain cortical synaptosomes. PMID:9351520


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.


    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  17. CT coronary calcium scoring with tin filtration using iterative beam-hardening calcium correction reconstruction. (United States)

    Tesche, Christian; De Cecco, Carlo N; Schoepf, U Joseph; Duguay, Taylor M; Albrecht, Moritz H; De Santis, Domenico; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Lesslie, Virginia W; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Bayer, Richard R; Canstein, Christian; Hoffmann, Ellen; Allmendinger, Thomas; Nance, John W


    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of CT coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) with tin pre-filtration (Sn100kVp) using iterative beam-hardening correction (IBHC) calcium material reconstruction compared to the standard 120kVp acquisition. Third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) CACS with Sn100kVp acquisition allows significant dose reduction. However, the Sn100kVp spectrum is harder with lower contrast compared to 120kVp, resulting in lower calcium score values. Sn100kVp spectral correction using IBHC-based calcium material reconstruction may restore comparable calcium values. Image data of 62 patients (56% male, age 63.9±9.2years) who underwent a clinically-indicated CACS acquisition using the standard 120kVp protocol and an additional Sn100kVp CACS scan as part of a research study were retrospectively analyzed. Datasets of the Sn100kVp scans were reconstructed using a dedicated spectral IBHC CACS reconstruction to restore the spectral response of 120kVp spectra. Agatston scores were derived from 120kVp and IBHC reconstructed Sn100kVp studies. Pearson's correlation coefficient was assessed and Agatston score categories and percentile-based risk categorization were compared. Median Agatston scores derived from IBHC Sn100kVp scans and 120kVp acquisition were 31.7 and 34.1, respectively (p=0.057). Pearson's correlation coefficient showed excellent correlation between the acquisitions (r=0.99, pradiation dose (0.19±0.07mSv vs. 0.83±0.33mSv, pradiation dose is significantly reduced by 75% to the level of a chest x-ray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.


    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  19. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Titanium Implants (United States)

    Kharapudchenko, E.; Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Tverdokhlebov, S.


    Hybrid multilayer coatings were obtained on titanium substrates by the combination of two methods: the micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid solution with the addition of calcium compounds to high supersaturated state and RF magnetron sputtering of the target made of synthetic hydroxyapatite. 16 different groups of coatings were formed on titanium substrates and in vitro studies were conducted in accordance with ISO 23317 in the solution simulating body fluid. The studies using SEM, XRD of the coatings of the samples before and after exposure to SBF were performed. The features of morphology, chemical and phase composition of the studied coatings are shown.

  20. Calcium Overload Accelerates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification Via Pit-1, but not the Calcium-Sensing Receptor. (United States)

    Masumoto, Asuka; Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Nakashima, Yuri; Okuda, Kouji; Iwashita, Yuko; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Shigematsu, Takashi


    Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder is an important problem in patients with renal failure. Abnormal levels of serum phosphate and calcium affect CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder and contribute to bone disease, VC, and cardiovascular disease. Hypercalcemia is a contributing factor in progression of VC in patients with CKD. However, the mechanisms of how calcium promotes intracellular calcification are still unclear. This study aimed to examine the mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcification in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for 10 days. We added high calcium (HiCa; calcium 3.0 mM) to high phosphate (HPi; phosphate 3.8 mM) medium to accelerate phosphate and calcium-induced VC. We used phosphonoformic acid and the calcimimetic R-568 to determine whether the mechanism of calcification involves Pit-1 or the calcium-sensing receptor. Medial VC was significantly augmented by HPi+HiCa medium compared with HPi alone (300%, p<0.05), and was associated with upregulation of Pit-1 protein. Pit-1 protein concentrations in HPi+HiCa medium were greater than those in HPi medium. Phosphonoformic acid completely negated the augmentation of medial VC induced by HPi+HiCa. R-568 had no additive direct effect on medial VC. These results indicated that exposure to HPi+HiCa accelerates medial VC, and this is mediated through Pit-1, not the calcium-sensing receptor.

  1. Regional specificity of exercise and calcium during skeletal growth in girls : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iuliano-Burns, S; Saxon, L; Naughton, G; Gibbons, K; Bass, SL

    Combining exercise with calcium supplementation may produce additive or multiplicative effects at loaded sites; thus, we conducted a single blind, prospective, randomized controlled study in pre- and early-pubertal girls to test the following hypotheses. (1) At the loaded sites, exercise and calcium

  2. Injectable calcium phosphate cement with PLGA, gelatin and PTMC microspheres in a rabbit femoral defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Hongbing; Walboomers, X. Frank; Habraken, Wouter J.E.M.; Zhang Zheng, Z.Z.; Li, Yubao; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Wolke, Joop G.C.; Jansen, John A.


    In this study, we investigated the in vivo degradation properties and tissue response towards injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) with no further addition, or calcium phosphate composite cement containing approximately 50 vol.% of microspheres. Three types of spheres were assessed, i.e.

  3. Dietary calcium supplementation enhances efficacy but also toxicity of EGFR inhibitor therapy for colon cancer. (United States)

    Rinella, Erica S; Bankaitis, Eric D; Threadgill, David W


    The inverse correlation between levels of dietary calcium and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been extensively investigated. However, the impact of supplemental calcium on cancer therapy remains unknown. We used four models of CRC, Caco-2 and HCT116 human cancer cell lines and Apc (Min/+) and azoxymethane carcinogen-induced mouse models, to investigate the impact of a western-style diet low in calcium (0.05%) vs. a similar diet but supplemented with calcium (5%) on therapeutic targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We found that calcium supplementation combined with pharmacologic blockade of EGFR results in an additive effect on tumor growth inhibition in all models. Unexpectedly, the combined use of dietary calcium supplementation and EGFR inhibitors also resulted in elevated toxicity suggesting that careful consideration be given when combining dietary supplements with prescribed cancer therapies.

  4. Transglutaminase-induced crosslinking of gelatin-calcium carbonate composite films. (United States)

    Wang, Yuemeng; Liu, Anjun; Ye, Ran; Wang, Wenhang; Li, Xin


    The effects of transglutaminase (TGase) on the rheological profiles and interactions of gelatin-calcium carbonate solutions were studied. In addition, mechanical properties, water vapour permeability and microstructures of gelatin-calcium carbonate films were also investigated and compared. Fluorescence data suggested that the interaction of TGase and gelation-calcium carbonate belonged to a static quenching mechanism, and merely one binding site between TGase and gelatin-calcium carbonate was identified. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mechanical properties and the water vapour permeability studies revealed that TGase favoured the strong intramolecular polymerisation of the peptides in gelatin. The microstructures of the surfaces and cross sections in gelatin-calcium carbonate films were shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. The results of the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that TGase caused conformational changes in the proteins films. Therefore, TGase successfully facilitated the formation of gelatin-calcium carbonate composite films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet. (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav


    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  6. Calcium carbonate nucleation in an alkaline lake surface water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Hoch, Anthony


    Calcium concentration and calcite supersaturation (Ω) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water were determined during August of 1997, 2000, and 2001. PL surface water has Ω values of 10-16. Notwithstanding high Ω, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface water for several months. However, calcium solution addition to PL surface-water samples caused reproducible calcium carbonate mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Mean PL surface-water calcium concentration at nucleation was 2.33 mM (n = 10), a value about nine times higher than the ambient PL surface-water calcium concentration (0.26 mM); mean Ω at nucleation (109 with a standard deviation of 8) is about eight times the PL surface-water Ω. Calcium concentration and Ω regulated the calcium carbonate formation in PL nucleation experiments and surface water. Unfiltered samples nucleated at lower Ω than filtered samples. Calcium concentration and Ω at nucleation for experiments in the presence of added particles were within one standard deviation of the mean for all samples. Calcium carbonate formation rates followed a simple rate expression of the form, rate (mM/min) = A (Ω) + B. The best fit rate equation "Rate (Δ mM/Δ min) = -0.0026 Ω + 0.0175 (r = 0.904, n = 10)" was statistically significant at greater than the 0.01 confidence level and gives, after rearrangement, Ω at zero rate of 6.7. Nucleation in PL surface water and morphology of calcium carbonate particles formed in PL nucleation experiments and in PL surface-water samples suggest crystal growth inhibition by multiple substances present in PL surface water mediates PL calcium carbonate formation, but there is insufficient information to determine the chemical nature of all inhibitors.

  7. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement. (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji


    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.


    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  9. Calcium: the molecular basis of calcium action in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pochet, Roland; Donato, Rosario


    ... of Calcium Calcium Signalling in Excitable Cells Ca2+ Release in Muscle Cells by N. Macrez and J. Mironneau Calcium Signalling in Neurons Exemplified by Rat Sympathetic Ganglion Cells by S.J. M...

  10. Effect of fuel characteristics on synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of fuel characteristics on the processing of nano sized calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) fine powders by the solution combustion technique is reported. Urea, glycine and glucose were used as fuels in this study. By using different combinations of urea and glycine fuels and occasional addition of small amounts of ...

  11. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens


    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX....... Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon...... appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than 1 s...

  12. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale


    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  13. A model of calcium homeostasis in the rat. (United States)

    Granjon, David; Bonny, Olivier; Edwards, Aurélie


    We developed a model of calcium homeostasis in the rat to better understand the impact of dysfunctions such as primary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency on calcium balance. The model accounts for the regulation of calcium intestinal uptake, bone resorption, and renal reabsorption by parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D 3 , and Ca 2+ itself. It is the first such model to incorporate recent findings regarding the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in the kidney, the presence of a rapidly exchangeable pool in bone, and the delayed response of vitamin D 3 synthesis. Accounting for two (fast and slow) calcium storage compartments in bone allows the model to properly predict the effects of bisphophonates on the plasma levels of Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] p ), PTH, and vitamin D 3 Our model also suggests that Ca 2+ exchange rates between plasma and the fast pool vary with both sex and age, allowing [Ca 2+ ] p to remain constant in spite of sex- and age-based hormonal and other differences. Our results suggest that the inconstant hypercalciuria that is observed in primary hyperparathyroidism can be attributed in part to counterbalancing effects of PTH and CaSR in the kidney. Our model also correctly predicts that calcimimetic agents such as cinacalcet bring down [Ca 2+ ] p to within its normal range in primary hyperparathyroidism. In addition, the model provides a simulation of CYP24A1 inactivation that leads to a situation reminiscent of infantile hypercalcemia. In summary, our model of calcium handling can be used to decipher the complex regulation of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide


    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P parathyroid hormone levels (P animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  15. A comparison of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning. (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally; Vale, Allister


    This article reviews the experimental and clinical studies that have compared the efficacy (impact on urine lead excretion, blood and tissue lead concentrations, resolution of features and survival) of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning. It also summarizes the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects and the adverse effects of treatment. Medline, Toxline, and Embase were searched for all available years to June 2009. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: The absorption of oral DMSA is more complete than sodium calcium edetate; the latter has to be administered parenterally. Both antidotes are distributed predominantly extracellularly. Sodium calcium edetate is not metabolized, whereas DMSA is extensively metabolized to mixed disulfides of cysteine. The two antidotes have elimination half-lives of less than 60 min. There is no evidence that either antidote crosses the blood-brain barrier to any major extent. Sodium calcium edetate chelates lead by displacement of the central Ca2+ ion with Pb2+. The nature of the DMSA-lead chelate is less clearly defined. There is evidence that the mixed disulfides of cysteine are the active chelating moiety in humans. If this is the case, this suggests that chelation occurs principally, if not exclusively, in the kidney. The primary source of lead mobilized by sodium calcium edetate is bone with an additional contribution from kidney and liver. Comparison of the experimental studies is complicated by substantial variations in study design, particularly the antidote dose, the route and duration of treatment, the amount and duration of lead dosing, and lack of direct comparison between antidotes (comparison was usually made with control). In experimental studies that used equimolar and clinically relevant antidote doses and assessed the impact of DMSA and sodium calcium edetate on urine lead excretion and/or blood lead concentrations, similar results

  16. [Regulatory mechanism of calcium metabolism. (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi

    It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. PTH binds to the G protein coupling receptor, PTH1R, and increases intracellular cAMP levels. Impirement in the PTH signalling causes many diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis with hormone resistance. Vitamin D is activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]by two steps of hydroxylation which occurs in the Liver and Kidney. Then, 1,25(OH)2D binds to vitamin D receptor(VDR), which works as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia are caused by various disorders including abnormal regulation of PTH and vitamin D production and their signal transduction.

  17. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation. (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R


    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of Mixtures of Magnesium, Citrate and Phytate as Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Inhibitors in Urine. (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia


    The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mixtures of magnesium, citrate and phytate as calcium oxalate crystallization inhibitors. A turbidimetric assay in synthetic urine was performed to obtain induction times for calcium oxalate crystallization in the absence and presence of different mixtures of inhibitors. The morphology of calcium oxalate crystals in the absence or presence of inhibitors and mixtures of the inhibitors was evaluated in 2 crystallization experiments at low and high calcium oxalate supersaturation. The crystals formed were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Examination of crystallization induction times revealed clear inhibitory effects of magnesium, citrate and phytate on calcium oxalate crystallization, supporting usefulness in the treatment and prevention of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Significant synergistic effects between magnesium and phytate were observed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that phytate is a powerful crystal growth inhibitor of calcium oxalate, totally preventing the formation of trihydrate and monohydrate. In addition to crystallization inhibition capacity, citrate and magnesium avoided calcium oxalate crystallization by decreasing its supersaturation. The synergistic effect between magnesium and phytate on calcium oxalate crystallization suggests that a combination of these 2 compounds may be highly useful as antilithiasis therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium-dependent freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis involves membrane resealing via synaptotagmin SYT1. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Kawamura, Yukio; Minami, Anzu; Uemura, Matsuo


    Plant freezing tolerance involves the prevention of lethal freeze-induced damage to the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that plant freezing tolerance involves membrane resealing, which, in animal cells, is accomplished by calcium-dependent exocytosis following mechanical disruption of the plasma membrane. In Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts, extracellular calcium enhanced not only freezing tolerance but also tolerance to electroporation, which typically punctures the plasma membrane. However, calcium did not enhance survival when protoplasts were exposed to osmotic stress that mimicked freeze-induced dehydration. Calcium-dependent freezing tolerance was also detected with leaf sections in which ice crystals intruded into tissues. Interestingly, calcium-dependent freezing tolerance was inhibited by extracellular addition of an antibody against the cytosolic region of SYT1, a homolog of synaptotagmin known to be a calcium sensor that initiates exocytosis. This inhibition indicates that the puncture allowing the antibody to flow into the cytoplasm occurs during freeze/thawing. Thus, we propose that calcium-dependent freezing tolerance results from resealing of the punctured site. Protoplasts or leaf sections isolated from Arabidopsis SYT1-RNA interference (RNAi) plants lost calcium-dependent freezing tolerance, and intact SYT1-RNAi plants had lower freezing tolerance than control plants. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium-dependent freezing tolerance results from membrane resealing and that this mechanism involves SYT1 function.

  20. Calcium regulation of muscle contraction. (United States)

    Szent-Györgyi, A G


    Calcium triggers contraction by reaction with regulatory proteins that in the absence of calcium prevent interaction of actin and myosin. Two different regulatory systems are found in different muscles. In actin-linked regulation troponin and tropomyosin regulate actin by blocking sites on actin required for complex formation with myosin; in myosin-linked regulation sites on myosin are blocked in the absence of calcium. The major features of actin control are as follows: there is a requirement for tropomyosin and for a troponin complex having three different subunits with different functions; the actin displays a cooperative behavior; and a movement of tropomyosin occurs controlled by the calcium binding on troponin. Myosin regulation is controlled by a regulatory subunit that can be dissociated in scallop myosin reversibly by removing divalent cations with EDTA. Myosin control can function with pure actin in the absence of tropomyosin. Calcium binding and regulation of molluscan myosins depend on the presence of regulatory light chains. It is proposed that the light chains function by sterically blocking myosin sites in the absence of calcium, and that the "off" state of myosin requires cooperation between the two myosin heads. Both myosin control and actin control are widely distributed in different organisms. Many invertebrates have muscles with both types of regulation. Actin control is absent in the muscles of molluscs and in several minor phyla that lack troponin. Myosin control is not found in striated vertebrate muscles and in the fast muscles of crustacean decapods, although regulatory light chains are present. While in vivo myosin control may not be excluded from vertebrate striated muscles, myosin control may be absent as a result of mutations of the myosin heavy chain.

  1. Genetic bypass of Aspergillus nidulans crzA function in calcium homeostasis. (United States)

    Almeida, Ricardo S; Loss, Omar; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Brown, Neil Andrew; Bignell, Elaine; Savoldi, Marcela; Pantano, Sergio; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Arst, Herbert N; Goldman, Gustavo H


    After dephosphorylation by the phosphatase calcineurin, the fungal transcription factor CrzA enters the nucleus and activates the transcription of genes responsible for calcium homeostasis and many other calcium-regulated activities. A lack of CrzA confers calcium-sensitivity to the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. To further understand calcium signaling in filamentous fungi and to identify genes that interact genetically with CrzA, we selected for mutations that were able to suppress crzAΔ calcium intolerance and identified three genes. Through genetic mapping, gene sequencing, and mutant rescue, we were able to identify these as cnaB (encoding the calcineurin regulatory subunit), folA (encoding an enzyme involved in folic acid biosynthesis, dihydroneopterin aldolase), and scrC (suppression of crzA(-), encoding a hypothetical protein). By using a calcium indicator, Fluo-3, we were able to determine that the wild-type and the suppressor strains were either able to regulate intracellular calcium levels or were able to take up and or store calcium correctly. The increased expression of calcium transporters, pmcA and/or pmcB, in suppressor mutants possibly enabled tolerance to high levels of calcium. Our results suggest that a cnaB suppressor mutation confers calcium tolerance to crzAΔ strains through restoration of calcium homeostasis. These results stress that in A. nidulans there are calcineurin-dependent and CrzA-independent pathways. In addition, it is possible that CrzA is able to contribute to the modulation of folic acid biosynthesis.

  2. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons. (United States)

    Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Joanna; Damodaran, Sriraman; Dorman, Daniel B; Blackwell, Kim T


    The striatum is a major site of learning and memory formation for sensorimotor and cognitive association. One of the mechanisms used by the brain for memory storage is synaptic plasticity - the long-lasting, activity-dependent change in synaptic strength. All forms of synaptic plasticity require an elevation in intracellular calcium, and a common hypothesis is that the amplitude and duration of calcium transients can determine the direction of synaptic plasticity. The utility of this hypothesis in the striatum is unclear in part because dopamine is required for striatal plasticity and in part because of the diversity in stimulation protocols. To test whether calcium can predict plasticity direction, we developed a calcium-based plasticity rule using a spiny projection neuron model with sophisticated calcium dynamics including calcium diffusion, buffering and pump extrusion. We utilized three spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) induction protocols, in which postsynaptic potentials are paired with precisely timed action potentials and the timing of such pairing determines whether potentiation or depression will occur. Results show that despite the variation in calcium dynamics, a single, calcium-based plasticity rule, which explicitly considers duration of calcium elevations, can explain the direction of synaptic weight change for all three STDP protocols. Additional simulations show that the plasticity rule correctly predicts the NMDA receptor dependence of long-term potentiation and the L-type channel dependence of long-term depression. By utilizing realistic calcium dynamics, the model reveals mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity direction, and shows that the dynamics of calcium, not just calcium amplitude, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Calcium-induced voltage gating in single conical nanopores. (United States)

    Siwy, Zuzanna S; Powell, Matthew R; Petrov, Alexander; Kalman, Eric; Trautmann, Christina; Eisenberg, Robert S


    We examine time signals of ion current through single conically shaped nanopores in the presence of sub-millimolar concentrations of calcium ions. We show that calcium induces voltage-dependent ion current fluctuations in time in addition to the previously reported negative incremental resistance (Nano Lett. 2006, 6, 473-477). These current fluctuations occur on the millisecond time scale at voltages at which the effect of negative incremental resistance was observed. We explain the fluctuations as results of transient binding of calcium ions to carboxyl groups on the pore walls that cause transient changes in electric potential inside a conical nanopore. We support this explanation by recordings of ion current in the presence of manganese ions that bind to carboxyl groups 3 orders of magnitude more tightly than calcium ions. The system of a single conical nanopore with calcium ions is compared to a semiconductor device of a unijunction transistor in electronic circuits. A unijunction transistor also exhibits negative incremental resistance and current instabilities.

  4. Can total cardiac calcium predict the coronary calcium score? (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Crudu, Vitalie; Parameswaran-Chandrika, Anoop; Romero-Corral, Abel; Purushottam, Bhaskar; Figueredo, Vincent M


    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) shares the same risk factors as atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease as well as cardiovascular events. However, sensitivity and positive predictive value are low. We hypothesized that a global echocardiographic calcium score would better predict coronary atherosclerotic burden, as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), than MAC alone. An echocardiographic score was devised to measure global cardiac calcification in a semi-quantitative manner; this included calcification in the aortic valve and root, the mitral valve and annulus, and the sub-mitral apparatus. This score, and a simplified version, were compared with a similar calcification score by CT scan, as well as the CAC. There was a good correlation between the two global calcification scores; the echocardiographic score also correlated with CAC. Using CAC >400 as a measure of severe coronary atherosclerosis, an echocardiographic score ≥5 had a positive predictive value of 60%. Importantly, the simplified score performed equally well (≥3 had a positive predictive value of 62%). Global cardiac calcification, assessed by CT scan or echocardiography, correlates with the extent of coronary calcium. A semi-quantitative calcium score can be easily applied during routine echocardiographic interpretation and can alert the reader to the possibility of severe coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of ...

  6. Effects of Anandamide and Noxious Heat on Intracellular Calcium Concentration in Nociceptive DRG Neurons of Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tilo Fischbach; Wolfgang Greffrath; Hermann Nawrath; Rolf-Detlef Treede


    ...+-free extracellular solution. Neither exclusion of voltage-gated sodium channels nor additional blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels of the L-, N-, and/or T-type, significantly reduced the anandamide...

  7. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin


    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  8. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison


    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  9. Calcium release from experimental dental materials. (United States)

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam


    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim


    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  11. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate. (United States)


    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food...

  13. Bioactive and Hemocompatible Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cement


    Acuña-Gutiérrez, Iván Omar; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Saldívar-Ramírez, Mirna María Guadalupe; Reséndiz-Hernández, Perla Janet; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro


    Calcium sulphoaluminate cement (CSAC) is an attractive candidate for biomedical applications due to its appropriate mechanical properties and high calcium content. In vitro bioactivity and hemocompatibility of calcium sulphoaluminate cement were assessed. The cement was prepared from a mixture of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) clinker, gypsum and water. Cement samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for different periods of time (7, 14 and 21 days). The analyses of these...

  14. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease


    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Spiegel, David M.


    Purpose of Review The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balan...

  15. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M


    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  16. Electrochemical Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yang; Song, Bingnan; Weijden, van der Renata D.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.


    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms and cannot be replaced or substituted. In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient membrane free electrochemical system for P removal and recovery as calcium phosphate (CaP). This method relies on in situ formation of hydroxide

  17. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium (United States)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  19. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    When there is an extracellular change, cells get the message either by introduction of calcium ions into ... as it precipitates phosphate, the established energy currency of cells. Prolonged high intracellular calcium ... trigger proteins upon binding with free calcium ion(s) change their confirmation to modulate enzymes and ion ...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5191 - Calcium carbonate. (United States)


    ... Supplements 1 § 582.5191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.5191 Section 582.5191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  1. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  2. Mitochondrial Calcium Sparkles Light Up Astrocytes. (United States)

    MacVicar, Brian A; Ko, Rebecca W Y


    Discrete calcium signals in the fine processes of astrocytes are a recent discovery and a new mystery. In a recent issue of Neuron, Agarwal et al. (2017) report that calcium efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) contribute to calcium microdomains. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Calcium supplementation to prevent pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Calcium supplementation to prevent pre-eclampsia - a systematic review. G J Hofmeyr, A Roodt, A N Atallah, L Duley. Background. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may prevent high blood pressure and preterm labour. Objective. To assess the effects of calcium supplementation.

  5. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of......The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite......-wollastonite-tridymite and that of anorthite-wollastonite-gehlenite. The series includes the eutectic compositions as end members. The second series consists of five compositions on a line parallel to the joining line on the alumina rich side. In the present work, GFA is described in terms of glass stability, i.e., the ability of a glass...... to resist crystallization during reheating. In addition, the fragility index (m) is derived by fitting the viscosity data with the Avramov-Milchev equation. The results show that m is inversely proportional to the glass stability for the two series of melts, implying that m is an indirect measure of GFA...

  6. Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin


    Full Text Available Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells.

  7. Impact Vaporization as a Possible Source of Mercury's Calcium Exosphere (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Hahn, Joseph M.


    Mercury's calcium exosphere varies in a periodic way with that planet's true anomaly. We show that this pattern can be explained by impact vaporization from interplanetary dust with variations being due to Mercury's radial and vertical excursions through an interplanetary dust disk having an inclination within 5 degrees of the plane of Mercury's orbit. Both a highly inclined dust disk and a two-disk model (where the two disks have a mutual inclination) fail to reproduce the observed variation in calcium exospheric abundance with Mercury true anomaly angle. However, an additional source of impacting dust beyond the nominal dust disk is required near Mercury's true anomaly (?) 25deg +/-5deg. This is close to but not coincident with Mercury's true anomaly (?=45deg) when it crosses comet 2P/Encke's present day orbital plane. Interestingly, the Taurid meteor storms at Earth, which are also due to Comet Encke, are observed to occur when Earth's true anomaly is +/-20 or so degrees before and after the position where Earth and Encke orbital planes cross. The lack of exact correspondence with the present day orbit of Encke may indicate the width of the potential stream along Mercury's orbit or a previous cometary orbit. The extreme energy of the escaping calcium, estimated to have a temperature greater than 50000 K if the source is thermal, cannot be due to the impact process itself but must be imparted by an additional mechanism such as dissociation of a calcium-bearing molecule or ionization followed by recombination.

  8. Calcium gradient in plant cells with polarized growth in simulated microgravity (United States)

    Sytnik, K. M.; Demkiv, O. T.; Kordyum, E. L.; Nedukha, E. M.; Danevich, L. A.

    Plant cells characterized by apical growth, for example, root hairs and apical cells of moss protonema, are a convinient model to address the problem of gravity response mechanisms including initiation of cell polarity. The fluorescent calcium probe, chlorotetracycline, allowed us to display the calcium distribution gradient in these cells. Irradiation by red light led to a sharp decrease in the Ca2+ ion activity in cells. During clinostatting in darkness the pattern of calcium influx and distribution changes inconsiderably as compared with control; in root hairs calcium is detected mainly in their apices and bases as in control. Addition of chlorpromazine to the medium probably increases the influx and accumulation of Ca2+ ions. Under data obtained confirm speculations on the Ca2+ ion functional role for the apical growth of plant cells and may suggest the participation of gravity in redistribution or activation of ion channels, calcium channels included, in the plasmalemma.

  9. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward


    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  10. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil


    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  11. The Calcium Wave of Vegetable Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TD. Geydan


    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential nutrient for plants; it is involved in developmental processes and in responses to biotic and abiotic factors. Several signals that modify the calcium concentration in the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and/or plastids have been observed. These changes in the calcium concentration in the cell interior are rapidly returned to basal levels, in the meantime, innumerable and complex signaling cascades. This note exposes the mechanisms of calcium transport through the cell membranes of the entrance of calcium in the plant cells.

  12. Calcium supplementation commencing before or early in pregnancy, or food fortification with calcium, for preventing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Manyame, Sarah


    Pre-eclampsia is considerably more prevalent in low- than high-income countries. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is dietary differences, particularly calcium deficiency. Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy reduces the serious consequences of pre-eclampsia and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for women with low dietary calcium intake, but has limited effect on the overall risk of pre-eclampsia. It is important to establish whether calcium supplementation before and in early pregnancy has added benefit. Such evidence would be justification for population-level fortification of staple foods with calcium. To determine the effect of calcium supplementation or food fortification with calcium, commenced before or early in pregnancy and continued at least until mid-pregnancy, on pre-eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register (10 August 2017), PubMed (29 June 2017),, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (10 August 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of calcium supplementation or food fortification which include women of child bearing age not yet pregnant, or in early pregnancy. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and trials published in abstract form only would have been eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. Cross-over designs are not appropriate for this intervention.The scope of this review is to consider interventions including calcium supplementation with or without additional supplements or treatments, compared with placebo or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. This review is based on one RCT (involving 60 women) which looked at calcium plus additional supplements

  13. Prevention of Fractures in Older People with Calcium and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl A. Nowson


    Full Text Available The greatest cause of fracture in older people is osteoporosis which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older people. A number of meta-analyses have been performed assessing the effectiveness of calcium supplementation alone, vitamin D supplementation alone and the combined therapy on bone loss and fracture reduction in older people. The results of these meta-analyses indicate that vitamin D supplementation alone is unlikely to reduce fracture risk, calcium supplementation alone has a modest effect in reducing total fracture risk, but compliance with calcium supplements is poor in the long term. The combination of calcium supplementation with vitamin D supplementation, particularly in those at risk of marginal and low vitamin D status reduces total fractures, including hip fractures. Therefore older people would be recommended to consume adequate dietary calcium (>1100 mg/day together with maintaining adequate vitamin D status (>60 nmol/L 25(OHD to reduce risk of fracture. It is a challenge to consume sufficient dietary calcium from dietary sources, but the increasing range of calcium fortified foods could assist in increasing the dietary calcium intake of older people. In addition to the usual dairy based food sources, vitamin D supplements are likely to be required for older people with reduced mobility and access to sunlight.

  14. Role of Calcium Signaling in the Transcriptional Regulation of the Apicoplast Genome of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabna Cheemadan


    Full Text Available Calcium is a universal second messenger that plays an important role in regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. To understand calcium-dependent signaling in malaria parasites, we analyzed transcriptional responses of Plasmodium falciparum to two calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin that cause redistribution of intracellular calcium within the cytoplasm. While ionomycin induced a specific transcriptional response defined by up- or downregulation of a narrow set of genes, A23187 caused a developmental arrest in the schizont stage. In addition, we observed a dramatic decrease of mRNA levels of the transcripts encoded by the apicoplast genome during the exposure of P. falciparum to both calcium ionophores. Neither of the ionophores caused any disruptions to the DNA replication or the overall apicoplast morphology. This suggests that the mRNA downregulation reflects direct inhibition of the apicoplast gene transcription. Next, we identify a nuclear encoded protein with a calcium binding domain (EF-hand that is localized to the apicoplast. Overexpression of this protein (termed PfACBP1 in P. falciparum cells mediates an increased resistance to the ionophores which suggests its role in calcium-dependent signaling within the apicoplast. Our data indicate that the P. falciparum apicoplast requires calcium-dependent signaling that involves a novel protein PfACBP1.

  15. Calcium regulation of EGF-induced ERK5 activation: role of Lad1-MEKK2 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Yao

    Full Text Available The ERK5 cascade is a MAPK pathway that transmits both mitogenic and stress signals, yet its mechanism of activation is not fully understood. Using intracellular calcium modifiers, we found that ERK5 activation by EGF is inhibited both by the depletion and elevation of intracellular calcium levels. This calcium effect was found to occur upstream of MEKK2, which is the MAP3K of the ERK5 cascade. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EGF increases MEKK2 binding to the adaptor protein Lad1, and this interaction was reduced by the intracellular calcium modifiers, indicating that a proper calcium concentration is required for the interactions and transmission of EGF signals to ERK5. In vitro binding assays revealed that the proper calcium concentration is required for a direct binding of MEKK2 to Lad1. The binding of these proteins is not affected by c-Src-mediated phosphorylation on Lad1, but slightly affects the Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2, suggesting that the interaction with Lad1 is necessary for full Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2. In addition, we found that changes in calcium levels affect the EGF-induced nuclear translocation of MEKK2 and thereby its effect on the nuclear ERK5 activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium is required for EGF-induced ERK5 activation, and this effect is probably mediated by securing proper interaction of MEKK2 with the upstream adaptor protein Lad1.

  16. Calcium Binding Ability of Recombinant Buffalo Regucalcin: A Study Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Harikrishna, P; Thomas, Jobin; Shende, A M; Bhure, S K


    Regucalcin is a calcium regulating multifunctional protein reported to have many important functions like calcium homeostasis, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-cancerous functions. Although it is demonstrated as a calcium regulating protein, the calcium binding ability of regucalcin is still a controversy. The main reason for the controversy is that it lacks a typical EF hand motif which is common to most of the calcium binding proteins. Even though many studies reported regucalcin as a calcium binding protein, there are some studies reporting regucalcin as non-calcium binding also. In the present study, we investigated the calcium binding ability of recombinant buffalo regucalcin by assessing the secondary structural changes of the protein using circular dichroism spectroscopy after adding Ca(2+) to the protein solution. Two types of calcium binding studies were done, one with different concentration of calcium chloride (0.5 mM CaCl2, 1 mM CaCl2, 2 mM CaCl2) and other at different time interval (no incubation and 10 min incubation) after addition of calcium chloride. Significant structural changes were observed in both studies which prove the calcium binding ability of recombinant regucalcin. A constant increase in the α-helix (1.1% with 0.5 mM CaCl2, 1.4% with 1 mM CaCl2, 3.5% with 2 mM CaCl2) and a decrease in β-sheets (78.5% with 0.5 mM CaCl2, 77.4% with 1 mM CaCl2, 75.7% with 2 mM CaCl2) were observed with the increase in calcium chloride concentration. There was a rapid increase in α-helix and decrease in β-sheets immediately after addition of calcium chloride, which subsides after 10 min incubation.

  17. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation. (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang


    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H


    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had...... higher urinary calcium excretion than female mice and their renal calcium transporters were expressed at a lower level. We also found that orchidectomized mice excreted less calcium in their urine than sham-operated control mice and that the hypocalciuria was normalized after testosterone replacement...... calcium transport. Thus, our study shows that gender differences in renal calcium handling are, in part, mediated by the inhibitory actions of androgens on TRPV5-mediated active renal calcium transport....

  19. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long


    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  20. Kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate formation from tricalcium aluminate, calcium sulfate and calcium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuerun, E-mail:; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Xiaodong, E-mail:; Wang, Qianqian; Pan, Zhigang


    The formation kinetics of tricalcium aluminate (C{sub 3}A) and calcium sulfate yielding calcium sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$) and the decomposition kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate were investigated by sintering a mixture of synthetic C{sub 3}A and gypsum. The quantitative analysis of the phase composition was performed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis using the Rietveld method. The results showed that the formation reaction 3Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + CaSO{sub 4} → Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 6CaO was the primary reaction < 1350 °C with and activation energy of 231 ± 42 kJ/mol; while the decomposition reaction 2Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 10CaO → 6Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + 2SO{sub 2} ↑ + O{sub 2} ↑ primarily occurred beyond 1350 °C with an activation energy of 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. The optimal formation region for C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$ was from 1150 °C to 1350 °C and from 6 h to 1 h, which could provide useful information on the formation of C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$ containing clinkers. The Jander diffusion model was feasible for the formation and decomposition of calcium sulfoaluminate. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were the diffusive species in both the formation and decomposition reactions. -- Highlights: •Formation and decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate were studied. •Decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate combined CaO and yielded C{sub 3}A. •Activation energy for formation was 231 ± 42 kJ/mol. •Activation energy for decomposition was 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. •Both the formation and decomposition were controlled by diffusion.

  1. Effect of a plant growth regulator prohexadione-calcium on insect pests of apple and pear. (United States)

    Paulson, G S; Hull, L A; Biddinger, D J


    The effect of prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator that inhibits gibberellin metabolism, on Cacopsylla pyricoloa (Foerster) in pear trees, and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Aphis spireacola Patch, in apple trees was studied. C. pyricoloa and A. spireacola populations were significantly reduced in prohexadione-calcium-treated pear and apple, respectively. Insecticide control of both pests with imidacloprid was synergized in treatments with prohexadione-calcium. In apples treated with prohexadione-calcium, there was a significant reduction in the number of C. rosaceana shelters per tree and amount of fruit injury at harvest attributable to the C. rosaceana. There was an additive effect when tebufenozide was used to control C. rosaceana in trees treated with prohexadione-calcium. Prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced vegetative growth in both pears and apples. Synergistic and additive treatment effects of prohexadione-calcium and pesticides used in this study may be due to better penetration and coverage of pesticides due to reduced foliar growth or to changes in the nutritional quality of the host plants.

  2. Dietary supplementation of calcium may counteract obesity in mice mediated by changes in plasma fatty acids. (United States)

    Laraichi, Sarah; Parra, Pilar; Zamanillo, Rocío; El Amarti, Ahmed; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca


    The scope of this study was to assess the impact of calcium and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on plasma fatty acid profiles and to evaluate potential synergistic effects of both compounds against dietary obesity. Mice separated into five experimental groups were followed: control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF with calcium (Ca), HF plus CLA and HF with both Ca and CLA. Plasma metabolites and fatty acids were determined by commercial kits and gas chromatography, respectively. Both dietary calcium and CLA supplementation contributed to lower body fat gain under a HF diet. Maximum efficacy was seen with calcium; no additional effect was associated with the combined treatment with CLA. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and HOMA index were in accordance with an altered glucose/insulin homeostasis in the HF and HF + CLA groups, whereas control levels were attained under Ca-enriched diets. Plasma fatty acids showed minor changes associated to CLA treatment, but a high impact on PUFA was observed under Ca-enriched diets. Our results show that the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of calcium supplementation is mediated mainly by changes in PUFA plasma profile. In addition, the lack of synergy on body weight reduction in combination with associated lipid profiles of calcium and CLA suggests that calcium may interfere with absorption and/or bioactivity of CLA, which can be of relevance when using CLA-fortified dairy products against human obesity.

  3. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis (United States)

    Sunyecz, John A


    Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Calcium and vitamin D utilization in the optimization of bone health is often overlooked by patients and health care providers. In addition, the optimal standard of care for osteoporosis should encompass adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Dietary intake or supplementation with calcium and vitamin D will be reviewed, including recent recommendations for increased vitamin D intake. Compliance to calcium and vitamin D therapy is paramount for effective prevention of osteoporotic fractures. A recently released algorithm (FRAX) estimating absolute fracture risk allows the health care provider to decide when pharmacologic therapy is warranted in addition to calcium and vitamin D. When pharmacologic therapy is advised, continued use of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for optimal fracture risk reduction. A ‘bricks and mortar’ analogy is often helpful when counseling patients and this analogy will be explained. This manuscript reviews relevant data related to calcium and vitamin D use for patients at risk for fracture due to bone loss. PMID:19209265

  4. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

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    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu


    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  5. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.


    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  6. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

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    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  7. Ratiometric analysis of fura red by flow cytometry: a technique for monitoring intracellular calcium flux in primary cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Wendt

    Full Text Available Calcium flux is a rapid and sensitive measure of cell activation whose utility could be enhanced with better techniques for data extraction. We describe a technique to monitor calcium flux by flow cytometry, measuring Fura Red calcium dye by ratiometric analysis. This technique has several advantages: 1 using a single calcium dye provides an additional channel for surface marker characterization, 2 allows robust detection of calcium flux by minority cell populations within a heterogeneous population of primary T cells and monocytes 3 can measure total calcium flux and additionally, the proportion of responding cells, 4 can be applied to studying the effects of drug treatment, simultaneously stimulating and monitoring untreated and drug treated cells. Using chemokine receptor activation as an example, we highlight the utility of this assay, demonstrating that only cells expressing a specific chemokine receptor are activated by cognate chemokine ligand. Furthermore, we describe a technique for simultaneously stimulating and monitoring calcium flux in vehicle and drug treated cells, demonstrating the effects of the Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX, on chemokine stimulated calcium flux. The described real time calcium flux assay provides a robust platform for characterizing cell activation within primary cells, and offers a more accurate technique for studying the effect of drug treatment on receptor activation in a heterogeneous population of primary cells.

  8. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part One—Porosity, Setting Times and Compressive Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Fitremann


    Full Text Available Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides, to calcium phosphate cement designed for bone reconstruction is described. Thanks to their surface activity and through their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, they both induced a strong increase in the porosity (quantified by Image Analysis and brought a very good workability. Other properties typically studied for these cements are reported, including setting times, compressive strength, cohesion in water, and effect of sterilization on these properties. The whole study brought good insight in the interest of adding these mild surfactants to improve several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing their function.

  9. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part One-Porosity, Setting Times and Compressive Strength. (United States)

    Bercier, Ariane; Gonçalves, Stéphane; Lignon, Olivier; Fitremann, Juliette


    Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides, to calcium phosphate cement designed for bone reconstruction is described. Thanks to their surface activity and through their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, they both induced a strong increase in the porosity (quantified by Image Analysis) and brought a very good workability. Other properties typically studied for these cements are reported, including setting times, compressive strength, cohesion in water, and effect of sterilization on these properties. The whole study brought good insight in the interest of adding these mild surfactants to improve several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing their function.

  10. Role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion. (United States)

    Jung, Jinsei; Lee, Min Goo


    Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion plays a key role in the maintenance of fluid and protein secretion from epithelial cells and the protection of the epithelial cell surface from various pathogens. Epithelial bicarbonate secretion is mainly under the control of cAMP and calcium signaling. While the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of cAMP-induced bicarbonate secretion are relatively well defined, those induced by calcium signaling remain poorly understood in most epithelia. The present review summarizes the current status of knowledge on the role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion. Specifically, this review introduces how cytosolic calcium signaling can increase bicarbonate secretion by regulating membrane transport proteins and how it synergizes with cAMP-induced mechanisms in epithelial cells. In addition, tissue-specific variations in the pancreas, salivary glands, intestines, bile ducts, and airways are discussed. We hope that the present report will stimulate further research into this important topic. These studies will provide the basis for future medicines for a wide spectrum of epithelial disorders including cystic fibrosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium antagonists: a ready prescription for treating infectious diseases? (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B; Eisenstein, Edward M; Krahl, Scott E


    Emergence of new and medically resistant pathogenic microbes continues to escalate toward worldwide public health, wild habitat, and commercial crop and livestock catastrophes. Attempts at solving this problem with sophisticated modern biotechnologies, such as smart vaccines and microbicidal and microbistatic drugs that precisely target parasitic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, remain promising without major clinical and industrial successes. However, discovery of a more immediate, broad spectrum prophylaxis beyond conventional epidemiological approaches might take no longer than the time required to fill a prescription at your neighborhood pharmacy. Findings from a growing body of research suggest calcium antagonists, long approved and marketed for various human cardiovascular and neurological indications, may produce safe, efficacious antimicrobial effects. As a general category of drugs, calcium antagonists include compounds that disrupt passage of Ca(2+) molecules across cell membranes and walls, sequestration and mobilization of free intracellular Ca(2+), and downstream binding proteins and sensors of Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory pathways important for proper cell function. Administration of calcium antagonists alone at current therapeutically relevant doses and schedules, or with synergistic compounds and additional antimicrobial medications, figures to enhance host immunoprotection by directly altering pathogen infection sequences, life cycles, homeostasis, antibiotic tolerances, and numerous other infective, survival, and reproductive processes. Short of being miracle drugs, calcium antagonists are welcome old drugs with new tricks capable of controlling some of the most virulent and pervasive global infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans, including Chagas' disease, malaria, and tuberculosis.

  12. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. (United States)

    Aune, Dagfinn; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah A; Chan, Doris S M; Vieira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Rui; Greenwood, Darren C; Vatten, Lars J; Norat, Teresa


    Dairy product and calcium intakes have been associated with increased prostate cancer risk, but whether specific dairy products or calcium sources are associated with risk is unclear. In the Continuous Update Project, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies on intakes of dairy products and calcium and prostate cancer risk. PubMed and several other databases were searched up to April 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by using a random-effects model. Thirty-two studies were included. Intakes of total dairy products [summary RR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; n = 15) per 400 g/d], total milk [summary RR: 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; n = 14) per 200 g/d], low-fat milk [summary RR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11; n = 6) per 200 g/d], cheese [summary RR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; n = 11) per 50 g/d], and dietary calcium [summary RR: 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09; n = 15) per 400 mg/d] were associated with increased total prostate cancer risk. Total calcium and dairy calcium intakes, but not nondairy calcium or supplemental calcium intakes, were also positively associated with total prostate cancer risk. Supplemental calcium was associated with increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. High intakes of dairy products, milk, low-fat milk, cheese, and total, dietary, and dairy calcium, but not supplemental or nondairy calcium, may increase total prostate cancer risk. The diverging results for types of dairy products and sources of calcium suggest that other components of dairy rather than fat and calcium may increase prostate cancer risk. Any additional studies should report detailed results for subtypes of prostate cancer. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients


    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar


    Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nuc...

  14. Influence of calcium blockers on the SPR of erythrocytes (United States)

    Shynkarenko, Olena V.; Tril, Orest; Wojnarowska, Renata; Prohorenko, Sergiy; Shergii, E. M.


    One of the promising areas of research is the impact of calcium channel blockers (CB) of biological fluids. This paper shows that the CB impact on a biological fluid can be efficiently combine with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is shown that the addition of CB at the SPR measurements affect the stability of membranes and acts differently on the kinetics of erythrocytes ligament in the different groups of people.

  15. Calcium homeostasis is altered in skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats: cytofluorimetric and gene expression analysis. (United States)

    Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Cannone, Maria; Pierno, Sabata; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Fraysse, Bodvael; Tricarico, Domenico; Conte Camerino, Diana


    Hypertension is often associated with skeletal muscle pathological conditions related to function and metabolism. The mechanisms underlying the development of these pathological conditions remain undefined. Because calcium homeostasis is a biomarker of muscle function, we assessed whether it is altered in hypertensive muscles. We measured resting intracellular calcium and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by cytofluorimetric technique and determined the expression of SOCE gene machinery by real-time PCR. Hypertension caused a phenotype-dependent dysregulation of calcium homeostasis; the resting intracellular calcium of extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of SHRs were differently altered with respect to the related muscle of normotensive animals. In addition, soleus muscles of SHR showed reduced activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and decreased sarcolemmal calcium permeability at rest and after SOCE activation. Accordingly, we found an alteration of the expression levels of some SOCE components, such as stromal interaction molecule 1, calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1, and transient receptor potential canonical 1. The hypertension-induced alterations of calcium homeostasis in the soleus muscle of SHRs occurred with changes of some functional outcomes as excitability and resting chloride conductance. We provide suitable targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at counterbalancing muscle performance decline in hypertension, and propose the reported calcium-dependent parameters as indexes to predict how the antihypertensive drugs could influence muscle function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2. (United States)

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang


    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process.

  17. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  18. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients (United States)

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar


    Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events. PMID:17663775

  19. Calcium intake in the United States from dietary and supplemental sources across adult age groups: new estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Walsh, Stephen J; Insogna, Karl L; Kenny, Anne M; Kerstetter, Jane E


    Adequate lifelong calcium intake is essential in optimizing bone health. Recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used to quantify variation in calcium intake across adult age groups and to relate age-associated changes in calcium intake with energy intake. Additional goals were to assess differences in dietary calcium intake between supplemental calcium users and nonusers and to evaluate associations between age and calcium density in the diet. This cross-sectional analysis determined calcium and energy intake for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey respondents during 2003-2006. Diet was assessed with 24-hour recall and supplement use via questionnaire. Trends in median intakes for dietary calcium, total calcium, and energy across age categories were assessed using survey analysis methods. Nutrient density was represented using calcium to energy intake ratios. The analyses included data from 9,475 adults. When compared to the 19- to 30-year age group, median dietary calcium intake was lower in the ≥81-year age group by 23% in men (Pcalcium supplement use increased (Pcalcium intake was greater than in nonusers (P=0.02). Calcium density in the diet significantly increased relative to age in men and women (Pcalcium to energy ratios were insufficient to meet target ratios inferred by adequate intake standards after age 50 years. Although supplemental calcium use and calcium density were highest in older age groups, they were not sufficient in meeting recommended levels. New approaches to increasing the frequency and level of calcium supplement use to enhance calcium density in diets may be necessary to reduce osteoporosis risk among older Americans. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of additives on phase stabilization of scandia-doped zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, Eliana Navarro dos Santos; Grosso, Robson Lopes; Reis, Shirley Leite dos; Muccillo, Reginaldo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The effects of small additions of tin, zinc, calcium and boron oxides on phase composition and electrical conductivity of zirconia-10 mol% scandia were investigated. Compounds containing 1 mol% zinc, tin and calcium oxides and 1, 3 and 5 wt.% boron oxide were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. Full stabilization of the cubic structure at room temperature was obtained with additions of 1 mol% calcium oxide and 2 wt.% boron oxide. Partially stabilized compounds exhibit herringbone structure, characteristic of the β- rhombohedric phase. Specimens with calcium as additive show total conductivity of 23.8{sup -1} at 750 deg C with activation energy of 1.13 eV. Liquid phase sintering by boron oxide addition is effective to enhance the densification of the solid electrolyte. (author)

  1. Additive Similarity Trees (United States)

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos


    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  2. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two—Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility


    Fabienne Briand-Mesange; Stéphane Gonçalves; Helène Autefage; Ariane Bercier; Olivier Lignon; Juliette Fitremann


    Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, wh...

  3. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part One?Porosity, Setting Times and Compressive Strength


    Juliette Fitremann; Ariane Bercier; Olivier Lignon; Stéphane Gonçalves


    Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides, to calcium phosphate cement designed for bone reconstruction is described. Thanks to their surface activity and through their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, they both induced a strong increase in the porosity (quantified by Image Analysis) and brought a very good workability. Other properties typically studied for these cements are reported, including setting times, compressive str...

  4. Induced calcium carbonate precipitation using Bacillus species. (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin


    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an emerging process for the production of self-healing concrete. This study was aimed to investigate the effects and optimum conditions on calcium carbonate biosynthesis. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, yeast extract, urea, calcium chloride and aeration were found to be the most significant factors affecting the biomineralization of calcium carbonate. It was noticed that the morphology of microbial calcium carbonate was mainly affected by the genera of bacteria (cell surface properties), the viscosity of the media and the type of electron acceptors (Ca2+). The maximum calcium carbonate concentration of 33.78 g/L was achieved at the optimum conditions This value is the highest concentration reported in the literature.

  5. Calcium excretion in feces of ungulates. (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Foose, T J; Williams, J; Hintz, H F


    1. Fecal excretion of calcium was examined in 122 individual ungulates representing 7 species of Equidae, 3 species of Tapiridae, 3 species of Rhinocerotidae, 2 species of Elephantidae, 2 species of Hippopotamidae, 12 species of Bovidae, 2 species of Cervidae, 3 species of Camellidae and 1 species of Giraffidae. 2. Animals were fed timothy hay, a low calcium diet or alfalfa hay, a high calcium diet. 3. In a few cases oat straw or prairie hay was used instead of timothy hay. 4. Samples of feces were obtained from individuals daily for 4 days following a 20 day dietary equilibration period. 5. Feces of equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants had a lower calcium concentration and a lower Ca/P ratio than feces of ruminants when the animals were fed diets of equivalent calcium content. 6. The findings suggest that the non-ruminant ungulate equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants absorb a larger proportion of dietary calcium than ruminants do.

  6. Binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylates. (United States)

    Tribello, Gareth A; Liew, CheeChin; Parrinello, Michele


    Polyacrylate molecules can be used to slow the growth of calcium carbonate. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the molecules impede the growth rate. A recent computational study (Bulo et al. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3437) used metadynamics to investigate the binding of calcium to polyacrylate chains and has thrown some light on the coiling and precipitation of these polymers. We extend these simulations to examine the binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylate chains. We show that calcium complexed with both carbonate and polyacrylate is a very stable species. The free energies of calcium-carbonate-polyacrylate complexes, with different polymer configurations, are calculated, and differences in the free energy of the binding of carbonate are shown to be due to differences in the amount of steric hindrance about the calcium, which prevents the approach of the carbonate ion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Taibulatov


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the urgent issue of the pediatrics — calcium deficit among children. The authors provide modern data on the scheme of the normal calcium exchange in the human body. They also review the main diseases related to the disorders of the pho sphorocalcic metabolism, requiring prompt prevention and treatment by calcium based medications. The researchers stress the diseases of the musculoskeletal system, as insufficient calcium, phosphorus and vitamins supply of the child's body chiefly effects the state of the skeletal and muscular tissue. They give recommendations how to use the vitamin and mineral complex to correct calcium deficit.Key words: calcium deficit, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, vitamin and mineral complex, children.

  8. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells. (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R


    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy


    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  10. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy in calcium kidney calculi]. (United States)

    Hess, B


    Annual incidences of kidney stones are about 0.1-0.4% of the population, and lifetime prevalences in the USA and Europe range between 8 and 15%. Kidney stones occur more frequently with increasing age and among men. Within ten years, the disease usually recurs in more than 50% of patients. Nowadays, about 85% of all kidney stones contain calcium salts (calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate) as their main crystalline components. Because human urine is commonly supersaturated with respect to calcium salts as well as to uric acid, crystalluria is very common, i.e. healthy people excrete up to ten millions of microcrystals every day. Recurrent stone formers appear to excrete lower amounts or structurally defective forms of crystallization inhibitors which allows for the formation of large crystal aggregates as precursors of stones. Alternatively, crystal adhesion to urothelial surfaces may be enhanced in stone formers. Medical treatment of renal colic is based on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, because prostaglandins appear to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pain during ureteral obstruction. In addition, centrally acting analgesics such as pethidine-HCl may be required in many cases. The administration of high amounts (3-4 liters/day) of intravenous fluids should be abandoned, since it may raise intraureteral pressure whereby pain increases and kidney pelvis or fornices may rupture. All first-stone formers should undergo a simple basic evaluation, including stone analysis (x-ray diffraction or infrared spectrometry), serum values of ionized calcium (alternatively: total calcium and albumin) and creatinine, urinalysis and repeated measurements of fasting urine pH in order to detect urinary acidification disorders or low urine pH. In high-risk patients with as first stone episode (i.e. strongly positive family history, inflammatory bowel disease, short-bowel syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, bilateral stones, hypercalcemia, renal tubular acidosis, airline

  11. Calcium dobesilate: pharmacology and future approaches. (United States)

    Tejerina, T; Ruiz, E


    1. Calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate) is a drug commonly used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and chronic venous insufficiency. 2. The pharmacology of calcium dobesilate reveals its ability to decrease capillary permeability, as well as platelet aggregation and blood viscosity. 3. Furthermore, recent data show that calcium dobesilate increases endothelium-dependent relaxation owing to an increase in nitric oxide synthesis.

  12. Limitation of the antibiotic-eluting bone graft substitute: An example of gentamycin-impregnated calcium sulfate. (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Huang, Yang-Kai; Chang, Wei-Jen; Wu, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chen-Chie; Yang, Kai-Chiang


    Patients with inadequate volume of alveolar processes or bone defects commonly require graft substitutes in oral, maxillofacial or orthopedic surgery. Ridge augmentation and reconstruction of facial bony defects with bone graft materials achieve better outcomes in functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. The injectable calcium sulfate filler is used widely in intra-operative applications. Calcium sulfate bone filler has been shown to upregulate bone formation-related mRNA genes in vitro and improve osseointegration in vivo. In addition, the bone graft substitute can be used as a drug delivery system for antibiotics to treat or prevent infections based on the clinical experiences. However, the influences of antibiotics addition on the calcium sulfate are not fully understood. In this study, calcium sulfate impregnated with gentamycin in different weight ratios was characterized. The results showed that gentamycin prolonged the hydration process and extended initial/final setting times of calcium sulfate. The addition of gentamycin slowed the conversion from calcium sulfate hemihydrate to dihydrate and changed the crystalline phase and microstructure. Higher amounts of gentamycin added resulted in faster degradation and lower mechanical strength of calcium sulfate. This study reveals that the extended setting time, decreased compressive strength, and the accelerated degradation of the gentamycin-impregnated calcium sulfate bone graft substitutes should be considered during intra-operative applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mechanical Properties of a Calcium Dietary Supplement, Calcium Fumarate Trihydrate. (United States)

    Sun, Shijing; Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Li, Wei; Cheetham, Anthony K


    The mechanical properties of calcium fumarate trihydrate, a 1D coordination polymer considered for use as a calcium source for food and beverage enrichment, have been determined via nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction with single crystals. The nanoindentation studies reveal that the elastic modulus (16.7-33.4 GPa, depending on crystallographic orientation), hardness (1.05-1.36 GPa), yield stress (0.70-0.90 GPa), and creep behavior (0.8-5.8 nm/s) can be rationalized in view of the anisotropic crystal structure; factors include the directionality of the inorganic Ca-O-Ca chain and hydrogen bonding, as well as the orientation of the fumarate ligands. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show a bulk modulus of ∼ 20 GPa, which is indicative of elastic recovery intermediate between small molecule drug crystals and inorganic pharmaceutical ingredients. The combined use of nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques provides a complementary experimental approach for probing the critical mechanical properties related to tableting of these dietary supplements.

  14. [Food additives and healthiness]. (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina


    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  15. Calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle fibers. (United States)

    Simon, B J; Klein, M G; Schneider, M F


    The steady-state calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was studied in voltage-clamped, cut segments of frog skeletal muscle fibers containing two calcium indicators, fura-2 and anti-pyrylazo III (AP III). Fura-2 fluorescence was used to monitor resting calcium and relatively small calcium transients during small depolarizations. AP III absorbance signals were used to monitor larger calcium transients during larger depolarizations. The rate of release (Rrel) of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was calculated from the calcium transients. The equilibrium calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release was determined using 200-ms prepulses of various amplitudes to elevate [Ca2+] to various steady levels. Each prepulse was followed by a constant test pulse. The suppression of peak Rrel during the test pulse provided a measure of the extent of inactivation of release at the end of the prepulse. The [Ca2+] dependence of inactivation indicated that binding of more than one calcium ion was required to inactivate each release channel. Half-maximal inactivation was produced at a [Ca2+] of approximately 0.3 microM. Variation of the prepulse duration and amplitude showed that the suppression of peak release was consistent with calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release but not with calcium depletion. The same calcium dependence of inactivation was obtained using different amplitude test pulses to determine the degree of inactivation. Prepulses that produced near maximal inactivation of release during the following test pulse produced no suppression of intramembrane charge movement during the test pulse, indicating that inactivation occurred at a step beyond the voltage sensor for calcium release. Three alternative set of properties that were assumed for the rapidly equilibrating calcium-binding sites intrinsic to the fibers gave somewhat different Rrel records, but gave very similar calcium dependence of

  16. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis. (United States)

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A


    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Polyakova, E P; Ksenofontov, D A; Revyakin, A O; Ivanov, A A


    Experiments on goats and rabbits showed that zinc supplement to the diet leads to calcium concentration rise in muscle, bone and blood of animals. However, this rise was not adequate to increase in.zinc consumption. The bulk of alimentary zinc stayed in soluble fraction, dense endogen fraction and infusoria fraction of digesta and stimulated calcium release from food particles, it's accumulation in digesta fractions and calcium utilization on the whole. Authors estimate animal digesta as homeostatic, spatial organized, endogenic formation in which zinc and calcium are functionally dependent through enteral mucosa.

  18. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules R Freitas

    Full Text Available Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1-10 mM showed that 5-10 mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells, while neurons responded to 50 mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells. BBG 100 nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70 μM and MK-801 20 μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG at 5 mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit.

  19. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    .149 Ryd, respectively, relative to the s band, give the best possible agreement. Under increasing pressure the s and p electrons are found to transfer into the d band, and Ca undergoes metal-semimetal-metal electronic transitions. Calculations of the bandstructure and the electronic pressure, including......The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  20. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.


    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  1. Impaired body calcium metabolism with low bone density and compensatory colonic calcium absorption in cecectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongwattanapisan, P.; Suntornsaratoon, P.; Wongdee, K.; Dorkkam, N.; Krishnamra, N.; Charoenphandhu, N.


    An earlier study reported that cecal calcium absorption contributes less than 10% of total calcium absorbed by the intestine, although the cecum has the highest calcium transport rate compared with other intestinal segments. Thus, the physiological significance of the cecum pertaining to body

  2. ER calcium release promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatic cell lipotoxicity in response to palmitate overload (United States)

    Egnatchik, Robert A.; Leamy, Alexandra K.; Jacobson, David A.; Shiota, Masakazu; Young, Jamey D.


    Palmitate overload induces hepatic cell dysfunction characterized by enhanced apoptosis and altered citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism; however, the mechanism of how this occurs is incompletely understood. We hypothesize that elevated doses of palmitate disrupt intracellular calcium homeostasis resulting in a net flux of calcium from the ER to mitochondria, activating aberrant oxidative metabolism. We treated primary hepatocytes and H4IIEC3 cells with palmitate and calcium chelators to identify the roles of intracellular calcium flux in lipotoxicity. We then applied 13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) to determine the impact of calcium in promoting palmitate-stimulated mitochondrial alterations. Co-treatment with the calcium-specific chelator BAPTA resulted in a suppression of markers for apoptosis and oxygen consumption. Additionally, 13C MFA revealed that BAPTA co-treated cells had reduced CAC fluxes compared to cells treated with palmitate alone. Our results demonstrate that palmitate-induced lipoapoptosis is dependent on calcium-stimulated mitochondrial activation, which induces oxidative stress. PMID:25061559

  3. Association of Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CASR rs 1801725 with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Rostami


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium induces apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and subsequently prevents colorectal cancer through ion calcium receptor. Calcium-sensing receptor mutation reduces the expression of this receptor, and subsequently in reduces calcium transportation. Many studies have shown that Calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphism may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of calcium-sensing receptor polymorphisms (rs 1801725 in Iran society and to examine the role of this polymorphism in the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC.Materials and Methods: The research was a case-control study. 105 patients with colorectal cancer and 105 controls were randomly studied using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. χ2 test and software 16- SPSS were used for statistical analysis.Results: In patient samples, the frequency of the genotypes TT, GT, GG in gene CASR rs 1801725 was respectively 64.8, 32.4, and 2.9 and the frequency of this polymorphism in control samples was respectively 51.2, 45.7, and 2.9. Frequency of allele G in patient samples was 0/48 and frequency of allele T was 0.25. In addition, Frequency of allele G in control samples was 0.74 and Frequency of allele T was calculated 0.19.Conclusion: The results show that calcium-sensing receptor variant (1801725 rs is not associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  4. [Effect of different culture conditions on carbonic anhydrase from Bacillus mucilaginosus inducing calcium carbonate crystal formation]. (United States)

    Zhou, Xueying; Du, Ye; Lian, Bin


    Effect of various culture conditions on the morphology, amount and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of Bacillus mucilaginosus were examined, as well as the effect on calcium carbonate crystal forming, shape and amount. The strain was inoculated in N-free or N-containing medium, and the bacterial morphology, number and CA activity were compared under different culture conditions. By collecting different cultures and adding them to the system of calcium carbonate crystallization we studied the relationship between the bacteria and the formation of calcium carbonate crystals. A small number of cell, capsular hypertrophy, lower CA activity in bacterial culture were obtained under N-free culture condition. In contrast, more biomass quantity, thin capsule, and high CA activity were got in the nitrogen-containing culture. In the calcium carbonate crystal system, adding N-free culture of bacteria produced a smooth surface of calcium carbonate crystals, larger volume but small density, the addition N-containing culture of bacteria formed rough surface, bigger density but smaller volume of calcium carbonate crystals. Different culture conditions can cause significant differences in bacterial amounts, capsular thickness and CA activity, and then influence the crystal growth and form of calcium carbonate.

  5. The combination of 1α, 25(OH)2 – Vitamin D3, calcium and acetylsalicyclic acid affects azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Meyer, Otto A.


    Effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at various dietary levels of calcium (CaCO(3)) on development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumours in colon were examined in groups of 16 male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane and observed for 16 weeks. Calcium was the most...... potent modulator of ACF development. The total number of ACF increased with low calcium and decreased with high calcium. The number of large ACF decreased with any addition of calcium, acetylsalicylic acid and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3). High levels of calcium alone or in combination with 1alpha,25(OH......)(2)-vitamin D(3) increased the incidence of tumour-bearing animals. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at 5,000 ppm calcium increased the incidence as well....

  6. Plasma membrane calcium pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in maintenance and control of calcium concentrations in platelets. (United States)

    Juska, Alfonsas


    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the activity of the mechanisms responsible for control of cytosolic calcium concentration in platelets by modeling the time-course of the concentration changing in response to discharge of the intracellular stores or store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). The parameters estimated as a result of model fitting to experimental data are related to physiological or pathological state of the cells. It has been shown that: (a) the time-course is determined by the passive calcium fluxes and activities of the corresponding mechanisms; (b) the decline in the concentration (after its rise) develops due to activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) both in the case of discharge of the stores of platelets contained in calcium-free medium and in the case of SOCE; (c) impulsive extrusion of calcium in response to its sudden influx, presumably, is the main function of PMCA; (d) the function of sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is to extrude calcium excess by permanent counteracting its influx. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor


    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  8. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing


    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.


    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  9. Pseudogout and Calcium Pyrophosphate Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Williamson


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 53-year-old male presented with worsening right knee pain and swelling over the past 48 hours. He denied recent trauma to the knee, history of IV drug use, and recent illness. He had no history of diabetes, immunodeficiency, chronic steroids, rheumatologic disease, or knee replacement. He described the pain as sharp, non-radiating, and worse with movement. He was unable to walk due to pain. Significant findings: Radiographs of the knee showed multiple radio-dense lines paralleling the articular surface (see red arrows consistent with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition within the joint often seen in calcium pyrophosphate disease (CPPD also known as pseudogout. Discussion: Patients commonly present to the emergency department with non-traumatic joint pain. Arthrocentesis is an important diagnostic tool to evaluate for septic arthritis, gout, or pseudogout. Arthrocentesis can demonstrate crystals or abnormal cell count, gram stain, and culture.[1] In the evaluation of joint pain, plain films are usually obtained to evaluate for fracture, dislocation, effusion, or secondary signs of infection. In this case the classic x-ray supported the diagnosis of CPPD.2 The patient was found to have positively birefringent rhomboid shaped crystals consistent with pseudogout on arthrocentesis. Gram stain and culture were both negative. The patient was discharged with NSAIDs and had significant improvement in symptoms upon follow up with primary care physician in 3 days.

  10. Paclitaxel induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through different calcium--regulating mechanisms depending on external calcium conditions. (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren


    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an "Enhanced Calcium Efflux" mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel's stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  11. Spatiotemporal intracellular calcium dynamics during cardiac alternans (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain


    Cellular calcium transient alternans are beat-to-beat alternations in the peak cytosolic calcium concentration exhibited by cardiac cells during rapid electrical stimulation or under pathological conditions. Calcium transient alternans promote action potential duration alternans, which have been linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Here we use a recently developed physiologically detailed mathematical model of ventricular myocytes to investigate both stochastic and deterministic aspects of intracellular calcium dynamics during alternans. The model combines a spatially distributed description of intracellular calcium cycling, where a large number of calcium release units are spatially distributed throughout the cell, with a full set of ionic membrane currents. The results demonstrate that ion channel stochasticity at the level of single calcium release units can influence the whole-cell alternans dynamics by causing phase reversals over many beats during fixed frequency pacing close to the alternans bifurcation. They also demonstrate the existence of a wide range of dynamical states. Depending on the sign and magnitude of calcium-voltage coupling, calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized or desynchronized, in or out of phase with action potential duration alternans, and the node separating out-of-phase regions of calcium alternans can be expelled from or trapped inside the cell. This range of states is found to be larger than previously anticipated by including a robust global attractor where calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized but out of phase with action potential duration alternans. The results are explained by a combined theoretical analysis of alternans stability and node motion using general iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics and amplitude equations.

  12. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies. (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H


    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum.

  13. Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of human milk for preterm infants. (United States)

    Harding, Jane E; Wilson, Jess; Brown, Julie


    Preterm infants are born with low skeletal stores of calcium and phosphorus. Preterm human milk provides insufficient calcium and phosphorus to meet the estimated needs of preterm infants for adequate growth. Supplementation of human milk with calcium and phosphorus may improve growth and development of preterm infants. To determine whether addition of calcium and phosphorus supplements to human milk leads to improved growth and bone metabolism of preterm infants without significant adverse effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 14 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 14 April 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 14 April 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases (11 May 2016) and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation of human milk with calcium and/or phosphorus versus no supplementation in hospitalised preterm infants were eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors (JB, JW) independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We reported dichotomous data as risk ratios (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. This is an update of a 2001 review that identified no eligible trials. One trial including 40 infants met the inclusion criteria for this review. Using GRADE criteria, we judged the quality of the evidence as low owing to risk of bias (inadequate reporting of methods of randomisation, allocation concealment and/or blinding) and imprecision (wide confidence intervals and

  14. Binaural additivity of loudness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Riemersma, J.B.; Bunt, A.A.


    A definition of binaural additivity is given in terms of the theory of simultaneous conjoint measurement. Additivity is then tested and verified by a conjoint measurement procedure. Methods for deriving psychophysical scales from such procedures are discussed, and the experimental scales are

  15. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing. (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W


    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of polymer molecular weight on the bone biological activity of biodegradable polymer/calcium phosphate cement composites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, E.W.H.; Habraken, W.J.E.M.; Mikos, A.G.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Jansen, J.A.


    Previous studies demonstrated that the addition of biodegradable polymer microparticles to calcium phosphate (CaP) cement improves the cement's degradative behavior without affecting its handling characteristics, especially its injectability and moldability. We investigated the influence of

  17. Calcium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information (United States)

    ... this page: Calcium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Calcium Blood Test? A calcium blood test measures the ...

  18. Short-fibre reinforcement of calcium phosphate bone cement. (United States)

    Buchanan, F; Gallagher, L; Jack, V; Dunne, N


    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets to form hydroxyapatite, a major component of mineral bone, and is gaining increasing interest in bone repair applications. However, concerns regarding its brittleness and tendency to fragment have limited its widespread use. In the present study, short-fibre reinforcement of an apatitic calcium phosphate has been investigated to improve the fracture behaviour. The fibres used were polypropylene (PP) fibres, 50 microm in diameter and reduced in length by cryogenic grinding. The compressive strength and fracture behaviour were examined. Fibre addition of up to 10 wt % had a significant effect on composite properties, with the energy absorbed during failure being significantly increased, although this tended to be accompanied with a slight drop in compressive strength. The fibre reinforcement mechanisms appeared to be crack bridging and fibre pull-out. The setting time of the CPC with fibre reinforcement was also investigated and was found to increase with fibre volume fraction.

  19. A calcium-dependent ergosterol mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Crowley, J H; Tove, S; Parks, L W


    ERG24 is the structural gene for the C14-sterol reductase in yeast. A lack of activity in that enzyme, mediated either by the morpholine fungicides or the insertional inactivation of ERG24, causes the accumulation of the aberrant sterol ignosterol. Cells producing this sterol are unable to grow aerobically in the routine laboratory medium, YPD. However, growth does occur on a synthetic defined medium. A novel calcium-dependent phenotype associated with alterations in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in yeast is described. In addition, reduction of yeast growth with an azole inhibitor of the C-14 sterol de-methylase was also modulated by an excess of calcium ions in the culture medium. These results define a new effect of ergosterol deficiency and provide important practical implications for utilizing morpholine and azole sterol biosynthetic-inhibiting fungicides.

  20. Rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Protz, R.


    Mean annual rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils in a subarctic climate estimated from data on two chronosequences of calcareous storm ridges, appeared to be relatively constant through time. Concentrations of dissolved calcium carbonate in the soil solution in the study sites calculated

  1. Calcium and M'yocardial Infarction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 16, 1974 ... Urinary excretion of calcium tended to be even lower in these .... 16 March 1974. S.A. MEDICAL JOURNAL. 525. 150. 50. Fig. 5. Urine calcium in myocardial infarction (means and standard error relative to age). AGE OF PATIENT .... Plasma proteins and blood urea were also measured in. 10 consecutive ...

  2. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  3. 21 CFR 182.8223 - Calcium pyrophosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pyrophosphate. 182.8223 Section 182.8223 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8223 Calcium...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  5. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald


    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  6. Role of calcium in selenium cataract. (United States)

    Shearer, T R; David, L L

    The purpose of this research was to test the role of certain minerals in the formation of cataract caused by an overdose of selenium. Several pieces of information indicated that lenticular calcium may play an important role in selenite cataractogenesis: 1) Lens calcium concentrations in selenite treated rats were increased more than 5-fold, and the increase in lens calcium was localized in the nucleus. 2) Lens calcium concentrations were elevated at least one full day before actual formation of nuclear cataract, but serum calcium levels were not changed. 3) In older rats not susceptible to selenite cataract, lens calcium was not significantly increased. 4) No evidence was found for a generalized disruption in lens permeability, since no major changes in lens water, sodium, and potassium levels were observed, and 5) when levels of calcium observed in selenite cataract were added to solutions of soluble proteins from rat lenses, light scattering was increased. Selenium-overdose cataracts may provide an important model for studies on the role of calcium in cataractogenesis.

  7. Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core (United States)

    Lessoff, H.


    Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.

  8. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.


    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...

  9. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study compared serum calcium and magnesium in forty preeclamptic (cases) and forty normotensive (control) pregnant women matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done ...

  10. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium? (United States)

    ... body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Nutrition surveys have shown that most people in the U.S. aren’t getting the calcium they need. If you’re avoiding milk and dairy ... taking nutritional supplements and choosing reduced-lactose or non-dairy ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal

  12. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point......, a sudden solubilization of micellar calcium was observed at 50 oC and 60 oC, which revealed an interesting role of calcium during acidification at elevated temperatures. After enrichment of milk with calcium D-lactobionate, the added calcium was distributed between the micellar and serum milk phase at pH 6...

  13. Bespuiten met calcium kan neusrot voorkomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, Greet; Marcelis, L.F.M.


    Oorzaak van neusrot bij paprika is een calciumtekort in de vrucht. Een bespuiting met calcium vlak na de bloei heeft een zeer gunstig effect. In bijgaande tabel gegevens over het effect van spuiten met calcium op het optreden van neusrot bij paprika

  14. Involvement of T1R3 in calcium-magnesium taste. (United States)

    Tordoff, Michael G; Shao, Hongguang; Alarcón, Laura K; Margolskee, Robert F; Mosinger, Bedrich; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Reed, Danielle R; McCaughey, Stuart


    Calcium and magnesium are essential for survival but it is unknown how animals detect and consume enough of these minerals to meet their needs. To investigate this, we exploited the PWK/PhJ (PWK) strain of mice, which, in contrast to the C57BL/6J (B6) and other inbred strains, displays strong preferences for calcium solutions. We found that the PWK strain also has strong preferences for MgCl2 and saccharin solutions but not representative salty, sour, bitter, or umami taste compounds. A genome scan of B6 x PWK F2 mice linked a component of the strain difference in calcium and magnesium preference to distal chromosome 4. The taste receptor gene, Tas1r3, was implicated by studies with 129.B6ByJ-Tas1r3 congenic and Tas1r3 knockout mice. Most notably, calcium and magnesium solutions that were avoided by wild-type B6 mice were preferred (relative to water) by B6 mice null for the Tas1r3 gene. Oral calcium elicited less electrophysiological activity in the chorda tympani nerve of Tas1r3 knockout than wild-type mice. Comparison of the sequence of Tas1r3 with calcium and saccharin preferences in inbred mouse strains found 1) an inverse correlation between calcium and saccharin preference scores across primarily domesticus strains, which was associated with an I60T substitution in T1R3, and 2) a V689A substitution in T1R3 that was unique to the PWK strain and thus may be responsible for its strong calcium and magnesium preference. Our results imply that, in addition to its established roles in the detection of sweet and umami compounds, T1R3 functions as a gustatory calcium-magnesium receptor.

  15. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity. (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo


    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  16. Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate-dependent nuclear calcium signals regulate angiogenesis and cell motility in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Guimarães

    Full Text Available Increases in nuclear calcium concentration generate specific biological outcomes that differ from those resulting from increased cytoplasmic calcium. Nuclear calcium effects on tumor cell proliferation are widely appreciated; nevertheless, its involvement in other steps of tumor progression is not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated whether nuclear calcium is essential in other additional stages of tumor progression, including key steps associated with the formation of the primary tumor or with the metastatic cascade. We found that nuclear calcium buffering impaired 4T1 triple negative breast cancer growth not just by decreasing tumor cell proliferation, but also by enhancing tumor necrosis. Moreover, nuclear calcium regulates tumor angiogenesis through a mechanism that involves the upregulation of the anti-angiogenic C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10-IP10. In addition, nuclear calcium buffering regulates breast tumor cell motility, culminating in less cell invasion, likely due to enhanced vinculin expression, a focal adhesion structural protein. Together, our results show that nuclear calcium is essential for triple breast cancer angiogenesis and cell migration and can be considered as a promising strategic target for triple negative breast cancer therapy.

  17. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  18. Store-operated calcium entry is essential for glial calcium signalling in CNS white matter. (United States)

    Papanikolaou, M; Lewis, A; Butt, A M


    'Calcium signalling' is the ubiquitous response of glial cells to multiple extracellular stimuli. The primary mechanism of glial calcium signalling is by release of calcium from intracellular stores of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Replenishment of ER Ca(2+) stores relies on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). However, despite the importance of calcium signalling in glial cells, little is known about their mechanisms of SOCE. Here, we investigated SOCE in glia of the mouse optic nerve, a typical CNS white matter tract that comprises bundles of myelinated axons and the oligodendrocytes and astrocytes that support them. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we identified Orai1 channels, both Stim1 and Stim2, and the transient receptor potential M3 channel (TRPM3) as the primary channels for SOCE in the optic nerve, and their expression in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes was demonstrated by immunolabelling of optic nerve sections and cultures. The functional importance of SOCE was demonstrated by fluo-4 calcium imaging on isolated intact optic nerves and optic nerve cultures. Removal of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o) resulted in a marked depletion of glial cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]i), which recovered rapidly on restoration of [Ca(2+)]o via SOCE. 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2APB) significantly decreased SOCE and severely attenuated ATP-mediated calcium signalling. The results provide evidence that Orai/Stim and TRPM3 are important components of the 'calcium toolkit' that underpins SOCE and the sustainability of calcium signalling in white matter glia.

  19. Inhibitory effect of calcium channel blockers on proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunert-Radek, J.; Stepien, H.; Lyson, K.; Pawlikowski, M.; Radek, A.


    The effects of 2 specific calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nimodipine, on the proliferation of human glioma tumour cells were investigated in vitro. Tumour tissues for primary cell cultures were obtained bioptically from 3 patients with the histopathological diagnosis of glioblastoma. The (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into glioma tumour cells DNA was used as a sensitive index of the cell proliferation. It was found that varapamil (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/M) and nimodipine (10/sup 4/-10/sup 6/M) significantly inhibited the (/sup 3/H)-thymidine uptake in a dose-related manner. The inhibitory effect of both calcium channel antagonists was reversed by stimultancous addition of calcium chloride (5x10/sup 3/M). These results indicate that verapamil and nimodipine may exert an antiproliferative effect on glioma cells growth acting through a blokade of specific voltage-dependent calcium channels.

  20. The mode of inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump activity in mast cells by calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben


    1 The inhibition by calcium of the Na(+)-K+ pump in the plasma membrane of rat peritoneal mast cells was studied in pure populations of the cells by measuring the ouabain-sensitive uptake of the radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium (86Rb+). 2 Exposure of the cells to calcium induced a time...... not develop when the mast cells were incubated in a potassium-free medium, which is known to block Na(+)-K+ pump activity and allow accumulation of sodium inside the cells. Likewise, increasing the sodium permeability of the plasma membrane by monensin abolished the inhibition of the pump activity. In both...... peritoneal mast cells in a calcium-free medium increases the permeability of the plasma membrane to sodium, and the consequent increase in the intracellular concentration of sodium causes an increase in the activity of the pump. Addition of calcium to the cell suspension decreases the sodium permeability...

  1. Cross-talk between ROS and calcium in regulation of nuclear activities. (United States)

    Mazars, Christian; Thuleau, Patrice; Lamotte, Olivier; Bourque, Stéphane


    Calcium and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are acknowledged as crucial second messengers involved in the response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it is still not clear how these two compounds can play a role in different signaling pathways leading the plant to a variety of processes such as root development or defense against pathogens. Recently, it has been shown that the concept of calcium and ROS signatures, initially discovered in the cytoplasm, can also be extended to the nucleus of plant cells. In addition, it has been clearly proved that both ROS and calcium signals are intimately interconnected. How this cross-talk can finally modulate the translocation and/or the activity of nuclear proteins leading to the control of specific genes expression is the main focus of this review. We will especially focus on how calcium and ROS interact at the molecular level to modify their targets.

  2. Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lou Guerinot


    Full Text Available By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in dendritic spines. (United States)

    Segal, Menahem; Korkotian, Eduard


    Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival.

  4. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani


    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  5. Calcium phosphate: a substitute for aluminum adjuvants? (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Daniel; Thibaudon, Michel; Bélec, Laurent; Crépeaux, Guillemette


    Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale. Expert commentary: Calcium phosphate is a compound naturally present in the organism, safe and already used in human vaccination. Beyond comparisons with the other adjuvants, calcium phosphate represents a good candidate to replace or to complete alum salts as a vaccine adjuvant.

  6. Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Hirschi, Kendal D.


    By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization. PMID:23016135

  7. The calcium and vitamin D controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo


    or subanalyses while maintaining balancing. Though large clinical RCTs currently evaluate the effects of higher vitamin D doses (equivalent to 50–83 μg/d) there is no current research effort regarding the calcium controversy. In the absence of such studies it is not possible to provide clinicians with evidence......Areas of the world where vitamin D levels are low for months of the year and intakes of calcium are high have a high prevalence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. This suggests a public health message of avoiding calcium supplements and increasing vitamin D intake. No message could be more...... welcome as vitamin D can be given as a bolus while calcium must be taken daily and may be poorly tolerated. This approach is based on no evidence from intervention studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D given with calcium elicits a small reduction in fracture risk and deaths...

  8. Expert review on coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Budoff


    Full Text Available Matthew J Budoff, Khawar M GulDivision of Cardiology, Saint John’s Cardiovascular Research Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: While there is no doubt that high risk patients (those with >20% ten year risk of future cardiovascular event need more aggressive preventive therapy, a majority of cardiovascular events occur in individuals at intermediate risk (10%–20% ten year risk. Accurate risk assessment may be helpful in decreasing cardiovascular events through more appropriate targeting of preventive measures. It has been suggested that traditional risk assessment may be refined with the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC or other methods of subclinical atherosclerosis measurement. Coronary calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis that can be quantified with the use of cardiac CT and it is proportional to the extent and severity of atherosclerotic disease. The published studies demonstrate a high sensitivity of CAC for the presence of coronary artery disease but a lower specificity for obstructive CAD depending on the magnitude of the CAC. Several large clinical trials found clear, incremental predictive value of CAC over the Framingham risk score when used in asymptomatic patients. Based on multiple observational studies, patients with increased plaque burdens (increased CAC are approximately ten times more likely to suffer a cardiac event over the next 3–5 years. Coronary calcium scores have outperformed conventional risk factors, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP and carotid intima media thickness (IMT as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The relevant prognostic information obtained may be useful to initiate or intensify appropriate treatment strategies to slow the progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Current data suggests intermediate risk patients may benefit most from further risk stratification with cardiac CT, as CAC testing is

  9. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick


    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  10. Strontium Substitution for Calcium in Lithogenesis (United States)

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Chi, Thomas; Miller, Joe; Flechner, Lawrence; Fakra, Sirine; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L.


    Purpose Strontium has chemical similarity to calcium, which enables the replacement of calcium by strontium in biomineralization processes. Incorporating strontium into human bone and teeth has been studied extensively but little research has been performed of the incorporation of strontium into urinary calculi. We used synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption techniques to examine the presence of strontium in different types of human kidney stones. Materials and Methods Multiple unique human stone samples were obtained via consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies/ureteroscopies. A portion of each stone was sent for standard laboratory analysis and a portion was retained for x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements. X-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements determined the presence, spatial distribution and speciation of strontium in each stone sample. Results Traditional kidney stone analyses identified calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid and cystine stones. X-ray fluorescence measurements identified strontium in all stone types except pure cystine. X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping of the samples revealed co-localization of calcium and strontium. X-ray absorption measurements of the calcium phosphate stone showed strontium predominately present as strontium apatite. Conclusions Advanced x-ray fluorescence imaging identified strontium in all calcium based stones, present as strontium apatite. This finding may be critical since apatite is thought to be the initial nidus for calcium stone formation. Strontium is not identified by standard laboratory stone analyses. Its substitution for calcium can be reliably identified in stones from multiple calcium based stone formers, which may offer opportunities to gain insight into early events in lithogenesis. PMID:23260568

  11. A comparison of total calcium, corrected calcium, and ionized calcium concentrations as indicators of calcium homeostasis among hypoalbuminemic dogs requiring intensive care. (United States)

    Sharp, Claire R; Kerl, Marie E; Mann, F A


    (1) To evaluate whether total calcium (tCa) correlates with ionized calcium (iCa) in hypoalbuminemic dogs; (2) to evaluate whether calcium adjusted for albumin (Alb), or total protein (TP), or both accurately predict iCa concentrations and hence can be used to monitor calcium homeostasis in critically ill hypoalbuminemic dogs; and (3) to evaluate factors associated with any potential discrepancy in calcium classification between corrected total and ionized values. Prospective observational clinical study. Small animal intensive care unit in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with hypoalbuminemia. None. iCa was determined using ion-specific electrode methodology, on heparinized plasma. The tCa concentration was adjusted for Alb and TP using published equations. In total 29% (8/28) of the hypoalbuminemic, critically ill dogs in this study were hypocalcemic at intensive care unit admission, as determined by iCa measurement. Corrected calcium values failed to accurately classify calcium status in 67.9% and 64.3% of cases, according to whether the Alb-adjusted or TP-adjusted values, respectively, were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the tCa to evaluate hypocalcemia was 100% and 47%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the correction formulae were 37.5% and 79% for the Alb-adjusted values and 37.5% and 74% for TP-adjusted values. tCa overestimated the presence of hypocalcemia and underestimated the presence of normocalcemia, while corrected calcium values overestimated the presence of normocalcemia and underestimated the presence of hypocalcemia. Calcium homeostasis in hypoalbuminemic critically ill dogs should be evaluated by iCa concentrations rather than tCa or calcium adjusted for Alb or TP. Given that tCa has 100% sensitivity for detecting hypocalcemia in this population it is recommended that all hypoalbuminemic and critically ill patients with low tCa should be evaluated with an iCa measurement.

  12. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors (United States)

    ... all heating steps are completed. Each cereal is unique -- some can handle more nutrients than others can. ... foods, fruits and vegetables Ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, sodium erythorbate, sodium nitrite, calcium ...

  13. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41 (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA


    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  14. Non-calcium desulphurisation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Zhu [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)


    Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) is traditionally based on limestone/lime sorbent. The majority of the installed FGD systems worldwide use limestone or lime as sorbent. However, technologies are rapidly evolving that allow desulphurisation in regions where there are limited resources of lime or limestone. These technologies provide alternatives to limestone/lime scrubbers for efficient and cost effective control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal combustion. This report reviews the existing and emerging non-calcium based FGD processes as well as FGD technologies currently under development that apply new concepts and different approaches. It looks at the fundamentals and features of these processes, the recent technical advances and their applications in coal-fired power plants. The capital and operating costs of the processes are evaluated where information available. 66 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten


    Immunoaffinity chromatography is a powerful fractionation technique that has become indispensable for protein purification and characterization. However, it is difficult to retrieve bound proteins without using harsh or denaturing elution conditions, and the purification of scarce antigens...... to homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m...... chromatography was superior to the traditional immunoaffinity chromatographies and resulted in a nine-fold improvement of the purification factor. The technique is applicable for the purification of proteins in complex mixtures by single-step fractionation without the denaturation of eluted antigens...

  16. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland


    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  17. The effects of apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure aerobic composting. (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Huang, Yimei; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Hua


    The effects of additives such as apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure composting were investigated in a self-built aerated static box (90 L) by assessing their influences on the transformation of nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous and compost maturity. The results showed that additives all prolonged the thermophilic stage in composting compared to control. Nitrogen losses amounted to 34-58% of the initial nitrogen, in which ammonia volatilization accounted for 0.3-4.6%. Calcium superphosphate was helpful in facilitating composting process as it significantly reduced the ammonia volatilization during thermophilic stage and increased the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorous in compost, but bentonite increased the ammonia volatilization and reduced the total nitrogen concentration. It suggested that calcium superphosphate is an effective additive for keeping nitrogen during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage-dependent calcium channels and developing contractions through a second type of calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozuka, M.; Ito, T.; Hirose, S.; Takahashi, K.; Hagiwara, H.


    Effects of endothelin on nonvascular smooth muscle have been examined using rat uterine horns and two modes of endothelin action have been revealed. Endothelin (0.3 nM) caused rhythmic contractions of isolated uterus in the presence of extracellular calcium. The rhythmic contractions were completely inhibited by calcium channel antagonists. These characteristics of endothelin-induced contractions were very similar to those induced by oxytocin. Binding assays using /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that endothelin and the calcium channel blockers did not compete for the binding sites. However, endothelin was unique in that it caused, in addition to rhythmic contractions, a slowly developing monophasic contraction that was insensitive to calcium channel blockers. This developing contraction became dominant at higher concentrations of endothelin and was also calcium dependent.

  19. Neocortical GABA release at high intracellular sodium and low extracellular calcium: an anti-seizure mechanism. (United States)

    Rassner, Michael P; Moser, Andreas; Follo, Marie; Joseph, Kevin; van Velthoven-Wurster, Vera; Feuerstein, Thomas J


    In epilepsy, the GABA and glutamate balance may be disrupted and a transient decrease in extracellular calcium occurs before and during a seizure. Flow Cytometry based fluorescence activated particle sorting experiments quantified synaptosomes from human neocortical tissue, from both epileptic and non-epileptic patients (27.7% vs. 36.9% GABAergic synaptosomes, respectively). Transporter-mediated release of GABA in human and rat neocortical synaptosomes was measured using the superfusion technique for the measurement of endogenous GABA. GABA release was evoked by either a sodium channel activator or a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor when exocytosis was possible or prevented, and when the sodium/calcium exchanger was active or inhibited. The transporter-mediated release of GABA is because of elevated intracellular sodium. A reduction in the extracellular calcium increased this release (in both non-epileptic and epileptic, except Rasmussen encephalitis, synaptosomes). The inverse was seen during calcium doubling. In humans, GABA release was not affected by exocytosis inhibition, that is, it was solely transporter-mediated. However, in rat synaptosomes, an increase in GABA release at zero calcium was only exhibited when the exocytosis was prevented. The absence of calcium amplified the sodium/calcium exchanger activity, leading to elevated intracellular sodium, which, together with the stimulation-evoked intracellular sodium increment, enhanced GABA transporter reversal. Sodium/calcium exchange inhibitors diminished GABA release. Thus, an important seizure-induced extracellular calcium reduction might trigger a transporter- and sodium/calcium exchanger-related anti-seizure mechanism by augmenting transporter-mediated GABA release, a mechanism absent in rats. Uniquely, the additional increase in GABA release because of calcium-withdrawal dwindled during the course of illness in Rasmussen encephalitis. Seizures cause high Na(+) influx through action potentials. A

  20. Influence of ferrite phase in alite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements (United States)

    Duvallet, Tristana Yvonne Francoise

    Since the energy crisis in 1970's, research on low energy cements with low CO2- emissions has been increasing. Numerous solutions have been investigated, and the goal of this original research is to create a viable hybrid cement with the components of both Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSAC), by forming a material that contains both alite and calcium sulfoaluminate clinker phases. Furthermore, this research focuses on keeping the cost of this material reasonable by reducing aluminum requirements through its substitution with iron. The aim of this work would produce a cement that can use large amounts of red mud, which is a plentiful waste material, in place of bauxite known as an expensive raw material. Modified Bogue equations were established and tested to formulate this novel cement with different amounts of ferrite, from 5% to 45% by weight. This was followed by the production of cement from reagent chemicals, and from industrial by-products as feedstocks (fly ash, red mud and slag). Hydration processes, as well as the mechanical properties, of these clinker compositions were studied, along with the addition of gypsum and the impact of a ferric iron complexing additive triisopropanolamine (TIPA). To summarize this research, the influence of the addition of 5-45% by weight of ferrite phase, was examined with the goal of introducing as much red mud as possible in the process without negatively attenuate the cement properties. Based on this PhD dissertation, the production of high-iron alite-calcium sulfoaluminateferrite cements was proven possible from the two sources of raw materials. The hydration processes and the mechanical properties seemed negatively affected by the addition of ferrite, as this phase was not hydrated entirely, even after 6 months of curing. The usage of TIPA counteracted this decline in strength by improving the ferrite hydration and increasing the optimum amount of gypsum required in each composition

  1. Distinct Calcium Sources Support Multiple Modes of Synaptic Release from Cranial Sensory Afferents. (United States)

    Fawley, Jessica A; Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Andresen, Michael C


    sources: CaVs and TRPV1. We demonstrate that calcium segregation distinguishes three vesicle release mechanisms. Most surprisingly, asynchronous release is associated with CaV and not TRPV1 calcium entry. This reveals that asynchronous release is an additional and separate phenotypic marker of unmyelinated afferents rather than operated by TRPV1. The functional independence of the two calcium sources expands the regulatory repertoire of transmission and imbues these inputs with additional modulation targets for synaptic release not present at conventional CaV synapses. Peptides and lipid mediators may target one or both of these calcium sources at afferent terminals within the solitary tract nucleus to independently modify release from distinct, functionally segregated vesicle pools. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/368957-10$15.00/0.

  2. Dissolved strontium and calcium levels in the tropical Indian Ocean (United States)

    Steiner, Zvi; Sarkar, Amit; Turchyn, Alexandra


    the section Sr/Ca ratios increase significantly. This finding is opposite to expectations based on plankton net tows collected during the cruise, where we found high abundance of acantharia in the southern parts of the section, while the preferential enrichment in strontium is in the northern part of the section. When potential alkalinity is calculated by correcting the normalized total alkalinity for the effects of nutrient accumulation below the thermocline, we observe that the increase in alkalinity begins at 100 m, well above the aragonite saturation horizon. The total change in dissolved calcium concentrations between 0 and 2000 m is similar to the total change in potential alkalinity yet their profiles do not overlap; calcium concentrations increase faster than total alkalinity between 100-1000 m and the gap is closed between 1000-1500 m. This suggests an additional, unaccounted process that is likely occurring in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, the intermediate water sources of this region.

  3. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets. (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A


    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  4. Calcium phosphate scaffold from biogenic calcium carbonate by fast ambient condition reactions (United States)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Fermani, Simona; Arjun Tekalur, Srinivasan; Vanderberg, Abigail; Falini, Giuseppe


    Calcium phosphate biogenic materials are biocompatible and promote bioactivity and osteoconductivity, which implies their natural affinity and tendency to bond directly to bones subsequently replacing the host bone after implantation owing to its biodegradability. Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, CaHPO 4·2H 2O, is known to be a nucleation precursor, in aqueous solutions, for apatitic calcium phosphates and, hence, a potential starting material for bone substitutes. Numerous approaches, via hydrothermal and ambient synthetic routes, have been used to produce calcium phosphate from biogenic calcium carbonate, taking advantage of the peculiar architecture and composition of the latter. In this article, the lamellar region of the cuttlefish bone ( Sepia officinalis) was used as a framework for the organized deposition of calcium phosphate crystals, at ambient conditions via a fast procedure involving an amorphous calcium carbonate intermediate, and ending with a conversion to calcium phosphate and a fixation procedure, thereby resulting in direct conversion of biogenic calcium carbonate into calcium phosphates at ambient conditions from the scale of months to hours.

  5. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)


    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  6. In vitro antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate. (United States)

    Brunet, J; Farine, J C; Garay, R P; Hannaert, P


    Calcium dobesilate, a vascular protective agent, was tested in vitro for its scavenging action against oxygen free radicals. Calcium dobesilate was as potent as rutin to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (IC50 = 1.1 vs 0.7 microM, respectively). It was also able to scavenge superoxide radicals, but with 23 times less potency than rutin (IC50 = 682 vs 30 microM, respectively). Calcium dobesilate significantly reduced platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced chemiluminescence in human PMN cells and lipid peroxidation by oxygen free radicals in human erythrocyte membranes, although these actions required calcium dobesilate concentrations > or = 50 microM. Finally, in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, magnesium dobesilate reduced the increase in cytosolic free calcium induced by hydrogen peroxide and inhibited phenazine methosulfate-induced cell potassium loss. In conclusion, calcium dobesilate was effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals in vitro, at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Conversely, higher concentrations of the compound were required to scavenge superoxide radicals or to protect the cells against the deleterious effects of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Further studies in vivo are required to determine if these antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate can play a role in its vascular protective mechanisms.

  7. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten


    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: PMID:26613410

  8. Calcium content of different compositions of gallstones and pathogenesis of calcium carbonate gallstones. (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Kuen; Pan, Huichin; Huang, Shing-Moo; Huang, Nan-Lan; Yao, Chung-Chin; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Wu, Chew-Wun


    Our aim was to investigate the calcium content of different gallstone compositions and the pathogenic mechanisms of calcium carbonate gallstones. Between August 2001 and July 2007, gallstones from 481 patients, including 68 calcium carbonate gallstones, were analyzed for total calcium content. Gallbladder bile samples from 33 cases and six controls were analyzed for pH, carbonate anion level, free-ionized calcium concentration and saturation index for calcium carbonate. Total calcium content averaged 75.6 %, 11.8 %, and 4.2 % for calcium carbonate, calcium bilirubinate and cholesterol gallstones. In 29.4 % of patients, chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions were caused by polypoid lesions in the neck region and 70.6 % were caused by stones. A total of 82 % of patients had chronic low-grade inflammation of the gallbladder wall and 18.0 % had acute inflammatory exacerbations. In the bile, we found the mean pH, mean carbonate anion, free-ionized calcium concentrations, and mean saturation index for calcium carbonate to be elevated in comparison to controls. From our study, we found chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions and low-grade GB wall inflammation lead to GB epithelium hydrogen secretion dysfunction. Increased calcium ion efflux into the GB lumen combined with increased carbonate anion presence increases SI_CaCO(3) from 1 to 22.4. Thus, in an alkaline milieu with pH 7.8, calcium carbonate begins to aggregate and precipitate. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.


    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  10. Dental Problems in Calcium Metabolism Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani M.D.


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium metabolism disorders can be acute or chronic and chronic disorders can cause different disease states such as dental problems. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study done in Children's Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2005-2009, all (93 patients with hypoparathyroidism, nutritional rickets, hypophosphatemic rickets and renal osteodysthrophy from the endocrinology and nephrology departments of the Center were referred to a dentist there for orodental examination. Subsequently, the frequency of dental problems including taurodontism, enamel hypoplasia, dental abscess, dental caries and gingivitis were recorded and analyzed. Results: Nutritional rickets was the most common disorder in this study and delay in dentition was the most frequent dental problem in the patients (61.9%. Most cases of taurdontism and enamel hypoplasia were seen in patients with hypoparathyroidism (33% and 50%, respectively. Dental abscess, dental caries and gingivitis were more common in patients with renal osteodysthrophia (50%, 90% and 20%, respectively. In addition, dental caries and delay in dentition were the most prevalent disorders in this study (69.8% and 49.5%, respectively. Conclusion: According to the above findings, it seems that effective screening, regular periodic examinations, proper diagnosis and timely treatment of dental diseases are the main principles of prevention of orodental problems. Moreover, dentists as well as pediatricians should be aware of the features of the aforesaid disorders which lead to dental problems so that early intervention could prevent subsequent serious and more invasive dental problems.

  11. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences. (United States)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce


    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  12. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture* (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M.; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar


    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. PMID:26231212

  13. Antagonistic modulatory roles of magnesium and calcium on release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and smooth muscle tone. (United States)

    Gold, M E; Buga, G M; Wood, K S; Byrns, R E; Chaudhuri, G; Ignarro, L J


    The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms associated with the reciprocal relation between magnesium and calcium on vascular smooth muscle tone in bovine pulmonary artery and vein. Rapid removal of magnesium from Krebs-bicarbonate medium used to bathe isolated rings of precontracted artery or vein caused transient endothelium- and calcium-dependent relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation. Both responses were antagonized by oxyhemoglobin, methylene blue, or superoxide anion and were enhanced by superoxide dismutase. The transient relaxation was followed by sustained endothelium-independent contraction. Endothelium-denuded vascular rings contracted in response to extracellular magnesium depletion without alteration in cyclic GMP levels. The data suggest that vascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide is responsible for the calcium-dependent relaxation elicited by extracellular magnesium depletion. Indeed, in bioassay cascade studies, magnesium removal from the medium used to perfuse intact artery or vein enhanced the formation and/or release of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor by calcium-dependent mechanisms. In the absence of both extracellular magnesium and calcium, calcium readdition caused transient endothelium-dependent relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation, and both responses were abolished by oxyhemoglobin or methylene blue. In the presence of magnesium, however, readdition of calcium to calcium-depleted medium caused only contractile responses. Addition of magnesium to calcium-containing medium consistently caused endothelium- and cyclic GMP-independent relaxation that was not altered by oxyhemoglobin or methylene blue. Thus, magnesium and calcium elicit reciprocal or mutually antagonistic effects at the levels of both endothelium-derived relaxing factor formation and/or release and smooth muscle contraction. This relation may be of physiological importance, and the possibility that a reduction in circulating magnesium levels could lead

  14. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl


    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  15. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  16. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.


    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  17. Additives in plastics. (United States)

    Deanin, R D


    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  18. Cutaneous Penetration-Enhancing Effect of Menthol: Calcium Involvement. (United States)

    Joshi, Amit; Joshi, Abhay; Patel, Hiren; Ponnoth, Dovenia; Stagni, Grazia


    Menthol is a naturally occurring terpene used as a penetration enhancer in topical and transdermal formulations. Literature shows a growing interest in menthol's interactions with the transient receptor potential melastatin 8. A decrease in extracellular Ca 2+ due to the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 receptor produces inhibition of E-cadherin expression that is responsible for cell-cell adhesion. Because calcium is present in the entire epidermis, the purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the aforementioned properties of menthol are also related to its penetration-enhancing effects. We formulated 16 gels: (i) drug-alone (diphenhydramine or lidocaine), (ii) drug with menthol, (iii) drug, menthol, and calcium channel blocker (CCB; verapamil or diltiazem), and (iv) drug and CCB. In vitro studies showed no effect of the CCB on the release of the drugs either with or without menthol. In vivo experiments were performed for each drug/menthol/CCB combination gel by applying 4 formulations on a shaved rabbit's dorsum on the same day. Dermis concentration profiles were assessed with microdialysis. The gels containing menthol showed higher penetration of drugs than those without whereas the addition of the CCB consistently inhibited the penetration-enhancing effects of menthol. In summary, these findings strongly support the involvement of calcium in the penetration-enhancing effect of menthol. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium dobesilate in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. (United States)

    Garay, Ricardo P; Hannaert, Patrick; Chiavaroli, Carlo


    The incidence of diabetic retinopathy is still increasing in developed countries. Tight glycemic control and laser therapy reduce vision loss and blindness, but do not reverse existing ocular damage and only slow the progression of the disease. New pharmacologic agents that are currently under development and are specifically directed against clearly defined biochemical targets (i.e. aldose reductase inhibitors and protein kinase C-beta inhibitors) have failed to demonstrate significant efficacy in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in clinical trials. In contrast, calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonate), which was discovered more than 40 years ago and is registered for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in more than 20 countries remains, to our knowledge, the only angioprotective agent that reduces the progression of this disease. An overall review of published studies involving calcium dobesilate (CLS 2210) depicts a rather 'non-specific' compound acting moderately, but significantly, on the various and complex disorders that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have shown that calcium dobesilate is a potent antioxidant, particularly against the highly damaging hydroxyl radical. In addition, it improves diabetic endothelial dysfunction, reduces apoptosis, and slows vascular cell proliferation.

  20. Diversity in protein profiles of individual calcium oxalate kidney stones. (United States)

    Okumura, Nobuaki; Tsujihata, Masao; Momohara, Chikahiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Suto, Kouzou; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko; Takao, Toshifumi


    Calcium oxalate kidney stones contain low amounts of proteins, some of which have been implicated in progression or prevention of kidney stone formation. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, we have characterized protein components of calcium oxalate kidney stones by proteomic approaches. Proteins extracted from kidney stones showed highly heterogeneous migration patterns in gel electrophoresis as reported. This was likely to be mainly due to proteolytic degradation and protein-protein crosslinking of Tamm-Horsfall protein and prothrombin. Protein profiles of calcium oxalate kidney stones were obtained by in-solution protease digestion followed by nanoLC-MALDI-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in identification of a total of 92 proteins in stones from 9 urolithiasis patients. Further analysis showed that protein species and their relative amounts were highly variable among individual stones. Although proteins such as prothrombin, osteopontin, calgranulin A and calgranulin B were found in most stones tested, some samples had high contents of prothrombin and osteopontin, while others had high contents of calgranulins. In addition, calgranulin-rich stones had various neutrophil-enriched proteins such as myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin. These proteomic profiles of individual kidney stones suggest that multiple systems composed of different groups of proteins including leucocyte-derived ones are differently involved in pathogenesis of individual kidney stones depending on situations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Delagustin

    Full Text Available Lactobionic acid and its salts are substances that have several applications in the pharmaceutical area. These products were obtained by bioconversion through the enzymatic complex glucose-fructose-oxidoreductase (GFOR/gluconolactonase (GL present in calcium alginate immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis. In the reactions catalyzed by this enzyme system, the medium pH must be controlled at slightly acid values. For this purpose, NaOH, KOH, or Ca(OH2 were used, and as a result, the respective salts were formed. The kinetic study on the formation of sodium, potassium and calcium lactobionates was followed by the steps of purification and characterization aiming the potential use of these compounds in the pharmaceutical area. In the assays for the bioproduction of sodium, potassium or calcium lactobionates, yields of 74, 77 and 84% were obtained, respectively. In the salts purification step, purity levels of approximately 95% were achieved. The structural identities of the lactobionate salts were determined by high resolution mass spectrometry, in addition to the 13C and 1H NMR analysis. The characterization demonstrates the selectivity of the enzymatic reaction of GFOR/GL of Z. mobilis, in the production of lactobionic acid and its salts.

  2. Mechanical properties of polypropylene/calcium carbonate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eiras


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in both tensile and impact mechanical properties of a polypropylene homopolymer. Four compositions of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites were prepared in a co-rotational twin screw extruder machine with calcium carbonate content of 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt. (% The tests included SEM analyzes together with EDS analyzer and FTIR spectroscopy for calcium carbonate, tensile and impact tests for PP and the nanocomposites. The results showed an increase in PP elastic modulus and a little increase in yield stress. Brittle-to-ductile transition temperature was reduced and the impact resistance increased with the addition of nanoparticles. From the stress-strain curves we determined the occurrence of debonding process before yielding leading to stress softening. Debonding stress was determined from stress-strain curves corresponding to stress in 1% strain. We concluded that the tensile properties depend on the surface contact area of nanoparticles and on their dispersion. Finally we believe that the toughening was due to the formation of diffuse shear because of debonding process.

  3. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  4. Coronary artery calcium score: current status (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry


    The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes. PMID:28670030

  5. Functional Additive Mixed Models (United States)

    Scheipl, Fabian; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Greven, Sonja


    We propose an extensive framework for additive regression models for correlated functional responses, allowing for multiple partially nested or crossed functional random effects with flexible correlation structures for, e.g., spatial, temporal, or longitudinal functional data. Additionally, our framework includes linear and nonlinear effects of functional and scalar covariates that may vary smoothly over the index of the functional response. It accommodates densely or sparsely observed functional responses and predictors which may be observed with additional error and includes both spline-based and functional principal component-based terms. Estimation and inference in this framework is based on standard additive mixed models, allowing us to take advantage of established methods and robust, flexible algorithms. We provide easy-to-use open source software in the pffr() function for the R-package refund. Simulations show that the proposed method recovers relevant effects reliably, handles small sample sizes well and also scales to larger data sets. Applications with spatially and longitudinally observed functional data demonstrate the flexibility in modeling and interpretability of results of our approach. PMID:26347592

  6. Effects of lactose on calcium absorption and secretion by rat ileum. (United States)

    Favus, M J; Angeid-Backman, E


    The direct effects of lactose on net intestinal calcium absorption were determined by measuring unidirectional steady-state calcium fluxes in vitro under short-circuited conditions in segments of rat ileum. The isosmotic mucosal additions in segments of rat ileum. The isosmotic mucosal addition of lactose (160 mM) increased net calcium absorption (J net) by increasing the absorptive flux from mucosa to serosa (Jm----s) and reducing the secretory flux from serosa to mucosa (Js----m). Lactose also reduced tissue conductance and short-circuit current and reversed tissue polarity. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration (50 ng/day for 4 days) increased J net from secretion to no net flux (Jm----s = Js----m), and lactose increased J net further to net absorption. Removal of sodium from the medium, like lactose addition, increased J net by increasing Jm----s and reducing Js----m. The replacement of medium sodium with choline abolished a further increase of J net by lactose. These results show that lactose increases net calcium absorption in the absence of transepithelial electrochemical or osmotic gradients. Transcellular calcium transport may be stimulated by lactose by hyperpolarization of the brush border as a result of reduced mucosal sodium.

  7. Effect of calcium on the kinetics of free fatty acid release during in vitro lipid digestion in model emulsions. (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Zhu, Xiangqian; Singh, Harjinder


    The effects of different calcium salts on in vitro lipid digestion were examined by determining the free fatty acids released from various oil-in-water emulsions. The kinetics of the total and individual free fatty acids released by lipolysis were monitored by the pH-stat method and gas chromatography, respectively. The rate and the extent of free fatty acid release increased with an increase in the added calcium concentration, but the increase was dependent on the emulsifying agent. The effect of calcium was diminished when the emulsion contained phosphate. Soluble calcium salts, such as calcium gluconate, calcium acetate and CaCl2, had greater effects on the rate and extent of free fatty acid release than did insoluble salts, such as CaO and CaSO4, suggesting that the ionic state of calcium plays a critical role in lipid digestion in emulsions. The addition of calcium did not alter the profiles of the individual free fatty acids released. This study provides useful information for food formulation with respect to lipid digestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  9. Calcium Treatment for FeSi-killed Fe-13 Pct Cr Stainless Steel with Various Top Slag Compositions (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Jun; Li, Jianmin; Chou, Kuochih


    Calcium treatment of Fe-13 pct Cr stainless steel, with inclusion modification as its main purpose, was evaluated on a laboratory scale. The stability diagram of Ca-Al was obtained using the FactSage software and could be divided into three parts based on the [Al] content: the ultra-low-Al region, the low-Al region, and the medium-high-Al region. Each of these regions required different amounts of calcium for inclusion modification. The ferrosilicon deoxidation product could be modified into low melting temperature inclusions by a CaO-SiO2 top slag in the ultra-low-Al region ([Al] content less than 40 ppm). Calcium treatment was necessary to modify the ferrosilicon deoxidation product into low melting temperature inclusions in the low-Al region ([Al] content from 40 to 100 ppm) for the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 top slag. Calcium addition has a "liquid window" where adding calcium can accelerate inclusion modification. Adding calcium for 15 and 30 minutes resulted in complete modification times of 45 and 60 minutes, respectively, which indicates that early calcium treatment can produce plastic inclusions sooner. The relationship between the steel and inclusion content was determined by fitting the experimental data in the low-Al region. An appropriate range of T.Ca/T.O (total calcium content/total oxygen content) for inclusion modification is 0.99 to 1.44.

  10. Intestinal mucosal changes and upregulated calcium transporter and FGF-23 expression during lactation: Contribution of lactogenic hormone prolactin. (United States)

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Sripong, Chanakarn; Longkunan, Asma; Chankamngoen, Wasutorn; Keadsai, Chutiya; Kraidith, Kamonshanok; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol


    As the principal lactogenic hormone, prolactin (PRL) not only induces lactogenesis but also enhances intestinal calcium absorption to supply calcium for milk production. How the intestinal epithelium res-ponses to PRL is poorly understood, but it is hypothesized to increase mucosal absorptive surface area and calcium transporter expression. Herein, lactating rats were found to have greater duodenal, jejunal and ileal villous heights as well as cecal crypt depths than age-matched nulliparous rats. Morphometric analyses in the duodenum and cecum showed that their mucosal adaptations were diminished by bromocriptine, an inhibitor of pituitary PRL release. PRL also upregulated calcium transporter expression (e.g., TRPV6 and PMCA1b) in the duodenum of lactating rats. Since excessive calcium absorption could be detrimental to lactating rats, local negative regulator of calcium absorption, e.g., fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, should be increased. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of FGF-23 protein expression in the duodenal and cecal mucosae of lactating rats, consistent with the enhanced FGF-23 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. Bromocriptine abolished this lactation-induced FGF-23 expression. Additionally, FGF-23 could negate PRL-stimulated calcium transport across Caco-2 monolayer. In conclusion, PRL was responsible for the lactation-induced mucosal adaptations, which were associated with compensatory increase in FGF-23 expression probably to prevent calcium hyperabsorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  12. Bordetella pertussis CyaA-RTX subdomain requires calcium ions for structural stability against proteolytic degradation. (United States)

    Pojanapotha, Pichaya; Thamwiriyasati, Niramon; Powthongchin, Busaba; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan


    Previously, the 126-kDa Bordetella pertussis CyaA pore-forming (CyaA-PF) domain expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to retain its hemolytic activity. Here, a 100-kDa RTX (Repeat-in-ToXin) subcloned fragment (CyaA-RTX) containing a number of putative calcium-binding repeats was further investigated. The recombinant CyaA-RTX protein, although expressed as a soluble form in a protease-deficient E. coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS, was found to be highly sensitive to proteolytic degradation. Interestingly, the addition of calcium ions in a millimolar range into the CyaA-RTX preparation significantly prevented the degradation. Moreover, levels of proteolytic degradation were dependent on calcium concentrations, implying an important role for calcium-binding sites in the RTX subdomain for structural stability. Homology-based modeling of the repetitive blocks in the CyaA-RTX subdomain supports that this calcium-bound protein folds into a parallel β-roll structure with calcium ions acting as a structural stabilizing bridge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of a Dairy Probiotic Product, Espar, on Salivary Calcium and Mutans Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami


    Full Text Available Background and aims. Espar is a dairy product of probiotic nature that contains useful bacteria and high calcium content. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of daily consumption of Espar on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content in a population of 15 to 17 year-old female students. Materials and methods. A double-blind randomized crossover study (n = 50 of healthy female adolescents was implemented in four stage intervals. The first and third stages were ‘run-in’ and ‘wash-out’ intervals. For the second and fourth stages, two weeks long in duration, the participants consumed 100 grams of Espar or 200 grams of plain yogurt. At the end of each stage, the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content were documented. Results. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of salivary mutans streptococci subsequent to Espar consumption when compared to ordinary yogurt (p < 0.01. Additionally, salivary calcium content increased significantly subsequent to the consumption of Espar and yogurt. However, Espar yielded a higher level of significant increase in salivary calcium when compared to plain yogurt (p < 0.01. Conclusion. This study found that daily consumption of Espar increased the salivary calcium level while decreasing mutans streptococci of the saliva.

  14. Fouling control mechanisms of demineralized water backwash: Reduction of charge screening and calcium bridging effects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng


    This paper investigates the impact of the ionic environment on the charge of colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (charge screening effect) and the calcium adsorption/bridging on new and fouled membranes (calcium bridging effect) by measuring the zeta potentials of membranes and colloidal NOM. Fouling experiments were conducted with natural water to determine whether the reduction of the charge screening effect and/or calcium bridging effect by backwashing with demineralized water can explain the observed reduction in fouling. Results show that the charge of both membranes and NOM, as measured by the zeta potential, became more negative at a lower pH and a lower concentration of electrolytes, in particular, divalent electrolytes. In addition, calcium also adsorbed onto the membranes, and consequently bridged colloidal NOM and membranes via binding with functional groups. The charge screening effect could be eliminated by flushing NOM and membranes with demineralized water, since a cation-free environment was established. However, only a limited amount of the calcium bridging connection was removed with demineralized water backwashes, so the calcium bridging effect mostly could not be eliminated. As demineralized water backwash was found to be effective in fouling control, it can be concluded that the reduction of the charge screening is the dominant mechanism for this. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Recommendations on vitamin D and calcium supplements for adults in Spain]. (United States)

    Rigueira García, Ana Isabel


    Calcium supplements and vitamin D are involved in current debates of health, as cardiovascular safety of calcium, and correction of vitamin levels. The aim is to review the possibilities of making better use of supplements marketed in Spain, depending on their availability, information and related epidemiology. Analysis of comercial offer and available information about pharmacological aspects of Spanish medicinal supplements in data-sheets (39), guides and reports current institutional and professional, with additional search of this information and epidemiological data related Spanish in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ®, PubMed ® (tool "Clinical Queries"), Dialnet database and hand search of Spanish journals directly related. There is no uniformity in terms of indication, expression of content, dosages, precautions and safety in data sheets or technical reports. The literature search found more recent publications volume for vitamin D than calcium, No evidence was found to establish appropriate dosing regimens indisputable or universal, or cholecalciferol bioavailability tests with aqueous vehiculización. In Spain nutritional situation is found generally suitable for the calcium but a status mostly unsuitable for vitamin D with several references for insufficiency and vitamin deficiency in adults. Corrective treatments primarily affect calcium supplements. There is an ample supply of calcium and vitamin D in Spain, whose drug design should rethink because don't respond to the needs identified or correction possibilities currently recommended. It should also improve and update their information, with particular interest in health status related to hypovitaminosis D.

  16. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: implications for inhibitor design. (United States)

    Slade, Daniel J; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D; Coonrod, Scott A; Lewis, Huw D; Guo, Min; Gross, Michael L; Thompson, Paul R


    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ions that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.

  17. Bax inhibitor 1, a modulator of calcium homeostasis, confers affective resilience. (United States)

    Hunsberger, Joshua G; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Austin, Daniel R; Zarate, Carlos; Chuang, De-Maw; Chen, Guang; Reed, John C; Manji, Husseini K


    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical site for intracellular calcium storage as well as protein synthesis, folding, and trafficking. Disruption of these processes is gaining support for contributing to heritable vulnerability of certain diseases. Here, we investigated Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that primarily resides in the ER and associates with B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-XL, as an affective resiliency factor through its modulation of calcium homeostasis. We found that transgenic (TG) mice with BI-1 reinforced expression, via the neuronal specific enolase promoter, showed protection against the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, an animal model to test stress coping. TG mice were also protected against anhedonia following both serotonin and catecholamine depletion as measured in two different models, the female urine sniffing test and the saccharine preference test. In addition, we used primary mouse cortical cultures to explore the ability of BI-1 to influence calcium homeostasis under basal conditions and also following challenge with thapsigargin (THPS), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) that disrupts calcium homeostasis. TG neurons showed decreased basal cytosolic calcium levels and decreased Ca(2+) cytosolic accumulation following challenge with THPS as compared to WT neuronal cultures. Together, these data suggest that BI-1, through its actions on calcium homeostasis, may confer affective resiliency in multiple animal models of depression and anhedonia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Involvement of Nitric Oxide in the Inhibition of Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Calcium Dobesilate. (United States)

    Parés-Herbuté; Fliche; Monnier


    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a key process in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Numerous factors are involved in the regulation of SMC growth. Nitric oxide (NO) induces the inhibition of SMC proliferation whereas oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have a mitogenic effect. Calcium dobesilate (Doxium) is an angioprotective agent for treating vascular diseases. It has been shown to increase NO production and to have antioxidant properties but its mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. This study investigated the effect of calcium dobesilate on proliferation of rat aortic SMC in culture. Proliferation was evaluated by cell number and DNA synthesis. Orally administered calcium dobesilate (30, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent decrease of proliferation of SMC in primary culture compared with controls. In vitro treatment with calcium dobesilate (0.05-5 mM) inhibited both DNA synthesis and proliferation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In both ex vivo and in vitro models, the inhibition was reversible upon removal of the drug. Calcium dobesilate also stimulated NO production and NO synthase activity. Inhibitors of NO synthesis attenuated the inhibitory effect of calcium dobesilate (300 µM) on DNA synthesis. In addition, calcium dobesilate (2.5-40 µM) induced a dose-dependent protection of cooper-induced LDL oxidation. These results showed that calcium dobesilate inhibits SMC proliferation, partly by a NO-dependent mechanism, and suggest that it could be effective in the treatment of pathological disorders associated with vascular SMC proliferation.

  19. PKA controls calcium influx into motor neurons during a rhythmic behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels.

  20. Hydration characteristics of calcium silicate cements with alternative radiopacifiers used as root-end filling materials. (United States)

    Camilleri, Josette


    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is composed of calcium silicate cement and bismuth oxide added for radiopacity. The bismuth oxide in MTA has been reported to have a deleterious effect on the physical and chemical properties of the hydrated material. This study aimed to investigate the hydration mechanism of calcium silicate cement loaded with different radiopacifiers for use as a root-end filling material. Calcium silicate cement loaded with barium sulfate, gold, or silver/tin alloy was hydrated, and paste microstructure was assessed after 30 days. In addition, atomic ratio plots of Al/Ca versus Si/Ca and S/Ca and Al/Ca were drawn, and X-ray energy dispersive analysis of the hydration products was performed to assess for inclusion of heavy metals. The leachate produced from the cements after storage of the cements in water for 28 days and the leaching of the radiopacifiers in an alkaline solution was assessed by using inductively coupled plasma. The hydrated calcium silicate cement was composed of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, ettringite, and monosulfate. Unhydrated cement particles were few. No heavy metals were detected in the calcium silicate hydrate except for the bismuth in MTA. Calcium was leached out early in large quantities that reduced with time. The barium and bismuth were leached in increasing amounts. Copper was the most soluble in alkaline solution followed by bismuth and barium in smaller amounts. The bismuth oxide can be replaced by other radiopacifiers that do not affect the hydration mechanism of the resultant material. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum calcium is not predictive of aggressive prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Tollefson, Matthew K; Gettman, Matthew T; Blute, Michael L; Bergstralh, Eric J; Rangel, Laureano J; Karnes, R Jeffrey


    To investigate the effect of preoperative total serum calcium on disease progression after radical prostatectomy (RP). Elevated total serum calcium has been linked to death from prostate cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and II. However, these findings have not been studied in a large cohort of patients with prostate cancer. We identified 10,532 consecutive patients who had undergone RP from 1990 to 2004 for prostate cancer. Total serum calcium levels were available for 7648 (72.6%) of these patients within 90 days before RP. Postoperative survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the ability of serum calcium to predict biochemical recurrence, systemic progression, and cancer-specific survival. The median patient age at surgery was 64 years. The median total serum calcium level was 9.4 mg/dL (range 6.8-11.2). On univariate analysis, the total serum calcium level was not significantly associated with any clinical or pathologic variables, including tumor stage, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, tumor volume, surgical margins, or lymph node status. Furthermore, the serum calcium level was not significantly associated with biochemical failure, systemic progression, or prostate cancer death on univariate or multivariate analysis. The total serum calcium level was not predictive of cancer outcomes in patients who had undergone RP. Additional investigations of the preoperative disease predictors after RP for patients with nonmetastatic disease might be better directed toward other markers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif


    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...

  3. Does calcium constrain reproductive activity in insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insects are a poor source of dietary calcium and since they are seasonally abundant, it has been suggested that calcium availability may play a significant role in controlling the timing of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in ...

  4. Additive manufactured serialization (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.


    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  5. Advances in Additive Manufacturing (United States)


    Manufacturing session and provide a summary of work being performed in additive manufacturing by the Army, Air Force, and academia (Penn State University...Army Research Laboratory [ARL] and Air Force Research Laboratory [AFRL]) as well as academia (Penn State University’s Applied Research to the Warfighter, unmanned systems, networks , and robotics. Many of the materials and technologies needed to accomplish these goals are still

  6. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir


    Introduction:Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06).Conclusion:Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality in the elderly, whereas available data do not support an effect of vitamin D alone....... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium.Subjects and Methods:Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each, eight...

  7. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fupo, E-mail: [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Weiwei [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tian, Xiumei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Xiaoming, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)


    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  8. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Santhosh


    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  9. Fractal aspects of calcium binding protein structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isvoran, Adriana [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)], E-mail:; Pitulice, Laura [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759/Institute Curie-Recherche, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Batiment 112, 91405 Orsay (France); Chiriac, Adrian [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)


    The structures of EF-hand calcium binding proteins may be classified into two distinct groups: extended and compact structures. In this paper we studied 20 different structures of calcium binding proteins using the fractal analysis. Nine structures show extended shapes, one is semi-compact and the other 10 have compact shapes. Our study reveals different fractal characteristics for protein backbones belonging to different structural classes and these observations may be correlated to the physicochemical forces governing the protein folding.

  10. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter


    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  11. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Eisenberg, Bob [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)


    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} for [CaCl{sub 2}] ranging from 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −2} M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant.

  12. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.


    The effects of calcium on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) onto iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were investigated through batch experiments, rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) and kinetics modelling. Batch experiments showed that at calcium concentrations≤20 mg/L, high As(III) and As(V) removal efficiencies by IOCS and GFH are achieved at pH 6. An increase of the calcium concentration to 40 and 80 mg/L reversed this trend, giving higher removal efficiencies at higher pH (8). The adsorption capacities of IOCS and GFH at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 10 g/L were found to be between 2.0 and 3.1 mg/g for synthetic water without calcium and between 2.8 and 5.3 mg/g when 80 mg/L of calcium was present at the studied pH values. After 10 hours of filter run in RSSCT, approximately 1000 empty bed volumes, the ratios of C/Co for As(V) were 26% and 18% for calcium-free model water; and only 1% and 0.2% after addition of 80 mg/L of Ca for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without calcium addition, and moves to the second-reaction-order kinetics when calcium is added. Based on the intraparticle diffusion model, the main controlling mechanism for As(III) adsorption is intraparticle diffusion, while surface diffusion contributes greatly to the adsorption of As(V).

  13. Steel treatment with calcium-aluminate synthetic slag and addition of titanium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putan, A.


    Full Text Available The paper introduces the results of the experiments on synthetic slag desulphurization and deoxidizing using slag belonging to the ternary system CaO-Al2O3-TiO2. The experiments have been done in a 10 kg induction furnace. In order to obtain the reducing slag we used a mixture of lime, alumina and titanium oxide, representing 2 % of the charge weight. The experiments were done on mechanical mixtures produced according to various recipes; for each experiment, the slag was sampled in order to determine its chemical composition and the steel was also sampled, in order to determine its contents in sulphur and oxygen. The resulting data have been processed in EXCEL, which gave the correlation equations between the desulphurization and deoxidizing output and the chemical composition of the synthetic slag, respectively the ratio and sum of the oxides.

    En el trabajo se presentan los resultados del experimento que se refiere a la desulfuración y desoxidación de las escorias sintéticas con escorias del sistema ternario CaO-Al2O3-TiO2.. Los experimentos se hicieron en un horno con inducción de 10 kg de capacidad. Para formar las escorias reductoras se ha utilizado una mezcla compuesta de cal, alúmina y óxido de titanio en porcentaje de 2 % del peso de la carga de acero más escoria sintética. Para los experimentos se usaron mezclas mecánicas producidas por varias recetas y de cada experimento se tomaron muestras de escorias para determinar la composición química y muestras de acero para determinar el contenido de azúfre y oxígeno. Los datos obtenidos fueron procesados en el programa de cálculo EXCEL, obteniéndose ecuaciones de correlación entre la eficiencia de la desulfuración y desoxidación y la composición química de la escoria sintética.

  14. Influence of addition of alkali metal compounds to calcium carbonate on desulfurization characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Ichiro; Saito, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Takahiro


    Limestone is currently supplied as a desulfurizer into bubbling and circulating fluidized bed coal combustors since both combustors are operated at the temperature ranged from 1,073 to 1,173 K, where limestone can be calcined and sulfurized optimally. In the practical boilers, however, the limestone particles are fed to the combustor excessively since the utilization efficiency of CaO produced by the calcination of limestone is low. On the other hand, many kinds of sea-shell are clarified as one of industrial wastes, and also consist of CaCO{sub 3} similar to limestone. Therefore it would be possible for wasted sea-shell to be applied to one of the desulfurizers. In this case the CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of the shell is fixed and recycled naturally in obedience to the ecological law. From this viewpoint, desulfurization characteristics of wasted sea shell have been already studied fundamentally by using a thermobalance as compared with the results obtained by limestone. The results obtained by this study are summarized as follows. (1) The desulfurization activity for wasted sea-shell is much higher than that for limestone. (2) Even if the alkali metal compounds are partially removed from the sea shell, the desulfurization efficiency does not change. (3) The desulfurization activity can be enhanced by adding alkali metal compounds to limestone. Sodium compounds are more effective on the desulfurization efficiency than potassium compounds. Sodium chloride is the best agent among them.

  15. The Effect of Synthetic Hydrated Calcium Aluminate Additive on the Hydration Properties of OPC


    Jolanta Doneliene; Anatolijus Eisinas; Kestutis Baltakys; Agne Bankauskaite


    The effect of synthetic CAH (130°C; 8 h; CaO/(SiO2 + Al2O3) = 0.55; Al2O3/(SiO2 + Al2O3) = 0.1, 0.15) with different crystallinity on the hydration kinetics of OPC at early stages of hydration was investigated. Also, the formation mechanism of compounds during OPC hydration was highlighted. It was determined that the synthetic CAH accelerated the initial reaction and shortened the induction period. Also, the second and third exothermic reactions begun earlier, and, during the latter reaction,...

  16. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver. (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K


    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  17. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two—Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Briand-Mesange


    Full Text Available Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, which were measured by tack tests. Finally, some properties related to biological applications are described, including gentamicine release and osteoblast viability experiments. The whole study demonstrates that addition of these mild surfactants improved several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing function.

  18. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two-Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility. (United States)

    Bercier, Ariane; Gonçalves, Stéphane; Autefage, Helène; Briand-Mesange, Fabienne; Lignon, Olivier; Fitremann, Juliette


    Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, which were measured by tack tests. Finally, some properties related to biological applications are described, including gentamicine release and osteoblast viability experiments. The whole study demonstrates that addition of these mild surfactants improved several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing function.

  19. Effect of some organic solvent-water mixtures composition on precipitated calcium carbonate in carbonation process (United States)

    Konopacka-Łyskawa, Donata; Kościelska, Barbara; Karczewski, Jakub


    Precipitated calcium carbonate particles were obtained during carbonation of calcium hydroxide slurry with carbon dioxide. Aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol and glycerol were used as solvents. Concentration of organic additives in the reactive mixture was from 0% to 20% (vol). Precipitation process were performed in a stirred tank reactor equipped with gas distributor. Multimodal courses of particles size distribution were determined for produced CaCO3 particles. Calcium carbonate as calcite was precipitated in all experiments. The mean Sauter diameter of CaCO3 particles decreased when the concentration of all used organic additives increased. The amount of small particle fraction in the product increased with the increasing concentration of organic solvents. Similar physical properties of used liquid phase resulted in the similar characteristics of obtained particles.

  20. Influence of calcium compounds on the mechanical properties of fly ash geopolymer pastes. (United States)

    Temuujin, J; van Riessen, A; Williams, R


    The influence of calcium compounds (CaO and Ca(OH)(2)) on the mechanical properties of fly ash based geopolymers has been studied. Calcium compounds were substituted in fly ash at 1, 2 and 3 wt%, respectively. Curing of the geopolymers was performed at ambient temperature (20 degrees C) and 70 degrees C. Addition of calcium compounds as a fly ash substitute improved mechanical properties for the ambient temperature cured samples while decreasing properties for the 70 degrees C cured samples. Seven days compressive strength of the ambient temperature cured samples increased from 11.8 (2.9) to 22.8 (3.8)MPa and 29.2 (1.1)MPa for 3% CaO and 3% Ca(OH)(2) additions, respectively.

  1. Synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from calcium carbide. (United States)

    Lin, Zhewang; Yu, Dingyi; Sum, Yin Ngai; Zhang, Yugen


    AHA Erlebnis: CaC(2), used to produce acetylene until several decades ago, is re-emerging as a cheap, sustainable resource synthesized from coal and lignocellulosic biomass. We report efficient catalytic protocols for the synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from CaC(2) through aldehyde, alkyne, and amine (AAA) as well as alkyne, haloalkane, and amine (AHA) couplings, and in addition demonstrate its use in click and Sonogashira chemistry, showing that calcium carbide is a sustainable and cost-efficient carbon source. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Stroma cell-derived factor-1α signaling enhances calcium transients and beating frequency in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ielham Hadad

    Full Text Available Stroma cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α is a cardioprotective chemokine, acting through its G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4. In experimental acute myocardial infarction, administration of SDF-1α induces an early improvement of systolic function which is difficult to explain solely by an anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effect. We wondered whether SDF-1α signaling might have direct effects on calcium transients and beating frequency.Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were culture-expanded and characterized by immunofluorescence staining. Calcium sparks were studied by fluorescence microscopy after calcium loading with the Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester sensor. The cardiomyocyte enriched cellular suspension expressed troponin I and CXCR4 but was vimentin negative. Addition of SDF-1α in the medium increased cytoplasmic calcium release. The calcium response was completely abolished by using a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody and partially suppressed and delayed by preincubation with an inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R blocker, but not with a ryanodine receptor (RyR antagonist. Calcium fluxes induced by caffeine, a RyR agonist, were decreased by an IP3R blocker. Treatment with forskolin or SDF-1α increased cardiomyocyte beating frequency and their effects were additive. In vivo, treatment with SDF-1α increased left ventricular dP/dtmax.These results suggest that in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling increases calcium transients in an IP3-gated fashion leading to a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect.

  3. Calcium signaling in human pluripotent stem cells. (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Berecz, Tünde; Sarkadi, Balázs


    Human pluripotent stem cells provide new tools for developmental and pharmacological studies as well as for regenerative medicine applications. Calcium homeostasis and ligand-dependent calcium signaling are key components of major cellular responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Interestingly, these phenomena have not been characterized in detail as yet in pluripotent human cell sates. Here we review the methods applicable for studying both short- and long-term calcium responses, focusing on the expression of fluorescent calcium indicator proteins and imaging methods as applied in pluripotent human stem cells. We discuss the potential regulatory pathways involving calcium responses in hPS cells and compare these to the implicated pathways in mouse PS cells. A recent development in the stem cell field is the recognition of so called "naïve" states, resembling the earliest potential forms of stem cells during development, as well as the "fuzzy" stem cells, which may be alternative forms of pluripotent cell types, therefore we also discuss the potential role of calcium homeostasis in these PS cell types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High speed two-photon imaging of calcium dynamics in dendritic spines: consequences for spine calcium kinetics and buffer capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, L.N.; van Elburg, R.A.J.; Meredith, R.M.; Yuste, R.; Mansvelder, H.D.


    Rapid calcium concentration changes in postsynaptic structures are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Thus far, the determinants of postsynaptic calcium dynamics have been studied predominantly based on the decay kinetics of calcium transients. Calcium rise times in spines in response to single action

  5. High Speed Two-Photon Imaging of Calcium Dynamics in Dendritic Spines: : Consequences for Spine Calcium Kinetics and Buffer Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, R.A.J.; Cornelisse, L.N; Meredith, R.M; Yuste, R; Mansvelder, H.D


    Rapid calcium concentration changes in postsynaptic structures are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Thus far, the determinants of postsynaptic calcium dynamics have been studied predominantly based on the decay kinetics of calcium transients. Calcium rise times in spines in response to single action

  6. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro


    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  7. Calcium currents in a fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the rat. (United States)

    Donaldson, P L; Beam, K G


    Slow ionic currents were measured in the rat omohyoid muscle with the three-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Sodium and delayed rectifier potassium currents were blocked pharmacologically. Under these conditions, depolarizing test pulses elicited an early outward current, followed by a transient slow inward current, followed in turn by a late outward current. The early outward current appeared to be a residual delayed rectifier current. The slow inward current was identified as a calcium current on the basis that (a) its magnitude depended on extracellular calcium concentration, (b) it was blocked by the addition of the divalent cations cadmium or nickel, and reduced in magnitude by the addition of manganese or cobalt, and (c) barium was able to replace calcium as an inward current carrier. The threshold potential for inward calcium current was around -20 mV in 10mM extracellular calcium and about -35 mV in 2 mM calcium. Currents were net inward over part of their time course for potentials up to at least +30 mV. At temperatures of 20-26 degrees C, the peak inward current (at approximately 0 mV) was 139 +/- 14 microA/cm2 (mean +/- SD), increasing to 226 +/- 28 microA/cm2 at temperatures of 27-37 degrees C. The late outward current exhibited considerable fiber-to-fiber variability. In some fibers it was primarily a time-independent, nonlinear leakage current. In other fibers it was primarily a time-independent, nonlinear leakage current. In other fibers it appeared to be the sum of both leak and a slowly activated outward current. The rate of activation of inward calcium current was strongly temperature dependent. For example, in a representative fiber, the time-to-peak inward current for a +10-mV test pulse decreased from approximately 250 ms at 20 degrees C to 100 ms at 30 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, the time-to-peak current was typically approximately 25 ms. The earliest phase of activation was difficult to quantify because the ionic current was partially

  8. The influence of environmental calcium concentrations on calcium flux, compensatory drinking and epithelial calcium channel expression in a freshwater cartilaginous fish. (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; Weihrauch, Dirk; Grandmaison, Vanessa; Dasiewicz, Patricia; Peake, Stephan J; Anderson, W Gary


    Calcium metabolism and mRNA levels of the epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) were examined in a freshwater cartilaginous fish, the lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Lake sturgeon were acclimated for ≥2 weeks to 0.1 (low), 0.4 (normal) or 3.3 (high) mmol l(-1) environmental calcium. Whole-body calcium flux was examined using (45)Ca as a radioactive marker. Net calcium flux was inward in all treatment groups; however, calcium influx was greatest in the low calcium environment and lowest in the high calcium environment, whereas efflux had the opposite relationship. A significant difference in the concentration of (45)Ca in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fish in the low calcium environment led to the examination of drinking rate and calcium flux across the anterior-middle (mid) intestine. Drinking rate was not different between treatments; however, calcium influx across the mid-intestine in the low calcium treatment was significantly greater than that in both the normal and high calcium treatments. The lake sturgeon ECaC was 2831 bp in length, with a predicted protein sequence of 683 amino acids that shared a 66% identity with the closest sequenced ECaCs from the vertebrate phyla. ECaC mRNA levels were examined in the gills, kidney, pyloric caeca, mid-intestine and spiral intestine. Expression levels were highest in the gills, then the kidneys, and were orders of magnitude lower in the GIT. Contrary to existing models for calcium uptake in the teleost gill, ECaC expression was greatest in high calcium conditions and kidney ECaC expression was lowest in low calcium conditions, suggesting that cellular transport mechanisms for calcium may be distinctly different in these freshwater cartilaginous fishes.

  9. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women. (United States)

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E


    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  10. Split double factorial with additional treatment and the post-harvest of Niagara grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pórtya Piscitelli Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aims to discuss and explain how to deal with the analysis of experiments conducted in completely randomized design (CRD and subdivided into double factorial with additional treatment in the plot. In addition it was illustrate the discussion by analyzing data from an experiment on post-harvest of Niagara grapes. The sums of squares for each source of variation are presented, while discussing how the additional treatment affects the whole variation. Niagara grapes were treated in the pre-harvest with three preservatives (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium lactate at 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% and stored for 0, 10, 20 and 30 days.All the preservatives evaluated at 0% represented the control (additional treatment.

  11. Additives in swine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.


    Full Text Available To attain better feed utilization, longer preservation, easier manipultion and higher production and better quality of food of animal orgin as the final goal, besides raw materials, feed mixes contain numerous pronutrients (additives, added to perform different effects, in a narrower sense, the term pronutrient implies heterogenous substances, which have no diverse effects and have to be efficient in the manner of use. Basically, all pronutrients have to reach the goal of keeping optimal animal health status and to increase production of food of animal origin without adverse and negative effects. The development of biotechnology had a great part in the appearance of natural alternatives which are able to fulfil and satisfy the high demands of highly productive animals, as well as those of the consumer lobby and environmental protection movements. Growth promoters based upon physiological mechanisms and production potential of the animal have an unquestionable adventage, not only because of the lack of residues in food of animal origin; but also because of their ecological safety and decrease of envirnomental pollution by undigested materials. Demand continues to grow for "all natural", non-pharmaceutical feed additives with growth enhancing effects in food animals. Special attention is paid to minerals (anorganic and organic sources, growth stimulators (antibiotics, probiotics prebiotics, substances for better feed utilization (enzymes, acidifers adsorbents.

  12. Calcium and ascorbic acid affect cellular structure and water mobility in apple tissue during osmotic dehydration in sucrose solutions. (United States)

    Mauro, Maria A; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Tylewicz, Urszula; Tappi, Silvia; Laghi, Luca; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla


    The effects of the addition of calcium lactate and ascorbic acid to sucrose osmotic solutions on cell viability and microstructure of apple tissue were studied. In addition, water distribution and mobility modification of the different cellular compartments were observed. Fluorescence microscopy, light microscopy and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) were respectively used to evaluate cell viability and microstructural changes during osmotic dehydration. Tissues treated in a sucrose-calcium lactate-ascorbic acid solution did not show viability. Calcium lactate had some effects on cell walls and membranes. Sucrose solution visibly preserved the protoplast viability and slightly influenced the water distribution within the apple tissue, as highlighted by TD-NMR, which showed higher proton intensity in the vacuoles and lower intensity in cytoplasm-free spaces compared to other treatments. The presence of ascorbic acid enhanced calcium impregnation, which was associated with permeability changes of the cellular wall and membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coagulation of β-conglycinin, glycinin and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride in soymilk (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Jung; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng


    The coagulation of β-conglycinin (7S), glycinin (11S) and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride was investigated. Approximately 92.6% of the soymilk proteins were coagulated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis indicated that most of the 7S (α’, α and β), 11S acidic (A1a, A1b, A2, A3 and A4) and 11S basic (B1a) proteins in the SSF were coagulated into the SPF after treatment with 5 mM calcium chloride. Isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, were also coagulated into the SPF after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. The amounts of daidzein and genistein in the SSF decreased to 39.4 ± 1.6 and 11.8 ± 7.0%, respectively. HPLC analysis suggested that daidzein and genistein were bound with 7S and 11S proteins and then were coprecipitated into the SPF by 5 mM calcium chloride.

  14. Surface physical chemistry properties in coated bacterial cellulose membranes with calcium phosphate. (United States)

    de Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Basmaji, Pierre; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Dos Santos, Márcio Luiz; Dos Santos Riccardi, Carla; Guastaldi, Fernando Pozzi Semeghini; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; de Oliveira Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko; Pizoni, Elisabeth; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos


    Bacterial cellulose has become established as a new biomaterial, and it can be used for medical applications. In addition, it has called attention due to the increasing interest in tissue engineering materials for wound care. In this work, the bacterial cellulose fermentation process was modified by the addition of chondroitin sulfate to the culture medium before the inoculation of the bacteria. The biomimetic process with heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation of biological interest was studied for the guided regeneration purposes on bacterial cellulose. FTIR results showed the incorporation of the chondroitin sulfate in the bacterial cellulose, SEM images confirmed the deposition of the calcium phosphate on the bacterial cellulose surface, XPS analysis showed a selective chemical group influences which change calcium phosphate deposition, besides, the calcium phosphate phase with different Ca/P ratios on bacterial cellulose surface influences wettability. XTT results concluded that these materials did not affect significantly in the cell viability, being non-cytotoxic. Thus, it was produced one biomaterial with the surface charge changes for calcium phosphate deposition, besides different wettability which builds new membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.


    that caused by osteoporosis in humans. For both mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopes, the isotopic value of the albumen is the highest natural value yet measured. The offset between the δ88/86Sr values of the albumen and shell is 0.45%, less than half that of the δ44/42Ca offset value (1.29%), as predicted by the relative mass differences. However, the yolk is 0.35% heavier than the shell in δ44/42Ca but 0.70% lighter in δ88/86Sr. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr value of the shell (0.70854 ±0.000012, 2σ) is statistically the same as the albumen (0.70856 ±0.000018), but slightly offset from the yolk (0.70830 ±0.000014). The apparent decoupling of Ca and Sr, and the radiogenic offset between yolk and shell, may reflect differences in the residence time of calcium and strontium in different reproductive organs, as well as the contribution of medullary bone to shell formation. In addition, it may also reflect differential discrimination against Sr versus Ca in oviduct and uterus. Further studies could extend to thinning eggshells in wild avian populations, biochemical mechanisms of bone formation, and the mechanism of strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium-driven cardiac alternans (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Karma, Alain; Restrepo, Juan G.


    We investigate the dynamics of spatially discordant alternans (SDA) driven by an instability of intracellular calcium cycling using both amplitude equations [P. S. Skardal, A. Karma, and J. G. Restrepo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 108103 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.108103] and ionic model simulations. We focus on the common case where the bidirectional coupling of intracellular calcium concentration and membrane voltage dynamics produces calcium and voltage alternans that are temporally in phase. We find that, close to the alternans bifurcation, SDA is manifested as a smooth wavy modulation of the amplitudes of both repolarization and calcium transient (CaT) alternans, similarly to the well-studied case of voltage-driven alternans. In contrast, further away from the bifurcation, the amplitude of CaT alternans jumps discontinuously at the nodes separating out-of-phase regions, while the amplitude of repolarization alternans remains smooth. We identify universal dynamical features of SDA pattern formation and evolution in the presence of those jumps. We show that node motion of discontinuous SDA patterns is strongly hysteretic even in homogeneous tissue due to the novel phenomenon of "unidirectional pinning": node movement can only be induced towards, but not away from, the pacing site in response to a change of pacing rate or physiological parameter. In addition, we show that the wavelength of discontinuous SDA patterns scales linearly with the conduction velocity restitution length scale, in contrast to the wavelength of smooth patterns that scales sublinearly with this length scale. Those results are also shown to be robust against cell-to-cell fluctuations due to the property that unidirectional node motion collapses multiple jumps accumulating in nodal regions into a single jump. Amplitude equation predictions are in good overall agreement with ionic model simulations. Finally, we briefly discuss physiological implications of our findings. In particular, we

  17. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh


    weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage at 1℅ level. The highest wet fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, stone weight, and stone diameter were attained in the treatment containing combined application of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate. Furthermore, the lowest amounts of these traits were obtained in control. The lowest and highest percentage of date bunch fading belonged to the combined treatment of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate, and control, respectively. In general, application of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate with each other improved fruit traits and reduced bunch fading percentage. Calcium mobility in the plant takes place mainly in the xylem, together with water. Therefore, calcium uptake is directly related to plant transpiration rate. Conditions of high humidity, cold and low transpiration rates may result in calcium deficiency. Salinity might also cause calcium deficiency because it decreases water uptake by the plant. Since calcium mobility in plants is limited, calcium deficiency appears in younger leaves and in fruits, because they have a very low transpiration rate. Therefore, it is necessary to have a constant supply of calcium for continued growth. Calcium deficiency is usually caused by low calcium availability or water stress which results in low transpiration rates. Calcium is an essential plant nutrient with many roles including participation in metabolic processes of other nutrients uptake, promotion of proper plant cell elongation, and improvement of cell wall structure – calcium is an essential part of plant cell wall. It forms calcium pectate compounds which give stability to cell walls and bind cells together. It also helps protecting the plant against heat stress - calcium improves stomata function and participates in induction of heat shock proteins. In addition, it helps protecting the plant against diseases - numerous fungi and bacteria secret enzymes

  18. PTHrP regulation and calcium balance in sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) under calcium constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Lu, W.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.


    Juvenile gilthead sea bream were exposed to diluted seawater (2.5 per thousand salinity; DSW) for 3 h or, in a second experiment, acclimated to DSW and fed a control or calcium-deficient diet for 30 days. Branchial Ca(2+) influx, drinking rate and plasma calcium levels were assessed. Sea bream

  19. Calcium spikes and calcium plateaux evoked by differential polarization in dendrites of turtle motoneurones in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Kiehn, O


    The ability of dendrites in turtle motoneurones to support calcium spikes and calcium plateaux was investigated using differential polarization by applied electric fields. 2. Electric fields were generated by passing current through transverse slices of the turtle spinal cord between two plate......+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaux are present in dendrites of spinal motoneurones of the turtle....

  20. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.


    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  1. Tetracycline nanoparticles loaded calcium sulfate composite beads for periodontal management. (United States)

    Sindhura Reddy, N; Sowmya, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Chennazhi, K P; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R


    The objective of this study was to fabricate, characterize and evaluate in vitro, an injectable calcium sulfate bone cement beads loaded with an antibiotic nanoformulation, capable of delivering antibiotic locally for the treatment of periodontal disease. Tetracycline nanoparticles (Tet NPs) were prepared using an ionic gelation method and characterized using DLS, SEM, and FTIR to determine size, morphology, stability and chemical interaction of the drug with the polymer. Further, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) control and CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads were prepared and characterized using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The drug release pattern, material properties and antibacterial activity were evaluated. In addition, protein adsorption, cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of the CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads in comparison to the CaSO4 control were analyzed. Tet NPs showed a size range of 130±20nm and the entrapment efficiency calculated was 89%. The composite beads showed sustained drug release pattern. Further the drug release data was fitted into various kinetic models wherein the Higuchi model showed higher correlation value (R(2)=0.9279) as compared to other kinetic models. The composite beads showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The presence of Tet NPs in the composite bead didn't alter its cytocompatibility. In addition, the composite beads enhanced the ALP activity of hPDL cells. The antibacterial and cytocompatible CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads could be beneficial in periodontal management to reduce the bacterial load at the infection site. Tet NPs would deliver antibiotic locally at the infection site and the calcium sulfate cement, would itself facilitate tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium response to vitamin D supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow


    Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of serum vitamin D sufficient levels to prevent multiple chronic diseases. However, vitamin D supplementation and its effects on urine calcium excretion remain controversial. The objective of this prospective and interventional study was to evaluate urine calcium excretion in women with normal calciuria or hypercalciuria, once serum vitamin D sufficiency was achieved. We studied 63 women with idiopathic hypercalciuria, (9 with renal lithiasis and 50 normocalciuric women. Both groups had serum vitamin D levels low (deficiency or insufficiency. Baseline urine calcium excretion was measured before being supplemented with vitamin D2 or D3 weekly or vitamin D3 100.000 IU monthly. Once serum vitamin D levels were corrected achieving at least 30 ng/ml, a second urine calcium excretion was obtained. Although in the whole sample we did not observe significant changes in urine calcium excretion according to the way of supplementation, some of those with weekly supplementation had significant higher urine calcium excretion, 19% (n = 12 of hypercalciuric women and 12% (n = 6 of the normocalciuric group. Monthly doses, also showed higher urine calcium excretion in 40% of hypercalciuric women (n = 4/10 and in 44% (n = 4/9 of the renal lithiasis hypercalciuric patients. In conclusion, different ways of vitamin D supplementation and adequate serum levels are safe in most patients, although it should be taken into account a subgroup, mainly with monthly loading doses, that could increase the calciuria significantly eventually rising renal lithiasis risk or bone mass loss, if genetically predisposed.

  3. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: Results from the nurses' health study and health professionals follow-up study. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Keum, NaNa; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L


    The relationship between calcium intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remains inconclusive. We conducted this study to evaluate whether the association between calcium intake and CRC risk differs by anatomic subsite and determine the dose-response relationship for this association, as well as assess when in carcinogenesis calcium may play a role. We assessed calcium intake every 4 years and followed 88,509 women (1980-2012) in the Nurses' Health Study and 47,740 men (1986-2012) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We documented 3,078 incident CRC cases. Total calcium intake (≥1,400 vs. cancer (multivariable relative risk: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.65-0.95). Similar results were observed by different sources of calcium (from all foods or dairy products only). The inverse association was linear and suggestively stronger for distal colon cancer (0.65, 0.43-0.99) than for proximal colon cancer (0.94, 0.72-1.22, p-common effects  = 0.14). Additionally, when comparing different latencies, the overall pattern suggested that the inverse association appeared to be stronger with increasing latency and was strongest for intakes 12-16 years before diagnosis. Comparing total calcium intakes of ≥1,400 vs. calcium intake was associated with a lower risk of developing colon cancer, especially for distal colon cancer. Overall inverse association was linear and did not differ by intake source. Additionally, calcium intake approximately 10 years before diagnosis appeared to be associated with a lower risk of CRC. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Sorbent preparation/modification/additives. Final report, September 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudich, M.E.; Venkataramakrishnan, R. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)


    Sorbent preparation techniques used today have generally been adapted from techniques traditionally used by the lime industry. Traditional dry hydration and slaking processes have been optimized to produce materials intended for use in the building industry. These preparation techniques should be examined with an eye to optimization of properties important to the SO{sub 2} capture process. The study of calcium-based sorbents for sulfur dioxide capture is complicated by two factors: (1) little is known about the chemical mechanisms by which the standard sorbent preparation and enhancement techniques work, and (2) a sorbent preparation technique that produces a calcium-based sorbent that enjoys enhanced calcium utilization in one regime of operation [flame zone (>2400 F), in-furnace (1600--2400 F), economizer (800--1100 F), after air preheater (<350 F)] may not produce a sorbent that enjoys enhanced calcium utilization in the other reaction zones. Again, an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of sorbent enhancement is necessary if a systematic approach to sorbent development is to be used. As a long-term goal, an experimental program is being carried out for the purpose of (1) defining the effects of slaking conditions on the properties of calcium-based sorbents, (2) determining how the parent limestone properties of calcium-based sorbents, and (3) elucidating the mechanism(s) relating to the activity of various dry sorbent additives. An appendix contains a one-dimensional duct injection model with modifications to handle the sodium additives.

  5. Calcium carbonate polyamorphism and its role in biomineralization: how many amorphous calcium carbonates are there? (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Checa, Antonio G; Gale, Julian D; Gebauer, Denis; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio


    Although the polymorphism of calcium carbonate is well known, and its polymorphs--calcite, aragonite, and vaterite--have been highly studied in the context of biomineralization, polyamorphism is a much more recently discovered phenomenon, and the existence of more than one amorphous phase of calcium carbonate in biominerals has only very recently been understood. Here we summarize what is known about polyamorphism in calcium carbonate as well as what is understood about the role of amorphous calcium carbonate in biominerals. We show that consideration of the amorphous forms of calcium carbonate within the physical notion of polyamorphism leads to new insights when it comes to the mechanisms by which polymorphic structures can evolve in the first place. This not only has implications for our understanding of biomineralization, but also of the means by which crystallization may be controlled in medical, pharmaceutical, and industrial contexts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    During the caries process complex reactions involving calcium, phosphate, hydrogen and fluoride ions as main species take place. In this study the precipitation and dissolution reactions occurring in suspensions of enamel, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and fluorapatite (FAP) on addition of fluoride were

  7. Calcium and aluminum impacts on sugar maple physiology in a northern hardwood forest (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Linda H. Pardo; Timothy J. Fahey


    Forests of northeastern North America have been exposed to anthropogenic acidic inputs for decades, resulting in altered cation relations and disruptions to associated physiological processes in multiple tree species, including sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In the current study, the impacts of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) additions on mature...

  8. Effects of pH, titratable acidity and calcium concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Beverage acidity has been measured routinely using the pH value. However, titratable acidity is thought to be a true indicator of beverage erosive potential. It has also been reported that experimental addition of calcium in beverages can reduce the progression of erosion. This study was carried out to investigate ...

  9. Examining the need for the use of calcium chloride in the processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the addition of calcium chloride to pasteurised milk in cheese making promoted greater curd firming and whey expulsion which produced a firmer textured cheese with a drier appearance, lower in moisture content and acidity , but higher in ash, butter fat and protein contents. Most of the sensory ...

  10. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  11. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells. (United States)

    Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J


    In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights

  12. Regulation of calcium signalling by docosahexaenoic acid in human T-cells. Implication of CRAC channels. (United States)

    Bonin, A; Khan, N A


    We elucidated the role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the increases in free intracellular calcium concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, in human (Jurkat) T-cell lines. DHA evoked an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in a dose-dependent manner in these cells. Anti-CD3 antibody, known to stimulate increases in Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the production of inositol trisphosphate, also evoked increases in [Ca(2+)]i in Jurkat T-cells. We also used thapsigargin which inhibits Ca(2+)-ATPase of the ER and, therefore, increases Ca(2+) in the cytosol. Interestingly, addition of DHA during the thapsigargin-induced peak response exerted an additive effect on the increases in [Ca(2+)]i in human T-cells, indicating that the mechanisms of action of these two agents are different. However, the DHA-induced calcium response was not observed when this agent was added during the anti-CD3-induced calcium peak, though its addition resulted in a prolonged and sustained calcium response as a function of time, suggesting that DHA recruits calcium, in part, from the ER pool and the prolonged response may be due to Ca(2+) influx. In the medium containing 0% Ca(2+), the DHA-evoked response on the increases in [Ca(2+)]i was significantly curtailed as compared to that in 100% Ca(2+) medium, supporting the notion that the response of the DHA is also due, in part, to the opening of calcium channels. Furthermore, preincubation of cells with tyrphostin A9, an inhibitor of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels also significantly curtailed the DHA-induced sustained response on the increases in [Ca(2+)]i in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces an increase in [Ca(2+)]i via the ER pool and the opening of CRAC channels in human T-cells.

  13. Discovery and Development of Calcium Channel Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Godfraind


    Full Text Available In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883. Interest in the intracellular role of calcium arose 60 years later out of Kamada (Japan and Heibrunn (USA experiments in the early 1940s. Studies on pharmacology of calcium function were initiated in the mid 1960s and their therapeutic applications globally occurred in the the 1980s. The first part of this report deals with basic pharmacology in the cardiovascular system particularly in isolated arteries. In the section entitled from calcium antagonists to calcium channel blockers, it is recalled that drugs of a series of diphenylpiperazines screened in vivo on coronary bed precontracted by angiotensin were initially named calcium antagonists on the basis of their effect in depolarized arteries contracted by calcium. Studies on arteries contracted by catecholamines showed that the vasorelaxation resulted from blockade of calcium entry. Radiochemical and electrophysiological studies performed with dihydropyridines allowed their cellular targets to be identified with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. The modulated receptor theory helped the understanding of their variation in affinity dependent on arterial cell membrane potential and promoted the terminology calcium channel blocker (CCB of which the various chemical families are introduced in the paper. In the section entitled tissue selectivity of CCBs, it is shown that characteristics of the drug, properties of the tissue, and of the stimuli are

  14. Store-operated calcium entry and increased endothelial cell permeability. (United States)

    Norwood, N; Moore, T M; Dean, D A; Bhattacharjee, R; Li, M; Stevens, T


    We hypothesized that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) links calcium release to activation of store-operated calcium entry, which is important for control of the endothelial cell barrier. Acute inhibition of MLCK caused calcium release from inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium stores and prevented subsequent activation of store-operated calcium entry by thapsigargin, suggesting that MLCK serves as an important mechanism linking store depletion to activation of membrane calcium channels. Moreover, in voltage-clamped single rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, thapsigargin activated an inward calcium current that was abolished by MLCK inhibition. F-actin disruption activated a calcium current, and F-actin stabilization eliminated the thapsigargin-induced current. Thapsigargin increased endothelial cell permeability in the presence, but not in the absence, of extracellular calcium, indicating the importance of calcium entry in decreasing barrier function. Although MLCK inhibition prevented thapsigargin from stimulating calcium entry, it did not prevent thapsigargin from increasing permeability. Rather, inhibition of MLCK activity increased permeability that was especially prominent in low extracellular calcium. In conclusion, MLCK links store depletion to activation of a store-operated calcium entry channel. However, inhibition of calcium entry by MLCK is not sufficient to prevent thapsigargin from increasing endothelial cell permeability.

  15. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.


    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  16. Do Calcium Supplements Predispose to Urolithiasis? (United States)

    Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Paridis, Dionysios; Karatzas, Anastasios; Soukias, Georgios; Dailiana, Zoi


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of calcium supplements, with or without vitamin D, in urinary stone formation in healthy population and in osteoporotic patients as well. Moreover, this review aims to clarify whether or not, and above which dose, they are associated with the risk of lithiasis. A research in Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases up to September 2015 was conducted using the following keywords: calcium, supplements, vitamin D, complications, lithiasis, and urinary stone. All types of studies were taken into account (cohort studies, reviews, meta-analyses), and in case they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were included in our review. The analysis of the data showed that calcium supplements, probably in association with anti osteoporotic treatment, do not create a predisposition towards lithiasis formation among women suffering from osteoporosis, neither among non-osteoporotic older men. In healthy postmenopausal as well as younger women, the supplements might increase susceptibility to urinary stone formation in long-term basis. The consumption of calcium supplements with the meals could play a protective role in women and younger males. There is certain evidence that supplements containing citrate may be more beneficial over the rest of calcium supplements, particularly when consumed during the meal. Osteoporotic women and healthy men are not at risk of stone formation. On the contrary, healthy women should be aware of the potential risk of developing urinary lithiasis in long-term basis.

  17. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Nociception (United States)

    Yasuda, Takahiro; Adams, David J.

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are a large and functionally diverse group of membrane ion channels ubiquitously expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. VGCCs contribute to various physiological processes and transduce electrical activity into other cellular functions. This chapter provides an overview of biophysical properties of VGCCs, including regulation by auxiliary subunits, and their physiological role in neuronal functions. Subsequently, then we focus on N-type calcium (Cav2.2) channels, in particular their diversity and specific antagonists. We also discuss the role of N-type calcium channels in nociception and pain transmission through primary sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons (nociceptors). It has been shown that these channels are expressed predominantly in nerve terminals of the nociceptors and that they control neurotransmitter release. To date, important roles of N-type calcium channels in pain sensation have been elucidated genetically and pharmacologically, indicating that specific N-type calcium channel antagonists or modulators are particularly useful as therapeutic drugs targeting chronic and neuropathic pain.

  18. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm


    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  19. Microwave-assisted biomimetic synthesis of hydroxyapatite using different sources of calcium. (United States)

    Türk, S; Altınsoy, I; ÇelebiEfe, G; Ipek, M; Özacar, M; Bindal, C


    In this study, some properties of biomimetic synthesized hydroxyapatite by using different sources of calcium were investigated. Biomimetic synthesis of hydroxyapatite was carried out in microwave oven using 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) solution having different calcium sources with 800W power for 15min. As phosphorus source di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) while for each sample as a calcium sources calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium nitrate tetra hydrate (Ca(NO3)2·4H2O) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) were utilized, respectively. For comparison, precipitation process was also performed in only 1.5 SBF solution without calcium and phosphorus sources. The presence of phases in synthesized hydroxyapatite was confirmed by XRD. The crystallinity and crystalline size of the phases in as synthesized powders were also calculated by using XRD data. It was found that the unique phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) by using the calcium nitrate tetra hydrate and calcium hydroxide sources, while the dominant phases are tri-calcium phosphates (TCP) and HAp for CaCl2 source and 1.5SBF which does not contain any additional Ca source. SEM studies revealed that nano-hexagonal rods and nano-spherical hydroxyapatites could be synthesized by using this process. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the Ca/P ratio near to be as 1.5 which is the value for HAp in bone. Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates that dominantly the present of single phase is HAp. The crystal size and fraction crystallinity of as synthesized HAp powders were changed between 29.5 and 45.4nm and 0.53-2.37, respectively. Results showed that microwave assisted biomimetic synthesis is a promising method for obtaining HAp powders in shorter process time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Aune, Dagfinn; Greenwood, Darren C; Ju, Woong; Giovannucci, Edward L


    Mechanistic and epidemiologic studies provide considerable evidence for a protective association between calcium intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC). While the relationship has not been substantiated by short-duration randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CRC, trials do show a benefit on adenomas, a precursor to CRC. To address some of this inconsistency, we conducted dose-response meta-analyses by sources of calcium intake, based on prospective observational studies published up to December 2013 identified from PubMed, Embase, and BIOSIS. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. For total calcium intake, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 8% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89-0.95, I(2)  = 47%, 15 studies with 12,305 cases, intake = 250-1,900 mg/day, follow-up = 3.3-16 years). While the risk decreased less steeply in higher range of total calcium intake (P(non-linearity)  = 0.04), the degree of curvature was mild and statistical significance of non-linearity was sensitive to one study. For supplementary calcium, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 9% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.98, I(2)  = 67%, six studies with 8,839 cases, intake = 0-1,150 mg/day, follow-up = 5-10 years). The test for non-linearity was not statistically significant (P(non-linearity)  = 0.11). In conclusion, both dietary and supplementary calcium intake may continue to decrease CRC risk beyond 1,000 mg/day. Calcium supplements and non-dairy products fortified with calcium may serve as additional targets in the prevention of CRC. RCTs of calcium supplements with at least 10 years of follow-up are warranted to confirm a benefit of calcium supplements on CRC risk. © 2014 UICC.