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Sample records for calcium 56

  1. The TRPV5/6 calcium channels contain multiple calmodulin binding sites with differential binding properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalevskaya, N.V.; Bokhovchuk, F.M.; Vuister, G.W.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5/6 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 5/6) are thoroughly regulated in order to fine-tune the amount of Ca(2+) reabsorption. Calmodulin has been shown to be involved into calcium-dependent inactivation of TRPV5/6 channels by binding directly to the distal C-t

  2. 5,6-EET potently inhibits T-type calcium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazade, M.; Bidaud, I.; Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard;

    2014-01-01

    T-type calcium channels (T-channels) are important actors in neuronal pacemaking, in heart rhythm, and in the control of the vascular tone. T-channels are regulated by several endogenous lipids including the primary eicosanoid arachidonic acid (AA), which display an important role in vasodilation...... via its metabolism leading to prostanoids, leukotrienes, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). However, the effects of these latter molecules on T-currents have not been investigated. Here, we describe the effects of the major cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase products...... on the three human recombinant T-channels (Ca(v)3.1, Ca(v)3.2, and Ca(v)3.3), as compared to those of AA. We identified the P450 epoxygenase product, 5,6-EET, as a potent physiological inhibitor of Ca(v)3 currents. The effects of 5,6-EET were observed at sub-micromolar concentrations (IC50 = 0.54 mu M...

  3. Calcium Carbonate versus Sevelamer Hydrochloride as Phosphate Binders after Long-Term Disease Progression in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Törmänen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare the effects of calcium carbonate and sevelamer-HCl treatments on calcium-phosphate metabolism and renal function in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX rats so that long-term disease progression preceded the treatment. After 15-week progression, calcium carbonate (3.0%, sevelamer-HCl (3.0%, or control diets (0.3% calcium were given for 9 weeks. Subtotal nephrectomy reduced creatinine clearance (−40%, plasma calcidiol (−25%, and calcitriol (−70% and increased phosphate (+37%, parathyroid hormone (PTH (11-fold, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 (4-fold. In NX rats, calcium carbonate diet increased plasma (+20% and urinary calcium (6-fold, reduced plasma phosphate (−50% and calcidiol (−30%, decreased creatinine clearance (−35% and FGF 23 (−85%, and suppressed PTH without influencing blood pH. In NX rats, sevelamer-HCl increased urinary calcium (4-fold and decreased creatinine clearance (−45%, PTH (−75%, blood pH (by 0.20 units, plasma calcidiol (−40%, and calcitriol (−65%. Plasma phosphate and FGF-23 were unchanged. In conclusion, when initiated after long-term progression of experimental renal insufficiency, calcium carbonate diet reduced plasma phosphate and FGF-23 while sevelamer-HCl did not. The former induced hypercalcemia, the latter induced acidosis, while both treatments reduced vitamin D metabolites and deteriorated renal function. Thus, delayed initiation influences the effects of these phosphate binders in remnant kidney rats.

  4. Effects of Dietary Calcium Level on Reproductive Performance and Tibia Quality of Yellow-Feathered Broiler Breeders Aged from 49 to 56 Weeks%饲粮钙水平对49~56周龄黄羽肉种鸡繁殖性能和胫骨性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪平; 周桂莲; 蒋守群; 阮栋; 陈芳

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of dietary calcium level on production performance, reproductive performance (laying performance, hatching performance, egg quality), serum calcium and phosphorus contents and tibia quality of yellow-feathered broiler breeders aged from 49 to 56 weeks, five hundred and forty 49-week-old parent yellow-feathered broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 18 birds per replicate. Treatment 1 was the control group, in which the birds were fed corn-soybean meal based diet with 2. 75% calcium. Treatments 2 to 6 were test groups, in which dietary calcium level was adjusted to 3.00% , 3.25% , 3.50% , 3. 75% and 4. 00% based on the basal diet through adding different levels of limestone instead of zeolite powder, respectively. Other nutrient levels in the 6 treatment diets except calcium level were the same. Experimental birds were fed 125 g of diet per bird every day and watered ad libitum during the experimental period of 8 weeks. Results showed that different dietary calcium levels did not significantly affect the final weight, average daily gain, average egg weight, broken egg rate, unqualified egg rate, hatching performance, serum calcium and phosphorus contents and tibia quality of birds (P >0.05). Feed to egg ratio of birds in 3. 00% calcium group was significantly lower than that in 3. 50% calcium group (P 0.05). Laying rate and daily egg mass of birds in 3.00% calcium group were significantly higher than those in the other groups except 3.25% calcium group (P <0.05). Based on the estimated result by two-slope broken-line model, the calcium requirement of yellow-feathered broiler breeders aged from 49 to 56 weeks for the optimal laying rate and daily egg mass both is 3. 00% or 3. 75 g/d.%本试验旨在研究不同饲粮钙水平对49~56周龄黄羽肉种鸡生产性能、繁殖性能(产蛋性能、孵化性能、蛋品质)、血清钙和磷含量及胫骨性能的影响.选用49

  5. In Vitro Analysis of Roles of a Disulfide Bridge and a Calcium Binding Site in Activation of Pseudomonas sp. Strain KWI-56 Lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Junhao; Kobayashi, Koei; Iwasaki, Yugo; Nakano, Hideo; Yamane, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    The expression of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. strain KWI-56 (recently reclassified as Burkholderia cepacia) had been found to be dependent on an activator gene (act) downstream of its structural gene (lip). In this work, the mature lipase was synthesized in an enzymatically active form with a cell-free Escherichia coli S30 coupled transcription-translation system by expressing a recombinant lipase gene (rlip) encoding the mature lipase in the presence of its purified activator or by coexpress...

  6. 40 CFR 424.54-424.56 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 424.54-424.56 Section 424.54-424.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory §§ 424.54-424.56...

  7. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  8. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  9. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  10. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  11. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  12. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  13. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  14. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  15. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  16. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...... enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...

  17. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  18. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  19. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  20. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  1. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  2. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.;

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  3. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  4. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  5. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  6. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  7. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  8. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  9. Neutrino Energy Loss by Electron Capture on Nucleus 56Mn, 56Fe, 56Co and 56Ni in Strong Electron Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Jing; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the p-f shell model, the neutrino energy loss rates for nucleus 56Mn, 56Fe, 56Co and 56Ni in the electron capture process are canvassed in and not in a strong electron screening. The results show that the neutrino energy loss rates for 56Mn, 56Fe, 56Co and 56Ni decrease about 15%, 10%, 60% and 1 order of magnitude correspondinglyat the temperature T9 = 15 and even debase 2 orders of magnitude at the temperature T9 = 1.

  10. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  11. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  12. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  13. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... design limits of stress and temperature indicated in ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe. 56.10-5 Section 56.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 56.10-5 Pipe. (a) General. Pipe and tubing shall be selected as described in Table 56.60-1(a)....

  14. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  15. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  16. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  17. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  18. 30 CFR 56.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguishing equipment. 56.4600 Section 56... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding, cutting... equivalent fire extinguishing equipment for the class of fire hazard present shall be at the worksite....

  19. 30 CFR 56.7002 - Equipment defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment defects. 56.7002 Section 56.7002... Piercing Drilling § 56.7002 Equipment defects. Equipment defects affecting safety shall be corrected before the equipment is used....

  20. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19054 - Rope guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rope guides. 56.19054 Section 56.19054 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Conveyances § 56.19054 Rope guides. Where rope guides...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  3. 46 CFR 56.25-7 - Blanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanks. 56.25-7 Section 56.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pipe Flanges... requirements of 104.5.3 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2)....

  4. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  5. 30 CFR 56.9313 - Roadway maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Roadway maintenance. 56.9313 Section 56.9313 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9313 Roadway maintenance. Water, debris, or spilled material on roadways which creates hazards...

  6. 40 CFR 68.56 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance. 68.56 Section 68.56... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.56 Maintenance. (a) The owner or operator... maintenance procedures. (b) The owner or operator shall train or cause to be trained each employee involved...

  7. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry. 701.56 Section 701.56 Agriculture Regulations... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.56 Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane....

  8. 30 CFR 56.20003 - Housekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housekeeping. 56.20003 Section 56.20003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20003...

  9. 7 CFR 56.6 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision. 56.6 Section 56.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.6 Supervision. All grading service shall be subject to supervision...

  10. 30 CFR 56.3202 - Scaling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 56.3202 Scaling tools. Where manual scaling is performed, a scaling bar shall be provided. This bar... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scaling tools. 56.3202 Section 56.3202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  11. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  12. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  13. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  14. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  16. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual...

  17. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  18. 50 CFR 648.56 - Scallop research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scallop research. 648.56 Section 648.56... Scallop Fishery § 648.56 Scallop research. (a) Annually, the Council and NMFS shall prepare and issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) that identifies research priorities for projects to be conducted by...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7010 - Power failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Drilling § 56.7010 Power failures. In the event of power failure, drill controls shall be placed in the neutral position until power is restored. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power failures. 56.7010 Section 56.7010...

  20. 32 CFR 552.56 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Licensing requirements. 552.56 Section 552.56....56 Licensing requirements. To transact personal commercial business on military installations in the... meet the licensing requirements of the State in which the installation is located. They must also...

  1. 30 CFR 56.3000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 56.3000 Section 56.3000 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control § 56.3000...

  2. 7 CFR 15a.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 15a.56 Section 15a.56 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.56 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of this...

  3. 45 CFR 86.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 86.56 Section 86.56 Public... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.56 Fringe benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical,...

  4. 32 CFR 56.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 56.3 Section 56.3 National Defense... DEFENSE § 56.3 Definitions. (a) Facility. All or any portion of buildings, structures, equipment, roads... conditions as orthopedic, visual, speech, and hearing impairments; cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and...

  5. 45 CFR 400.56 - Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structure. 400.56 Section 400.56 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND... § 400.56 Structure. (a) States may choose to enter into a partnership agreement with local...

  6. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial measurement. 56.19022 Section 56.19022... Ropes § 56.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs, the... active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent measurements. A...

  9. 30 CFR 56.15002 - Hard hats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hard hats. 56.15002 Section 56.15002 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15002 Hard hats. All persons shall wear suitable hard hats when in or around a mine or plant where falling...

  10. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or...

  11. 42 CFR 56.304 - Governing board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governing board. 56.304 Section 56.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.304 Governing board. The governing board of...

  12. 42 CFR 56.202 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 56.202 Section 56.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.202 Application. To be approved by...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit testing. 56.6407 Section 56.6407... Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer or other instrument designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test each of the following: (a) Continuity of each electric detonator...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  16. 29 CFR 2700.56 - Discovery; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(c) or 111 of the Act has been filed. 30 U.S.C. 815(c) and 821. (e) Completion of discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery; general. 2700.56 Section 2700.56 Labor... Hearings § 2700.56 Discovery; general. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  18. The effect of the calcium source, level and the particle size on calcium retention, eggshell quality and the overall calcium requirement in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Lichovnikova, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Four different sources of calcium in isonitrogenous and isoenergeric diets were fed to laying hens for two-week digestion trial when they were 56 and 57 weeks old. The mineral percentages in the feed were as follows: 29% fine limestone (LF) and 71% large limestone (LG), 32% fine limestone (LF) and 68% eggshell, 32% fine limestone (LF) and 68% oyster shell, 50% fine limestone and 50% large limestone (LG). The contents of these sources of calcium in the diets were as follows...

  19. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  20. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport...

  1. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  2. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs... Sanitation. (a) Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules,...

  3. 30 CFR 56.18020 - Working alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working alone. 56.18020 Section 56.18020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Working alone. No employee shall be assigned, or allowed, or be required to perform work alone in any...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  5. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). This shall not prohibit the use of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will...

  6. 46 CFR 56.25-5 - Flanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pipe Flanges... section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2... of § 56.60-1(a) of this part. Flanges may be integral or may be attached to pipe by...

  7. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  9. 15 CFR 923.56 - Plan coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan coordination. 923.56 Section 923... COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest § 923.56 Plan coordination. (a) The management program must be coordinated with local, areawide,...

  10. 30 CFR 56.9315 - Dust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dust control. 56.9315 Section 56.9315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... control. Dust shall be controlled at muck piles, material transfer points, crushers, and on haulage...

  11. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES... accrued vacation time for visits, participation in institution programs or for other good reasons at...

  12. 30 CFR 56.9309 - Chute design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chute design. 56.9309 Section 56.9309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... design. Chute-loading installations shall be designed to provide a safe location for persons...

  13. 21 CFR 56.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false IRB membership. 56.107 Section 56.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW... institution and who is not part of the immediate family of a person who is affiliated with the institution....

  14. 7 CFR 3430.56 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial reporting. 3430.56 Section 3430.56... reporting. (a) SF-269, Financial Status Report. Unless stated differently in the award terms and conditions... requirement. (f) Additional reporting requirements. CSREES may require additional financial...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 56.6502 Section 56.6502 Mineral....6502 Safety fuse. (a) The burning rate of each spool of safety fuse to be used shall be measured, posted in locations which will be conspicuous to safety fuse users, and brought to the attention of...

  16. 34 CFR 106.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 106.56 Section 106.56 Education... benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing...

  17. Giant omental lipoblastoma and CD56 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Miyano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of giant omental lipoblastoma in a 13-month-old boy, which was treated successfully by total excision. Tumor cells were positive for S100, CD34 and CD56. This is the first report of lipoblastoma expressing CD56, a fact that could be used to differentiate lipoblastoma from liposarcoma.

  18. 30 CFR 56.19023 - Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examinations. 56.19023 Section 56.19023 Mineral....19023 Examinations. (a) At least once every fourteen calendar days, each wire rope in service shall be... lubrication or dressing. In addition, visual examination for wear and broken wires shall be made at...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56....12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient size and current-carrying... insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage shall be protected....

  20. Physical mapping and cloning of RAD56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, David P; Gallina, Irene; Germann, Susanne Manuela;

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the physical mapping of the rad56-1 mutation to the NAT3 gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation of RAD56 causes sensitivity to X-rays, methyl methanesulfonate, zeocin, camptothecin and hydroxyurea, bu...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6405 - Firing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firing devices. 56.6405 Section 56.6405 Mineral....6405 Firing devices. (a) Power sources shall be capable of delivering sufficient current to energize... electrical firing device....

  2. 30 CFR 56.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation systems. 56.6308 Section 56.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions....

  3. 30 CFR 56.20002 - Potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potable water. 56.20002 Section 56.20002... Potable water. (a) An adequate supply of potable drinking water shall be provided at all active working areas. (b) The common drinking cup and containers from which drinking water must be dipped or poured...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 56.6312 Section 56.6312... Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  6. Cosmic ray half life of 56Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for the β+ decay of 56Ni has established an upper limit on the branching ratio of 7.2 x 10-7 for the most likely such transition. This provides a lower limit of 2.3 x 104 years for the cosmic ray half life of 56Ni. 2 refs., 2 figs

  7. 7 CFR 966.56 - Safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 966.56 Section 966.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... from entering channels of trade for other than the specific purpose authorized therefor, and...

  8. 7 CFR 945.56 - Safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 945.56 Section 945.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... prevent shipments pursuant to § 945.53 from entering channels of trade and other outlets for other...

  9. 7 CFR 958.56 - Safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 958.56 Section 958.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... dehydrators into dehydrated onion products, from entering channels of trade for other than the...

  10. Atomic resolution structure of the double mutant (K53,56M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic resolution crystal structure of the double mutant (K53,56M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 is reported. The structure of the double mutant K53,56M has previously been refined at 1.9 Å resolution using room-temperature data. The present paper reports the crystal structure of the same mutant K53,56M refined against 1.1 Å data collected using synchrotron radiation. A total of 116 main-chain atoms from 29 residues and 44 side chains are modelled in alternate conformations. Most of the interfacial binding residues are found to be disordered and alternate conformations could be recognized. The second calcium ion-binding site residue Glu92 adopts two alternate conformations. The minor and major conformations of Glu92 correspond to the second calcium ion bound and unbound states

  11. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  12. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  13. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  14. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  15. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  16. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  17. Dietary Fructose Inhibits Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Induces Vitamin D Insufficiency in CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Douard, Veronique; Asgerally, Abbas; Sabbagh, Yves; Sugiura, Shozo; SHAPSES, SUE A.; Casirola, Donatella; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2010-01-01

    Renal disease leads to perturbations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism. Dietary fructose aggravates chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether it also worsens CKD-induced derangements in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is unknown. Here, we fed rats diets containing 60% glucose or fructose for 1 mo beginning 6 wk after 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats had markedly greater kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen, and serum levels of creatinine, phos...

  18. First observation of $^{55,56}$Zn

    CERN Document Server

    Giovinazzo, J; Borcea, C; Chartier, M; Czajkowski, S; De France, G; Grzywacz, R; Janas, Z; Lewitowicz, M; De Santos, F O; Pfützner, M; Pravikoff, M S; Thomas, J C

    2001-01-01

    In an experiment at the SISSI/LISE3 facility of GANIL, the most proton-rich zinc isotopes 55,56Zn have been observed for the first time. The experiment was performed using a high-intensity 58Ni beam at 74.5 MeV/nucleon impinging on a nickel target. The identification of 55,56Zn opens the way to 54Zn, a good candidate for two-proton radioactivity according to theoretical predictions.

  19. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  20. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  1. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  2. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  3. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  4. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Irshad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML. Materials and Methods: Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g, water activity (aw, Lovibond® tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA, and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Results: Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%, product pH, moisture (%, protein (%, fat (%, and water activity (aw decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. Conclusions: The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  5. Cloning of rat sp56, the homologue of mouse sperm ZP3 receptor-sp56

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mouse sp56 is considered as one of the candidates for mouse zona pellucida 3 (mZP3) receptor. Up to date, its homologue has only been cloned from guinea pig, namely AM67. Based on the cDNA sequence of mouse sp56, we designed a pair of primer to amplify its homologue from rat testis cDNA. Using RT-PCR,two fragments of 743 bp and 938 bp were amplified. The PCR products show very high homology to mouse sp56. However, the 743 bp product completely lacks one of the seven Sushi domains of mouse sp56. Using the 743 bp product as the probe to detect the expression profile of sp56 in rat tissues, Northern blot shows that a ~2.0 kb mRNA expresses specifically in testis. Employed the RACE method, two full cDNA sequences of rat sp56 were obtained. A Mr ~42 KD band was detected in denatured and non-reducing protein sample of rat testis and sperm with anti-mouse sp56 monoclonal antibody by Western blot method. Rat sp56was localized on rat sperm head by the indirect immunofiuorescence method. Rat sp56 immunoreactivitywas detected from the early pachytene spermatocytes and throughout the spermatogenesis. Its cloning willfurther our understanding of the mechanism of the sperm-egg recognition and binding.

  6. Before & After of Rasping on Sol 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation combines two images of the trench informally named 'Snow White' taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on July 21, 2008, during the lander's 56th Martian day, or sol, since landing. The earlier Sol 56 image is the one without a shadow falling across the lower right corner of the image. It was taken after Phoenix had used its motorized rasp to get some material from the trench into the scoop on the lander's robotic arm. The later Sol 56 image was taken after the arm had scraped clean an area that includes the rasping site. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. These images were taken through the camera's red filter. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. LFPAK56D系列:MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    恩智浦半导体推出了LFPAK56D产品组合,是多款双恒道Power.S08MOSFET,专为燃油喷射、ABS和稳定性控制等汽车应用而设计。恩智浦LFPAK56D系列产品完全符合AEC-Q101标准,具有较好的性能和可靠性。

  8. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  9. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  11. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  12. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  13. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  14. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  15. 40 CFR 273.56 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... countries specified in 40 CFR 262.58(a)(1) (in which case the transporter is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 262, subpart H) may not accept a shipment if the transporter knows the shipment does not... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.56 Section...

  16. 44 CFR 5.6 - Congressional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Congressional information. 5... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION General Provisions § 5.6 Congressional information. Nothing in this part authorizes withholding information from the Congress except when...

  17. 42 CFR 60.56 - Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... The School § 60.56 Records. (a) In addition to complying with the requirements of section 739(b) of the Act, each school must maintain an accurate, complete, and easily retrievable record with respect... of the student's alien registration status. (4) Amount and source of other financial...

  18. 46 CFR 310.56 - Physical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.56 Physical requirements. (a... the Navy for appointment as Midshipman, USNR (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, USNR) and...

  19. 42 CFR 56.201 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.201 Applicability. The regulations of this... pursuant to section 319(c)(1)(A) of the Act for projects for planning and developing migrant health...

  20. 42 CFR 56.601 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.601 Applicability. The regulations of this subpart, in... migrant health center exists and in which not more than 6,000 migratory agricultural workers and...

  1. 42 CFR 56.402 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.402 Application. To be approved by the Secretary under... migrant health center but which will not, at the time of the grant award, meet one or more of...

  2. 42 CFR 56.501 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.501 Applicability. The regulations of... awarded pursuant to section 319(c)(1)(B) of the Act for projects to plan and develop migrant...

  3. 42 CFR 56.602 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.602 Application. To be approved by the Secretary under... whole or in part, by a migrant health center, and (2) Has not more than 6,000 migratory...

  4. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  5. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  6. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A project for the planning and development of a migrant health program supported under this subpart must:...

  7. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project for planning and developing a migrant health center supported under this subpart must: (a) Determine (by...

  8. 42 CFR 56.302 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.302 Application. To be approved by the Secretary under... determines is a migrant health center, and (b) Contain information sufficient to enable the Secretary...

  9. 42 CFR 56.301 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.301 Applicability. The regulations of this subpart, in... 319(d)(1)(A) of the Act for the costs of operation of migrant health centers in high impact areas....

  10. 42 CFR 56.502 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.502 Application. To be approved by the... not served, in whole or in part, by a migrant health center, and (2) Has not more than 6,000...

  11. 42 CFR 56.401 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.401 Applicability. The regulations of this subpart, in... 319(d)(1)(B) of the Act for the costs of operation of entities which intend to become migrant...

  12. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for the operation of a migrant health entity supported under this subpart must: (a) Meet all of the requirements...

  13. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  14. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  15. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  16. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  17. Pr16Mo21O56

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gougeon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of hexadecapraseodymium henicosamolybdenum hexapentacontaoxide, Pr16Mo21O56, is isotypic with other rare earth representatives of formula type RE16Mo21O56 (RE = La, Ce, Nd. It is characterized by Mo10O18iO8a units (where i = inner and a = apical O atoms containing bioctahedral Mo10 clusters and octahedral MoO6 units that share some of their O atoms to form the Mo–O framework. The two independent Mo10 cluster units are centred at Wyckoff positions 2b and 2c and have point-group symmetry overline{1}. The Mo atom of the MoO6 unit is likewise situated at an inversion centre (2d. The eight crystallographically different Pr3+ cations occupy irregular voids in the framework with coordination numbers to the O atoms varying between 8 and 11.

  18. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  19. Response to an oral calcium load in nephrolithiasis patients with fluctuating parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available the response to an oral calcium load test was assessed in 17 hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis patients who presented elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH irrespective of the ionized calcium (sCa2+ levels. Blood samples were collected at baseline (0 min and at 60 and 180 min after 1 g calcium load for serum PTH, total calcium, sCa2+, and 1.25(OH2D3 determinations. According to the sCa2+ level at baseline, patients were classified as normocalcemic (N = 9 or hypercalcemic (N = 8. Six healthy subjects were also evaluated as controls. Bone mineral density was reduced in 14/17 patients. In the normocalcemic group, mean PTH levels at 0, 60 and 180 min (95 ± 76, 56 ± 40, 57 ± 45 pg/ml, respectively did not differ from the hypercalcemic group (130 ± 75, 68 ± 35, 80 ± 33 pg/ml but were significantly higher compared to healthy subjects despite a similar elevation in sCa2+ after 60 and 180 min vs baseline in all 3 groups. Mean total calcium and 1.25(OH2D3 were similar in the 3 groups. Additionally, we observed that 5 of 9 normocalcemic patients presented a significantly higher concentration-time curve for serum PTH (AUC0',60',180' than the other 4 patients and the healthy subjects, suggesting a primary parathyroid dysfunction. These data suggest that the individual response to an oral calcium load test may be a valuable dynamic tool to disclose a subtle primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with high PTH and fluctuating sCa2+ levels, avoiding repeated measurements of both parameters.

  20. Response to an oral calcium load in nephrolithiasis patients with fluctuating parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available the response to an oral calcium load test was assessed in 17 hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis patients who presented elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH irrespective of the ionized calcium (sCa2+ levels. Blood samples were collected at baseline (0 min and at 60 and 180 min after 1 g calcium load for serum PTH, total calcium, sCa2+, and 1.25(OH2D3 determinations. According to the sCa2+ level at baseline, patients were classified as normocalcemic (N = 9 or hypercalcemic (N = 8. Six healthy subjects were also evaluated as controls. Bone mineral density was reduced in 14/17 patients. In the normocalcemic group, mean PTH levels at 0, 60 and 180 min (95 ± 76, 56 ± 40, 57 ± 45 pg/ml, respectively did not differ from the hypercalcemic group (130 ± 75, 68 ± 35, 80 ± 33 pg/ml but were significantly higher compared to healthy subjects despite a similar elevation in sCa2+ after 60 and 180 min vs baseline in all 3 groups. Mean total calcium and 1.25(OH2D3 were similar in the 3 groups. Additionally, we observed that 5 of 9 normocalcemic patients presented a significantly higher concentration-time curve for serum PTH (AUC0',60',180' than the other 4 patients and the healthy subjects, suggesting a primary parathyroid dysfunction. These data suggest that the individual response to an oral calcium load test may be a valuable dynamic tool to disclose a subtle primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with high PTH and fluctuating sCa2+ levels, avoiding repeated measurements of both parameters.

  1. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  2. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  3. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Ductile iron castings conforming to ASTM A 395... 395 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 56.01-2) may be used within the service restrictions and... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron. 56.60-15 Section 56.60-15 Shipping...

  4. 7 CFR 56.28 - Types of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grader or quality assurance inspector as provided in § 56.39. (c) Temporary grading service. This type of... under the supervision of a grader or quality assurance inspector as provided in § 56.39. (d) Auditing... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types of service. 56.28 Section 56.28...

  5. Solidification of aqueous tritium-containing wastes with calcium oxide and asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method is proposed for solidifying aqueous tritium-containing wastes with calcium oxide and asphalt. We incorporated tritiated calcium hydroxide into molten asphalt at 100-210/degree/C and studied the evolution of tritium (T) oxides there from as well as the extent to which calcium and tritium are leached out of the solidified product. Depending on temperature and heating time, the evolution of HTO from a Ca(OH)OT-asphalt mixture was low (between 5.6 x 10/sup /minus/4/ and 5.9 x 10/sup /minus/4/ wt.% of the original amount). Tritium evolution rates and leaching coefficients of tritium and calcium showed the solidified product to have high stability in water. Conclusions were drawn as to the usefulness of the proposed method

  6. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  7. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness. PMID:7488645

  8. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  9. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  10. Asante Calcium Green and Asante Calcium Red--novel calcium indicators for two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jahn

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of cellular processes and potential dysfunctions therein, an analysis of the ubiquitous intracellular second messenger calcium is of particular interest. This study examined the suitability of the novel Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes Asante Calcium Red (ACR and Asante Calcium Green (ACG for two-photon (2P-excited time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Both dyes displayed sufficient 2P fluorescence excitation in a range of 720-900 nm. In vitro, ACR and ACG exhibited a biexponential fluorescence decay behavior and the two decay time components in the ns-range could be attributed to the Ca(2+-free and Ca(2+-bound dye species. The amplitude-weighted average fluorescence decay time changed in a Ca(2+-dependent way, unraveling in vitro dissociation constants K(D of 114 nM and 15 nM for ACR and ACG, respectively. In the presence of bovine serum albumin, the absorption and steady-state fluorescence behavior of ACR was altered and its biexponential fluorescence decay showed about 5-times longer decay time components indicating dye-protein interactions. Since no ester derivative of ACG was commercially available, only ACR was evaluated for 2P-excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM in living cells of American cockroach salivary glands. In living cells, ACR also exhibited a biexponential fluorescence decay with clearly resolvable short (0.56 ns and long (2.44 ns decay time components attributable to the Ca(2+-free and Ca(2+-bound ACR species. From the amplitude-weighted average fluorescence decay times, an in situ K(D of 180 nM was determined. Thus, quantitative [Ca(2+]i recordings were realized, unraveling a reversible dopamine-induced [Ca(2+]i elevation from 21 nM to 590 nM in salivary duct cells. It was concluded that ACR is a promising new Ca(2+ indicator dye for 2P-FLIM recordings applicable in diverse biological systems.

  11. Disease-associated mutations prevent GPR56-collagen III interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Luo

    Full Text Available GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Mutations in GPR56 cause a devastating human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP. Using the N-terminal fragment of GPR56 (GPR56(N as a probe, we have recently demonstrated that collagen III is the ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain. In this report, we discover a new functional domain in GPR56(N, the ligand binding domain. This domain contains four disease-associated mutations and two N-glycosylation sites. Our study reveals that although glycosylation is not required for ligand binding, each of the four disease-associated mutations completely abolish the ligand binding ability of GPR56. Our data indicates that these four single missense mutations cause BFPP mostly by abolishing the ability of GPR56 to bind to its ligand, collagen III, in addition to affecting GPR56 protein surface expression as previously shown.

  12. Mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J

    2013-06-25

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  13. Main: 1.00E+56 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.00E+56 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1;...YSPVLNTDDAYASQEVNGPDGKPIGPPMGNPWIYMYPEGLKDLLMIMKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E56.jpg ...

  14. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) will not be exceeded, the design pressure of such piping systems may be reduced... pressure from the accepted standards in 46 CFR 56.60-1, Table 56.60-1(b), using the pressure-temperature... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section...

  16. Optimizing calcium selective fluorimetric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Gniadek, Marianna; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2015-11-01

    Recently it was shown that optical nanosensors based on alternating polymers e.g. poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) were characterized by a linear dependence of emission intensity on logarithm of concentration over a few of orders of magnitude range. In this work we focus on the material used to prepare calcium selective nanosensors. It is shown that alternating polymer nanosensors offer competitive performance in the absence of calcium ionophore, due to interaction of the nanospheres building blocks with analyte ions. The emission increase corresponds to increase of calcium ions contents in the sample within the range from 10(-4) to 10(-1) M. Further improvement in sensitivity (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) M) and selectivity can be achieved by incorporating calcium ionophore in the nanospheres. The optimal results were obtained for core-shell nanospheres, where the core was prepared from poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) and the outer layer from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene). Thus obtained chemosensors were showing linear dependence of emission on logarithm of calcium ions concentration within the range from 10(-7) to 10(-1) M. PMID:26452839

  17. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  18. 7 CFR 56.49 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 56.49 Section 56.49... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Fees and Charges § 56.49 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other expenses incurred by the AMS in connection...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  20. 49 CFR 230.56 - Water glass lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water glass lamps. 230.56 Section 230.56... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.56 Water glass lamps. All water glasses must be supplied with a suitable lamp properly located to enable the engine crew to easily see the water in the glass....

  1. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  3. 7 CFR 56.9 - OMB control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control number. 56.9 Section 56.9 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.9 OMB control number. (a) Purpose. The collecting of... assigned OMB control number 0581-0128. (b) Display. Sections Where Information Collection Requirements...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56.19109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and repair work in vertical...

  5. 46 CFR 56.75-30 - Pipe joining details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe joining details. 56.75-30 Section 56.75-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-30 Pipe joining details. (a) Silver brazing. (1) Circumferential pipe joints...

  6. 46 CFR 56.75-25 - Detail requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detail requirements. 56.75-25 Section 56.75-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-25 Detail requirements. (a) Pipe may be fabricated by brazing when the...

  7. 46 CFR 56.20-20 - Valve bypasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Pipe for bypasses should be at least Schedule 80 seamless... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve bypasses. 56.20-20 Section 56.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for water tube boilers shall have fresh water connections only. Care shall be taken to prevent the... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section 56.14115 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines....

  10. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  11. 42 CFR 498.56 - Hearing on new issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing on new issues. 498.56 Section 498.56 Public... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.56 Hearing on new issues. (a) Basic rules. (1) Within the time limits specified in..., provide a hearing on new issues that impinge on the rights of the affected party. (2) Except for...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 56.19103 Section 56.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping facilities and...

  13. 41 CFR 105-56.005 - Employee response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee response. 105-56.005 Section 105-56.005 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.005 Employee response. (a) Voluntary...

  14. 7 CFR 948.56 - Nomination and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.56 Nomination and selection. (a) Each area committee shall... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination and selection. 948.56 Section 948.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank-vent piping. 56.50-85 Section 56.50-85 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-85 Tank-vent piping. (a) This section applies to vents for all independent, fixed, non-pressure tanks or containers or for spaces in...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  17. 30 CFR 56.6904 - Smoking and open flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.6904 Section 56.6904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Requirements § 56.6904 Smoking and open flames. Smoking and use of open flames shall not be permitted within...

  18. 32 CFR 643.56 - Taxation of lessee's interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Taxation of lessee's interest. 643.56 Section 643.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.56 Taxation of lessee's interest. The lessee's interest in...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 56.4601 Section 56.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  2. 40 CFR 205.56 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 205.56 Section 205.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.56 Testing by...

  3. 7 CFR 51.56 - Buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Buildings and structures. 51.56 Section 51.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.56 Buildings and structures. The packing plant buildings shall be properly constructed...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4603 - Closure of valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of valves. 56.4603 Section 56.4603... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4603 Closure of valves. To prevent accidental release of... or manifold system valves shall be closed when— (a) The cylinders are moved; (b) The torch and...

  5. 46 CFR 56.20-15 - Valves employing resilient material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) to determine the flow coefficient (Cv), or the fire testing must be conducted in accordance with API 607 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves employing resilient material. 56.20-15 Section...

  6. 30 CFR 56.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 56.16006 Section 56.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  7. 9 CFR 56.6 - Presentation of claims for indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims for indemnity. 56.6 Section 56.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.6 Presentation of claims for indemnity. Claims for the...

  8. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4230 - Self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-propelled equipment. 56.4230 Section 56... Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4230 Self-propelled equipment. (a)(1) Whenever a fire or its effects could impede escape from self-propelled equipment, a fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment....

  10. 42 CFR 56.112 - Publications and copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publications and copyright. 56.112 Section 56.112... HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.112 Publications and copyright. Except as may otherwise be provided under the terms and conditions of the award, the grantee may copyright without prior approval...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  12. 30 CFR 56.16004 - Containers for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containers for hazardous materials. 56.16004 Section 56.16004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16004 Containers for hazardous materials. Containers holding hazardous...

  13. 7 CFR 56.31 - Report of grading work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of grading work. 56.31 Section 56.31... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Reports § 56.31 Report of grading work. Reports of grading work...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed or replaced by hand in an...

  15. 7 CFR 56.5 - Accessibility of product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of product. 56.5 Section 56.5... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.5 Accessibility of product. Each product for which...

  16. 42 CFR 56.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 56.105 Section 56.105... HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made under this... appropriate health planning agencies have been met....

  17. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  18. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 1927.56 - Scheduling loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling loan closing. 1927.56 Section 1927.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.56...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41...

  1. 46 CFR 151.56-1 - Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited materials. 151.56-1 Section 151.56-1 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Prohibited Materials of Construction § 151.56-1 Prohibited materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section is referenced in table 151.05, the...

  2. 46 CFR 56.60-3 - Ferrous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous materials. 56.60-3 Section 56.60-3 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-3 Ferrous materials. (a) Ferrous pipe used for salt water service must be protected against corrosion by hotdip galvanizing or by the use of extra heavy schedule material....

  3. 46 CFR 56.60-25 - Nonmetallic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with IMO Resolution A.753(18) (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and the following... SAE J1942 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and may be installed only in vital and... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). Field attachable fittings must be installed following...

  4. 46 CFR 56.60-20 - Nonferrous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonferrous materials. 56.60-20 Section 56.60-20 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-20 Nonferrous materials. Nonferrous materials listed in this subpart may be used... types of heat sensitive materials must not be used to conduct flammable, combustible, or...

  5. 42 CFR 56.504 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.504 Section 56.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.504 Grant evaluation...

  6. 42 CFR 56.604 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.604 Section 56.604 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.604 Grant evaluation and award....

  7. 42 CFR 56.404 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.404 Section 56.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.404 Grant evaluation and award....

  8. 42 CFR 56.204 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.204 Section 56.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.204 Grant evaluation...

  9. 42 CFR 56.305 - Grant evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant evaluation and award. 56.305 Section 56.305 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.305 Grant evaluation and award....

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-90 - Sounding devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sounding devices. 56.50-90 Section 56.50-90 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-90 Sounding devices. (a) Each tank must... ignition. (3) The end of the pipe is fitted with a self-closing blanking device and a small-diameter,...

  11. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display...

  12. 22 CFR 41.56 - Athletes, artists and entertainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Athletes, artists and entertainers. 41.56 Section 41.56 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.56 Athletes, artists...

  13. 46 CFR 56.04-10 - Other systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other systems. 56.04-10 Section 56.04-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Piping Classification § 56.04-10 Other systems. Piping systems and appurtenances not requiring...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk delivery vehicles. 56.6802 Section 56.6802... § 56.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle until the vehicle has been washed down and all explosive material has been removed. Before welding...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19094 - Posting signal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting signal code. 56.19094 Section 56.19094 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Signaling § 56.19094 Posting signal code. A legible signal code shall be posted prominently in the...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19093 - Standard signal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard signal code. 56.19093 Section 56.19093 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Signaling § 56.19093 Standard signal code. A standard code of hoisting signals shall be adopted and used...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31 Peppers from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  19. 46 CFR 56.20-9 - Valve construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve construction. 56.20-9 Section 56.20-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Valves § 56.20-9 Valve construction. (a) Each valve must close with a right-hand...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be kept locked...

  1. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  2. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  3. Damnacanthal inhibits the NF-κB/RIP-2/caspase-1 signal pathway by inhibiting p56lck tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-10-01

    Damnacanthal is a major constituent of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and exhibits anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effects of damnacanthal on allergic diseases have not been determined. In this study, we investigated the effect of damnacanthal on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory responses. Damnacanthal significantly and dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release and intracellular calcium levels. In particular, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was significantly inhibited by the oral administration of damnacanthal. In addition, we report for the first time that p56lck tyrosine kinase was expressed in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated mast cells. Furthermore, damnacanthal inhibited the up-regulation of p56lck tyrosine kinase activity by PMACI and repressed PMACI-induced histidine decarboxylase expression and activity. Damnacanthal also inhibited PMACI-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α expressions by suppressing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and suppressed the activation of caspase-1 and the expression of receptor interacting protein-2. This study shows damnacanthal inhibits the NF-κB/receptor-interacting protein-2/caspase-1 signal pathway by inhibiting p56lck tyrosine kinase and suggests that damnacanthal has potential for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic disorders. PMID:25139491

  4. Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Calcium Transport Proteins by Stanniocalcin-1 in Caco2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jinmei; Guo, Rui; Wan, Chunyun; Wu, Liming; Yang, Shijin; Guo, Dingzong

    2016-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is a calcium and phosphate regulatory hormone. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying how STC1 affects Ca(2+) uptake remain unclear. Here, the expression levels of the calcium transport proteins involved in transcellular transport in Caco2 cells were examined following over-expression or inhibition of STC1. These proteins include the transient receptor potential vanilloid members (TRPV) 5 and 6, the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b (PMCA1b), the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Both gene and protein expressions of TRPV5 and TRPV6 were attenuated in response to over-expression of STC1, and the opposite trend was observed in cells treated with siRNASTC1. To further investigate the ability of STC1 to influence TRPV6 expression, cells were treated with 100 ng/mL of recombinant human STC1 (rhSTC1) for 4 h following pre-transfection with siRNASTC1 for 48 h. Intriguingly, the increase in the expression of TRPV6 resulting from siRNASTC1 was reversed by rhSTC1. No significant effect of STC1 on the expression of PMCA1b, NCX1 or VDR was observed in this study. In conclusion, the effect of STC1 on calcium transport in intestinal epithelia is due to, at least in part, its negative regulation of the epithelial channels TRPV5/6 that mediate calcium influx. PMID:27409607

  5. Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Calcium Transport Proteins by Stanniocalcin-1 in Caco2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmei Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1 is a calcium and phosphate regulatory hormone. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying how STC1 affects Ca2+ uptake remain unclear. Here, the expression levels of the calcium transport proteins involved in transcellular transport in Caco2 cells were examined following over-expression or inhibition of STC1. These proteins include the transient receptor potential vanilloid members (TRPV 5 and 6, the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b (PMCA1b, the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX1, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR. Both gene and protein expressions of TRPV5 and TRPV6 were attenuated in response to over-expression of STC1, and the opposite trend was observed in cells treated with siRNASTC1. To further investigate the ability of STC1 to influence TRPV6 expression, cells were treated with 100 ng/mL of recombinant human STC1 (rhSTC1 for 4 h following pre-transfection with siRNASTC1 for 48 h. Intriguingly, the increase in the expression of TRPV6 resulting from siRNASTC1 was reversed by rhSTC1. No significant effect of STC1 on the expression of PMCA1b, NCX1 or VDR was observed in this study. In conclusion, the effect of STC1 on calcium transport in intestinal epithelia is due to, at least in part, its negative regulation of the epithelial channels TRPV5/6 that mediate calcium influx.

  6. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  7. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  8. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  9. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can break easily, even without an obvious injury. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Eat foods that provide the right amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and protein. This kind of diet will give ...

  10. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  11. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  12. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tan; Yulin Deng; Hong Qing

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofi-brillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers in-volved in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium oxide. 184.1210 Section 184.1210 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8) is also known as lime, quick lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone,...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  15. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  16. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Willmann

    2008-01-01

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  17. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate....

  19. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve po

  2. 21 CFR 582.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.1210 Section 582.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. Treatment of renal calcium stone disease with the synthetic glycosaminoglycan pentosan polysulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellström, B; Backman, U; Danielson, B; Wikström, B

    1994-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are potent inhibitors of calcium oxalate growth and aggregation. The synthetic GAG pentosan polysulphate (PPS) was used in the treatment of patients with renal calcium stone disease. Altogether, 121 patients were included in an open trial over a 3-year-period. The average stone episode rate and the stone operation rate were no different during treatment and in the pretreatment period. Altogether 48% of the patients were entirely stone-free during follow-up, whereas 29/56 patients who continued to form stones reported smaller stones that were more easily passed. It is concluded that there may be a role for PPS in the treatment of recurrent renal calcium stone disease, but a controlled study may be needed. PMID:7516780

  8. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation...... offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium...... electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...

  9. 56Ni, Explosive Nucleosynthesis, and SNe Ia Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Truran, James W; Kim, Yeunjin

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the iron-group elements titanium to zinc in nature is understood to occur under explosive burning conditions in both Type Ia (thermonuclear) and Type II (core collapse) supernovae. In these dynamic environments, the most abundant product is found to be 56Ni ({\\tau} = 8.5 days) that decays through 56Co ({\\tau} = 111.5 days) to 56Fe. For the case of SNe Ia, the peak luminosities are proportional to the mass ejected in the form of 56Ni. It follows that the diversity of SNe Ia reflected in the range of peak luminosity provides a direct measure of the mass of 56Ni ejected. In this contribution, we identify and briefly discuss the factors that can influence the 56Ni mass and use both observations and theory to quantify their impact. We address specifically the variations in different stellar populations and possible distinctions with respect to SNe Ia progenitors.

  10. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  11. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  12. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  13. Long-term prolactin exposure differentially stimulated the transcellular and solvent drag-induced calcium transport in the duodenum of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudpor, Kukiat; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Saengamnart, Wasana; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2005-12-01

    Prolactin, having been shown to stimulate transcellular active and solvent drag-induced calcium transport in the duodenum of female rats, was postulated to improve duodenal calcium transport in estrogen-deficient rats. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to demonstrate the effects of long-term prolactin exposure produced by anterior pituitary (AP) transplantation on the duodenal calcium transport in young (9-week-old) and adult (22-week-old) ovariectomized rats. We found that ovariectomy did not alter the transcellular active duodenal calcium transport in young and adult rats fed normal calcium diet (1.0% w/w Ca) but decreased the solvent drag-induced duodenal calcium transport from 75.50 +/- 10.12 to 55.75 +/- 4.77 nmol.hr(-1).cm(-2) (P calcium transport in young and adult AP-grafted ovariectomized rats fed with normal calcium diet by more than 2-fold from 7.56 +/- 0.79 to 16.54 +/- 2.05 (P calcium transport in young rats was enhanced by prolactin from 95.51 +/- 10.64 to 163.20 +/- 18.03 nmol.hr(-1).cm(-2) (P calcium supplement has been widely used to improve calcium balance in estrogen-deficient animals, the effect of a high-calcium diet (2.0% w/w Ca) was also investigated. The results showed that stimulatory action of long-term prolactin on the transcellular active duodenal calcium transport in both young and adult rats was diminished after being fed a high-calcium diet. The same diet also abolished prolactin-enhanced solvent drag-induced duodenal calcium transport in young and further decreased that in adult AP-grafted ovariectomized rats. We concluded that the solvent drag-induced duodenal calcium transport in adult rats was decreased after ovariectomy. Long-term prolactin exposure stimulated the transcellular active duodenal calcium transport in both young and adult rats whereas enhancing the solvent drag-induced duodenal calcium transport only in young rats. Effects of prolactin were abolished by a high-calcium diet.

  14. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  15. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choksi Krishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg. Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.

  16. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, C; Kaiserling, E; Koitschev, A

    2003-08-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) of the temporomandibular joint is rare. The disorder is characterized by the presence of crystal deposits within the affected joint. The deposition of crystals in adjacent soft tissue may lead to the formation of pseudotumors. This form of the disease is called tophaceous pseudogout and typically affects the temporomandibular joint. It is difficult to differentiate the disease, particularly from malignant tumors, on the clinical and radiographic findings alone. The diagnosis is based on histological identification of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals. We present an unusually advanced case of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as treatment options are discussed on the basis of our own experience and a review of the literature. PMID:12942180

  17. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  18. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this potential role, microscopic and biochemical comparisons were conducted on the different tissues of Medicago truncatula wild-type and the calcium oxalate defective (cod) 5 which lacks the ability to accumulate prismatic crystals in the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. Calcium measurements showed that cod5 seeds had more calcium and cod5 pods contained less calcium than the corresponding wild-type tissues. Roots, stems, and leaves from cod5 and wild-type had similar calcium content. Although cod5 was devoid of prismatic crystals, cod5 pods were observed to form druse crystals of calcium oxalate not found in wild-type pods. Taken together these findings suggest a functional role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport to the seeds. Regulating calcium uptake at the roots also appeared to be another point of control in determining seed calcium content. Overall, regulating the long distance transport and partitioning of calcium to the seeds appears to be a complex process with multiple points of control. PMID:22325887

  19. Hyperphosphatemia-induced hyperparathyroidism in 5/6 nephrectomized rats: development of a new animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ying; WANG Mei

    2008-01-01

    Background We require a stable model to understand the molecular mechanism by which isolated hyperphosphatemia induces hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure.The present study established a rat model of hyperphosphatemia-induced secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure.Methods Twenty-nine rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) were divided into three groups and were fed for 10 weeks on a high phosphate diet (1.2% phosphate) starting from three different post-Nx time points.Parathyroid hormone mRNA in parathyroid gland was measured by real-time PCR and parathyroid cell hyperplasia was tested by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) assay.Results The 10 rats fed a high phosphate diet starting from the fourth week post-Nx had isolated hyperphosphatemia and excess synthesis/secretion of parathyroid hormone,and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands were induced (r=0.86-0.97,P<0.001),but the levels of serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3 did not change.Conclusion A rat model of hyperphosphatemia-induced secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure was established by 5/6 Nx and 10 weeks-high phosphate diet starting from the fourth week post-Nx.

  20. Human natural killer cell maturation defect supports in vivo CD56(bright to CD56(dim lineage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Inés Domaica

    Full Text Available Two populations of human natural killer (NK cells can be identified in peripheral blood. The majority are CD3(-CD56(dim cells while the minority exhibits a CD3(-CD56(bright phenotype. In vitro evidence indicates that CD56(bright cells are precursors of CD56(dim cells, but in vivo evidence is lacking. Here, we studied NK cells from a patient that suffered from a melanoma and opportunistic fungal infection during childhood. The patient exhibited a stable phenotype characterized by a reduction in the frequency of peripheral blood CD3(-CD56(dim NK cells, accompanied by an overt increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD3(-CD56(bright cells. These NK cells exhibited similar expression of perforin, CD57 and CD158, the major activating receptors CD16, NKp46, NKG2D, DNAM-1, and 2B4, as well as the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A, on both CD56(bright and CD56(dim NK cells as healthy controls. Also, both NK cell subpopulations produced IFN-γ upon stimulation with cytokines, and CD3(-CD56(dim NK cells degranulated in response to cytokines or K562 cells. However, upon stimulation with cytokines, a substantial fraction of CD56(dim cells failed to up-regulate CD57 and CD158, showed a reduction in the percentage of CD16(+ cells, and CD56(bright cells did not down-regulate CD62L, suggesting that CD56(dim cells could not acquire a terminally differentiated phenotype and that CD56(bright cells exhibit a maturation defect that might result in a potential altered migration pattern. These observations, support the notion that NK cells of this patient display a maturation/activation defect that precludes the generation of mature NK cells at a normal rate accompanied by CD56(dim NK cells that cannot completely acquire a terminally differentiated phenotype. Thus, our results provide evidence that support the concept that in vivo CD56(bright NK cells differentiate into CD56(dim NK cells, and contribute to further understand human NK cell ontogeny.

  1. Human Natural Killer Cell Maturation Defect Supports In Vivo CD56bright to CD56dim Lineage Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaica, Carolina Inés; Fuertes, Mercedes Beatriz; Uriarte, Ignacio; Girart, María Victoria; Sardañons, Jessica; Comas, Dorina Ileana; Di Giovanni, Daniela; Gaillard, María Isabel; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Zwirner, Norberto Walter

    2012-01-01

    Two populations of human natural killer (NK) cells can be identified in peripheral blood. The majority are CD3−CD56dim cells while the minority exhibits a CD3−CD56bright phenotype. In vitro evidence indicates that CD56bright cells are precursors of CD56dim cells, but in vivo evidence is lacking. Here, we studied NK cells from a patient that suffered from a melanoma and opportunistic fungal infection during childhood. The patient exhibited a stable phenotype characterized by a reduction in the frequency of peripheral blood CD3−CD56dim NK cells, accompanied by an overt increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD3−CD56bright cells. These NK cells exhibited similar expression of perforin, CD57 and CD158, the major activating receptors CD16, NKp46, NKG2D, DNAM-1, and 2B4, as well as the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A, on both CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells as healthy controls. Also, both NK cell subpopulations produced IFN-γ upon stimulation with cytokines, and CD3−CD56dim NK cells degranulated in response to cytokines or K562 cells. However, upon stimulation with cytokines, a substantial fraction of CD56dim cells failed to up-regulate CD57 and CD158, showed a reduction in the percentage of CD16+ cells, and CD56bright cells did not down-regulate CD62L, suggesting that CD56dim cells could not acquire a terminally differentiated phenotype and that CD56bright cells exhibit a maturation defect that might result in a potential altered migration pattern. These observations, support the notion that NK cells of this patient display a maturation/activation defect that precludes the generation of mature NK cells at a normal rate accompanied by CD56dim NK cells that cannot completely acquire a terminally differentiated phenotype. Thus, our results provide evidence that support the concept that in vivo CD56bright NK cells differentiate into CD56dim NK cells, and contribute to further understand human NK cell ontogeny. PMID:23240056

  2. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  3. A study on hormonal control of calcium homeostasis in egyptian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was conducted to study the possible role of circulating hormones that regulate the calcium flux, in addition to serum levels of the inorganic mineral contents, calcium and phosphorus, on the pathogenesis of post-menopausal osteoporosis in egyptian women. The investigation studied also the response of these variables to both of estradiol withdrawal and age progress. Five groups of 11 postmenopausal osteoporotic (mean age 73 -+ 2.3 years), 26 postmenopausal women (mean age 56.2 -+ 2.4 years), 17 premenopausal women (mean age 48.8 -+ 0.7 years), 26 premenopausal women (mean age 41.5 -+ o.7 years) and 11 young adult premenopausal women(mean age 27.3 -+ 0.9 years) were recruited for this study. The post-peri- and pre- groups were further classified into subgroups according to their chronological age. Serum was assayed for parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25-OHD3), calcitonin (CT) total calcium (Ca), and inorganic phosphorus (ph), concentrations of estradiol (E2) in all subjects were also assayed for further correlation. The obtained data showed that the levels of hormones were not significantly changed among the different groups and subgroups leading to normal calcium homeostasis. PTH and total calcium were significantly correlated with both estrodial levels and chronological age

  4. Calcium carbonate pump during Quaternary glacial cycles in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhifei; XU Jian; TIAN Jun; WANG Pinxian

    2003-01-01

    The preservation and dissolution of calcium carbonate (namely calcium carbonate pump) controls the pH of seawater in global oceans by its buffer effect, and in turn plays a significant role in global changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. The results from measured carbonate contents over the past 2 Ma at ODP Site 1143 in the South China Sea provide high-resolution records to explore the process of the calcium carbonate pump during Quaternary glacial cycles. The results indicate statistically that the highest carbonate accumulation rate leadsthe lightest δ18O by about 3.6 ka at transitions from glacials to interglacials, and that the strongest carbonate dissolution lags the lightest δ18O by about5.6 ka at transitions from interglacials to glacials. The calcium carbonate pump releases CO2 to the atmosphere at the glacial-interglacial transitions, but transports atmospheric CO2 to deep sea at the interglacial-glacial transitions. The adjustable function of the calcium carbonate pump for the deep-sea CO2-3 concentration directly controls parts of global changes in atmospheric CO2, and contributes the global carbon cycle system during the Quaternary.

  5. 30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 56.6306... § 56.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or initiating systems are... persons or vehicles. (g) Work shall not resume in the blast area until a post-blast examination...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309 Section... § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13010 - Reciprocating-type air compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocating-type air compressors. 56.13010... and Boilers § 56.13010 Reciprocating-type air compressors. (a) Reciprocating-type air compressors... than 25 percent. (b) However, this standard does not apply to reciprocating-type air compressors...

  8. 31 CFR 315.56 - General instructions and liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General instructions and liability. 315.56 Section 315.56 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... and, where one is available, a corporate stamp or issuing or paying agent's stamp. (b) Liability....

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (1) Fuel supply piping to the engines shall be of seamless drawn annealed copper pipe or tubing... or that required by 46 CFR 56.07-10(e) and 104.1.2 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (3) Tubing fittings shall be of nonferrous drawn or forged metal and of the flared...

  10. 46 CFR 56.25-10 - Flange facings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) When bolting class 150 standard steel flanges to flat face... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pipe Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting § 56.25-10 Flange facings. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this section and other applicable provisions of...

  12. 30 CFR 56.3130 - Wall, bank, and slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wall, bank, and slope stability. 56.3130... Mining Methods § 56.3130 Wall, bank, and slope stability. Mining methods shall be used that will maintain wall, bank, and slope stability in places where persons work or travel in performing their...

  13. 28 CFR 79.56 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.56... EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.56 Proof of primary renal cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following...

  14. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  15. 27 CFR 21.56 - Formula No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 29. 21.56... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.56 Formula No. 29. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-39 - Fragrant pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fragrant pears from China. 319.56-39 Section 319.56-39... pears from China. Fragrant pears may be imported into the United States from China only under the... China. (2) All propagative material introduced into a registered production site must be certified...

  17. 46 CFR 56.85-15 - Postheat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carbon molybdenum steel used in gas turbines. (c) All complicated connections including manifolds shall... components where dissimilar materials are involved may dictate alternative procedures. For example, it may be... of welded joints in accordance with 46 CFR 56.85-10, Table 56.85-10 Note (12) and 46 CFR...

  18. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  19. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14217 - Securing parked railcars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securing parked railcars. 56.14217 Section 56.14217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  2. 40 CFR 406.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. .... 406.56 Section 406.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  3. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  5. 36 CFR 902.56 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... privacy. 902.56 Section 902.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... Protection of personal privacy. (a) Any of the following personnel, medical, or similar records is within the... invasion of his personal privacy: (1) Personnel and background records personal to any officer or...

  6. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.56... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal exhaustion. 400.56 Section...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14213 - Ventilation and shielding for welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation and shielding for welding. 56.14213... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14213 Ventilation and shielding for welding. (a) Welding operations shall be shielded when performed at locations where arc flash could be hazardous...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  9. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be operated at high...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 56.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 56.6300 Section... § 56.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and related activities. (b) Trainees...

  14. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2.A.) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 775 °F (412 °C), the carbide phase of plain...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  18. 30 CFR 56.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 56.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  19. 30 CFR 56.12067 - Installation of transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of transformers. 56.12067 Section... § 56.12067 Installation of transformers. Transformers shall be totally enclosed, or shall be placed at least 8 feet above the ground, or installed in a transformer house, or surrounded by a substantial...

  20. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  1. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  2. Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S

    1986-04-01

    The overall mortality and the incidence of cancer have been studied among male employees at a plant producing calcium carbide. The cohort was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least 18 months in the period 1953 to 1970 and was classified according to 10 occupational categories. The 790 men have been observed from 1953 to 1983 and the incidence of cancer in the cohort has been compared with national incidence rates. A significant excess of colonic cancer (standardised incidence ratio, SIR = 2.09) and of prostatic cancer (SIR = 1.78) was found, and also a slight excess of lung cancer among furnace and maintenance workers (SIR = 1.56). The possible exposure of the workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and cadmium is discussed.

  3. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  4. Apatite precipitation on a novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement containing fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Chevallier, Jacques; Salehi, Hamideh; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Isidor, Flemming; Løvschall, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Calcium silicate cements are widely used in endodontics. Novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement with fluoride (Protooth) has been developed for potential applications in teeth crowns including cavity lining and cementation. Objective: To evaluate the surface apatite-forming ability of Protooth compositions as a function of fluoride content and immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Material and methods: Three cement compositions were tested: Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 10% radiocontrast), ultrafast Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 20% radiocontrast), and high fluoride Protooth (15% fluoride and 25% radiocontrast). Powders were cap-mixed with liquid, filled to the molds and immersed in PBS. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the precipitations morphology and composition after 1, 7, 28, and 56 days. Apatite/belite Raman peak height indicated the apatite thickness. Results: Spherical calcium phosphate precipitations with acicular crystallites were formed after 1-day immersion in PBS and Raman spectra disclosed the phosphate band at 965 cm−1, supporting the apatite formation over Protooth compositions. The apatite deposition continued and more voluminous precipitations were observed after 56 days over the surface of all cements. Raman bands suggested the formation of β-type carbonated apatite over Protooth compositions. High fluoride Protooth showed the most compact deposition with significantly higher apatite/belite ratio compared to Protooth and ultrafast Protooth after 28 and 56 days. Conclusions: Calcium phosphate precipitations (apatite) were formed over Protooth compositions after immersion in PBS with increasing apatite formation as a function of time. High fluoride Protooth exhibited thicker apatite deposition. PMID:27335901

  5. Comparative Detection of Calcium Fluctuations in Single Female Sex Cells of Tobacco to Distinguish Calcium Signals Triggered by in vitro Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Bo Peng; Meng-Xiang Sun; Hong-Yuan Yang

    2009-01-01

    Double fertilization is a key process of sexual reproduction in higher plants. The role of calcium In the activation of female sex cells through fertilization has recently received a great deal of attention. The establishment of a Ca-imaging technique for living, single, female sex cells is a difficult but necessary prerequisite for evaluating the role of Ca in the transduction of external stimuli, including the fusion with the sperm cell, to internal cellular processes. The present study describes the use of Fluo-3 for reporting the Ca signal in isolated, single, female sex cells, egg cells and central cells, of tobacco plants. A suitable loading protocol was optimized by loading the cells at pH 5.6 with 2 μM Fluo-3 for 30 min at 30℃. Under theseconditions, several key factors related to in vitro fertilization were also investigated in order to test their possible effects onthe [Ca] of the female sex cells. The results indicated that the bovine serum albumin-fusion system was superior to the polyethlene glycol.fusion system for detecting calcium fluctuations in female sex cells during fertilization. The central cell was fertilized with the sperm cell in bovine serum albumin; however, no evident calcium dynamic was detected, implying that a transient calcium rise might be a specific signal for egg cell fertilization.

  6. Binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribello, Gareth A; Liew, CheeChin; Parrinello, Michele

    2009-05-21

    Polyacrylate molecules can be used to slow the growth of calcium carbonate. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the molecules impede the growth rate. A recent computational study (Bulo et al. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3437) used metadynamics to investigate the binding of calcium to polyacrylate chains and has thrown some light on the coiling and precipitation of these polymers. We extend these simulations to examine the binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylate chains. We show that calcium complexed with both carbonate and polyacrylate is a very stable species. The free energies of calcium-carbonate-polyacrylate complexes, with different polymer configurations, are calculated, and differences in the free energy of the binding of carbonate are shown to be due to differences in the amount of steric hindrance about the calcium, which prevents the approach of the carbonate ion. PMID:19400592

  7. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  8. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Manali R Srinivasan; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium pho...

  9. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  10. [Calcium carbide of different crystal formation synthesized by calcium carbide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-yuan; Kang, Ming; Jiang, Cai-rong; Tu, Ming-jing

    2006-04-01

    To recycle calcium carbide residue effectively, calcium carbide of different crystal form, including global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide was synthesized. Both the influence of pretreatment in the purity of calcium carbide, and the influence of temperatures of carbonization reaction, release velocity of carbon dioxide in the apparition of calcium carbide of different crystal form were studied with DTA-TG and SEM. The result shows that calcium carbide residue can take place chemistry reaction with ammonia chlorinate straight. Under the condition that pH was above 7, the purity of calcium carbide was above 97%, and the whiteness was above 98. Once provided the different temperatures of carbonization reaction and the proper release velocity of carbon dioxide, global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide were obtained.

  11. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  12. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  13. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  14. Altered calcium signaling following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Weber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI.

  15. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  16. Peroxisome is a reservoir of intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhury, Bikramjit; Gupta, Shreedhara; Banerjee, Shouvik; Datta, Salil C

    2006-07-01

    We have examined fura 2-loaded purified peroxisomes under confocal microscope to prove that this mammalian organelle is a store of intracellular calcium pool. Presence of calcium channel and vanadate sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase in the purified peroxisomal membrane has been demonstrated. We have further observed that machineries to maintain calcium pool in this mammalian organelle are impaired during infection caused by Leishmania donovani. Results reveal that peroxisomes have a merit to play a significant role in the metabolism of intracellular calcium. PMID:16713100

  17. Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium ion (Ca2+ is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research.

  18. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fort...

  19. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    OpenAIRE

    A Rathod; Bonny, O; Guessous, I; Suter, P M; Conen, D; Erne, P; Binet, I; Gabutti, L; Gallino, A; Muggli, F; Hayoz, D; Pechere-Bertschi, A; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; Bochud, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root-transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dep...

  20. CD4~+CD56~+ hematodermic neoplasm in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; LI Qiang; ZHOU Chen-yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ CD4~+CD56~+ hematodermic neoplasm (HN) is a rare, highly aggressive systemic neoplasm, which had been described under various names including lymphoblastic lymphoma of natural killer (NK) phenotype, blastic NK cell lymphoma (BNK), leukemic lymphoma of immature NK lineage and CD4~+CD56~+ HN. This malignancy is mainly involved in elderly people and usually a rapidly fatal disease, since consistently effective treatments have not yet been developed. It is relatively rare in children.~(1-6) Herein we report a boy with CD4~+CD56~+ HN.

  1. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for lunch; and beans, salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and low-fat mozzarella or soy cheese. Try whole-grain crackers with low-fat cheese ...

  2. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. ... that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running). Osteoporosis is a disease of the ...

  3. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  4. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  5. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-28

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  6. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza B Thomsen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A TTX-sensitive fast Na+ spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers. Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none tetrodotoxin (TTX -sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than one second affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could be modulated locally, suggesting that cerebellar glomeruli may be dynamically sub-compartmentalized due to ongoing inhibition mediated by Golgi cells. This could provide a fine-grained control of mossy fibre-granule cell information transfer and synaptic plasticity within a mossy fibre rosette.

  7. 7 CFR 1786.56 - Approval of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS Special Discounted Prepayments on RUS Direct/Insured Loans § 1786.56 Approval of applications....

  8. Direct modulation of 56 Gbps duobinary-4-PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, Bangning;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the direct modulation of externally modulated laser and transmission through single mode fiber of a 56 Gbps duobinary-4-pulse amplitude modulation signal through 10 GHz class optics....

  9. The Role of an Impurity in Ceftriaxone Sodium Preparation for Injection in Determining Compatibility with Calcium-Containing Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Mio; Yoshida, Miyako; Nakai, Yuka; Uchida, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection is known to form insoluble microparticles with calcium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of an impurity in the ceftriaxone sodium preparation on this incompatibility. Firstly, using HPLC, two impurities were identified in the ceftriaxone sodium solution. The major impurity (impurity 1) was identified as tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-thioxo-1,2,4-triazine-5,6-dione by LC/MS. Secondly, the role played by this impurity in the incompatibility with calcium was examined. Using seven different ceftriaxone preparations for injection, the effect of adding impurity 1 to mixed solutions of ceftriaxone sodium and calcium chloride on the appearance of insoluble microparticles, was examined using a light obscuration particle counter. Although incompatibility was not completely suppressed by the addition of impurity 1, the number of insoluble microparticles formed with calcium chloride solution was decreased in proportion to the concentration of impurity 1, and the concentration of calcium ion decreased as the concentration of added impurity 1 increased. These results show that impurity 1 plays a concentration-dependent role in incompatibility between ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection and calcium-containing solutions. PMID:26936047

  10. 56-C式短型突击步枪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    在中国的56式冲锋枪家族中有一支比较特别的步枪,它是“中国制造的AK47”中变化最大的一支,也是融人我国自己的设计思想最多、根据中国人的体型量身打造的步枪,这就是中国的QBZ56C式短自动步枪。56C短步枪是我军装备的第一支短步枪,至今仍在部队中使用。该枪1988年开始进行改进研制。1991年批准设计定型,通常简称为56式短步枪,或56式短冲,最早的时候也被称为56—3式步枪。

  11. An Intracellular Calcium Oscillations Model Including Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Min; LIU Zeng-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger. Mitochondria contributes significantly to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.The experiment of Kaftan et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 275(2000) 25465] demonstrated that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can reduce the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration oscillations of gonadotropes. By considering the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling we develop a three-variable model of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations based on the models of Atri et al. [Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1727] and Falcke et al. [Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 37]. The model reproduces the fact that mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling increases the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which accords with Kaftan's results. Moreover the model predicts that when the mitochondria overload with Ca2+, the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations vanish, which may trigger apoptosis.

  12. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age Publication ... Osteoporosis Program For Your Information The Role of Calcium Calcium is needed for our heart, muscles, and ...

  13. Bone Up on the Need for Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Most grade-schoolers drink milk at each meal, but teens, especially girls, often switch to carbonated soda at mealtime just as they should be building up their bone bank of calcium. Why calcium is important and how to get enough of it are covered. (MT)

  14. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed

  15. Stochastic Kinetics of Intracellular Calcium Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌胜; 曾仁端

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic model of intracellular calcium oscillations is put forward by taking into account the random opening-closing of Ca2+ channels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The numerical results of the stochastic model show simple and complex calcium oscillations, which accord with the experiment results.

  16. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithel

  17. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  18. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail: sten.ruediger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-10

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  19. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  20. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  2. 早产儿56例的护理%Nursing Care of 56 Cases of Preterm Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析早产儿的护理方法。方法选取2013年期间在我院收治的早产儿56例,对其进行优质的临床护理。结果56例早产儿均获康复,并顺利出院。结论相对于正常胎儿,早产儿身体薄弱,给予其优质护理后,可促进早产儿的康复。%Objective To analysis the nursing methods of premature infants. MethodsSelected during 2013 in our hospital 56 cases of premature infants, of the.Results 56 cases of were and discharged smoothly. ConclusionCompared with premature body weak, given the high quality of nursing care, can promote the rehabilition of prematurity.

  3. Calcium-sensing receptor: a key target for extracellular calcium signaling in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though both clinicians and scientists have long recognized the influence of extracellular calcium on the function of muscle and nervous tissue, recent insights reveal that the mechanisms allowing changes in extracellular calcium to alter cellular excitability have been incompletely understood. For many years the effects of calcium on neuronal signaling were explained only in terms of calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels and biophysical charge screening. More recently however, it has been recognized that the calcium-sensing receptor is prevalent in the nervous system and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal activity via multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the multiplicity of mechanisms by which changes in extracellular calcium alter neuronal signaling and propose that multiple mechanisms are required to describe the full range of experimental observations.

  4. Optogenetic Control of Calcium Oscillation Waveform Defines NFAT as an Integrator of Calcium Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannanta-Anan, Pimkhuan; Chow, Brian Y

    2016-04-27

    It is known that the calcium-dependent transcription factor NFAT initiates transcription in response to pulsatile loads of calcium signal. However, the relative contributions of calcium oscillation frequency, amplitude, and duty cycle to transcriptional activity remain unclear. Here, we engineer HeLa cells to permit optogenetic control of intracellular calcium concentration using programmable LED arrays. This approach allows us to generate calcium oscillations of constant peak amplitude, in which frequency is varied while holding duty cycle constant, or vice versa. Using this setup and mathematical modeling, we show that NFAT transcriptional activity depends more on duty cycle, defined as the proportion of the integrated calcium concentration over the oscillation period, than on frequency alone. This demonstrates that NFAT acts primarily as a signal integrator of cumulative load rather than a frequency-selective decoder. This approach resolves a fundamental question in calcium encoding and demonstrates the value of optogenetics for isolating individual dynamical components of larger signaling behaviors. PMID:27135540

  5. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  6. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  7. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  8. Expert review on coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Budoff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Budoff, Khawar M GulDivision of Cardiology, Saint John’s Cardiovascular Research Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: While there is no doubt that high risk patients (those with >20% ten year risk of future cardiovascular event need more aggressive preventive therapy, a majority of cardiovascular events occur in individuals at intermediate risk (10%–20% ten year risk. Accurate risk assessment may be helpful in decreasing cardiovascular events through more appropriate targeting of preventive measures. It has been suggested that traditional risk assessment may be refined with the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC or other methods of subclinical atherosclerosis measurement. Coronary calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis that can be quantified with the use of cardiac CT and it is proportional to the extent and severity of atherosclerotic disease. The published studies demonstrate a high sensitivity of CAC for the presence of coronary artery disease but a lower specificity for obstructive CAD depending on the magnitude of the CAC. Several large clinical trials found clear, incremental predictive value of CAC over the Framingham risk score when used in asymptomatic patients. Based on multiple observational studies, patients with increased plaque burdens (increased CAC are approximately ten times more likely to suffer a cardiac event over the next 3–5 years. Coronary calcium scores have outperformed conventional risk factors, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP and carotid intima media thickness (IMT as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The relevant prognostic information obtained may be useful to initiate or intensify appropriate treatment strategies to slow the progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Current data suggests intermediate risk patients may benefit most from further risk stratification with cardiac CT, as CAC testing is

  9. The influence of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Triswantoro; Endarko

    2016-04-01

    The influences of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation in water have been successfully investigated. The study used three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T whilst the electron discharge was generated from television flyback transformer type BW00607 and stainless steel SUS 304 as an electrode. The water sample with an initial condition of 230 mg/L placed in the reactor with flow rate 375 mL/minutes, result showed that the electron discharge can be reduced contain of calcium carbonate the water sample around 17.39% within 2 hours. Meanwhile for the same long period of treatment and flow rate, around 56.69% from initial condition of 520 mg/L of calcium carbonate in the water sample can be achieved by three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T. When the combination of three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T and the electron discharge used for treatment, the result showed that the combination of electron discharge and magnetic field methods can be used to precipitate calcium carbonate in the water sample 300 mg/L around 76.66% for 2 hours of treatment. The study then investigated the influence of the polar position of the magnetic field on calcium carbonate precipitation. Two positions of magnetic field were tested namely the system with alternated polar magnetics and the system without inversion of the polar magnetics. The influence of the polar position showed that the percentage reduction in levels of calcium carbonate in the water sample (360 mg/L) is significant different. Result showed that the system without inversion of the polar magnetics is generally lower than the system with alternated polar magnetics, with reduction level at 30.55 and 57.69%, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of CD56dim and CD56bright natural killer cells in peripheral blood of women with IVF failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Mardanian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is an increasing medical and social problem. In vitro fertilization (IVF has become a common and accessible treatment for a wide variety of indications that have variable outcomes. Natural killer (NK cells have been identified as relevant immunological factors involved in reproductive success or failure. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of peripheral blood CD56+ (CD56dim and CD56bright cells and the level of NK cell in patients with IVF failure with those of successful IVF control women. Materials and Methods: We assessed the level of CD56dim CD16+ and CD56bright CD16- cells in 50 women under IVF treatment and compared between successful IVF and IVF failure with the flowcytometry technique. Results: Of studied women, 68% did not response to IVF therapy and 32% had successful IVF, the level of CD56dim CD16+ cells in women with IVF failure was significantly higher than successful IVF (p<0.0001 but the level of CD56bright CD16- cells was not significantly different between women with IVF failure and successful IVF (p=0.28. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrated that the level of NK cells as a risk factor is associated with pregnancy loss in women with IVF failure. However, number of sample in this study is low and further studies with more sample size are needed to be done. We suggest considering treatment option for women undergoing repeated IVF failure with increased percentage of CD56dim cells and the level of peripheral blood NK cell.

  11. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  12. Calcium-imaging with Fura-2 in isolated cerebral microvessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Jörg; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier......Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier...

  13. Calcium: a code coupling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the calculation performances of computers allow the precise and global simulation of complex industrial processes such as the functioning of a nuclear reactor core. One can question the need for the elaboration of new global numerical models in order to make use of the overall capability of computers. Another less time consuming solution consist in the coupling of existing well validated numerical models in order to make them working together. This paper presents the basic principles of the coupling of numerical codes, the tools required, the Calcium tool for codes coupling and an example of application of this tool in the coupling of the THYC (EdF), COCCINELLE (EdF) and CATHARE (CEA-EdF-Framatome) codes for the modeling of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behaviour of a reactor core during accidental situation. (J.S.)

  14. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography is a powerful fractionation technique that has become indispensable for protein purification and characterization. However, it is difficult to retrieve bound proteins without using harsh or denaturing elution conditions, and the purification of scarce antigens...... to homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m...... chromatography was superior to the traditional immunoaffinity chromatographies and resulted in a nine-fold improvement of the purification factor. The technique is applicable for the purification of proteins in complex mixtures by single-step fractionation without the denaturation of eluted antigens...

  15. Fast kinetics of calcium signaling and sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shen; Reddish, Florence; Zhuo, You; Yang, Jenny J

    2015-08-01

    Fast calcium signaling is regulated by numerous calcium channels exhibiting high spatiotemporal profiles which are currently measured by fluorescent calcium sensors. There is still a strong need to improve the kinetics of genetically encoded calcium indicators (sensors) to capture calcium dynamics in the millisecond time frame. In this review, we summarize several major fast calcium signaling pathways and discuss the recent developments and application of genetically encoded calcium indicators to detect these pathways. A new class of genetically encoded calcium indicators designed with site-directed mutagenesis on the surface of beta-barrel fluorescent proteins to form a pentagonal bipyramidal-like calcium binding domain dramatically accelerates calcium binding kinetics. Furthermore, novel genetically encoded calcium indicators with significantly increased fluorescent lifetime change are advantageous in deep-field imaging with high light-scattering and notable morphology change.

  16. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  17. Atomic resolution (0.97 Å) structure of the triple mutant (K53,56,121M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a triple mutant (K53,56,121M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 has been solved at atomic resolution (0.97 Å) and the refined model features the presence of a second calcium ion and a chloride ion. The enzyme phospholipase A2 catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl chain of phospholipids, forming fatty acids and lysophospholipids. The crystal structure of a triple mutant (K53,56,121M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 in which the lysine residues at positions 53, 56 and 121 are replaced recombinantly by methionines has been determined at atomic resolution (0.97 Å). The crystal is monoclinic (space group P2), with unit-cell parameters a = 36.934, b = 23.863, c = 65.931 Å, β = 101.47°. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and has been refined to a final R factor of 10.6% (Rfree = 13.4%) using 63 926 unique reflections. The final protein model consists of 123 amino-acid residues, two calcium ions, one chloride ion, 243 water molecules and six 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol molecules. The surface-loop residues 60–70 are ordered and have clear electron density

  18. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  19. Experimental Conditions: SE56_S01_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f plant secondary metabolites SE56_S01 Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) SE56_S01_M01 2 μl SE56_MS01 Metabolic pr...ofiling analysis using LC-ESI-MS SE56_DS01 Profiling by METALIGN and MS2T-based peak annotation Default SE56_SS01 Metabolic profiling ...

  20. Ultraviolet variability of the mCP star 56 Arietis

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, N A

    2010-01-01

    The spectrophotometric variability of the mCP star 56 Ari in the far-UV spectral region from 1150 \\AA\\ to 1980 \\AA\\ is investigated. This study is based on the archival {\\it IUE} data obtained at different phases of the rotational cycle. The brightness of 56 Ari is not constant in the investigated wavelengths over the whole rotational period. The monochromatic light curves continuously change their shape with wavelength. The comparison of energy distributions at three phases show that the first minimum of light curves at phase 0.25 is replaced by the maximum for $\\lambda>$1608\\AA, but the second minimum of light curves at phase 0.65 absent in the spectral region between $\\lambda$1938\\AA\\ and $\\lambda$1980\\AA. The variable broad features in the far-UV connected with a non-uniform distribution of silicon over the surface of 56 Ari influence substantially the light variations in the UV.

  1. New Fe-56 Evaluation for the CIELO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, G P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Herman, Micheal W [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Brown, D A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna / Austria and Universidad de Sevilla, Spain; Trkov, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Leal, Luiz C [ORNL; Plompen, A. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel, Belgium; Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Qian, Jing [China Nuclear Data Center; Ge, Zhigang [China Nuclear Data Center; Liu, Tingjin [China Nuclear Data Center; Lu, Hnalin [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE); Ruan, Xichao [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    2016-01-01

    The Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation (CIELO) aims to provide revised and updated evaluations for Pu-239, U-238,U-235, Fe-56, O-16, and H-1 through international collaboration. This work, which is part of the CIELO project, presents the initial results for the evaluation of the Fe-56 isotope, with neutron-incident energy ranging from 0 to 20 MeV. The Fe-56(n,p) cross sections were fitted to reproduce the ones from IRDFF dosimetry file. Our preliminary file provides good cross-section agreements for the main angle-integrated reactions, as well as a reasonable overall agreement for angular distributions and double-differential spectra, when compared to previous evaluations.

  2. Calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-ping CHENG; Sheng WEI; Li-ping WEI; Alexei VERKHRATSKY

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ions are the most ubiquitous and pluripotent cellular signaling molecules that control a wide variety of cellular processes.The calcium signaling system is represented by a relatively limited number of highly conserved transporters and channels,which execute Ca2+ movements across biological membranes and by many thousands of Ca2+-sensitive effectors.Molecular cascades,responsible for the generation of calcium signals,are tightly controlled by Ca2+ ions themselves and by genetic factors,which tune the expression of different Ca2+-handling molecules according to adaptational requirements.Ca2+ ions determine normal physiological reactions and the development of many pathological processes.

  3. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Christina B; Pase, Luke B; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  4. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  5. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah M.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation. PMID:26731108

  6. Dysbalance of astrocyte calcium under hyperammonemic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haack

    Full Text Available Increased brain ammonium (NH4(+/NH3 plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4(+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4(+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4(+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (∼ 90% experienced a persistent calcium increase by ∼ 50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1-2 mM NH4(+/NH3, developed within 10-20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4(+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4(+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC, the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX, AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4(+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4(+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study

  7. Thermochemistry of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide in fluoride slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-08-01

    Calcium oxide activity in binary CaF2-CaO and ternary CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 and CaF2-CaO-SiO2 slags has been determined by CO2-slag equilibrium experiments at 1400 °C. The carbonate ca-pacity of these slags has also been computed and compared with sulfide capacity data available in the literature. The similarity in trends suggests the possibility of characterizing carbonate capacity as an alternative basicity index for fluoride-base slags. Slag-D2O equilibrium experi-ments are performed at 1400°C with different fluoride-base slags to determine water solubility at two different partial pressures of D2O, employing a new slag sampling technique. A novel isotope tracer detection technique is employed to analyze water in the slags. The water solubility data found show higher values than the previous literature data by an order of magnitude but show a linear relationship with the square root of water vapor partial pressure. The activity of hydroxide computed from the data is shown to be helpful in estimating water solubility in in-dustrial electroslag remelting (ESR) slags.

  8. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy; Jae Jun Sim; Yeong-Su Jang; Siddhartha Kumar Mishra; Keun-Yeong Jeong; Poonam Mander; Oh Byung Chul; Won-Sik Shim; Seung Hyun Oh; Ky-Youb Nam; Hwan Mook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstrea...

  9. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  10. Protein tyrosine kinases p53/56lyn and p72syk in MHC class I-mediated signal transduction in B lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Skov, S;

    1998-01-01

    Crosslinking of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on the surface of human B lymphoma cells was shown to induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation and mobilization of intracellular free calcium. Immunoprecipitations indicated that the protein tyrosine kinases p53/56lyn and p72......syk are among the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. The kinetics of phosphorylation of these kinases after MHC-I crosslinking differ from the kinetics observed after crosslinking of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Additional experiments were performed with chicken lyn- and syk-negative DT40 B cells...... and the results indicate that these two kinases have different substrate specificity and regulate intracellular free calcium differently in response to MHC-I crosslinking. In addition MHC-I crosslinking of a sIgM-negative DT40 chicken B cell variant results in less activity of tyrosine kinases and less...

  11. In vivo Calcium Imaging of Evoked Calcium Waves in the Embryonic Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Pellegrino, Christophe; Jokinen, Ville; Andriichuk, Liliia; Khirug, Stanislav; Khiroug, Leonard; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this ...

  12. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tavares da Silva; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Antônio José Natali

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40) were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day). The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages a...

  13. Technology obtaining of nitrogen fertilizer from the calcium is containing waste of production of calcium saltpetre

    OpenAIRE

    Власян, Світлана Варужанівна; Шестозуб, Анатолій Борисович; Волошин, Микола Дмитрович

    2013-01-01

    The new technology of obtaining nitrogen fertilizer from calcium-containing sludge of calcium saltpeter production is considered in the paper. The main objective of the research is the development of processing technology of sludge of calcium saltpeter production into alkaline nitrogen fertilizer, analysis of the composition of initial material and finished product, testing of fertilizer by means of vegeta­tive studies and determination of expenditure of drying agent that is exhaust gases of ...

  14. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium carbonate has about 40 percent elemental calcium, meaning that 500 mg of calcium carbonate actually contains ... in this trial also contained vitamin D (400 international units [ IU ]). During ... and calcium in relation to prostate cancer risk among more than 142, ...

  15. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  16. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function.

  17. Discrete stochastic modeling of calcium channel dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, M E; Levine, H; Tsimring, L S; Baer, Markus; Falcke, Martin; Levine, Herbert; Tsimring, Lev S.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a simple discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. Specifically, the calcium concentration distribution is assumed to give rise to a set of probabilities for the opening/closing of channels which release calcium thereby changing those probabilities. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the mean-field limit of large number of channels per site N, and numerically for small N. As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a non-propagating region of activity to a propagating one changes in nature from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state, in a parameter range where the limiting deterministic model exhibits only single pulse propagation.

  18. Discrete Stochastic Modeling of Calcium Channel Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. A set of probabilities for the opening/closing of calcium channels is assumed to depend on the calcium concentration. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the limit of a large number of channels per site N , and numerically for small N . As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a nonpropagating region of activity to a propagating one changes from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... four moles of water per mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  20. Calcium signaling in neocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlén, Per; Fritz, Nicolas; Smedler, Erik; Malmersjö, Seth; Kanatani, Shigeaki

    2015-04-01

    The calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) is an essential second messenger that plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis. In the ventricular zone (VZ) of the neocortex, neural stem cells linger to produce progenitor cells and subsequently neurons and glial cells, which together build up the entire adult brain. The radial glial cells, with their characteristic radial fibers that stretch from the inner ventricular wall to the outer cortex, are known to be the neural stem cells of the neocortex. Migrating neurons use these radial fibers to climb from the proliferative VZ in the inner part of the brain to the outer layers of the cortex, where differentiation processes continue. To establish the complex structures that constitute the adult cerebral cortex, proliferation, migration, and differentiation must be tightly controlled by various signaling events, including cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling. During development, cells regularly exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) activity that stimulates downstream effectors, which can elicit these fundamental cell processes. Spontaneous Ca(2+) activity during early neocortical development depends heavily on gap junctions and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels, whereas later in development neurotransmitters and synapses exert an influence. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on Ca(2+) signaling and its impact on cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the neocortex. We point out important historical studies and review recent progress in determining the role of Ca(2+) signaling in neocortical development.

  1. Effect of albumin and free calcium concentrations on calcium binding in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; DeGuzman, A; Swanson, J W

    1981-01-01

    In vivo equilibrium dialysis studies were performed to define further the characteristics of calcium binding to bovine albumin. The concentration range for albumin (1 to 9 g/dl) as well as ultrafilterable calcium (0.5 to 2.5 mM) studied encompassed those that might be ordinarily encountered in most clinical situations. Major differences in the regressions of total calcium on ultrafilterable calcium occurred at albumin concentrations of 1, 2, and 9 g/dl but only small differences at albumin co...

  2. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Isela Rojas-Molina; Elsa Gutiérrez-Cortez; Moustapha Bah; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Eric Rivera-Muñoz; Alicia del Real; Ma. de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O), weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O)2.375),...

  3. Relating a calcium indicator signal to the unperturbed calcium concentration time-course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abarbanel Henry DI

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical indicators of cytosolic calcium levels have become important experimental tools in systems and cellular neuroscience. Indicators are known to interfere with intracellular calcium levels by acting as additional buffers, and this may strongly alter the time-course of various dynamical variables to be measured. Results By investigating the underlying reaction kinetics, we show that in some ranges of kinetic parameters one can explicitly link the time dependent indicator signal to the time-course of the calcium influx, and thus, to the unperturbed calcium level had there been no indicator in the cell.

  4. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms.

  5. Effect of Calcium on the Vanadium Extraction from High Calcium Type Stone Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Shenxu; LIANG Liang; ZHANG Yimin; HAN Shihua; HU Yangjia

    2015-01-01

    The high calcium type stone coal from Hubei province was leached by water and dilute acid separately after being roasted with different dosage of NaCl. The water leaching rate of vanadium (WLRV) was low and only 26.8%of vanadium can be leached by water when 4%NaCl was added, but the acid leaching rate of vanadium (ALRV) was relatively high. Calcium in the high calcium type stone coal is greatly superfluous relative to vanadium, hence, the calcium reacts with vanadium to form Ca(VO3)2, Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2 orderly during the stone coal roasting process and high temperature is beneficial to the reactions between calcium and vanadium, which was validated by simulated reactions between pure calcium carbonate and vanadium pentoxide. These calcium vanadates are all water insoluble but acid soluble and this causes the low WLRV and relatively high ALRV. After calcium removal by HCl, the WLRV is highly enhanced and reaches about 50%when only 2%NaCl was added. If the HCl content is too high, the stone coal is easily sintered and the formed glass structure can enwrap vanadium, which leads the WLRV to decline. Single water leaching process is not appropriate to extract vanadium from high calcium type stone coal.

  6. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  7. ERp57 modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake through the MCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingquan; Shi, Weikang; Guo, Yu; Chai, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    ERp57 participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Although ERp57 modulates calcium flux across the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, its functions on mitochondria are largely unknown. Here, we found that ERp57 can regulate the expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and modulate mitochondrial calcium uptake. In ERp57-silenced HeLa cells, MCU was downregulated, and the mitochondrial calcium uptake was inhibited, consistent with the effect of MCU knockdown. When MCU was re-expressed in the ERp57 knockdown cells, mitochondrial calcium uptake was restored. Thus, ERp57 is a potent regulator of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  8. 40 CFR 204.56 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 204.56... the Administrator. (a)(1) The Administrator may require that any compressor tested or scheduled to be...) The Administrator may specify that he will conduct such testing at the manufacturer's facility,...

  9. 46 CFR 56.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the Coast Guard must..., Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe Threads (1991) (“ASME B16.14”), 56.60-1; (12) ASME B16.18-2001 Cast...

  10. 7 CFR 201.56-9 - Mallow family, Malvaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-9 Mallow family, Malvaceae. Kinds of seed: Cotton, kenaf, and okra. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2)...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-75 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... pipe or tubing, or of nickel copper or copper nickel alloy meeting the requirements of subpart 56.60... steel pipe or tubing which provides equivalent safety may be used. (2) Tubing connections and...

  12. 46 CFR 56.30-30 - Brazed joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be sufficient to fill completely the annular clearance between the socket and the pipe or tube. (b.... in boiler steam air heaters provided the requirements of UB-12 of section VIII ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) are satisfied at the...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  14. 47 CFR 17.56 - Maintenance of lighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.56 Maintenance of lighting equipment. (a) Replacing or repairing of lights, automatic indicators or automatic control or alarm systems shall be accomplished as soon as practicable. (b) The...

  15. 7 CFR 56.62 - How to file an appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Appeal of A Grading Or Decision § 56.62 How to file an appeal. Any request for an appeal grading or review of a grader's decision may be made orally or in writing. If...

  16. 27 CFR 447.56 - Authority of Customs officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Parts 478 and 479 as to the importation or attempted importation of articles on the U.S. Munitions... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of Customs... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Miscellaneous Provisions § 447.56 Authority of Customs officers. (a) Officers of the...

  17. 46 CFR 56.50-1 - General (replaces 122).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... necessary, welded joints only shall be used and provision shall be made to prevent leakage from damaging the... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). Installation requirements applicable to all systems: (a) Where... carried through fire control bulkheads and decks, the integrity of the structure shall be maintained....

  18. 40 CFR 418.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within the nitric acid subcategory, which is a user of a publicly owned treatment works (and which would... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nitric Acid Subcategory § 418.56... navigable waters), shall be the standard set forth in part 128 of this chapter, except that, for the...

  19. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5001 Exposure limits for airborne contaminants. Except as... industrial Hygienists by writing to 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Attn: Customer Service, Cincinnati, OH...

  20. 49 CFR 801.56 - Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. 801.56... Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6), any personal, medical, or similar... a clearly unwarranted invasion of the person's personal privacy....

  1. 12 CFR 263.56 - Initial Licensing Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial Licensing Proceedings. 263.56 Section... Licensing Proceedings. Proceedings with respect to applications for initial licenses shall include, but not... initial licensing proceedings, the procedures set forth in subpart A of this part shall apply, except...

  2. Specific expression of GPR56 by human cytotoxic lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Peng; M.D.B. van de Garde; K.F. Cheng; P.A. Baars; E.B.M. Remmerswaal; R.A.W. van Lier; C.R. Mackay; H.H. Lin; J. Hamann

    2011-01-01

    We here report the existence of a new cluster of adhesion-GPCRs in human immune cells. Analysis of a comprehensive immune cell transcriptome dataset indicated that expression of the closely related receptors, GPR56, GPR97, and GPR114, is associated with single lymphocyte and granulocyte subsets. App

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-6 - Trust fund agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-6 Trust fund... the exportation of fruits or vegetables and APHIS services are to be funded by the national...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As provided elsewhere in this subpart, certain fruits and vegetables may be imported into the United...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-1 - Notice of quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-1 Notice of... is necessary to prohibit the importation into the United States of fruits and vegetables...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-28 - Tomatoes from certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section. (1) The tomatoes must be grown in the Brittany Region of France in greenhouses registered... declaration, “These tomatoes were grown in registered greenhouses in the Brittany Region of France.” (c... § 319.56-28(e) of 7 CFR.” (f) Tomatoes (fruit) (Solanum lycopersicum) from certain countries in...

  7. 32 CFR 728.56 - Treasury Department beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 728.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Beneficiaries of Other...) Secret Service Special Agents and support personnel. (2) Secret Service Agents providing protection...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6602 Static electricity dissipation during loading. When explosive material is loaded pneumatically into a blasthole in a manner that generates a static electricity...

  9. Fermi—Gamow-Teller interference in 56Co decay

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, J.; Boehm, F.

    1982-01-01

    A measurement of the circular polarization of the γ rays following the β decay of 56Co reveals an anisotropy coefficient of A=0.017(13). A Fermi to Gamow-Teller ratio, MFCV/MGTCA=-0.13(2), was derived demonstrating a sizable interference between the two amplitudes.

  10. Sample Set (SE): SE56 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE56 MS/MS spectral tag-based annotation of non-targeted profile of plant secondary...sis, resulting in clarification of the functions of reported genes involved in glycosylation of flavonoids. Thus, non-target

  11. 42 CFR 410.56 - Screening pelvic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of her medical history or other findings) of developing cervical cancer or vaginal cancer, as... MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.56... lifetime). (C) History of a sexually transmitted disease (including HIV infection). (D) Absence of...

  12. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 319.56-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT..., peas, persimmons, potatoes, rhubarb, squash (Cucurbita maxima), stone and pome fruits, string beans... paragraph are found infected, infested, or contaminated with any plant pest and are not subject to...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  15. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  16. DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM CONTENT IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović-Balaban, Željka R.; Antunović, Vesna R.; Jelić, Dijana R.; Živković, Tanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a macro element that is very important for the human body: its content and circulation in the body is large, it serves as the electrolyte, it has a building role and participates in the process of metabolism. The European Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Food and Drug (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) gave the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances,) for this macro element. The absorption and bioavailability of the calcium may vary depending on a number...

  17. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  18. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  19. Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and ...

  20. A calcium-induced calcium release mechanism mediated by calsequestrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seon; Keener, James P

    2008-08-21

    Calcium (Ca(2+))-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) is widely accepted as the principal mechanism linking electrical excitation and mechanical contraction in cardiac cells. The CICR mechanism has been understood mainly based on binding of cytosolic Ca(2+) with ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inducing Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). However, recent experiments suggest that SR lumenal Ca(2+) may also participate in regulating RyR gating through calsequestrin (CSQ), the SR lumenal Ca(2+) buffer. We investigate how SR Ca(2+) release via RyR is regulated by Ca(2+) and calsequestrin (CSQ). First, a mathematical model of RyR kinetics is derived based on experimental evidence. We assume that the RyR has three binding sites, two cytosolic sites for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation, and one SR lumenal site for CSQ binding. The open probability (P(o)) of the RyR is found by simulation under controlled cytosolic and SR lumenal Ca(2+). Both peak and steady-state P(o) effectively increase as SR lumenal Ca(2+) increases. Second, we incorporate the RyR model into a CICR model that has both a diadic space and the junctional SR (jSR). At low jSR Ca(2+) loads, CSQs are more likely to bind with the RyR and act to inhibit jSR Ca(2+) release, while at high SR loads CSQs are more likely to detach from the RyR, thereby increasing jSR Ca(2+) release. Furthermore, this CICR model produces a nonlinear relationship between fractional jSR Ca(2+) release and jSR load. These findings agree with experimental observations in lipid bilayers and cardiac myocytes. PMID:18538346

  1. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na+ and Ca2+ for [CaCl2] ranging from 10−8 to 10−2 M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant

  2. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  3. An experimental study of mandibular fracture wound healing in the calcium deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of osteoporosis on fracture wound healing in the calcium deficient rat. To research the experiment some ten-week old Wistar strain rats with approximately 300 gms weight were selected. Then, the rats were divided into two groups : Normal diet group (rats given a normal diet before and after bone fracture) and Low calcium diet group (rats given a low calcium diet before and after bone fracture). Both groups had been provided with each diet for three weeks. When the rats became thirteen weeks old, the mandibular angle of rats in both groups was artificially fractured for test. The healing of fracture wounds was reviewed by using soft x-ray radiography and 99mTc-MDP bone scan and also histopathologic examination. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The radiolucency of the fracture site for the Normal diet group started to decrease from the 14th day since the experiment was made, while the Low calcium diet group began decrease in the radiolucency from the 21st day of the experiment . The radiolucency for the normal diet group disappeared at the 42nd day, but one for the Low calcium diet group disappeared at the 56th day of the experiment. 2. The highest uptake rate of 99mTc-MDP stood at the 14th day of the experiment in the Normal diet group and the Low calcium diet group's maximum rate was recorded at the 21st day of the experiment. These both groups were gradually experiencing decrease in the uptake rate as the experiment time was going on. However, the uptake rate in the Low calcium diet group was lower than one in the Normal diet group. 3. For the Normal diet group, the newly formed trabecular, which were similar to one of the surrounding bone, were seen at the 42nd day of the experiment. On the other hand, the Low claium diet group showed at the 56th day of the experiment that the osteoporotic findings looked weak, irregular trabecular, and also large bone marrow space were observed clearly. As a result of

  4. A theory of Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump stimulation and activity

    CERN Document Server

    Graupner, M; Meyer-Hermann, M; Erler, Frido; Graupner, Michael; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ATP-driven Plasma Membrane Calcium (PMCA) pump is characterized by a high affinity to calcium and a low transport rate compared to other transmembrane calcium transport proteins. It plays a crucial role for calcium extrusion from cells. Calmodulin is an intracellular calcium buffering protein which is capable in its Calcium-liganded form to stimulate the PMCA pump by increasing both, the affinity to calcium and the maximum calcium transport rate. We introduce a new model of this stimulation process and deduce analytical expressions for experimental observables in order to determine the model parameter on the basis of specific experiments. Furthermore a model for the pumping activity is developed. In contrast to the biological process we have to describe the pumping rate behavior by assuming a ATP:Calcium stoichiometry of 2 in order to reproduce experimental data. The conjunction of the description of calcium pumping and the stimulation model fully and correctly simulates PMCA pump function. Therewith the ...

  5. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO causality assessment, Naranjo′s and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as "certain". This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo′s algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig′s severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used.

  6. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca2+ regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway. (paper)

  7. Accelerated Hematopoietic Toxicity by High Energy 56Fe Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Trani, Daniela; Doiron, Kathryn; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Kolesnick, Richard; Cole, Michael F.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is little information on the relative toxicity of highly charged (Z) high-energy (HZE) radiation in animal models compared to γ or x-rays, and the general assumption based on in vitro studies has been that acute toxicity is substantially greater. Methods C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon), and acute (within 30 d) toxicity compared to that of γ rays or protons (1 GeV). To assess relative hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicity, the effects of 56Fe ions were compared to γ rays using complete blood count (CBC), bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis in bone marrow, and intestinal crypt survival. Results Although onset was more rapid, 56Fe ions were only slightly more toxic than γ rays or protons with lethal dose (LD)50/30 (a radiation dose at which 50% lethality occurs at 30-day) values of 5.8, 7.25, and 6.8 Gy respectively with relative biologic effectiveness for 56Fe ions of 1.25 and 1.06 for protons. Conclusions 56Fe radiation caused accelerated and more severe hematopoietic toxicity. Early mortality correlated with more profound leukopenia and subsequent sepsis. Results indicate that there is selective enhanced toxicity to bone marrow progenitor cells, which are typically resistant to γ rays, and bone marrow stem cells, because intestinal crypt cells did not show increased HZE toxicity. PMID:22077279

  8. Mucins and NCAM (CD56 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz Telles Esperança

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the hepatobiliary system. During cholangiocarcinogenesis phenotypic changes occur in the ductal epithelium, including the expression of mucins (MUC. However, the evaluating studies of the expression of mucins in the different stages of cholangiocarcinogenesis are scarce. CD56 has also contributed in differentiating benign ductal proliferation and cholangiocarcinoma; however, its expression has not been evaluated in dysplastic epithelium of the bile duct yet. Objective: To assess immunohistochemical profile of (MUC 1, 2, 5, 6, and CD56 in cholangiocarcinoma, pre-neoplastic and reactive lesions in the epithelium of intrahepatic bile ducts. Material and methods: Immunohistochemical expression of MUC 1, 2, 5, 6, and CD56 were studied for 11 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 83 intrahepatic bile ducts (67 reactive and 16 dysplastic. Variables were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: The expression of MUC1 occurred in about 90% of the cholangiocarcinomas, contrasting with the low frequency of positive cases in reactive and dysplastic bile ducts (p < 0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the expression of MUC5, MUC6 and CD56 between the reactive or dysplastic lesions and cholangiocarcinoma. The anti-MUC2 antibody was negative in all cases. Conclusions: MUC1 contributed for the differential diagnosis between cholangiocarcinoma and pre-neoplastic and reactive/regenerative lesions of intrahepatic bile ducts, and it should compose the antibodies panel aiming at improvement of these differential diagnoses. In contrast, MUC2, MUC5, MUC6 and CD56 were not promising in differentiating all the phases of cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  9. Calcium sulfoaluminate cement blended with OPC: A potential binder to encapsulate low-level radioactive slurries of complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out in order to solidify in cement a low-level radioactive waste of complex chemistry obtained by mixing two process streams, a slurry produced by ultra-filtration and an evaporator concentrate with a salinity of 600 gxL-1. Direct cementation with Portland cement (OPC) was not possible due to a very long setting time of cement resulting from borates and phosphates contained in the waste. According to a classical approach, this difficulty could be solved by pre-treating the waste to reduce adverse cement-waste interactions. A two-stage process was defined, including precipitation of phosphates and sulfates at 60 deg. C by adding calcium and barium hydroxide to the waste stream, and encapsulation with a blend of OPC and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) to convert borates into calcium quadriboroaluminate. The material obtained with a 30% waste loading complied with specifications. However, the pre-treatment step made the process complex and costly. A new alternative was then developed: the direct encapsulation of the waste with a blend of OPC and calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) at room temperature. Setting inhibition was suppressed, which probably resulted from the fact that, when hydrating, CSA cement formed significant amounts of ettringite and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate which incorporated borates into their structure. As a consequence, the waste loading could be increased to 56% while keeping acceptable properties at the laboratory scale.

  10. Increased absolute calcium binding to albumin in hypoalbuminaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; Caro, J F

    1981-01-01

    The amount of calcium bound to protein was measured in 30 patients with differing diseases and varying degrees of hypoalbuminaemia. Total serum calcium increased directly with both serum albumin and ultrafilterable calcium concentrations. The estimated amount of calcium bound per gram of albumin varied inversely with the albumin concentration, decreasing from 2.1 to 1.0 mg calcium/g albumin as albumin concentration increased from 1.7 to 3.1 g/dl. Circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentr...

  11. The effect of dimethylsulfoxide on the calcium paradox.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruigrok, T. J.; Moes, D.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated rat hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). Experiments were undertaken to study the effect of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the occurrence of the calcium paradox in rat heart muscle. DMSO (1.4 mol/l) was added to the calcium-free or the reperfusion medium. Cell damage was quantitated in terms of creatine kinase (CK) release, cardiac electrogram (CEG) changes, and ultras...

  12. Factors to consider in the selection of a calcium supplement.

    OpenAIRE

    Shangraw, R F

    1989-01-01

    Calcium supplements are widely used, yet many questions remain as to the absorption of various calcium salts. Because the solubility of many calcium salts is dependent upon pH, the type of salt used, the condition of the patient, and the time of administration should be considered. Studies show that many calcium supplements on the market today do not meet standards of quality established in the "U.S. Pharmacopeia" (USP). Consumers must be discerning about the products they purchase. Calcium s...

  13. Effect of combining different calcium concentration dialysate on calcium balance in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-ping; WU Bei; LU Li-xia; QIAO Jie; WU Xiang-lan; WANG Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcium and phosphorus metabolic disturbance are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality.Therefore,maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate metabolism and suitable intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)level has become the focus of attention.We investigated the effects of different peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations on calcium phosphate metabolism and iPTH in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD)patients.Methods Forty stable CAPD patients with normal serum calcium were followed for six months of treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.25,PD4,22 patients)or a combination of 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.75,PD2)and PD4(18 patients)twice a day respectively.Total serum calcium(after albumin correction),serum phosphorus,iPTH,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and blood pressure were recorded before and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment commenced.Results No significant difference was found in baseline serum calcium,phosphorus between the two patient groups,but the levels of iPTH were significantly different.No significant changes were found in the dosage of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D during 6 months.In the PD4 group,serum calcium level at the 1st,3rd,6th months were significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus after 6 months treatment.iPTH was significantly higher(P<0.001)at the 1st,3rd,and 6th months compared with the baseline.No differences were seen in ALP and blood pressure.In the PD4+PD2 group,no significant changes in serum calcium,phosphorus,iPTH,ALP and BP during the 6-month follow-up period.Conclusions Treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate for six months can decrease serum calcium,increase iPTH,without change in serum phosphorus,ALP,and BP.The combining of PD4 and PD2 can stabilize the serum calcium and avoid fluctuations in iPTH levels.

  14. Expanding the neuron's calcium signaling repertoire: intracellular calcium release via voltage-induced PLC and IP3R activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ryglewski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.

  15. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  16. Update on calcium pyrophosphate deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek; Doherty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) associates with ageing, osteoarthritis (OA), uncommon metabolic diseases, mutations and polymorphisms in the ankylosis human gene (ANKH). CPPD is frequently polyarticular, occurs due to a generalised articular predisposition, and the association between CPPD and OA is joint specific, for example CPPD associates with knee OA, but not with hip OA. Other recently identified associations include knee malalignment (knee CC), low cortical BMD and soft-tissue calcification. CPPD is generally asymptomatic. A recent study reported that knees with OA plus CC at the index joint, or at distant joints (in absence of index joint CC), were more likely to have attrition. CPPD can cause acute CPP crystal arthritis, chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis, and is frequently present in joints with OA. Joint aspiration remains the gold standard for diagnosing CPPD, although other promising techniques are emerging. Patients with polyarticular or young onset CPPD should be screened for underlying metabolic abnormalities, however, such testing can be unrewarding. The treatment of CPPD is symptomatic. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is treated with rest, local application of ice-packs, joint aspiration, colchicine and/or intra-articular corticosteroid injection (once infection is excluded). Colchicine, low-dose corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and radiosynovectomy are recommended for the treatment of chronic or recurrent acute CPP crystal arthritis. Recent RCTs did not confirm any benefit from methotrexate, and although there is increasing interest in the use of anti-IL1 agents for acute or chronic CPP crystal arthritis, their efficacy has not been formally examined. Unlike gout, currently there are no treatments to eliminate CPP crystal deposits. PMID:27586801

  17. Evolutionary Analysis of the B56 Gene Family of PP2A Regulatory Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Sommer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase that functions as a tumor suppressor in numerous cell-cell signaling pathways, including Wnt, myc, and ras. The B56 subunit of PP2A regulates its activity, and is encoded by five genes in humans. B56 proteins share a central core domain, but have divergent amino- and carboxy-termini, which are thought to provide isoform specificity. We performed phylogenetic analyses to better understand the evolution of the B56 gene family. We found that B56 was present as a single gene in eukaryotes prior to the divergence of animals, fungi, protists, and plants, and that B56 gene duplication prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes led to the origin of two B56 subfamilies, B56αβε and B56γδ. Further duplications led to three B56αβε genes and two B56γδ in vertebrates. Several nonvertebrate B56 gene names are based on distinct vertebrate isoform names, and would best be renamed. B56 subfamily genes lack significant divergence within primitive chordates, but each became distinct in complex vertebrates. Two vertebrate lineages have undergone B56 gene loss, Xenopus and Aves. In Xenopus, B56δ function may be compensated for by an alternatively spliced transcript, B56δ/γ, encoding a B56δ-like amino-terminal region and a B56γ core.

  18. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study compare

  19. Calcium spikes and calcium plateaux evoked by differential polarization in dendrites of turtle motoneurones in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Kiehn, O

    1993-01-01

    The ability of dendrites in turtle motoneurones to support calcium spikes and calcium plateaux was investigated using differential polarization by applied electric fields. 2. Electric fields were generated by passing current through transverse slices of the turtle spinal cord between two plate......+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaux are present in dendrites of spinal motoneurones of the turtle....

  20. Characterization of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and regulatory properties of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel were studied by isolating protein components of the channel complex from both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Hydrodynamic characterization of the (+)-(3H)PN200-110-labeled cardiac calcium channel revealed that the protein components of the complex had a total molecular mass of 370,000 daltons, a Stokes radius of 86 angstrom, and a frictional ratio of 1.3. A technique is described for the rapid incorporation of the CHAPS solubilized skeletal muscle calcium channel complex into phospholipid vesicles. 45Ca2+ uptake into phospholipid vesicles containing calcium channels was inhibited by phenylalkalamine calcium antagonists. Wheat germ lectin followed by DEAE chromatography of the CHAPS solubilized complex resulted in the dissociation of regulatory components of the complex from channel components. The DEAE preparation gave rise to 45Ca2+ uptake that was not inhibited by verapamil but was inhibited by GTPgS activated G0. The inhibition of 45Ca2+ uptake by verapamil was restored by co-reconstitution of wash fractions from wheat germ lectin chromatography. Phosphorylation of polypeptides in this fraction by polypeptide-dependent protein kinase prevented the restoration of verapamil sensitivity. The partial purification of an endogenous skeletal muscle ADP-ribosyltransferase is also described. ADP-ribosylation of the α2 subunit of the calcium channel complex is enhanced by polylysine and inhibited by GTPγS, suggesting that regulation of this enzyme is under the control of GTP binding proteins. These results suggest a complex model, involving a number of different protein components, for calcium channel regulation in skeletal muscle

  1. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety

    2000-08-01

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  2. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.

  3. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  4. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...... not depend on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Chymosin added to milk increases renal calcium excretion in the hours following intake without affecting plasma levels of calcium or calciotropic hormones. The effect most likely represents enhanced intestinal calcium absorption shortly after intake. Further...

  5. Role of mitochondria and network connectivity in intercellular calcium oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Dokukina, I V; Grachev, E A; Gunton, J D; Dokukina, Irina V.; Gracheva, Maria E.; Grachev, Eugene A.; Gunton, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are large-scale regulators of cytosolic calcium under normal cellular conditions. In this paper we model the complex behavior of mitochondrial calcium during the action of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate on a single cell and find results that are in good agreement with recent experimental studies. We also study the influence of the cellular network connectivity on intercellular signalling via gap junction diffusion. We include in our model the dependence of the junctional conductivity on the cytosolic calcium concentrations in adjacent cells. We consider three different mechanisms of calcium wave propagation through gap junctions: via calcium diffusion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion, and both calcium and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion. We show that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion is the mechanism of calcium wave propagation and that calcium diffusion is the mechanism of synchronization of cytosolic calcium oscillations in adjacent cells. We also study the role of different to...

  6. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shan Kong; Bing-bing Wang; Quan Ji; Yan-zhi Xia; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride. The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter (CONE). The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34, and the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), CO and CO_2 concentrations during combustion are much lower compared with those of viscose fibers. Calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were formed during thermal degradation of calcium alginate fibers at different temperatures. The shape of calcium alginate fibers is well kept after LOI test. The rigid combustion residue char acts as an effective barrier to the outward diffusion of flame and heat. The combustion process and flame retardant mechanism of calcium alginate fibers are also discussed.

  7. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  8. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied 45Ca2+ across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since 1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and gravi-induced polar calcium movement and 2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  9. Expression patterns of intestinal calcium transport factors and ex-vivo absorption of calcium in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprekeler Nele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species, the small intestine is the major site of calcium (Ca2+ absorption. The horse differs considerably from most other species with regard to the physiology of its Ca2+ metabolism and digestion. Thus, this study was performed to get more information about the transcellular Ca2+ absorption in the horse. Two mechanisms of intestinal Ca2+ absorption are described: the passive paracellular pathway and the active, vitamin D-dependent transcellular pathway. The latter involves the following elements: vitamin D receptors (VDR, transient receptor potential vanilloid channel members 5 and 6 (TRPV5/6, calbindin-D9k (CB, the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX1 and the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein and mRNA expression patterns of VDR, CB and TRPV6 and the ex-vivo Ca2+ absorption in horses, assessed by qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry and the Ussing chamber technique. Results Highest CB and TRPV6 mRNA levels were detected in the duodenum as compared to the middle parts of the jejunum and ileum and several sites of the large intestine. VDR mRNA levels did not change significantly throughout the intestine. TRPV5 mRNA was not detectable in the horse intestine. The highest VDR and CB protein levels were measured in the duodenum. Ussing chamber studies revealed ex-vivo Ca2+ absorption only in the duodenum, but not in cecum and specific sites of the colon. Conclusion The present findings suggest that TRPV6, CB and VDR may be involved in active intestinal Ca2+ absorption in horses, as described for other mammals. TRPV5 may not play a major role in this process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of these Ca2+ transport elements and the results of the Ussing chamber procedure indicate that a significant part of active intestinal Ca2+ absorption occurs in the duodenum in this species.

  10. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  11. Starburst Intensity Limit of Galaxies at z~5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Hathi, N P; Rhoads, J E

    2007-01-01

    The peak star formation intensity in starburst galaxies does not vary significantly from the local universe to redshift z~6. We arrive at this conclusion through new surface brightness measurements of 47 starburst galaxies at z~5-6, doubling the redshift range for such observations. These galaxies are spectroscopically confirmed in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) through the GRism ACS program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) project. The starburst intensity limit for galaxies at z~5-6 agree with those at z~3-4 and z~0 to within a factor of a few, after correcting for cosmological surface brightness dimming and for dust. The most natural interpretation of this constancy over cosmic time is that the same physical mechanisms limit starburst intensity at all redshifts up to z~6 (be they galactic winds, gravitational instability, or something else). We do see two trends with redshift: First, the UV spectral slope of galaxies at z~5-6 is bluer than that of z~3 galaxies, suggesting an increase in dust content o...

  12. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  13. Information flow through calcium binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous mode of biological communication, which regulates a great variety of vital processes in living systems. Such a signal typically begins with an elementary event, in which calcium ions bind to a protein, inducing a change in the protein's structure. Information can only be lost, from what was conveyed through this initial event, as the signal is further transduced through the downstream networks. In the present work we analyze and optimize the information flow in the calcium binding process. We explicitly calculate the mutual information between the calcium concentration and the states of the protein, using a simple model for allosteric regulation in a dimeric protein. The optimal solution depends on the dynamic range of the input as well as on the timescale of signal integration. According to our result, the optimizing strategy involves allowing the calcium-binding protein to be ``activated'' by a partial occupation of its sites, and tuning independently the strengths of cooperative interactions in the binding and unbinding processes.

  14. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  15. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  16. Calcium And Zinc Deficiency In Preeclamptic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Ferdousi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated withincreased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Reduced serum calcium and zinc levels arefound associated with elevated blood pressure in preeclampsia. Objective: To observe serum calciumand zinc levels in preeclamptic women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in theDepartment of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka betweenJuly 2009 to June 2010. In this study, 60 pregnant women of preeclampsia, aged 18-39 years withgestational period more than 20th weeks were included as the study (group B. For comparison ageand gestational period matched 30 normotensive pregnant women control (group A were also studied.All the subjects were selected from Obstetric and Gynae In and Out patient Department of BSMMUand Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Serum calcium was measured by Colorimetric method and serumzinc was measured by Spectrophotometric method. Data were analysed by independent sample t testand Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Mean serum calcium and zinc levels weresignificantly (p<0.001 lower in study group than those of control group. Again, serum calcium andzinc showed significant negative correlation with SBP and DBP in preeclamptic women. Conclusion:This study concludes that serum calcium and zinc deficiency may be one of the risk factor ofpreeclampsia. Therefore, early detection and supplementation to treat this deficiency may reduce theincidence of preeclampsia.

  17. 46 CFR 56.35-1 - Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and 46 CFR 56.07-10 are performed. The procedures for nondestructive testing... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). 56.35-1... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-1 Pipe stress...

  18. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  19. Neoplasia hematodérmica CD4+ CD56+ en la infancia Hematodermic CD4+ CD56+ neoplasm in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica A. Rojas Bilbao

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La neoplasia hematodérmica CD4+ CD56+ con fenotipo de célula dendrítica plasmocitoide es una rara y agresiva neoplasia recientemente reconocida por la WHO-EORTC classification. Afecta adultos de edad media y ancianos, siendo muy pocos los casos descriptos en niños. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 12 años con grave retraso mental, estigmas genéticos y múltiples lesiones cutáneas localizadas en miembros inferiores y superiores. Histológicamente se observó un infiltrado dérmico difuso de células pequeñas y medianas con expresión de CD4, CD56, CD43 y S100 así como de marcadores dendríticos plasmocitoides: CD 123 y BDCA-2 confirmados por citometría de flujo, sin compromiso de sangre periférica ni médula ósea. Cumpliendo dos semanas de tratamiento para leucemia linfoblástica aguda evolucionó con remisión clínica de las lesiones cutaneas.Hematodermic CD4+ CD56+ neoplasm with plasmacytoid dendritic cell phenotype is a rare and aggressive neoplasm recently recognized by the WHO-EORTC classification. It generally appears in elderly adults, exceptionally in childhood. We present a 12-year-old girl with severe mental retardation, genetic clinical features and multiple nodular cutaneous lesions on legs and arms. Histologically the nodules showed diffuse dermal infiltrate of medium and small cells and expression of CD4, CD56, CD43, S100 and plasmacytoid dendritic markers: CD123, BDCA-2 under flow cytometry study. Peripheral blood and bone marrow were not involved. Clinical remission of cutaneous lesions was observed after two weeks of acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy.

  20. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  1. Glial calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysioilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexei VERKHRASKY

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal-glial circuits underlie integrative processes in the nervous system.Function of glial syncytium is,to a very large extent,regulated by the intracellular calcium signaling system.Glial calcium signals are triggered by activation of multiple receptors,expressed in glial membrane,which regulate both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.The endoplasmic reticulum also endows glial cells with intracellular excitable media,which is able to produce and maintain long-ranging signaling in a form of propagating Ca2+ waves.In pathological conditions,calcium signals regulate glial response to injury,which might have both protective and detrimental effects on the nervous tissue.

  2. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  3. Impairment of ciprofloxacin absorption by calcium polycarbophil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Imano, Hideki; Kawai, Masayuki; Kuwahara, Shiro; Tsuchishita, Yoshimasa; Yonezawa, Emi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2002-07-01

    The effect of calcium polycarbophil on the absorption of ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, was evaluated in an in vitro and in vivo study. In the in vitro study, the release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence or absence of metal cations was measured using the dissolution test procedure. In the in vivo study, male ST Wistar rats and male volunteers were employed. First, 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin alone (Rat Study 1) or 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin in combination with 64 mg/kg of calcium chloride (Rat Study 2) was administered orally to 3 rats. Second, a volunteer study was employed and a randomized crossover design with twophases was used. In onephase, volunteers received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin alone (Study 1); in the other phase, they received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin and 1200 mg of fine calcium polycarbophil granules concomitantly (Study 2). The plasma and serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence of aluminum, calcium, or iron ions was slower than that in the absence of these metal ions. The AUC0-4 and Cmax in Rat Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Rat Study 1. AUC0-4 was approximately 60% lower in Rat Study 2 than Rat Study 1. In the volunteer study, the AUC0-12 and Cmax in Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Study 1. In particular, AUC0-12 was approximately 50% lowerin Study 2 than in Study 1. These findings suggest that when ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil were coadministered concomitantly, a decrease of ciprofloxacin absorption was observed, and this action was caused by the formation of chelate complexes. Therefore, it seems clear that we should avoid the concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil.

  4. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  5. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  6. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.;

    2004-01-01

    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...... discusses the current knowledge on the structure and potential function of this protein. Several putative binding partners of ALG-2 have been identified hinting to functions of ALG-2 in apoptosis and possibly also in proliferation, endocytosis and transcriptional regulation during development. Gene deletion...

  7. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.)

  8. Calcium and weight control-Publications summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Çelebi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem. And it is known that both energy balance and nutritional factors are effective on it. The effects of dietary calcium on bone health are known however with recent studies, it has become a food item that focused on the effect on body weight control. Most epidemiyolojik studies claim that there is a relationship between long-term consumption of diary milk and milk products and the decrease of body weight and fat mass. In this article, there are different studies that support or do not support this idea. However the effect mechanism of calcium on weight control is tried to be explained.

  9. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Jianming; DENG; Suiping; LI; Xiangping; TAN; Yanh

    2004-01-01

    [1]Ouyang, J. M., Yao, X. Q., Su, Z. X. et al., Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in Vitro, Science in China, Ser. B, 2003, 46(3):234-242.[2]Xu, S. H., Chen, J. Q., Zhou, H., Nepidemiological study of renal calculus in Shenshen region, Chin. J. Urol. (in Chinese), 1999,20(11): 655-657.[3]Bretherton, T., Rodgers, A., Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine, J. Crystal Growth, 1998, 192: 448-455.[4]Grover, P. K., Ryall, R. L., Effect of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate on the crystallization of CaOxa in undiluted human urine in vitro, Clin. Sci., 1997, 92: 205-213.[5]Laube, N., Mohr, B., Hesse, A., Laser-probe-based investigation of the evolution of particle size distributions of calcium oxalate particles formed in artificial urines, J. Crystal Growth, 2001, 233:367-374.[6]Tunik, L., Fueredi-Milhofer, H., Garti, N., Adsorption of sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate onto calcium oxalate crystals, Langmuir,1998, 14: 3351-3355.[7]Cody, A. M., Cody, R. D., Calcium oxalate trihydrate phase control by structurally-specific carboxylic acids, J. Cryst. Growth,1994, 135: 234-245.[8]Ouyang, J. M., Duan, L., Tieke, B., Effects of carboxylic acids on the crystal growth of calcium oxalate nanoparticles in lecithin-water liposome systems, Langmuir, 2003, 19: 8980-8985.[9]Guo, S., Ward, M. D., Wesson, J. A., Direct visualization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization and dissolution with atomic force microscopy and the role of polymeric additives,Langmuir, 2002, 18:4284-4291.[10]Yasui, T., Sato, M., Fujita, K., Effects of citrate on renal stone formation and osteopontin expression in a rat urolithiasis model,Urol. Res., 2001,29: 50-56.[11]Ouyang, J. M., Deng, S. P., Controlled and uncontrolled crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of citric acid, Dalton Transactions, 2003, (14): 2846-2851.[12]Khan, S. R., Whalen, P. O., Glenton, P. A., Heterogeneous nucleation of

  10. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  11. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H;

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had....... Androgen deficiency increased the abundance of the renal mRNA and protein of both the luminal transient receptor potential vanilloid-subtype 5 (TRPV5) and intracellular calbindin-D(28K) transporters, which in turn were suppressed by testosterone treatment. There were no significant differences in serum...

  12. BNL 56 MHz HOM damper prototype fabrication at JLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, N.; McIntyre, G.; Daly, E. F.; Clemens, W.; Wu, Q.; Seberg, S.; Bellavia, S.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype Higher-Order Mode (HOM) Damper was fabricated at JLab for the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider’s (RHIC) 56 MHz cavity at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Primarily constructed from high RRR Niobium and Sapphire, the coaxial damper presented significant challenges in electron-beam welding (EBW), brazing and machining via acid etching. The results of the prototype operation brought about changes in the damper design, due to overheating braze alloys and possible multi-pacting. Five production HOM dampers are currently being fabricated at JLab. This paper outlines the challenges faced in the fabrication process, and the solutions put in place.

  13. BNL 56 MHz HOM Damper Prototype Fabrication at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem A. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Clemens, William A. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); McIntyre, Gary T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Qiong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seberg, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bellavia, Steve [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A prototype Higher-Order Mode (HOM) Damper was fabricated at JLab for the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider's (RHIC) 56 MHz cavity at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Primarily constructed from high RRR Niobium and Sapphire, the coaxial damper presented significant challenges in electron-beam welding (EBW), brazing and machining via acid etching. The results of the prototype operation brought about changes in the damper design, due to overheating braze alloys and possible multi-pacting. Five production HOM dampers are currently being fabricated at JLab. This paper outlines the challenges faced in the fabrication process, and the solutions put in place.

  14. Doubly-deformed bands in doubly-magic 56Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spherical-deformed shape coexistence of the doubly-magic 56Ni nucleus is studied by the Monte Carlo shell model based on the quantum Monte Carlo diagonalization method. The coexistence of spherical yrast, first prolate deformed and second deformed states is described by the full pf- and pfg9/2-shell calculations. The states of the first prolate deformed band are shown to be comprised primarily of four-particle and four-hole excitations on top of the correlated ground state. The second deformed band has negative parity states and can be described by including the g9/2 degree of freedom. (orig.)

  15. Level density of radioactive doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the single particle energies are obtained by diagonalising the Nilsson Hamiltonian in the cylindrical basis and are generated up to N =11 shells for the isotopes of Ni from A = 48-70, emphasizing the three magic nuclei viz, 48Ni, 56Ni and 68Ni. The statistical quantities like excitation energy, level density parameter and nuclear level density which play the important roles in the nuclear structure and nuclear reactions can be calculated theoretically by means of the Statistical or Partition function method. Hence the statistical model approach is followed to probe the dynamical properties of the nucleus in the microscopic level

  16. Effect of GPR56 on axonal development and myelination%G蛋白偶联受体56参与轴突发育和髓鞘化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓医宇; 朱高峰; 曾红科; 曾文新; 蒋文新; 方明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the likelihood of G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56 ) induces axonal development and myelination in the corpus callosum of mouse brain.Methods A total of 64 Gpr56 +/-and Gpr56 -/-mice were selected and randomly divided into two groups:Gpr56 +/-group (n=32)and Gpr56 -/-group (n=32).According to number of days after birth,each group was further divided into 4 subgroups including P7d,P14d,P21d and P28d subgroups.Levels of neurofilament-200 (NF -200)and proteolipid protein (PLP ) of myelin basic protein in corpus callosum were measured with immunohistochemistry staining and Western blot in P7d、P14d、P21d、P28d Gpr56 +/- and Gpr56 -/-mice.Gpr56 +/-and Gpr56 -/-neurons were cultured using P1 d Gpr56 +/-and Gpr56 -/-mouse brain.The lengths of Gpr56 +/- and Gpr56 -/-neuronal axon were measured and compared with Image J software. Axonal myelination in the corpus callosum of mouse brain in each group was observed under electronic microscopy and the axonal diameters between subgroups were compared.Results The levels of NF-200 and PLP in the corpus callosum in P7d、P14d、P21d、P28d Gpr56 -/-mice decreased significantly compared with Gpr56 +/- mice.The length of Gpr56 -/-neuronal axon was shortened compared with Gpr56 +/-neuronal axon.The number of myelinated axons was obviously reduced in the corpus callosum in P28d Gpr56 -/-mice.The diameter of axon in the corpus callosum of P28d Gpr56 +/-mouse is longer than that of P28d Gpr56 -/-mouse. Conclusions GPR56 may be involved in axonal development and myelination in the corpus callosum of mouse brain.%目的:探讨G蛋白偶联受体56(G-protein coupled receptor 56,GPR56)对小鼠脑胼胝体白质内轴突发育和髓鞘化的影响。方法筛选出 Gpr56基因杂合型(Gpr56+/-)和敲除型(Gpr56-/-)小鼠64只,随机数字法分为2组:Gpr56+/-和Gpr56-/-组,每组32只。每组根据小鼠出生后时间分为出生后7 d、14 d、21 d、28 d (P7 d、P14 d、P21 d

  17. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  18. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1990-01-01

    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  19. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-01

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo.

  20. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-20

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo. PMID:26965706