WorldWideScience

Sample records for calcium 54

  1. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  2. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  3. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  4. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  5. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  6. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  7. GPR54 and kisspeptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, W H

    2008-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 has an essential role in the initiation and maintenance of mammalian fertility. Humans and mice with mutations in GPR54 have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by absence of sexual maturation and low levels of gonadotropic hormones (LH and FSH). The ligand for GPR54 is encoded by the KISS1 gene, which produces a 54-amino-acid peptide (metastin or kisspeptin-54) that can be cleaved into shorter peptides (kisspeptins 14, 13 and 10) with similar potencies. Kisspeptin administration stimulates gonadotropin release in several species by inducing GnRH secretion from hypothalamic GnRH neurons expressing GPR54. Kisspeptins are produced by neurons located in the AVPV and ARC regions of the hypothalamus. Expression of Kiss1 in these neurons is differentially regulated by sex steroids providing a mechanism by which testosterone or estrogen can regulate GnRH release. The AVPV region is sexually dimorphic with highest expression of kisspeptin in females. Positive feedback by estrogen on expression of Kiss1 in the AVPV region may be responsible for the pre-ovulatory LH surge during the estrus cycle. Central administration of kisspeptin to immature female rats can induce precocious activation of the gonadotropic axis, causing advanced vaginal opening, elevated uterus weight, increased serum levels of LH and estrogen and induce ovulation. Kisspeptins/GPR54 have also been implicated in regulating the estrus cycle of seasonal breeders and in the control of lactational amenorrhea. Expression of Gpr54 and Kiss1 have also been reported in several peripheral tissues including the pituitary, ovary, testes and the placenta raising the possibility that these genes may have additional functions in these tissues. Regulation of kisspeptin expression by peripheral factors such as leptin may be involved in coordinating metabolic status with the reproductive axis.

  8. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  10. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  11. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  12. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  13. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  14. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  15. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  16. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  17. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  18. RJHS 5(4).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Results: During the period of study, 166 females with symptomatic breast lesions had diagnostic mammography. The mean age was 49.29years ± 11.12. Sixty- five (39.2%) patients presented with breast lump, 54(32.5%) had breast pain, while 15 (9.0%) had nipple discharge. Seventy- five (45.2%) of the patients had no ...

  19. 32 CFR 54.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 54.3 Section 54.3 National Defense... CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.3 Definitions. (a) Authorized person. Any agent or attorney of any State... Military Service concerned who is authorized to receive and to process notices under this part. See § 54.6...

  20. 32 CFR 54.5 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 54.5 Section 54.5 National... ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Assistant Secretary of Defense... change or modify the procedures in § 54.6. (b) The Secretaries of the Military Departments shall comply...

  1. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, *CEMENTS, * CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, * FERRITES , *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, SUBSTITUTES, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS.

  2. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  3. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  4. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  5. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  6. GPR54 and kisspeptin in reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    ...--a phenotype that was reproduced in GPR54-null mice. Those seminal observations revealed a totally unexpected, fundamental role of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system in control of puberty and reproductive function and boosted an extraordinary...

  7. 9 CFR 54.21 - Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation. 54.21 Section 54.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certification Program § 54.21 Participation. Any owner of a sheep or goat flock may apply to enter the Scrapie...

  8. 28 CFR 54.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 54.505 Section 54... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment opportunity that...

  9. 46 CFR 503.54 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original classification. 503.54 Section 503.54 Shipping... Program § 503.54 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to... require classification, or receives any foreign government information as defined in section 1.1(d) of...

  10. 46 CFR 54.30-3 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 54.30-3 Section 54.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-3 Introduction. (a) Large conventional pressure vessels used to transport liquefied...

  11. 47 CFR 54.505 - Discounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discounts. 54.505 Section 54.505... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.505 Discounts. (a) Discount mechanism. Discounts for eligible schools and libraries shall be set as a percentage discount from the pre-discount...

  12. 32 CFR 770.54 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 770.54 Section 770.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Hampshire § 770.54 Background. (a) Portsmouth Naval Shipyard maintains and operates facilities “to provide...

  13. 47 CFR 54.508 - Technology plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology plans. 54.508 Section 54.508... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.508 Technology plans. (a) Contents. The technology plans referred to in this subpart must include the following five elements: (1) A clear statement...

  14. 47 CFR 54.207 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 54.207 Section 54.207... SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support § 54.207 Service areas. (a) The term service area means a geographic area established by a state commission for the purpose of determining universal...

  15. 7 CFR 906.54 - Effective time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 906.54 Section 906.54 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.54 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, or any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the...

  16. 7 CFR 989.54 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 989.54 Section 989.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 989.54 Marketing policy. (a) Trade demand. On or...

  17. 7 CFR 1700.54 - Electric Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric Program. 1700.54 Section 1700.54 Agriculture... GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.54 Electric Program. (a) Administrator: The... Administrator, Electric Program, has the authority to approve the following loans, loan guarantees, and lien...

  18. 40 CFR 96.54 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance. 96.54 Section 96.54... Tracking System § 96.54 Compliance. (a) NO X allowance transfer deadline. The NOX allowances are available to be deducted for compliance with a unit's NOX Budget emissions limitation for a control period in a...

  19. 47 CFR 54.515 - Distributing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributing support. 54.515 Section 54.515... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.515 Distributing support. (a) A telecommunications carrier providing services eligible for support under this subpart to eligible schools and...

  20. 47 CFR 54.611 - Distributing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributing support. 54.611 Section 54.611... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.611 Distributing support. (a) A telecommunications carrier providing services eligible for support under this subpart to eligible health care...

  1. 47 CFR 54.609 - Calculating support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculating support. 54.609 Section 54.609... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.609 Calculating support. (a) Except with... amount of universal service support for an eligible service provided to a public or non-profit rural...

  2. 47 CFR 54.417 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.417 Recordkeeping requirements. (a... resellers that purchase Lifeline discounted wholesale services to offer discounted services to low-income...-income consumers, it constitutes the eligible telecommunications carrier referenced in §§ 54.405(c), 54...

  3. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the postal...

  4. 7 CFR 54.1033 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 54.1033 Section 54.1033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... and Poultry Products § 54.1033 Confidential treatment. Every design review specialist providing...

  5. 40 CFR 205.54 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedures. 205.54 Section 205.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54 Test procedures. The procedures described...

  6. 28 CFR 54.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.310 Section 54.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  7. 28 CFR 54.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.510 Section 54.510... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  8. 10 CFR § 1003.54 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.54 Section § 1003.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Modification or Rescission § 1003.54 Contents. (a) The application shall contain a full and complete statement of all...

  9. 42 CFR 54a.10 - Fiscal accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal accountability. 54a.10 Section 54a.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.10 Fiscal accountability. (a) Religious organizations that receive...

  10. 42 CFR 54.10 - Fiscal accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal accountability. 54.10 Section 54.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... PROJECTS FOR ASSISTANCE IN TRANSITION FROM HOMELESSNESS GRANTS § 54.10 Fiscal accountability. (a) Religious...

  11. 21 CFR 640.54 - Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing. 640.54 Section 640.54 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.54 Processing. (a) Processing the plasma... within the timeframe specified in the directions for use for the blood collecting, processing, and...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.54 - Nonionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonionizing radiation. 1926.54 Section 1926.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.54 Nonionizing radiation. (a) Only qualified and trained employees shall be assigned to install...

  13. 7 CFR 927.54 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 927.54 Section 927.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits... Regulation of Shipments § 927.54 Inspection ...

  14. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden explosives...

  15. 7 CFR 948.54 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility. 948.54 Section 948.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.54 Eligibility. Area committee members and alternates shall...

  16. 7 CFR 929.54 - Withholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withholding. 929.54 Section 929.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.54 Withholding. (a...

  17. 32 CFR 54.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 54.1 Section 54.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.1 Purpose. Under section 65 of title 42, United States Code, this part...

  18. 7 CFR 983.54 - Commingling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commingling. 983.54 Section 983.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.54 Commingling. Certified lots may be commingled with other...

  19. 45 CFR 86.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 86.54 Section 86.54 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.54 Compensation. A recipient shall...

  20. 7 CFR 958.54 - Minimum quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 958.54 Section 958.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.54 Minimum...

  1. 40 CFR 30.54 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 30.54 Section 30.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Reports and Records § 30.54 Quality assurance. If the...

  2. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination procedures. 460.54 Section 460.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a) Except...

  3. 7 CFR 900.54 - Docket number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Docket number. 900.54 Section 900.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.54 Docket number...

  4. 32 CFR 54.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 54.4 Section 54.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.4 Policy. The Department of Defense is obligated by 42 U.S.C. 665 to...

  5. 7 CFR 932.54 - Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers. 932.54 Section 932.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.54 Transfers. Transfers within the area of olives from one handler to...

  6. 7 CFR 959.54 - Safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 959.54 Section 959.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.54 Safeguards. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may...

  7. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  8. 7 CFR 54.1030 - Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification. 54.1030 Section 54.1030 Agriculture... and Poultry Products § 54.1030 Identification. All official design review specialists and supervisors shall have their Agricultural Marketing Service identification cards in their possession at all times...

  9. 7 CFR 54.29 - Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification. 54.29 Section 54.29 Agriculture... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Miscellaneous § 54.29 Identification... identification cards in their possession at all times while they are performing any function under the...

  10. 7 CFR 1780.54 - Technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical services. 1780.54 Section 1780.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.54 Technical services. Owners are responsible for providing the engineering...

  11. 9 CFR 113.54 - Sterile diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterile diluent. 113.54 Section 113.54... Requirements § 113.54 Sterile diluent. Sterile Diluent shall be supplied in a final container by the licensee when such diluent is required for rehydration or dilution of the vaccine. (a) Sterile Diluent may be...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees from...

  13. The role of kisspeptin and GPR54 in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Amy C

    2009-01-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus form the input stage of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit and their function is strongly influenced by peptidergic systems. GPR54 is highly and discretely expressed in these cells. We have found that activation of GPR54 with kisspeptin-10 causes a rapid and large increase in the amplitude of excitatory synaptic responses in granule cells, without changing membrane properties. The effect was suppressed by the G-protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S and the calcium chelator BAPTA, and analysis of miniature EPSCs revealed an increase in mean amplitude but not event frequency, indicating that GPR54 and the mechanisms for enhancing EPSCs are postsynaptic, possibly involving changes in AMPA receptor number or conductance. The kisspeptin-induced synaptic potentiation was abolished by inhibitors of ERK1/2, tyrosine kinase, and CaMKII. RT-PCR experiments showed that KiSS-1 is expressed in the dentate gyrus. KiSS-1 mRNA was significantly increased by seizure activity in rats and when neuronal activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures was enhanced by kainate or picrotoxin, while mRNA for GPR54 remained essentially unchanged. These results suggest that kisspeptin may be locally synthesized and act as an autocrine factor. In separate experiments, hippocampal KiSS-1 mRNA in male rats was increased after gonadectomy. In summary, kisspeptin is a novel endogenous factor which is dynamically regulated by neuronal activity and which, in marked distinction from other neuropeptides, increases synaptic transmission in dentate granule cells through signaling cascades possibly linked to the MAP kinase system. This novel peptide system may play a role in cognition and in the pathogenesis of epilepsy.

  14. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Nachum; Shaltiel, Galit; Daniely, Michal; Meiron, Oren E; Shechter, Assaf; Abrams, Steven A; Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Sagi, Amir

    2014-10-01

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC) using the dual stable isotope technique. The study was conducted in the Unit of Clinical Nutrition, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. The study population included 15 early postmenopausal women aged 54.9 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD) years with no history of major medical illness or metabolic bone disorder, excess calcium intake, or vitamin D deficiency. Standardized breakfast was followed by randomly provided CCC or ACC capsules containing 192 mg elemental calcium labeled with 44Ca at intervals of at least 3 weeks. After swallowing the capsules, intravenous CaCl2 labeled with 42Ca on was administered on each occasion. Fractional calcium absorption (FCA) of ACC and CCC was calculated from the 24-hour urine collection following calcium administration. The results indicated that FCA of ACC was doubled (± 0.96 SD) on average compared to that of CCC (p calcium supplementation. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  16. 28 CFR 54.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Athletics. 54.450 Section 54.450 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily...

  17. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... a refusal to actively participate in a religious practice. ...

  18. 42 CFR 54a.6 - Employment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment practices. 54a.6 Section 54a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE...

  19. 7 CFR 1219.54 - Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessments. 1219.54 Section 1219.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  20. 40 CFR 97.54 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance. 97.54 Section 97.54... Compliance. (a) NOX allowance transfer deadline. The NOX allowances are available to be deducted for compliance with a unit's NOX Budget emissions limitation for a control period in a given year only if the NOX...

  1. 32 CFR 651.54 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.54 Section 651.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... Introduction. (a) Protection of the environment is an Army priority, no matter where the Army actions are...

  2. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership identification. 62.54... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it does...

  3. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  4. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  5. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  6. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  7. Coronary artery calcium in breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takx, Richard A P; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U Joseph; Pilz, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Morris, Pamela B; Henzler, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy have a higher burden of coronary artery calcium as a potential surrogate of radiation-induced accelerated coronary artery disease. 333 patients were included. 54 patients underwent chest CT ae

  8. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  9. Human diseases associated with GPR54 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Milena Gurgel; Silveira, Leticia Ferreira Gontijo; Bianco, Suzy; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) was first described as an orphan receptor in the rat brain one decade ago. At that time, all we knew about this receptor was that it had a high homology with other G protein-coupled receptors, like galanin receptors. Later, its endogenous ligand, kisspeptin, was identified and the kisspeptin-GPR54 system became one of the most important excitatory neuroendocrine regulators of puberty initiation. Several loss-of-function mutations in GPR54 gene were described to be associated with sporadic and familial normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism phenotype in humans. Consistent with this fact, knockout mice for gpr54(-/-) recapitulated the human phenotype of the lack of reproductive maturation. On the other hand, a unique activating mutation (R386P) was recently described in this receptor in a girl with central precocious puberty. This missense mutation located at carboxy-terminal tail of the GPR54 leads to prolonged activation of intracellular signaling pathways in response to kisspeptin, suggesting an uncommon model of G protein-coupled receptor activation. This chapter will describe the kisspeptin-GPR54 complex physiology and its current role in human diseases. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... non-profit entity that falls within one of the seven categories set forth in the definition of health... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider...

  11. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles. This complex and highly regulated process is orchestrated by SNAREs and their associated proteins. The triggering signal for regulated exocytosis is usually...... an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...

  12. GPR54 and kisspeptin in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Kisspeptins, the peptide products of the KiSS-1 gene, were identified in 2001 as natural ligands of the previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54. They include, among others, metastin and kisspeptin-10. The known biological functions of kisspeptins were initially restricted to their ability to suppress tumour metastasis, hence the name of metastin. However, in late 2003, two groups independently reported that loss-of-function mutations of the GPR54 gene are linked to absence of puberty onset and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in humans--a phenotype that was reproduced in GPR54-null mice. Those seminal observations revealed a totally unexpected, fundamental role of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system in control of puberty and reproductive function and boosted an extraordinary interest for the characterization of these novel facets of kisspeptin physiology. Indeed, in the last 2 years, metastin and kisspeptin-10 have been demonstrated as very potent stimulators of the gonadotrophic axis, in a number of species and through different routes of administration. In addition, the hypothalamic KiSS-1/GPR54 system has been proven as an essential gatekeeper of GnRH neurons, involved in their activation at puberty and their regulation by gonadal steroids and (probably) metabolic factors. This review comprehensively examines the experimental evidence obtained to date supporting a pivotal role of kisspeptins and GPR54 in the control of reproduction.

  13. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, M M

    1994-06-01

    The potential value of xylitol in calcium therapy was evaluated by comparing the effect of dietary xylitol (50 g/kg diet) + calcium carbonate with the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on bone repair of young male rats after the rats consumed for 3 wk a calcium-deficient diet (0.2 g Ca/kg diet). After this calcium-depletion period, the rats were fed for 2 wk one of four diets, each containing 5 g Ca/kg diet as one of the four dietary calcium sources. The diet of the control animals was supplemented with CaCO3 (5 g Ca/kg diet) throughout the study. The Ca-deficient rats showed low bone mass, low serum calcium and high serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, parathyroid hormone (1-34 fraction) and osteocalcin concentrations. They also excreted magnesium, phosphate and hydroxyproline in the urine in high concentrations, and had high bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. Most of these changes were reversed by the administered of the calcium salts. The highest recoveries of femoral dry weight, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were observed in the groups receiving xylitol+CaCO3 and calcium lactate. Calcium lactate and calcium citrate caused low serum phosphate concentration compared with rats receiving CaCO3 and with the age-matched Ca-replete controls. Xylitol-treated rats excreted more calcium and magnesium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of these minerals from the gut. These results suggest that dietary xylitol improves the bioavailability of calcium salts.

  14. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears ...

  15. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Figuring Out Food Labels What's a Vegetarian? Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Mineral Chart Vitamin D ... Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium Bones, Muscles, and ...

  16. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  17. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  18. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  19. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  20. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico); HEBA Ideas S.A. de C.V.,Calculistas 37, Cd. Mx. 09400 (Mexico); Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico)

    2016-12-23

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 3} heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  1. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  2. Calcium digestibility studies utilizing acid-insoluble ash measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T K; Coon, C N

    1990-12-01

    Laying hens were individually fed diets providing daily calcium intakes ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 g from two sources of limestone. Silica (washed sand) was added to the diets as filler for hens with less than 4.5 g of daily calcium intake. The calcium digestibility data were obtained both by the total collection (TC) method and b y using acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as an indicator. Source effect was not significant (P greater than .7) within each method tested, and data were pooled for analysis. The calcium digestibility values obtained by the TC method for hens with intake of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 g daily were 59.16, 57.31, 54.29, 50.99, 44.63, and 41.76%, respectively. The AIA method consistently yielded higher digestibility values: 73.0, 65.36, 61.78, 54.19, 45.76, and 42.0%. The differences in calcium digestibility values between the two methods were linearly related to the levels of silica consumption (P less than .05).

  3. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  4. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional...

  5. 47 CFR 54.601 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the definition used by the Commission prior to July 1, 2005, and that had received a funding... boundary of the largest city in a state as defined in § 54.625(a). (2) Internet access and limited toll-free access to internet. (i) For purposes of this subpart, eligible Internet access is an information...

  6. 28 CFR 54.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate...

  7. 24 CFR 3282.54 - Public information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Formal Procedures § 3282.54 Public... the Secretary or a PIA or SAA which fall within the definitions of a trade secret or confidential... by the provisions of 24 CFR part 16 (40 FR 39729) relating to the Privacy Act which may limit the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior...

  9. 28 CFR 54.230 - Transition plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such...

  10. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this...-income consumers; (2) For which qualifying low-income consumers pay reduced charges as a result of...

  11. 28 CFR 54.235 - Statutory amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abortion. Medical procedures, benefits, services, and the use of facilities, necessary to save the life of... proprietorship as a whole; or (2) Which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.235 Statutory...

  12. It's Time to Implement GASB Statement 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinfeld, Gary; Nuehring, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) issued Statement No. 54, "Find Balance Reporting and Governmental Fund Type Definitions." This statement changes how a fund balance is classified on the face of the government fund financial statements and refines the definitions for government fund types. The statement's…

  13. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  14. Calcium Signalling: Fishing Out Molecules of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-01-01

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins — MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 — to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport.

  15. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  16. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Share Dialog × Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  17. Psalm 54: The power of positive patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Botha

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 54: The power of positive patterning Psalm 54 is analysed in 'n literary, rhetorical and socio-critical way in order to determine the dominant textual strategy and the way in which it was supposed to function. It is established that the basic concern of the psalm is with the honour of the individuals for whom the psalm was intended as a cultic prayer. The way in which words with a positive and those with a negative connotative meaning are arranged, is found to be compliant with the purpose of having the enemies exposed and the self vindicated. What is more, this pattern seems to have been devised also to be of therapeutic value for the suppliant himself.

  18. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate...

  19. Self-reported calcium use in a cohort of postmenopausal women receiving osteoporosis therapy: results from POSSIBLE US™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, E; Wade, S W; Downs, R W; Ganiats, T; Hochberg, M; Recker, R R; Stolshek, B S

    2015-08-01

    Calcium use was common and remained high among women on osteoporosis therapy. Use of calcium-supplemented pharmacologic therapy increased from 65.1 to 76.0% in these women (mean follow-up, 27.5 months). Over 12 months, calcium discontinuation was fairly similar among women using calcium only (23.7%) and women supplementing pharmacologic therapy with calcium (22.5%). Calcium has an important role in bone health. This study describes calcium use and persistence in a postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment cohort. Subject-reported calcium use was analyzed for 3,722 participants of the Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience (POSSIBLE US(TM)) who used calcium either as their sole osteoporosis treatment (calcium only) or to supplement pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy (supplementers). Descriptive analyses were conducted. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the probability of discontinuing calcium therapy, and logistic regression was used to assess associations (age-adjusted odds ratios) between healthy behaviors and calcium use. At entry, there were 711 calcium-only subjects and 1,960 of 3,011 subjects on pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy also supplementing with calcium (supplementers). The percentage of supplementers increased from 65.1 to 76.0% during follow-up (mean, 27.5 months). During the first 12 months on study, the probability of calcium discontinuation was 23.7% (95 % confidence interval [CI], 20.7 - 27.0) among calcium-only subjects and 22.5% (95% CI, 20.7-24.5) among supplementers. Supplementers who discontinued pharmacologic therapy were more likely to discontinue calcium than supplementers who continued pharmacologic therapy (34.9 versus 14.8%). Overall 54.2% of calcium-only subjects who discontinued calcium and 42.3% of supplementers who discontinued calcium resumed calcium use during follow-up. Regular exercise was positively correlated with calcium use at study entry. Calcium supplementation in

  20. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  1. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  2. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  3. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  4. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  5. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanBavel, Ed; Sorop, Oana; Andreasen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    T-type calcium channels may be involved in the maintenance of myogenic tone. We tested their role in isolated rat cremaster arterioles obtained after CO(2) anesthesia and decapitation. Total RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR and Southern blotting for calcium channel expression. We observed expression......); K(+) -5.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 4); all log(IC(50)) P maintenance of myogenic tone in rat cremaster muscle arterioles....

  7. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  8. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  9. 37 CFR 41.54 - Action following decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Section 41.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals § 41.54... 32977, June 10, 2008, § 41.54 was revised, effective December 10, 2008. Per a subsequent final rule...

  10. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  11. Mutation analysis in 54 propionic acidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J P; Spector, E; Venezia, S; Estes, P; Chiang, P W; Creadon-Swindell, G; Müllerleile, S; de Silva, L; Barth, M; Walter, M; Walter, K; Meissner, T; Lindner, M; Ensenauer, R; Santer, R; Bodamer, O A; Baumgartner, M R; Brunner-Krainz, M; Karall, D; Haase, C; Knerr, I; Marquardt, T; Hennermann, J B; Steinfeld, R; Beblo, S; Koch, H G; Konstantopoulou, V; Scholl-Bürgi, S; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A; Suormala, T; Ugarte, M; Sperl, W; Superti-Furga, A; Schwab, K O; Grünert, S C; Sass, J O

    2012-01-01

    Deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase (PCC), a dodecamer of alpha and beta subunits, causes inherited propionic acidemia. We have studied, at the molecular level, PCC in 54 patients from 48 families comprised of 96 independent alleles. These patients of various ethnic backgrounds came from research centers and hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The thorough clinical characterization of these patients was described in the accompanying paper (Grünert et al. 2012). In all 54 patients, many of whom originated from consanguineous families, the entire PCCB gene was examined by genomic DNA sequencing and in 39 individuals the PCCA gene was also studied. In three patients we found mutations in both PCC genes. In addition, in many patients RT-PCR analysis of lymphoblast RNA, lymphoblast enzyme assays, and expression of new mutations in E.coli were carried out. Eight new and eight previously detected mutations were identified in the PCCA gene while 15 new and 13 previously detected mutations were found in the PCCB gene. One missense mutation, p.V288I in the PCCB gene, when expressed in E.coli, yielded 134% of control activity and was consequently classified as a polymorphism in the coding region. Numerous new intronic polymorphisms in both PCC genes were identified. This study adds a considerable amount of new molecular data to the studies of this disease.

  12. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  13. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzozero, Julien; Scrivener, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate ...

  14. Mixed calcium-magnesium pre-nucleation clusters enrich calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Verch, Andreas; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that magnesium and carbonate ions can form pre-nucleation clusters in analogy to calcium carbonate. If a mixed calcium and magnesium solution is brought in contact with carbonate ions, mixed pre-nucleation clusters form. The equilibrium constants for their formation are reported revealing that over the entire range of possible cation mixing ratios, calcium gets enriched over magnesium in the pre-nucleation clusters. This can explain high magnesium contents in amorphous calc...

  15. Biological Reactions to Calcium Phosphate-coated Calcium Carbonate Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tetsunari NISHIKAWA; Kazuya MASUNO; Tomoharu OKAMURA; Kazuya TOMINAGA; Masahiro WATO; Mayu KOKUBU; Koichi IMAI; Shoji TAKEDA; Yoichro TAGUCHI; Masatoshi UEDA; Akio TANAKA

    2010-01-01

    [SYNOPSIS][Objectives]: In order to histopathologically investigate biological reactions to materials used for scaffolds, we examined the cytotoxicity to calcium particles in vitro and bioabsorption in vivo...

  16. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S

    1987-01-01

    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  17. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  18. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with calcium carbonate... precipitated calcium carbonate in the United States Pharmacopeia XX (1980). (c) Uses and restrictions. Calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium carbonate. 184.1191 Section 184.1191 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, CAS Reg... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation...

  1. Signal Recognition Particle 54 kD Protein (SRP54 from the Marine Sponge Geodia cydonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Durajlija-Žinić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systematic search for phylogenetically conserved proteins in the simplest and most ancient extant metazoan phylum – Porifera, we have identified and analyzed a cDNA encoding the signal recognition particle 54 kD protein (SRP54 from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium (Demospongiae. The signal recognition particle (SRP is a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein complex of a very ancient origin, comprising SRP RNA and several proteins (six in mammals. The nucleotide sequence of the sponge cDNA predicts a protein of 499 amino acid residues with a calculated Mr of 55175. G. cydonium SRP54 displays unusually high overall similarity (90 % with human/mammalian SRP54 proteins, higher than with Drosophila melanogaster (88 %, or Caenorhabditis elegans (82 %. The same was found for the majority of known and phylogenetically conserved proteins from sponges, indicating that the molecular evolutionary rates in protein coding genes in Porifera as well as in highly developed mammals (vertebrates are slower, when compared with the rates in homologous genes from invertebrates (insects, nematodes. Therefore, genes/proteins from sponges might be the best candidates for the reconstruction of ancient structures of proteins and genome/proteome complexity in the ancestral organism, common to all multicellular animals.

  2. Calcium signalling: fishing out molecules of mitochondrial calcium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-10-26

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins - MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 - to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation off...

  4. in 54 Mother-Child Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Werner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes parental expectations for sleep-wake patterns in healthy kindergarten children and explores their relation to children’s sleep quality and parental distress. Data analysis of 54 mother-child dyads (age range of the children: 4–7 years indicated that parental expectations for children’s sleep-wake patterns differ between scheduled and free days and depend on children’s chronotype. Mothers of children with late chronotype showed less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time than mothers of children with early chronotype (e.g., morning types. Furthermore, children of mothers with less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time on scheduled days had longer settling periods during which sleep rituals may take place (r=0.31, P≤0.05, spent more time in bed than they actually sleep (r=0.35, P≤0.01, and had more frequently difficulties falling asleep (r=0.33, P≤0.01. However, less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time were not associated with parental distress (P>0.05. We conclude that parental expectations about their children’s sleep play a key role in understanding normal and abnormal sleep during childhood.

  5. CD54-Mediated Interaction with Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Increases the Immunosuppressive Function of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Espagnolle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs sense and modulate inflammation and represent potential clinical treatment for immune disorders. However, many details of the bidirectional interaction of MSCs and the innate immune compartment are still unsolved. Here we describe an unconventional but functional interaction between pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1MΦ and MSCs, with CD54 playing a central role. CD54 was upregulated and enriched specifically at the contact area between M1MФ and MSCs. Moreover, the specific interaction induced calcium signaling and increased the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs dependent on CD54 mediation. Our data demonstrate that MSCs can detect an inflammatory microenvironment via a direct and physical interaction with innate immune cells. This finding opens different perspectives for MSC-based cell therapy.

  6. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... service, as defined in § 54.401, to qualifying low-income consumers, and (b) Publicize the availability of...

  7. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  8. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  9. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-12-19

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate in fact contains stable prenucleation ion clusters forming even in undersaturated solution. The cluster formation can be characterized by means of equilibrium thermodynamics, applying a multiple-binding model, which allows for structural preformation. Stable clusters are the relevant species in calcium carbonate nucleation. Such mechanisms may also be important for the crystallization of other minerals.

  10. 26 CFR 54.4980B-4 - Qualifying events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying events. 54.4980B-4 Section 54.4980B... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-4 Qualifying events. The determination of what constitutes a qualifying event is addressed in the following questions and answers: Q-1: What is a qualifying...

  11. 28 CFR 5.4 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of time. 5.4 Section 5.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.4 Computation of time. Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing...

  12. 49 CFR 386.54 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 386.54 Section 386.54... General Rules and Hearings § 386.54 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Powers of an Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge may take any action and may prescribe all necessary rules and regulations...

  13. 29 CFR 96.54 - Responsibility for subrecipient audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibility for subrecipient audits. 96.54 Section 96.54 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.54 Responsibility for subrecipient audits. Recipients of Federal assistance from...

  14. 46 CFR 54.15-3 - Definitions (modifies Appendix 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). 54.15-3 Section 54.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-3 Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). (a) Definitions applicable to...

  15. 9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.3 Animals eligible for indemnity payments. (a) Indemnity may...

  16. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  17. 7 CFR 54.1001 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words. 54.1001 Section 54.1001 Agriculture... and Poultry Products § 54.1001 Meaning of words. For the purposes of the regulations in this subpart, words in the singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as the case may demand. ...

  18. 7 CFR 54.5 - Availability of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of service. 54.5 Section 54.5 Agriculture... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.5 Availability of... be imprinted by roller brand or handstamp and shall be applied so that the imprint is at least 2...

  19. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA...

  20. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance...

  1. 7 CFR 54.18 - Custody of identification devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of identification devices. 54.18 Section 54.18... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.18 Custody of..., shall be kept in the custody of the Branch, and accurate records shall be kept by the Branch of all such...

  2. 41 CFR 109-26.501-54 - Communications equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications equipment. 109-26.501-54 Section 109-26.501-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 109-26.501-54 Communications...

  3. 7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At...

  4. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support. (b...

  5. 47 CFR 54.301 - Local switching support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local switching support. 54.301 Section 54.301... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.301 Local switching support. (a) Calculation of local switching support. (1) Beginning January 1, 1998, an incumbent local exchange carrier that has...

  6. 47 CFR 54.415 - Consumer qualification for Link Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer qualification for Link Up. 54.415 Section 54.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.415 Consumer...

  7. 38 CFR 61.54 - Awarding technical assistance grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Awarding technical assistance grants. 61.54 Section 61.54 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.54 Awarding technical assistance grants. (a...

  8. 10 CFR 32.54 - Same: Labeling of devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Labeling of devices. 32.54 Section 32.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Generally Licensed Items § 32.54 Same: Labeling of devices. (a) A person...

  9. 40 CFR 205.54-2 - Sound data acquisition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound data acquisition system. 205.54-2 Section 205.54-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54-2 Sound...

  10. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park. (a...

  11. 46 CFR 111.54-3 - Remote control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote control. 111.54-3 Section 111.54-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Circuit Breakers § 111.54-3 Remote control. Remotely controlled circuit breakers must have local...

  12. 19 CFR 151.54 - Testing by Customs laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing by Customs laboratory. 151.54 Section 151.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Other Metal-Bearing Materials § 151.54 Testing by Customs laboratory. Samples taken in accordance with...

  13. 7 CFR 920.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 920.54 Section 920.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulations § 920.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, any person...

  14. 7 CFR 923.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 923.54 Section 923.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 923.54 Special purpose shipments...

  15. 12 CFR 327.54 - Requests for review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for review. 327.54 Section 327.54 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS Implementation of Dividend Requirements § 327.54 Requests for review. (a) An insured depository...

  16. 20 CFR 617.54 - State agency rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State agency rulemaking. 617.54 Section 617.54 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Administration by Applicable State Agencies § 617.54 State...

  17. 22 CFR 96.54 - Placement standards in outgoing cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Placement standards in outgoing cases. 96.54 Section 96.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... Cases) § 96.54 Placement standards in outgoing cases. (a) Except in the case of adoption by relatives or...

  18. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of obligation. 984.54 Section 984.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever...

  19. 19 CFR 113.54 - Cancellation of erroneous charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of erroneous charges. 113.54 Section 113.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Assessment of Damages and Cancellation of Bond § 113.54 Cancellation of...

  20. 45 CFR 400.54 - Notice and hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice and hearings. 400.54 Section 400.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... Assistance § 400.54 Notice and hearings. (a) Timely and adequate notice. (1) A written notice must be sent or...

  1. 50 CFR 14.54 - Unavailability of Service officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unavailability of Service officers. 14.54 Section 14.54 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....54 Unavailability of Service officers. (a) Designated ports. All wildlife arriving at a designated...

  2. 7 CFR 922.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 922.54 Section 922.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 922.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Except...

  3. 7 CFR 924.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 924.54 Section 924.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 924.54...

  4. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 945.54...

  5. 29 CFR 2700.54 - Notice of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of hearing. 2700.54 Section 2700.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.54 Notice of hearing. Except in expedited proceedings, written notice of the time, place...

  6. 20 CFR 901.54 - Petition for reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for reinstatement. 901.54 Section 901.54 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE... Termination of Enrollment § 901.54 Petition for reinstatement. Any individual whose enrollment has been...

  7. 32 CFR 54.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 54.2 Section 54.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.2 Applicability and scope. (a) This part applies to the Office...

  8. 42 CFR 433.54 - Bona fide donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bona fide donations. 433.54 Section 433.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Financial Participation § 433.54 Bona fide donations. (a) A bona fide donation means a provider-related...

  9. 7 CFR 966.54 - Shipments for special purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments for special purposes. 966.54 Section 966.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.54 Shipments for special purposes. Upon the basis of recommendations and...

  10. 45 CFR 81.54 - Request for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for hearing. 81.54 Section 81.54 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 81.54 Request for hearing. Within 20 days...

  11. 12 CFR 313.54 - Exception to due process procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exception to due process procedures. 313.54 Section 313.54 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.54 Exception to due process procedures. (a) The...

  12. 29 CFR 1960.54 - Training of top management officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training of top management officials. 1960.54 Section 1960.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Training § 1960.54 Training of top management officials. Each agency shall...

  13. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable and nominal charges. 447.54 Section 447.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal...

  14. 29 CFR 2200.54 - Requests for admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for admissions. 2200.54 Section 2200.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Prehearing Procedures and Discovery § 2200.54 Requests for admissions. (a) Scope. At any time after the...

  15. 7 CFR 925.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 925.54 Section 925.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Regulations in effect...

  16. 7 CFR 946.54 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments for specified purposes. 946.54 Section 946.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 946.54 Shipments for specified purposes...

  17. 37 CFR 11.54 - Initial decision of hearing officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision of hearing officer. 11.54 Section 11.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.54...

  18. 7 CFR 916.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 916.54 Section 916.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 916.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Except as otherwise...

  19. 19 CFR 115.54 - Renewal of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renewal of certificate. 115.54 Section 115.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Procedures for Approval of Individual Road Vehicles § 115.54 Renewal of certificate. A certificate of...

  20. 37 CFR 3.54 - Effect of recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of recording. 3.54 Section 3.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording § 3.54 Effect of...

  1. 7 CFR 947.54 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments for specified purposes. 947.54 Section 947.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 947.54 Shipments for specified purposes. (a) Whenever the...

  2. 7 CFR 985.54 - Issuance of annual allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of annual allotments. 985.54 Section 985.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.54...

  3. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54 Section 84.54 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...

  4. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54 Section 605.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  5. MENOPOST--calcium and vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment: a descriptive cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymondier, A; Caillet, P; Abbas-Chorfa, F; Ambrosi, V; Jaglal, S B; Chapurlat, R; Schott, A-M

    2013-02-01

    Adequate vitamin D/calcium supplementation during osteoporosis (OP) treatments seems insufficient. This cohort study within a national claims database evaluated calcium/vitamin D co-prescription in postmenopausal women initiating an OP treatment. A high co-prescription rate was observed with three quarters of women supplemented with calcium and/or vitamin D in agreement with current recommendations. Adequate calcium/vitamin D supplementation should be taken in combination with antiresorptive drugs in OP treatment. Despite guidelines, supplementation appears to be insufficient. The objective of this study was to describe and estimate co-prescription rates of calcium/vitamin D among postmenopausal women initiating an OP treatment. All women over 50 years with a first claim for a bisphosphonates, raloxifene, or strontium prescription filled between May and August 2010 were included in a retrospective cohort study. Data source was the health insurance claims database of the Rhône-Alpes area. Among 4,415 women, 77.0 % had co-prescription of calcium or vitamin D with initial OP treatment, of which 2,150 (49.7 %) had both calcium and vitamin D. The proportion of women with calcium and/or vitamin D (81.7 %) was significantly higher when OP treatment was a bisphosphonate compared to strontium (70.9 %) or raloxifene (67.0 %) (p calcium and vitamin D, 7.6 % received a bisphosphonate and vitamin D ± calcium fixed-combination pack. General practitioners prescribed two thirds of initial supplementation treatment (66.9 %). Patients were twice as likely to be prescribed supplementation when the prescriber was a rheumatologist (OR = 2; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.54). Three quarters of women initiating OP treatment were supplemented with calcium and/or vitamin D in agreement with current recommendations. This represents a high co-prescription rate.

  6. Composition and structure of calcium aluminosilicate microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharonova, O. M.; Oreshkina, N. A.; Zhizhaev, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    The composition was studied of calcium aluminosilicate microspheres of three morphological types in high-calcium fly ash from combustion of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk basin in slag-tap boilers at temperatures from 1400 to 1500°C and sampled in the first field of electrostatic precipitators at the Krasnoyarsk Cogeneration Power Station no. 2 (TETs-2). Gross compositions and the composition of local areas were determined using a scanning electron microscopy technique and an energy-dispersive analysis with full mapping of globules. With a high content of basic oxides O ox (68 to 79 wt %) and a low content of acid oxides K ox (21 to 31 wt %), type 1 microspheres are formed. They consist of heterogeneous areas having a porous structure and crystalline components in which the content of CaO, SiO2, or Al2O3 differs by two to three times and the content of MgO differs by seven times. With a lower content of O ox (55 to 63 wt %) and an elevated content of K ox (37 to 45 wt %), type 2 microspheres are formed. They are more homogeneous in the composition and structure and consist of similar crystalline components. Having a close content of O ox (46 to 53 wt %) and K ox (47 to 54 wt %), type 3 microspheres, which are a dense matter consisting of amorphous substance with submicron- and nanostructure of crystalline components, are formed. The basic precursor in formation of high-calcium aluminosilicate microspheres is calcium from the organomineral matter of coals with various contribution of Mg, Fe, S, or Na from the coal organic matter and Al, Fe, S, or Si in the form of single mineral inclusions in a coal particle. On the basis of the available data, the effect was analyzed of the composition of a CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO system on the melting and viscous properties of the matter in microspheres and formation of globules of different morphology. The results of this analysis will help to find a correlation with properties of microspheres in their use as functional

  7. Kisspeptin/Gpr54-independent GnRH activity in Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee-Ming; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Wong, Kai Mee; Seminara, Stephanie B.

    2009-01-01

    The kisspeptin/Gpr54 signaling pathway plays a critical role in reproduction by stimulating the secretion of GnRH, yet mice carrying mutations in Kiss1 (which encodes kisspeptin) or Gpr54 exhibit partial sexual maturation. For instance, a proportion of female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit vaginal oestrus, and some male Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit spermatogenesis.

  8. Calcium metabolism & hypercalcemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Motta, R; Cecchin, D; Ave, S; Camozzi, V; Basso, S M M; Luisetto, G

    2011-01-01

    Calcium is essential for many metabolic process, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. The metabolic pathways that contribute to maintain serum calcium levels are bone remodeling processes, intestinal absorption and secretion, and renal handling, but hypercalcemia occurs when at least 2 of these 3 metabolic pathways are altered. Calcium metabolism mainly depends on the activity of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Its secretion is strictly controlled by the ionized serum calcium levels through a negative feed-back, which is achieved by the activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) mainly expressed on the surface of the parathyroid cells. The PTH receptor in bone and kidney is now referred as PTHR1. The balance of PTH, calcitonin, and vitamin D has long been considered the main regulator of calcium metabolism, but the function of other actors, such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), Klotho, and TPRV5 should be considered. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common causes of hypercalcemia, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia may cause renal impairment, both temporary (alteration of renal tubular function) and progressive (relapsing nephrolithiasis), leading to a progressive loss of renal function, as well as severe bone diseases, and heart damages. Advances in the understanding of all actors of calcium homeostasis will be crucial, having several practical consequences in the treatment and prevention of hypercalcemia. This would allow to move from a support therapy, sometimes ineffective, to a specific and addressed therapy, especially in patients with chronic hypercalcemic conditions unsuitable for surgery.

  9. Masses of exotic calcium isotopes pin down nuclear forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienholtz, F; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; George, S; Herfurth, F; Holt, J D; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Menéndez, J; Neidherr, D; Rosenbusch, M; Schweikhard, L; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Stanja, J; Wolf, R N; Zuber, K

    2013-06-20

    The properties of exotic nuclei on the verge of existence play a fundamental part in our understanding of nuclear interactions. Exceedingly neutron-rich nuclei become sensitive to new aspects of nuclear forces. Calcium, with its doubly magic isotopes (40)Ca and (48)Ca, is an ideal test for nuclear shell evolution, from the valley of stability to the limits of existence. With a closed proton shell, the calcium isotopes mark the frontier for calculations with three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. Whereas predictions for the masses of (51)Ca and (52)Ca have been validated by direct measurements, it is an open question as to how nuclear masses evolve for heavier calcium isotopes. Here we report the mass determination of the exotic calcium isotopes (53)Ca and (54)Ca, using the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer of ISOLTRAP at CERN. The measured masses unambiguously establish a prominent shell closure at neutron number N = 32, in excellent agreement with our theoretical calculations. These results increase our understanding of neutron-rich matter and pin down the subtle components of nuclear forces that are at the forefront of theoretical developments constrained by quantum chromodynamics.

  10. Masses of exotic calcium isotopes pin down nuclear forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wienholtz, F; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; George, S; Herfurth, F; Holt, J D; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Menéndez, J; Neidherr, D; Rosenbusch, M; Schweikhard, L; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Stanja, J; Wolf, R N; Zuber, K

    2013-01-01

    The properties of exotic nuclei on the verge of existence play a fundamental part in our understanding of nuclear interactions. Exceedingly neutron-rich nuclei become sensitive to new aspects of nuclear forces. Calcium, with its doubly magic isotopes $^{40}$Ca and $^{48}$Ca, is an ideal test for nuclear shell evolution, from the valley of stability to the limits of existence. With a closed proton shell, the calcium isotopes mark the frontier for calculations with three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. Whereas predictions for the masses of $^{51}$Ca and $^{52}$Ca have been validated by direct measurements$^4$, it is an open question as to how nuclear masses evolve for heavier calcium isotopes. Here we report the mass determination of the exotic calcium isotopes $^{53}$Ca and $^{54}$Ca, using the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer of ISOLTRAP at CERN. The measured masses unambiguously establish a prominent shell closure at neutron number N = 32, in excellent agreement with our t...

  11. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duyff RL. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons; 2012:140. Rosen HN. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index. ...

  12. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in Martian meteorite EETA79001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Chips of glassy Lithology C of EETA79001 were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the mineralogy and petrogenesis of the glass that was shown by others to contain trapped Mars-like gases. Calcium carbonite was identified as massive to acicular crystals for which Ca, C, and O were the major elements. Calcium sulfate was identified as prismatic-acicular crystals with Ca and S as the major elements.

  13. Cyclotron Produced 44gSc from Natural Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, G.W.; Engle, J.W.; Valdovinos, H.F.; Barnhart, T.E.; Nickles, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    44gSc was produced by 16 MeV proton irradiation of unenriched calcium metal with radionuclidic purity greater than 95%. The thick target yield at saturation for 44gSc was 213 MBq/μA, dwarfing the yields of contaminants 43Sc,44mSc, 47Sc and 48Sc for practical bombardment times of 1–2 h. Scandium was isolated from the dissolved calcium target by filtration, and reconstituted in small volumes of dilute HCl. Reactions with the chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) indicated a reactivity of 54±14 Gbq/μmol at end-of-bombardment. PMID:22728844

  14. Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Arzu; Canbay, Emel; Bugra, Dursun; Zeybek, Umit; Yamaner, Sumer; Bulut, Turker

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kisspeptin-54; KP-54) is a 54-amino acid peptide was originally known as metastin that was implicated in suppression of tumor metastasis and circulating kisspeptin has been proposed as a tumor marker for numerous cancers in humans. However, the plasma level of KP-54 in gastric cancer (GC) remains undetermined. We aimed to investigate the plasma levels of KP-54 in patients with GC. Plasma KP-54 levels were quantified with enzyme-immunoassay from blood samples of 40 patients with GC at their initial staging and 59 age-matched controls. Plasma KP-54 levels were significantly higher in GC patients (63.3±17.9) than in controls (49.0±12.7) (p=0.000). Cut-off value for KP-54 was determined as 44 ng/ml and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, were 60%, 78%, 63%, and 74% respectively. Plasma KP-54 levels were not correlated with any clinicopathological features of GC patients (p>0.05). Result of our preliminary study suggest that plasma KP-54 levels might be a useful parameter in diagnosis of GC. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Calcium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control...

  16. Extracellular and Intracellular Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bronner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An organism with an internal skeleton must accumulate calcium while maintaining body fluids at a well-regulated, constant calcium concentration. Neither calcium absorption nor excretion plays a significant regulatory role. Instead, isoionic calcium uptake and release by bone surfaces causes plasma calcium to be well regulated. Very rapid shape changes of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in response to hormonal signals, modulate the available bone surfaces so that plasma calcium can increase when more low-affinity bone calcium binding sites are made available and can decrease when more high-affinity binding sites are exposed. The intracellular free calcium concentration of body cells is also regulated, but because cells are bathed by fluids with vastly higher calcium concentration, their major regulatory mechanism is severe entry restriction. All cells have a calcium-sensing receptor that modulates cell function via its response to extracellular calcium. In duodenal cells, the apical calcium entry structure functions as both transporter and a vitamin D–responsive channel. The channel upregulates calcium entry, with intracellular transport mediated by the mobile, vitamin D–dependent buffer, calbindin D9K, which binds and transports more than 90% of the transcellular calcium flux. Fixed intracellular calcium binding sites can, like the body's skeleton, take up and release calcium that has entered the cell, but the principal regulatory tool of the cell is restricted entry.

  17. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  18. Polysulfide calcium as multyfunctional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abramova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified method of producing of polysulfide calcium, the influence of various factors on the degree of polysulfide of product, as well as possible directions for its use as a multifunctional compound were considered.

  19. [Calcium metabolism after the menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanovitch, D; Klotz, H P

    1976-02-16

    The authors recall the antagonism between estradiol and parathormone. Estradiol tends to lower serum calcium and fix calcium in the bones as shown by one of us 25 years ago. The mechanism of this action of estrogen on calcium metabolism has been determined by numerous authors but some points are still not clear, e.g. the interferences between estrogen and calcitonin. Classically, parathormone is known to increase bony reabsorption and raise serum calcium. After the menopause the gradual reduction in estradiol secretion leads to post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is better to administer estrogens prophylactically to women after the menopause provided a cervical smear and mammography have been carried out to eliminate latent carcinoma of the breast or uterine cervix.

  20. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  1. Antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate in ischemic/reperfused diabetic rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, M E; Haines, D; Garay, E; Chiavaroli, C; Farine, J C; Hannaert, P; Berta, A; Garay, R P

    2001-10-05

    Calcium dobesilate possesses antioxidant properties and protects against capillary permeability by reactive oxygen species in the rat peritoneal cavity, but whether a similar action can take place in the diabetic rat retina is unknown. We investigated the oral treatment of diabetic rats with calcium dobesilate on the prevention of free radical-mediated retinal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (90 min ischemia followed by 3 min and/or 24 h of reperfusion). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were orally treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg of calcium dobesilate for 10 days (n=12 in each group). In the first series of studies, calcium dobesilate was found to significantly reduce the maldistribution of ion content in diabetic ischemic/reperfused rat retina. Thus, in diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg/day calcium dobesilate, ischemia/reperfusion provoked: (i) 27.5% increase in retinal Na(+) content compared to 51.8% in the vehicle-treated group (Pdobesilate was found to significantly protect diabetic rat retina against inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase activities by ischemia/reperfusion (54% and 41% reduction, respectively, with 100 mg/kg of calcium dobesilate) and also against changes in retinal ATP, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents. In the third series of experiments, rats treated with 100 mg/kg of calcium dobesilate reduced the hydroxyl radical signal intensity to 41% (measured by electron paramagnetic resonance), induced by ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic rat retina. Finally, 100 mg/kg calcium dobesilate significantly reduced retinal edema (measured by the thickness of the inner plexiform layer) in diabetic rats. In conclusion, oral treatment with calcium dobesilate significantly protected diabetic rat retina against oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Whether the antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate explain, at least in part, its beneficial therapeutic effects in diabetic

  2. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  3. Design and synthesis of fluorescent probes for GPR54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Masato; Misu, Ryosuke; Ohno, Hiroaki; Hirasawa, Akira; Ieda, Nahoko; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2014-07-01

    Kisspeptins are neuropeptides that induce the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone via the activation of the cognate receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54). The kisspeptin-GPR54 axis is associated with the onset of puberty and the maintenance of the reproductive system. In this study, several fluorescent probes have been designed and synthesized for rat GPR54 through the modification of the N-terminus of rat kisspeptins to allow for the visualization of the expression and localization of kisspeptin receptor(s) in living cells and native tissues. The tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) and rhodamine green (RG)-labeled kisspeptins exhibited good binding and agonistic activities towards GPR54, and the results of the application studies demonstrated that these fluorescent probes could be used effectively for the detection of GPR54 receptors in flow cytometry and confocal microscopy experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaishali B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.

  5. 46 CFR 54.05-6 - Toughness test temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toughness test temperatures. 54.05-6 Section 54.05-6... Toughness Tests § 54.05-6 Toughness test temperatures. Each toughness test must be conducted at temperatures not warmer than −20 °F or 10 °F below the minimum service temperature, whichever is lower, except that...

  6. Calcium signalling indicates bilateral power balancing in the Drosophila flight muscle during manoeuvring flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Skandalis, Dimitri A; Berthé, Ruben

    2013-05-06

    Manoeuvring flight in animals requires precise adjustments of mechanical power output produced by the flight musculature. In many insects such as fruit flies, power generation is most likely varied by altering stretch-activated tension, that is set by sarcoplasmic calcium levels. The muscles reside in a thoracic shell that simultaneously drives both wings during wing flapping. Using a genetically expressed muscle calcium indicator, we here demonstrate in vivo the ability of this animal to bilaterally adjust its calcium activation to the mechanical power output required to sustain aerodynamic costs during flight. Motoneuron-specific comparisons of calcium activation during lift modulation and yaw turning behaviour suggest slightly higher calcium activation for dorso-longitudinal than for dorsoventral muscle fibres, which corroborates the elevated need for muscle mechanical power during the wings' downstroke. During turning flight, calcium activation explains only up to 54 per cent of the required changes in mechanical power, suggesting substantial power transmission between both sides of the thoracic shell. The bilateral control of muscle calcium runs counter to the hypothesis that the thorax of flies acts as a single, equally proportional source for mechanical power production for both flapping wings. Collectively, power balancing highlights the precision with which insects adjust their flight motor to changing energetic requirements during aerial steering. This potentially enhances flight efficiency and is thus of interest for the development of technical vehicles that employ bioinspired strategies of power delivery to flapping wings.

  7. The sigma(54) regulon (sigmulon) of Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cases, I.; Ussery, David; de Lorenzo, V.

    2003-01-01

    , the sigma(54) regulon has been studied both in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and several species of the Rhizobiaceae. Here we present the analysis of the sigma(54) regulon (sigmulon) in the complete genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. We have developed an improved method for the prediction......% of the sigma(54)-dependent promoters of P. putida with high confidence. Our analysis has revealed new functions for sigma(54) and, by means of comparative analysis with the previous studies, we have drawn a potential mechanism for the evolution of this regulatory system....

  8. Calcium: the molecular basis of calcium action in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pochet, Roland; Donato, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    ... of Calcium Calcium Signalling in Excitable Cells Ca2+ Release in Muscle Cells by N. Macrez and J. Mironneau Calcium Signalling in Neurons Exemplified by Rat Sympathetic Ganglion Cells by S.J. M...

  9. 46 CFR 310.54 - General requirements for eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....54 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.54 General... person who is not a citizen shall be entitled to any office or position in the U.S. merchant marine by...

  10. 28 CFR 54.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to course offerings. 54.415 Section 54.415 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF..., football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (4...

  11. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b) No...

  12. 34 CFR 668.54 - Selection of applications for verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Verification of Student Aid Application Information § 668.54 Selection of applications for verification. (a) General... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selection of applications for verification. 668.54...

  13. 21 CFR 54.5 - Agency evaluation of financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial interests of any clinical investigator raise a serious question about the integrity of the data... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agency evaluation of financial interests. 54.5... FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE BY CLINICAL INVESTIGATORS § 54.5 Agency evaluation of financial interests. (a...

  14. 27 CFR 555.54 - Change of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notification of the new location of the business or operations to the Chief, Firearms and Explosives Licensing... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of address. 555.54 Section 555.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND...

  15. 7 CFR 1718.54 - Availability of model mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of model mortgage. 1718.54 Section 1718..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.54 Availability of model mortgage. Single copies of the model mortgage (RUS Informational...

  16. 7 CFR 550.54 - Invention disclosure and utilization reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. 550.54... Management of Agreements Reports and Records § 550.54 Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. (a) The Cooperator shall report Invention Disclosures and Utilization information electronically via i-Edison Web...

  17. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the requirements for coverage to constitute COBRA continuation...

  18. 9 CFR 54.10 - Tests for scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests for scrapie. 54.10 Section 54.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... proteinase resistant protein associated with scrapie, and that animal tests positive to such a test, the...

  19. 9 CFR 54.5 - Certification by owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification by owners. 54.5 Section... Indemnification Program § 54.5 Certification by owners. Before any indemnity is paid to an owner, the owner must sign a written agreement with APHIS, certifying the following: (a) The owner will make available for...

  20. 19 CFR 134.54 - Articles released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles released from Customs custody. 134.54 Section 134.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... released from Customs custody. (a) Demand for liquidated damages. If within 30 days from the date of the...

  1. 7 CFR 915.54 - Inspection and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and certification. 915.54 Section 915.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  2. 36 CFR 910.54 - Build-to height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Build-to height. 910.54... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.54 Build-to height. Build-to height means a specified minimum height of development to which the exterior wall of a building in a development must rise. Minor deviations...

  3. 28 CFR 54.455 - Textbooks and curricular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 54.455... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.455 Textbooks and curricular material... way the use of particular textbooks or curricular materials. ...

  4. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrate containing 25 percent water to 100 gallons of alcohol and, after mixing, by adding thereto 33.5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-B. 21.54 Section 21.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for RDAP participation. 550.54... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An inmate may receive incentives for his or her satisfactory participation in the RDAP. Institutions may offer...

  6. 19 CFR 122.54 - Aircraft of foreign registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate Customs officer: (1) Type of aircraft; (2) Nationality and registration number of aircraft; (3... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry. 122.54 Section 122.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 27 CFR 5.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegations of the Administrator. 5.4 Section 5.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www.ttb.gov) or by mailing a...

  8. 45 CFR 1355.54 - Submittal of advance planning documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statewide automated child welfare information system, signed by the appropriate State official, in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submittal of advance planning documents. 1355.54 Section 1355.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN...

  9. 28 CFR 54.400 - Education programs or activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education programs or activities. 54.400... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.400 Education programs or activities...

  10. 47 CFR 17.54 - Rated lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated lamp voltage. 17.54 Section 17.54... voltage. To insure the necessary lumen output by obstruction lights, the rated voltage of incandescent lamps used shall correspond to be within 3 percent higher than the voltage across the lamp socket during...

  11. Kisspeptin-54 levels are increased in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbay, Emel; Ergen, Arzu; Bugra, Dursun; Yamaner, Sumer; Eraltan, Ilhan Yaylim; Buyukuncu, Yilmaz; Bulut, Turker

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Kisspeptin, the product of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1, could have a role in tumor progression and invasion. In this pilot study, we investigated the association of plasma Kisspeptin-54 level with colorectal cancer (CRC). Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were quantified using enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) kits from blood samples of 81 patients with CRC at their initial staging and 59 age-matched healthy controls. Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were significantly higher in CRC patients (86.2 ± 20.5) than in controls (49 ± 12.7; p 54 detection was determined as 46 ng/ml, and area under curve (AUC) value was 0.766 with sensitivity 63 %, specificity 81.4 %, positive predictive value 82.2 %, negative predictive value 61.5 %, positive likelihood ratio 3.38, and negative likelihood ratio 0.46. Increased plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were significantly correlated with nodal involvement of CRC (Spearman, rs = 0.345, p = 0.002). Kisspeptin-54 was also found to be an independent predictive marker for lymph node metastases of CRC (p = 0; Exp(B): 2.053; 95 % CI, 1.255-2.851). Our results reveal that plasma Kisspeptin-54 measurement could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic parameter for CRC. Further prospective evaluation is needed to validate these findings and to establish the clinical usefulness of Kisspeptin-54 for CRC diagnostics.

  12. 28 CFR 54.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 54.140 Section 54.140 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing...

  13. 47 CFR 54.519 - State telecommunications networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State telecommunications networks. 54.519 Section 54.519 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... telecommunications networks. (a) Telecommunications services. State telecommunications networks may secure discounts...

  14. 47 CFR 54.502 - Supported telecommunications services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supported telecommunications services. 54.502 Section 54.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... telecommunications services. For purposes of this subpart, supported telecommunications services provided by...

  15. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.54 Section 417.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine...

  16. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX....... Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon...... appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than 1 s...

  17. [KISS-1/GPR54 genes and their role in reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Chu, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Ying-Jie

    2008-04-01

    KISS-1 gene and its receptor gene GPR54 play key roles in the initiation of puberty onset. The peptide product of the KiSS-1 gene, Kisspeptins stimulate gonadotrophins release to initiate puberty through the expression of GPR54 gene in the brain. So the level of KISS-1 and GPR54 mRNA in hypothalamus was very high on the onset of puberty. The expression of KISS-1gene was regulated by steroid hormone in different nuclei within the forebrain to control the reproduction in puberty. Loss of function mutations of GPR54 gene could cause idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and gonadotrophin-dependant premature puberty. This review also introduced the structure, expression, homology comparison, polymorphism of KISS-1 and GPR54 genes and their interrelation with other regulators of reproduction.

  18. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P parathyroid hormone levels (P animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  19. [Regulatory mechanism of calcium metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi

    It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. PTH binds to the G protein coupling receptor, PTH1R, and increases intracellular cAMP levels. Impirement in the PTH signalling causes many diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis with hormone resistance. Vitamin D is activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]by two steps of hydroxylation which occurs in the Liver and Kidney. Then, 1,25(OH)2D binds to vitamin D receptor(VDR), which works as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia are caused by various disorders including abnormal regulation of PTH and vitamin D production and their signal transduction.

  20. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium regulation of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szent-Györgyi, A G

    1975-07-01

    Calcium triggers contraction by reaction with regulatory proteins that in the absence of calcium prevent interaction of actin and myosin. Two different regulatory systems are found in different muscles. In actin-linked regulation troponin and tropomyosin regulate actin by blocking sites on actin required for complex formation with myosin; in myosin-linked regulation sites on myosin are blocked in the absence of calcium. The major features of actin control are as follows: there is a requirement for tropomyosin and for a troponin complex having three different subunits with different functions; the actin displays a cooperative behavior; and a movement of tropomyosin occurs controlled by the calcium binding on troponin. Myosin regulation is controlled by a regulatory subunit that can be dissociated in scallop myosin reversibly by removing divalent cations with EDTA. Myosin control can function with pure actin in the absence of tropomyosin. Calcium binding and regulation of molluscan myosins depend on the presence of regulatory light chains. It is proposed that the light chains function by sterically blocking myosin sites in the absence of calcium, and that the "off" state of myosin requires cooperation between the two myosin heads. Both myosin control and actin control are widely distributed in different organisms. Many invertebrates have muscles with both types of regulation. Actin control is absent in the muscles of molluscs and in several minor phyla that lack troponin. Myosin control is not found in striated vertebrate muscles and in the fast muscles of crustacean decapods, although regulatory light chains are present. While in vivo myosin control may not be excluded from vertebrate striated muscles, myosin control may be absent as a result of mutations of the myosin heavy chain.

  2. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori sigma54 promoter-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lara E; Brahmachary, Priyanka; Hoover, Timothy R

    2006-06-01

    Several Helicobacter pylori flagellar genes require sigma(54) for their transcription. Predicted H. pylori sigma(54)-dependent promoters display a preference for A at position -23 instead of C or T as occurs in promoters from most other bacteria. Substitution of the A at position -23 of the H. pylori flaB promoter with a C did not effect expression of a flaB'-'xylE reporter gene in H. pylori, whereas T or G substitutions at this position drastically reduced expression. Results of gel mobility shift assays that used DNA probes corresponding to core promoter sequences and a H. pylori sigma(54) protein fused to the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein suggested that H. pylori sigma(54) has a higher affinity for promoters with an A at the -23 position. The failure to observe an effect on expression for the flaB mutant promoter with the A to C substitution at the -23 position indicates that sequences flanking the core promoter region may assist binding of H. pylori sigma(54) to the mutant flaB promoter. Alternatively, H. pylori RNA polymerase or the sigma(54)-dependent activator FlgR may compensate for the reduced affinity of sigma(54) for the mutant flaB promoter.

  3. Can total cardiac calcium predict the coronary calcium score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Crudu, Vitalie; Parameswaran-Chandrika, Anoop; Romero-Corral, Abel; Purushottam, Bhaskar; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2011-01-21

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) shares the same risk factors as atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease as well as cardiovascular events. However, sensitivity and positive predictive value are low. We hypothesized that a global echocardiographic calcium score would better predict coronary atherosclerotic burden, as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), than MAC alone. An echocardiographic score was devised to measure global cardiac calcification in a semi-quantitative manner; this included calcification in the aortic valve and root, the mitral valve and annulus, and the sub-mitral apparatus. This score, and a simplified version, were compared with a similar calcification score by CT scan, as well as the CAC. There was a good correlation between the two global calcification scores; the echocardiographic score also correlated with CAC. Using CAC >400 as a measure of severe coronary atherosclerosis, an echocardiographic score ≥5 had a positive predictive value of 60%. Importantly, the simplified score performed equally well (≥3 had a positive predictive value of 62%). Global cardiac calcification, assessed by CT scan or echocardiography, correlates with the extent of coronary calcium. A semi-quantitative calcium score can be easily applied during routine echocardiographic interpretation and can alert the reader to the possibility of severe coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stoichiometric quantities of aqueous solutions of calcium maleate, iron(III) maleate and maleic acid. The reaction mixture was concentrated on a water bath until a brown coloured product formed after the addition of excess of acetone. The complex was vacuum dried and its identity was established by chemical analysis.

  5. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of ...

  6. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Ruiz, R F; Blaum, K; Ekström, A; Frömmgen, N; Hagen, G; Hammen, M; Hebeler, K; Holt, J D; Jansen, G R; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Nazarewicz, W; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Papenbrock, T; Papuga, J; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Wendt, K A; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-...

  7. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  8. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  9. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  11. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  12. Design and synthesis of downsized metastin (45-54) analogs with maintenance of high GPR54 agonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niida, Ayumu; Wang, Zixuan; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Tamamura, Hirokazu; Otaka, Akira; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Broach, James R; Peiper, Stephen C; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2006-01-01

    Metastin has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene product that mediates its function through a G protein coupled receptor, GPR54. To refine insight into the critical pharmacophore for the activation of GPR54, we have conducted alanine and d-amino acid scanning on a biologically active metastin fragment (45-54). Based on these data and structures of peptides previously reported to activate GPR54, a series of shortened metastin (45-54) derivatives were synthesized and tested for the ability to induce GPR54 signaling. These biological experiments were performed in yeast containing human GPR54 that was coupled to the pheromone response pathway and a pheromone responsive lacZ reporter gene. Compounds 32, 33, and 39, which possess an N-terminal basic group and a C-terminal RW-amide motif, were strong agonists, similar to the level of metastin. This may provide an approach to reverse the pro-metastatic effect of metastin deletion in multiple malignant tumors.

  13. 47 CFR 54.603 - Competitive bid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... categories set forth in the definition of health care provider, listed in § 54.601(a); (ii) The requester is... requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider; (iv) The requested service or...

  14. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... support mechanism, the low income support mechanism, the interstate access universal service support... SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator... the projected quarterly budgets before the Administrator disburses funds under the federal universal...

  15. 47 CFR 3.54 - Notification of change in address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.54... address of an accounting authority. Such written notification should be sent to the address shown in § 3...

  16. Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaoiconomou, Eleni; Lymperi, Maria; Petraki, Constantina; Philippou, Anastassios; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulou, Fani; Kafiri, Georgia; Vassilakos, George; Zografos, Georgios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the Kiss-1 gene countervails the metastatic aptitude of several cancer cell lines and solid-tumor neoplasias. However, there still remains ambiguity regarding its role in breast cancer and literature has arisen asserting that Kiss-1 expression may be linked to an aggressive phenotype and malignant progression. Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues. Paraffin-fixed cancer tissues from 43 women with resected breast adenocarcinomas and 11 specimens derived from women suffering from fibrocystic disease, serving as controls, were immunostained with Kiss-1 and GPR54 antibodies. Kiss-1 and GPR54 protein expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer compared to fibrocystic tissues (pbreast cancer and fibrocystic disease specimens. Kiss-1/GPR54 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer compared to non-malignant mammary tissues.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food...

  18. Bioactive and Hemocompatible Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña-Gutiérrez, Iván Omar; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Saldívar-Ramírez, Mirna María Guadalupe; Reséndiz-Hernández, Perla Janet; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sulphoaluminate cement (CSAC) is an attractive candidate for biomedical applications due to its appropriate mechanical properties and high calcium content. In vitro bioactivity and hemocompatibility of calcium sulphoaluminate cement were assessed. The cement was prepared from a mixture of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) clinker, gypsum and water. Cement samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for different periods of time (7, 14 and 21 days). The analyses of these...

  19. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Spiegel, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balan...

  20. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  1. Electrochemical Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yang; Song, Bingnan; Weijden, van der Renata D.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms and cannot be replaced or substituted. In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient membrane free electrochemical system for P removal and recovery as calcium phosphate (CaP). This method relies on in situ formation of hydroxide

  2. Review of 54 Cases of Prolonged Field Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoucy, Erik; Shackelford, Stacy; DuBose, Joseph J; Zweben, Seth; Rush, Stephen C; Kotwal, Russ S; Montgomery, Harold R; Keenan, Sean

    Prolonged field care (PFC) is field medical care applied beyond doctrinal planning time-lines. As current and future medical operations must include deliberate and contingency planning for such events, data are lacking to support efforts. A case review was conducted to define the epidemiology, environment, and operational factors that affect PFC outcomes. A survey distributed to US military medical providers solicited details of PFC encounters lasting more than 4 hours and included patient demographics, environmental descriptors, provider training, modes of transportation, injuries, mechanism of injury, vital signs, treatments, equipment and resources used, duration of PFC, and morbidity and mortality status on delivery to the next level of care. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey responses. Surveys from 54 patients treated during 41 missions were analyzed. The PFC provider was on scene at time of injury or illness for 40.7% (22/54) of cases. The environment was described as remote or austere for 96.3% (52/54) of cases. Enemy activity or weather also contributed to need for PFC in 37.0% (20/54) of cases. Care was provided primarily outdoors (37.0%; 20/54) and in hardened nonmedical structures (37.0%; 20/54) with 42.6% (23/54) of cases managed in two or more locations or transport platforms. Teleconsultation was obtained in 14.8% (8/54) of cases. The prehospital time of care ranged from 4 to 120 hours (median 10 hours), and five (9.3%) patients died prior to transport to next level of care. PFC in the prehospital setting is a vital area of military medicine about which data are sparse. This review was a novel initial analysis of recent US military PFC experiences, with descriptive findings that should prove helpful for future efforts to include defining unique skillsets and capabilities needed to effectively respond to a variety of PFC contingencies. 2017.

  3. Kisspeptin/Gpr54-independent gonadotrophin-releasing hormone activity in Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y M; Broder-Fingert, S; Wong, K M; Seminara, S B

    2009-12-01

    The kisspeptin/Gpr54 signalling pathway plays a critical role in reproduction by stimulating the secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), yet mice carrying mutations in Kiss1 (which encodes kisspeptin) or Gpr54 exhibit partial sexual maturation. For example, a proportion of female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice exhibit vaginal oestrus, and some male Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice exhibit spermatogenesis. To characterise this partial sexual maturation, we examined the vaginal cytology of female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice over time. Almost all mutant mice eventually enter oestrus, and then spontaneously transition from oestrus to dioestrus and back to oestrus again. These transitions are not associated with ovulation, and the frequency of these transitions increases with age. The oestrus exhibited by female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice was disrupted by the administration of the competitive GnRH antagonist acyline, which also resulted in lower uterine weights and, in Kiss1(-/-) mice, lower serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) concentrations. Similarly, male Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice treated with acyline had smaller testicular sizes and an absence of mature sperm. In addition to examining intact Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice, we also assessed the effects of acyline on gonadotrophin concentrations in gonadectomised mice. Gonadectomy resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH concentrations in male Gpr54(-/-) and Kiss1(-/-) mice. Acyline administration to gonadectomised Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) male mice lowered serum FSH and LH concentrations significantly. By contrast to males, gonadectomy did not result in significant gonadotrophin changes in female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice, but acyline administration was followed by a decrease in LH concentrations. These results demonstrate that, although kisspeptin signalling is critical for the high levels of GnRH activity required for normal sexual maturation and

  4. Kisspeptin/Gpr54-independent GnRH activity in Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee-Ming; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Wong, Kai Mee; Seminara, Stephanie B.

    2009-01-01

    The kisspeptin/Gpr54 signaling pathway plays a critical role in reproduction by stimulating the secretion of GnRH, yet mice carrying mutations in Kiss1 (which encodes kisspeptin) or Gpr54 exhibit partial sexual maturation. For instance, a proportion of female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit vaginal oestrus, and some male Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit spermatogenesis. To characterise this partial sexual maturation, we examined the vaginal cytology of female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice over time. Nearly all mutant mice eventually enter oestrus, then spontaneously transition from oestrus to dioestrus and back to oestrus again. These transitions are not associated with ovulation, and the frequency of these transitions increases with age. The oestrus exhibited by female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice was disrupted by administration of the competitive GnRH antagonist acyline, which also resulted in lower uterine weights and, in Kiss1−/− mice, lower serum FSH and LH concentrations. Similarly, male Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice treated with acyline had smaller testicular sizes and absence of mature sperm. In addition to examining intact Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice, we also assessed the effects of acyline on gonadotrophin concentrations in gonadectomised mice. Gonadectomy resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH concentrations in male Gpr54−/− and Kiss1−/− mice. Acyline administration to gonadectomised Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− male mice lowered serum FSH and LH concentrations significantly. In contrast to males, gonadectomy did not result in significant gonadotrophin changes in female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice, but acyline administration was followed by a decrease in LH concentrations. These results demonstrate that, while kisspeptin signaling is critical for the high levels of GnRH activity required for normal sexual maturation and for ovulation, Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice retain some

  5. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  7. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    When there is an extracellular change, cells get the message either by introduction of calcium ions into ... as it precipitates phosphate, the established energy currency of cells. Prolonged high intracellular calcium ... trigger proteins upon binding with free calcium ion(s) change their confirmation to modulate enzymes and ion ...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.1191 Section 582.1191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Supplements 1 § 582.5191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.5191 Section 582.5191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  10. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  11. Mitochondrial Calcium Sparkles Light Up Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Brian A; Ko, Rebecca W Y

    2017-02-27

    Discrete calcium signals in the fine processes of astrocytes are a recent discovery and a new mystery. In a recent issue of Neuron, Agarwal et al. (2017) report that calcium efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) contribute to calcium microdomains. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Calcium supplementation to prevent pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Calcium supplementation to prevent pre-eclampsia - a systematic review. G J Hofmeyr, A Roodt, A N Atallah, L Duley. Background. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may prevent high blood pressure and preterm labour. Objective. To assess the effects of calcium supplementation.

  15. The KiSS1/GPR54 system in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    The KiSS1/GPR54 system has now been identified in non-mammalian vertebrates. Transcripts encoding for KiSS1 and its receptor, GPR54, have been isolated from a number of fish species. The expression of their genes was characterized in the context of temporal and spatial expression and in response to endocrine manipulations. GPR54 sequence is conserved between mammals and fish, with a second receptor sequence identified in zebrafish. The KiSS1 gene sequence is highly divergent between mammals and fish, yet the human kisspeptin is capable of activating the fish GPR54. As in mammals, the fish KiSS1/GPR54 system appears to be partially regulated by gonadal steroids. The data available for fish are fragmented, yet indicate that the KiSS1/GPR54 system is functionally conserved in non-mammalian vertebrates and supports the notion that it has a role in pubertal development and reproduction in piscine systems.

  16. Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells.

  17. 7 CFR 993.54 - Establishment of salable and reserve percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....54 Section 993.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Control § 993.54 Establishment of..., 2005, § 993.54 was suspended indefinitely. ...

  18. Morphological Investigation of Calcium Carbonate during Ammonification-Carbonization Process of Low Concentration Calcium Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Huaigang Cheng; Xiaoxi Zhang; Huiping Song

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine calcium carbonate is a widely used cheap additive. The research is conducted in low degree supersaturation solution in order to study the polymorphic phases’ change and its factors of the calcium carbonate precipitate in the ammonification-carbonization process of the solution with calcium. Fine particles of calcium carbonate are made in the solution containing 0.015 mol/L of Ca2+. Over 98% of the calcium carbonate precipitate without ammonification resembles the morphology of calci...

  19. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  20. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-08-22

    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  2. Effect of laser photocoagulation combined with calcium dobesilate for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Tao Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical effect of panretinal laser photocoagulation combined with calcium hydroxide in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy(DR. METHODS: Selected 120 cases(204 eyesof DR patients who were treated in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2015 were randomly divided into study group(116 eyes in 66 patientswith calcium hydroxide, control group(88 eyes in 54 patients. Two groups were treated with panretinal laser photocoagulation, and the clinical effect of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: At 6mo after surgery, BCVA of study group was higher than that of control group, the difference was statistically significant(PPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Compared with simple laser photocoagulation, panretinal laser photocoagulation combined with calcium hydroxide for III - IV stage DR reduce fluorescein leakage area and CMT.

  3. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  4. The Calcium Wave of Vegetable Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TD. Geydan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential nutrient for plants; it is involved in developmental processes and in responses to biotic and abiotic factors. Several signals that modify the calcium concentration in the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and/or plastids have been observed. These changes in the calcium concentration in the cell interior are rapidly returned to basal levels, in the meantime, innumerable and complex signaling cascades. This note exposes the mechanisms of calcium transport through the cell membranes of the entrance of calcium in the plant cells.

  5. The Influence of Limestone And Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaran Danny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradations, filler and liquid asphalt mixed and solidified in a heat state. Limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture is used because both materials included in the most numerous sedimentary rock. Concrete asphalt mixture with the filler combination of limestone and calciumhydroxide is made with optimum asphalt 5.4%, one variation level of limestone (15%, and calcium hydroxide (15%, and three variation levels of fillers (5%, 7.5%, and 15% to get optimum asphalt levels and filler levels that are compatible with flood condition. Based on optimum asphalt 5.4% towards aggregate total weight and combined level of limestone and calcium hydroxide suitable for the conditions, 8.75 % towards fine aggregate weight. The characteristic value of limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture in maximum condition is VIM 4.55%, VMA 18.83%, stability 1031.26 kg and flow 4.93 mm, where the characteristic value meets the established specifications standard by Pekerjaan Umum Bina Marga. From the result, it is showed that the use of the mixture can decrease the value of stability and increase the value of flow, compared with asphalt and filler with normal levels.

  6. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebbar El-houcine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  7. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    Calcium is one of the several elements that can be found in milk distributed between the micellar and the serum milk phase. Calcium is important from a nutritional point of view, but its contribution to the functional and structural properties of dairy products has only recently been...... acknowledgement. The presence of calcium in a dynamic equilibrium between the serum and the micellar milk phase make the distribution susceptible to certain physicochemical conditions and to technological treatments of milk resulting in fluctuations in pH and temperature and also sensitive to addition of calcium...... salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...

  8. GPR54 polymorphisms in Chinese girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, X; Yu, H; Wei, X; Zhou, Y; Wang, W; Li, P; Gan, X; Wei, D; Xiao, J

    2007-01-01

    The GPR54 gene has been proved to be important in the process of puberty onset, yet no association study has been performed to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms in the gene on central precocious puberty (CPP). This study was designed to scan for polymorphisms in the GPR54 gene and to investigate the relationships between the genotypes of GPR54 and the disease. 272 Chinese Han girls diagnosed to be CPP patients were recruited as the case group and 288 unrelated normal Chinese Han girls as the control group. The whole GPR54 gene was directly sequenced in randomly selected case samples, and the polymorphisms identified were genotyped by ligase detection reaction in both groups. Distributions of the polymorphisms and haplotypes were calculated for statistical evaluation. Totally 6 polymorphisms were found in sequencing, one of which is a nonsynonymous mutation, while genotyping declared that another SNP located in the promoter region was statistically related to the disease (p = 0.037). One polymorphism in GPR54 gene might be correlated with some cases of CPP, likely by changes in expression of the receptor, but the moderate p value and the lack of functional data make it hard to confirm the correlation. Further studies on the polymorphisms are needed for the exact mechanism. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Menstrual cyclic change of metastin/GPR54 in endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tsukasa; Kang, Hyun Sook; Hosoe, Yuko; Kharma, Budiman; Abiko, Kaoru; Matsumura, Noriomi; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Mandai, Masaki; Murphy, Susan K; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-06-01

    Metastin/kisspeptin is encoded by KISS1 and functions as an endogenous ligand of GPR54. Interaction of metastin with GPR54 suppresses metastasis and also regulates release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which promotes secretion of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We have previously demonstrated epigenetic regulation of GPR54 in endometrial cancer and the potent role of metastin peptides in inhibiting metastasis in endometrial cancer. However, little is known about how the metastin-GPR54 axis is regulated in the endometrium, the precursor tissue of endometrial cancer. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) within the endometrium show morphological changes when exposed to E2 and P4. In this study, we show that metastin expression is induced in ESCs through decidualization, but is repressed in glandular components of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial cancer relative to EGCs. The promoter of GPR54 is unmethylated in normal endometrium and in AEH. These results indicate metastin may function in decidualized endometrium to prepare for adequate placentation but this autocrine secretion of metastin is deregulated during oncogenesis to enable tumor cells to spread.

  10. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika; Varenganayil, Muth M; Decho, Alan W; Waltimo, Tuomas; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  11. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer

    Full Text Available Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  12. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had...... higher urinary calcium excretion than female mice and their renal calcium transporters were expressed at a lower level. We also found that orchidectomized mice excreted less calcium in their urine than sham-operated control mice and that the hypocalciuria was normalized after testosterone replacement...... calcium transport. Thus, our study shows that gender differences in renal calcium handling are, in part, mediated by the inhibitory actions of androgens on TRPV5-mediated active renal calcium transport....

  14. A Closer look at calcium absorption and the benefits and risks of dietary versus supplemental calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Anna; Camacho, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    To perform a thorough search of the literature on calcium research and specifically address the topic of calcium absorption. PubMed and Ovid were the main engines used for primary literature searches; textbooks, review articles, and book chapters are examples of the other sources used for supplemental information. Regarding calcium absorption, it seems apparent that the absorption efficiency of all calcium salts, regardless of solubility, is fairly equivalent and not significantly less than the absorption efficiency of dietary calcium. However, dietary calcium has been shown to have greater impact in bone building than supplemental calcium. This is likely due to improved absorption with meals and the tendency of people to intake smaller amounts more frequently, which is more ideal for the body's method of absorption. In addition, the cardiovascular risks of excessive calcium intake appear to be more closely related to calcium supplements than dietary calcium; this relationship continues to be controversial in the literature. We conclude that further studies are needed for direct comparison of supplemental and dietary calcium to fully establish if one is superior to the other with regard to improving bone density. We also propose further studies on the cardiovascular risk of long-term increased calcium intake and on physician estimates of patients' daily calcium intake to better pinpoint those patients who require calcium supplementation.

  15. Compact potentiostat for cellular electrochemical imaging with 54 parallel channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergani, Marco; Carminati, M.; Ferrari, G.

    2012-01-01

    and compact enough to be placed under the objective of a standard microscope for simultaneous optical and electrochemical monitoring. Each channel, scanned every 54μs, features 3pA current resolution over a 5kHz bandwidth, suitable for detecting single exocytotic events. The design and electrical......A novel potentiostat containing 54 current amplifiers matched to an array of custom-fabricated 5μm microelectrodes for electrochemical imaging of released neurotransmitters is presented. The board is integrated with a programmable microfluidic cell culture system and the whole assembly is thin...... characterization of the system are reported together with its functionality, certified by a 54-pixel electrochemical imaging of the diffusion of a 10μl droplet of a target analyte inside the cell culture chamber....

  16. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  17. Kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate formation from tricalcium aluminate, calcium sulfate and calcium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuerun, E-mail: xuerunli@163.com; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdshen@njut.edu.cn; Wang, Qianqian; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-15

    The formation kinetics of tricalcium aluminate (C{sub 3}A) and calcium sulfate yielding calcium sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$) and the decomposition kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate were investigated by sintering a mixture of synthetic C{sub 3}A and gypsum. The quantitative analysis of the phase composition was performed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis using the Rietveld method. The results showed that the formation reaction 3Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + CaSO{sub 4} → Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 6CaO was the primary reaction < 1350 °C with and activation energy of 231 ± 42 kJ/mol; while the decomposition reaction 2Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 10CaO → 6Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + 2SO{sub 2} ↑ + O{sub 2} ↑ primarily occurred beyond 1350 °C with an activation energy of 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. The optimal formation region for C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$ was from 1150 °C to 1350 °C and from 6 h to 1 h, which could provide useful information on the formation of C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$ containing clinkers. The Jander diffusion model was feasible for the formation and decomposition of calcium sulfoaluminate. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were the diffusive species in both the formation and decomposition reactions. -- Highlights: •Formation and decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate were studied. •Decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate combined CaO and yielded C{sub 3}A. •Activation energy for formation was 231 ± 42 kJ/mol. •Activation energy for decomposition was 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. •Both the formation and decomposition were controlled by diffusion.

  18. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaing, Win; Vallibhakara, Sakda Arj-Ong; Tantrakul, Visasiri; Vallibhakara, Orawin; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo). Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects. Twenty-seven RCTs with 28,000 women were eligible. A direct meta-analysis suggested that calcium, vitamin D, and calcium plus vitamin D could lower risk of preeclampsia when compared to placebo with the pooled risk ratios (RRs) of 0.54 (0.41, 0.70), 0.47 (0.24, 0.89) and 0.50 (0.32, 0.78), respectively. Results of network meta-analysis were similar with the corresponding RRs of 0.49 (0.35, 0.69), 0.43 (0.17, 1.11), and 0.57 (0.30, 1.10), respectively. None of the controls were significant. Efficacy of supplementation, which was ranked by surface under cumulative ranking probabilities, were: vitamin D (47.4%), calcium (31.6%) and calcium plus vitamin D (19.6%), respectively. Calcium supplementation may be used for prevention for preeclampsia. Vitamin D might also worked well but further large scale RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:29057843

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Khaing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo. Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects. Twenty-seven RCTs with 28,000 women were eligible. A direct meta-analysis suggested that calcium, vitamin D, and calcium plus vitamin D could lower risk of preeclampsia when compared to placebo with the pooled risk ratios (RRs of 0.54 (0.41, 0.70, 0.47 (0.24, 0.89 and 0.50 (0.32, 0.78, respectively. Results of network meta-analysis were similar with the corresponding RRs of 0.49 (0.35, 0.69, 0.43 (0.17, 1.11, and 0.57 (0.30, 1.10, respectively. None of the controls were significant. Efficacy of supplementation, which was ranked by surface under cumulative ranking probabilities, were: vitamin D (47.4%, calcium (31.6% and calcium plus vitamin D (19.6%, respectively. Calcium supplementation may be used for prevention for preeclampsia. Vitamin D might also worked well but further large scale RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings.

  20. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  1. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  2. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  3. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nuc...

  4. Calcium gluconate supplementation is effective to balance calcium homeostasis in patients with gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Keller, J; Beil, B; van Driel, I; Zustin, J; Barvencik, F; Schinke, T; Amling, M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate histological evidence for hyperparathyroidism in patients with gastrectomy. This is, at least in part, explained by impaired calcium absorption, resulting in mineralization defects and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Additionally, we demonstrate improved bone mineralization in patients with gastrectomy after gluconate therapy and showed the effectiveness of calcium gluconate over carbonate to balance impaired calcium hemostasis in mice. Gastrectomy and hypochlorhydria due to long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are associated with increased fracture risk because of intestinal calcium malabsorption. Hence, our objectives were to histologically investigate bone metabolism in patients with gastrectomy and to analyze the impact of calcium gluconate supplementation on skeletal integrity in the setting of impaired gastric acidification. Undecalcified bone biopsies of 26 gastrectomized individuals were histologically analyzed. In the clinical setting, we retrospectively identified 5 gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level, who were additionally supplemented with calcium gluconate and had a real bone mineral density (aBMD) follow-up assessments. A mouse model of achlorhydria (ATP4b-/-) was used to compare the effect of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate supplementation on bone metabolism. Biopsies from gastrectomized individuals showed significantly increased osteoid, osteoclast, and osteoblast indices and fibroosteoclasia (p < 0.05) as well as impaired calcium distribution in mineralized bone matrix compared to healthy controls. Five gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level demonstrated a significant increase in aBMD after a treatment with calcium gluconate alone for at least 6 months (p < 0.05). Calcium gluconate was superior to calcium carbonate in maintaining calcium metabolism in a mouse model of achlorhydria. Gastrectomy is associated with severe osteomalacia, marrow fibrosis, and impaired calcium distribution

  5. 28 CFR 54.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.445 Marital or parental status. (a... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and...

  6. 28 CFR 54.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.530 Marital or parental... the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for employment that...

  7. 7 CFR 3550.54 - Calculation of income and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.54... received for the care of foster children or foster adults; (3) Amounts granted for or in reimbursement of... (including gifts); (6) Lump sum additions to family assets such as inheritances; capital gains; insurance...

  8. 45 CFR 1309.54 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors in the construction or... PROGRAM HEAD START FACILITIES PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Construction and Major Renovation § 1309.54 Davis-Bacon Act. Construction and renovation projects and subcontracts financed with...

  9. 7 CFR 54.1015 - Official reports, forms, and certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1015 Official reports, forms, and...

  10. 7 CFR 54.1017 - Authority to use official identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1017 Authority to use official...

  11. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in international... serving of a summons, subpoena, or other legal notice, or the execution of a civil judgment. In United... applicable laws of that jurisdiction. See § 92.66 for procedures in the use of letters rogatory requesting...

  12. 47 CFR 54.509 - Adjustments to the discount matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the discount matrix. 54.509... discount matrix. (a) Estimating future spending requests. When submitting their requests for specific... Administrator, to estimate funding demand for the following year. (b) Reduction in percentage discounts. At all...

  13. 47 CFR 54.514 - Payment for discounted service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for discounted service. 54.514 Section... discounted service. (a) Choice of payment method. Service providers providing discounted services under this... choose the method of payment for the discounted services from those methods approved by the Administrator...

  14. 27 CFR 18.54 - Transfer of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.54... juice, of at least 70 Brix, made from the same kind of fruit as the concentrate; or (3) Malic, citric, or tartaric acid. (d) Record of transfer. The proprietor shall record transfers of concentrate...

  15. 41 CFR 301-54.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.2 What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is your..., etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay you receive from your agency, e.g., basic pay...

  16. 46 CFR 54.01-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Nickel (“ASTM A 203”), 54.05-20; (3) ASTM A 370-97a...) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990...) Compressed Gas Association (CGA), 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10036: (1) S-1.2, Pressure Relief Device...

  17. 47 CFR 54.409 - Consumer qualification for Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the definition of “reservation” and “near reservation,” as defined in § 54.400(e), must ensure that... for Needy Families. (c) A consumer that lives on a reservation or near a reservation, but does not... Indian Affairs general assistance; Tribally administered Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Head...

  18. 47 CFR 54.403 - Lifeline support amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.403 Lifeline support amount. (a) The... local exchange carrier serving the area in which the qualifying low-income consumer receives service, as...

  19. 47 CFR 54.407 - Reimbursement for offering Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.407 Reimbursement for offering Lifeline. (a) Universal service support for providing Lifeline shall be provided directly to the... carrier may receive universal service support reimbursement for each qualifying low-income consumer served...

  20. 47 CFR 54.400 - Terms and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.400 Terms and definitions. As used in this subpart, the following terms shall be defined as follows: (a) Qualifying low-income consumer. A...

  1. 47 CFR 54.411 - Link Up program defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.411 Link Up program defined. (a) For... low-income consumers, which an eligible telecommunications carrier shall offer as part of its...

  2. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for wide area networks. 54.518 Section... area networks. To the extent that states, schools, or libraries build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of such wide area networks shall not be eligible for...

  3. 49 CFR 230.54 - Testing and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.54 Testing and maintenance. (a) Testing. All water glasses must be blown out, all gauge cocks must be tested, and all passages verified to be open at the beginning of each.... Gauge cocks, water column drain valves, and water glass valves must be maintained in such condition that...

  4. 10 CFR 51.54 - Environmental report-manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturing license, the benefits and impacts of utilizing the reactor in a nuclear power plant, or an... 51.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... Environmental Report—Manufacturing License.” The environmental report must address the costs and benefits of...

  5. Commissioning of the LEIR electron cooler with Pb$^{+54}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Carly, Ch; Prieto, V; Sautier, R; Bubley, A; Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V; Brizgunov, M; Vedenev, M; Panasyuk, V

    2006-01-01

    The new LEIR cooler with a variable profile of the electron beam and electrostatic bending was commissioned in 2005-2006. In this paper we present our experience with the commissioning of the new device as well as the first results of the ion beam Pb +54 cooling with a high-intensity variable-density electron beam.

  6. 46 CFR 54.30-5 - Limitations and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... require stress relief (see Table 54.01-5(b)) may be mechanically stress relieved provided: (1) The steels...) Types d, e, and f because expansion and contraction stresses are concentrated at the junction points. (5... type one as described in Table UW-12 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and...

  7. 47 CFR 54.703 - The Administrator's Board of Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... professional and biographical information about the nominee, to the Chairman of the Federal Communications... Section 54.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... filed with the Office of the Secretary of the Federal Communications Commission in accordance with part...

  8. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member, of...

  9. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process.

  10. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  11. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events. PMID:17663775

  12. Intestinal absorption of calcium from foodstuffs as compared to a pharmaceutical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, E; Hansen, Ch; Roth, P; Kaltwasser, J P

    1999-01-01

    Only few data are available on intestinal calcium absorption from foodstuffs and composite meals in humans. The aim of the study was to compare intraindividually the calcium absorption from milk and from a breakfast with that from a pharmaceutical calcium preparation of equal calcium content. In 8 healthy volunteers between 44 and 58 years of age, the intestinal calcium absorption was measured in randomized order applying the double isotope technique from: (1) 500ml of fresh milk (equivalent to 620mg Ca), (2) a test meal composed of 250 g curd, 150g yoghurt, 3 slices pineapple, 2 breakfast rolls, 2 cups of coffee, 10g of coffee cream, 20g butter, 50g jam and 20g honey (equivalent to 580mg Ca), and (3) a lactogluconate effervescent tablet (equivalent to 500mgCa). All test doses were given on an empty stomach and labelled with 20mg 44Ca. Simultaneously, 5mg 42Ca in a sterile isotonic solution were injected intravenously. The mean values of the absorbed fractions are 24.0% +/- 5.4% (mean +/-SD), 17.9% +/- 7.1%, and 28.7% +/- 9.1% for the milk, for the meal and for the tablet respectively. The data show that less calcium is absorbed from foodstuffs as compared to a preparation of optimal bioavailability. But in this study only the difference between absorption from the milk and from the meal was statistically significant. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a sufficient calcium supply of the human body also by properly selected foodstuffs.

  13. Induced calcium carbonate precipitation using Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an emerging process for the production of self-healing concrete. This study was aimed to investigate the effects and optimum conditions on calcium carbonate biosynthesis. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, yeast extract, urea, calcium chloride and aeration were found to be the most significant factors affecting the biomineralization of calcium carbonate. It was noticed that the morphology of microbial calcium carbonate was mainly affected by the genera of bacteria (cell surface properties), the viscosity of the media and the type of electron acceptors (Ca2+). The maximum calcium carbonate concentration of 33.78 g/L was achieved at the optimum conditions This value is the highest concentration reported in the literature.

  14. Calcium excretion in feces of ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Foose, T J; Williams, J; Hintz, H F

    1983-01-01

    1. Fecal excretion of calcium was examined in 122 individual ungulates representing 7 species of Equidae, 3 species of Tapiridae, 3 species of Rhinocerotidae, 2 species of Elephantidae, 2 species of Hippopotamidae, 12 species of Bovidae, 2 species of Cervidae, 3 species of Camellidae and 1 species of Giraffidae. 2. Animals were fed timothy hay, a low calcium diet or alfalfa hay, a high calcium diet. 3. In a few cases oat straw or prairie hay was used instead of timothy hay. 4. Samples of feces were obtained from individuals daily for 4 days following a 20 day dietary equilibration period. 5. Feces of equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants had a lower calcium concentration and a lower Ca/P ratio than feces of ruminants when the animals were fed diets of equivalent calcium content. 6. The findings suggest that the non-ruminant ungulate equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants absorb a larger proportion of dietary calcium than ruminants do.

  15. Binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribello, Gareth A; Liew, CheeChin; Parrinello, Michele

    2009-05-21

    Polyacrylate molecules can be used to slow the growth of calcium carbonate. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the molecules impede the growth rate. A recent computational study (Bulo et al. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3437) used metadynamics to investigate the binding of calcium to polyacrylate chains and has thrown some light on the coiling and precipitation of these polymers. We extend these simulations to examine the binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylate chains. We show that calcium complexed with both carbonate and polyacrylate is a very stable species. The free energies of calcium-carbonate-polyacrylate complexes, with different polymer configurations, are calculated, and differences in the free energy of the binding of carbonate are shown to be due to differences in the amount of steric hindrance about the calcium, which prevents the approach of the carbonate ion.

  16. WAYS TO CORRECT CALCIUM DEFFICIT AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Taibulatov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the urgent issue of the pediatrics — calcium deficit among children. The authors provide modern data on the scheme of the normal calcium exchange in the human body. They also review the main diseases related to the disorders of the pho sphorocalcic metabolism, requiring prompt prevention and treatment by calcium based medications. The researchers stress the diseases of the musculoskeletal system, as insufficient calcium, phosphorus and vitamins supply of the child's body chiefly effects the state of the skeletal and muscular tissue. They give recommendations how to use the vitamin and mineral complex to correct calcium deficit.Key words: calcium deficit, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, vitamin and mineral complex, children.

  17. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium dobesilate: pharmacology and future approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, T; Ruiz, E

    1998-09-01

    1. Calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate) is a drug commonly used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and chronic venous insufficiency. 2. The pharmacology of calcium dobesilate reveals its ability to decrease capillary permeability, as well as platelet aggregation and blood viscosity. 3. Furthermore, recent data show that calcium dobesilate increases endothelium-dependent relaxation owing to an increase in nitric oxide synthesis.

  19. Presynaptic calcium dynamics of learning neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Erler, Frido; Soff, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    We present a new model for the dynamics of the presynaptic intracellular calcium concentration in neurons evoked by various stimulation protocols. The aim of the model is twofold: We want to discuss the calcium transients during and after specific stimulation protocols as they are used to induce long-term-depression and long-term-potentiation. In addition we would like to provide a general tool which allows the comparison of different calcium experiments. This may help to draw conclusions on ...

  20. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Polowczyk; Anna Bastrzyk; Marta Fiedot

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquire...

  1. Mechanical Properties of a Calcium Dietary Supplement, Calcium Fumarate Trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijing; Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Li, Wei; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2015-12-07

    The mechanical properties of calcium fumarate trihydrate, a 1D coordination polymer considered for use as a calcium source for food and beverage enrichment, have been determined via nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction with single crystals. The nanoindentation studies reveal that the elastic modulus (16.7-33.4 GPa, depending on crystallographic orientation), hardness (1.05-1.36 GPa), yield stress (0.70-0.90 GPa), and creep behavior (0.8-5.8 nm/s) can be rationalized in view of the anisotropic crystal structure; factors include the directionality of the inorganic Ca-O-Ca chain and hydrogen bonding, as well as the orientation of the fumarate ligands. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show a bulk modulus of ∼ 20 GPa, which is indicative of elastic recovery intermediate between small molecule drug crystals and inorganic pharmaceutical ingredients. The combined use of nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques provides a complementary experimental approach for probing the critical mechanical properties related to tableting of these dietary supplements.

  2. Calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B J; Klein, M G; Schneider, M F

    1991-03-01

    The steady-state calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was studied in voltage-clamped, cut segments of frog skeletal muscle fibers containing two calcium indicators, fura-2 and anti-pyrylazo III (AP III). Fura-2 fluorescence was used to monitor resting calcium and relatively small calcium transients during small depolarizations. AP III absorbance signals were used to monitor larger calcium transients during larger depolarizations. The rate of release (Rrel) of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was calculated from the calcium transients. The equilibrium calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release was determined using 200-ms prepulses of various amplitudes to elevate [Ca2+] to various steady levels. Each prepulse was followed by a constant test pulse. The suppression of peak Rrel during the test pulse provided a measure of the extent of inactivation of release at the end of the prepulse. The [Ca2+] dependence of inactivation indicated that binding of more than one calcium ion was required to inactivate each release channel. Half-maximal inactivation was produced at a [Ca2+] of approximately 0.3 microM. Variation of the prepulse duration and amplitude showed that the suppression of peak release was consistent with calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release but not with calcium depletion. The same calcium dependence of inactivation was obtained using different amplitude test pulses to determine the degree of inactivation. Prepulses that produced near maximal inactivation of release during the following test pulse produced no suppression of intramembrane charge movement during the test pulse, indicating that inactivation occurred at a step beyond the voltage sensor for calcium release. Three alternative set of properties that were assumed for the rapidly equilibrating calcium-binding sites intrinsic to the fibers gave somewhat different Rrel records, but gave very similar calcium dependence of

  3. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polowczyk, Izabela; Bastrzyk, Anna; Fiedot, Marta

    2016-11-22

    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure's growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO₃ particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to 'stack-like' structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO₃ formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein.

  4. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A

    2011-11-01

    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [ZINK IS ACTIVATOR OF ENTERAL CALCIUM METABOLISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, E P; Ksenofontov, D A; Revyakin, A O; Ivanov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on goats and rabbits showed that zinc supplement to the diet leads to calcium concentration rise in muscle, bone and blood of animals. However, this rise was not adequate to increase in.zinc consumption. The bulk of alimentary zinc stayed in soluble fraction, dense endogen fraction and infusoria fraction of digesta and stimulated calcium release from food particles, it's accumulation in digesta fractions and calcium utilization on the whole. Authors estimate animal digesta as homeostatic, spatial organized, endogenic formation in which zinc and calcium are functionally dependent through enteral mucosa.

  6. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    .149 Ryd, respectively, relative to the s band, give the best possible agreement. Under increasing pressure the s and p electrons are found to transfer into the d band, and Ca undergoes metal-semimetal-metal electronic transitions. Calculations of the bandstructure and the electronic pressure, including......The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  7. Recruited renin-containing renal microvascular cells demonstrate the calcium paradox regulatory phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacGriff S

    2014-01-01

    normal-diet rats (P<0.04. Renin release in normal calcium media was 447.0±54.3 ng AngI/mL/hour/mg protein, and in low-calcium media increased 36% to 607.6±96.1 ng AngI/mL/hour/mg protein (P<0.05. Thus, renin-containing cells recruited in the afferent microvasculature not only express and secrete renin but demonstrate the calcium paradox, suggesting renin secretion from recruited renin-containing cells share the JG phenotype for regulating renin secretion. Keywords: renin recruitment, calcium, renal microvessels, prorenin, low-salt diet, afferent arteriole

  8. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A

    2015-05-07

    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 °C are -74.50 ± 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 ± 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water.

  9. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  10. Impaired body calcium metabolism with low bone density and compensatory colonic calcium absorption in cecectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongwattanapisan, P.; Suntornsaratoon, P.; Wongdee, K.; Dorkkam, N.; Krishnamra, N.; Charoenphandhu, N.

    2012-01-01

    An earlier study reported that cecal calcium absorption contributes less than 10% of total calcium absorbed by the intestine, although the cecum has the highest calcium transport rate compared with other intestinal segments. Thus, the physiological significance of the cecum pertaining to body

  11. Plasma membrane calcium pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in maintenance and control of calcium concentrations in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juska, Alfonsas

    2010-01-29

    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the activity of the mechanisms responsible for control of cytosolic calcium concentration in platelets by modeling the time-course of the concentration changing in response to discharge of the intracellular stores or store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). The parameters estimated as a result of model fitting to experimental data are related to physiological or pathological state of the cells. It has been shown that: (a) the time-course is determined by the passive calcium fluxes and activities of the corresponding mechanisms; (b) the decline in the concentration (after its rise) develops due to activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) both in the case of discharge of the stores of platelets contained in calcium-free medium and in the case of SOCE; (c) impulsive extrusion of calcium in response to its sudden influx, presumably, is the main function of PMCA; (d) the function of sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is to extrude calcium excess by permanent counteracting its influx. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Internal bremsstrahlung endpoint energy of {sup 54}Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindi, M. M. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States); Larimer, R.-M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Norman, E. B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rech, G. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    For {sup 54}Mn there is a discrepancy between the Q{sub EC} obtained from the endpoint energy of the internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectrum which accompanies the electron capture decay (Q{sub EC}=1353{+-}8 keV) and that obtained from the accepted mass differences (Q{sub EC}=1377{+-}1 keV). This Q value is needed to deduce the partial-half life of the astrophysically interesting {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 54}Mn from the recently measured {beta}{sup +} partial half-life. To resolve this discrepancy, we have remeasured the endpoint energy of the IB spectrum, by recording coincidences between the IB and the 835-keV {gamma} ray, both detected in Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The Q{sub EC} we deduce is 1379{+-}8 keV, in agreement with the accepted mass differences. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  13. Looks: Studio 54 and the Production of Fabulous Nightlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    madison alexander moore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 92 528 yale university 4 1 619 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE This article combines my experience as a party-host and nightlife-creator with a close reading of Studio 54 as a theatrical production. I call for a consideration of how the staging of nightlife functions as an art form, relying on the dual practices of creation and curation. I provide a close reading of the tightly-staged Studio 54 experience, focusing on the club's infamously tight door policy and production of fabulousness to reveal what scholars and ethnographers of nightlife can learn from approaching nightlife as an artistic production. This approach can also inform a nightlife-focused research agenda.  

  14. Pseudogout and Calcium Pyrophosphate Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Williamson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 53-year-old male presented with worsening right knee pain and swelling over the past 48 hours. He denied recent trauma to the knee, history of IV drug use, and recent illness. He had no history of diabetes, immunodeficiency, chronic steroids, rheumatologic disease, or knee replacement. He described the pain as sharp, non-radiating, and worse with movement. He was unable to walk due to pain. Significant findings: Radiographs of the knee showed multiple radio-dense lines paralleling the articular surface (see red arrows consistent with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition within the joint often seen in calcium pyrophosphate disease (CPPD also known as pseudogout. Discussion: Patients commonly present to the emergency department with non-traumatic joint pain. Arthrocentesis is an important diagnostic tool to evaluate for septic arthritis, gout, or pseudogout. Arthrocentesis can demonstrate crystals or abnormal cell count, gram stain, and culture.[1] In the evaluation of joint pain, plain films are usually obtained to evaluate for fracture, dislocation, effusion, or secondary signs of infection. In this case the classic x-ray supported the diagnosis of CPPD.2 The patient was found to have positively birefringent rhomboid shaped crystals consistent with pseudogout on arthrocentesis. Gram stain and culture were both negative. The patient was discharged with NSAIDs and had significant improvement in symptoms upon follow up with primary care physician in 3 days.

  15. Paclitaxel induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through different calcium--regulating mechanisms depending on external calcium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-02-17

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an "Enhanced Calcium Efflux" mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel's stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  16. Spatiotemporal intracellular calcium dynamics during cardiac alternans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain

    2009-09-01

    Cellular calcium transient alternans are beat-to-beat alternations in the peak cytosolic calcium concentration exhibited by cardiac cells during rapid electrical stimulation or under pathological conditions. Calcium transient alternans promote action potential duration alternans, which have been linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Here we use a recently developed physiologically detailed mathematical model of ventricular myocytes to investigate both stochastic and deterministic aspects of intracellular calcium dynamics during alternans. The model combines a spatially distributed description of intracellular calcium cycling, where a large number of calcium release units are spatially distributed throughout the cell, with a full set of ionic membrane currents. The results demonstrate that ion channel stochasticity at the level of single calcium release units can influence the whole-cell alternans dynamics by causing phase reversals over many beats during fixed frequency pacing close to the alternans bifurcation. They also demonstrate the existence of a wide range of dynamical states. Depending on the sign and magnitude of calcium-voltage coupling, calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized or desynchronized, in or out of phase with action potential duration alternans, and the node separating out-of-phase regions of calcium alternans can be expelled from or trapped inside the cell. This range of states is found to be larger than previously anticipated by including a robust global attractor where calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized but out of phase with action potential duration alternans. The results are explained by a combined theoretical analysis of alternans stability and node motion using general iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics and amplitude equations.

  17. Transgenic mouse models to study Gpr54/kisspeptin physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, W H

    2009-01-01

    Four transgenic mouse lines have been generated with mutations in the Gpr54 gene and two lines with mutations in the Kiss1 gene. In general, the phenotypes of all these mutant mice are very similar and provide evidence that these molecules constitute an authentic receptor/ligand pair with no obvious redundancy or overlap with other signaling pathways. The mutant mice all fail to undergo pubertal maturation and show poor development of the gonads and infertility with low sex steroid and gonadotrophic hormone levels (hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism). Spermatogenesis and ovulation are severely impaired and mutant females do not show estrous cycling. The gonads and the anterior pituitary retain functional responses to hormonal stimulation however, consistent with the primary defect being a failure to secrete gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. Slight differences between the phenotype of some of the mutant lines may reflect the type of mutation carried by each line. These mutant mice are being used to interrogate the function of Gpr54 and Kiss1 in key aspects of mammalian reproduction in vivo including the role of these proteins in the generation of the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and aspects of sexual behavior. They provide a useful resource to further understand the hypothalamic regulation of mammalian reproduction, its integration with the pituitary-gonadal axis and to study the potential function of Gpr54 and Kiss1 in peripheral tissues.

  18. Calcium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/calciumbloodtest.html Calcium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Calcium Blood Test? A calcium blood test measures the ...

  19. Rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Protz, R.

    1988-01-01

    Mean annual rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils in a subarctic climate estimated from data on two chronosequences of calcareous storm ridges, appeared to be relatively constant through time. Concentrations of dissolved calcium carbonate in the soil solution in the study sites calculated

  20. Calcium and M'yocardial Infarction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-16

    Mar 16, 1974 ... Urinary excretion of calcium tended to be even lower in these .... 16 March 1974. S.A. MEDICAL JOURNAL. 525. 150. 50. Fig. 5. Urine calcium in myocardial infarction (means and standard error relative to age). AGE OF PATIENT .... Plasma proteins and blood urea were also measured in. 10 consecutive ...

  1. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  2. 21 CFR 182.8223 - Calcium pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pyrophosphate. 182.8223 Section 182.8223 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8223 Calcium...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  4. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  5. Role of calcium in selenium cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, T R; David, L L

    The purpose of this research was to test the role of certain minerals in the formation of cataract caused by an overdose of selenium. Several pieces of information indicated that lenticular calcium may play an important role in selenite cataractogenesis: 1) Lens calcium concentrations in selenite treated rats were increased more than 5-fold, and the increase in lens calcium was localized in the nucleus. 2) Lens calcium concentrations were elevated at least one full day before actual formation of nuclear cataract, but serum calcium levels were not changed. 3) In older rats not susceptible to selenite cataract, lens calcium was not significantly increased. 4) No evidence was found for a generalized disruption in lens permeability, since no major changes in lens water, sodium, and potassium levels were observed, and 5) when levels of calcium observed in selenite cataract were added to solutions of soluble proteins from rat lenses, light scattering was increased. Selenium-overdose cataracts may provide an important model for studies on the role of calcium in cataractogenesis.

  6. Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, H.

    1969-01-01

    Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.

  7. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.

    2004-01-01

    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...

  8. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study compared serum calcium and magnesium in forty preeclamptic (cases) and forty normotensive (control) pregnant women matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done ...

  9. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Nutrition surveys have shown that most people in the U.S. aren’t getting the calcium they need. If you’re avoiding milk and dairy ... taking nutritional supplements and choosing reduced-lactose or non-dairy ...

  10. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal

  11. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point......, a sudden solubilization of micellar calcium was observed at 50 oC and 60 oC, which revealed an interesting role of calcium during acidification at elevated temperatures. After enrichment of milk with calcium D-lactobionate, the added calcium was distributed between the micellar and serum milk phase at pH 6...

  12. Bespuiten met calcium kan neusrot voorkomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, Greet; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Oorzaak van neusrot bij paprika is een calciumtekort in de vrucht. Een bespuiting met calcium vlak na de bloei heeft een zeer gunstig effect. In bijgaande tabel gegevens over het effect van spuiten met calcium op het optreden van neusrot bij paprika

  13. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  14. Store-operated calcium entry is essential for glial calcium signalling in CNS white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, M; Lewis, A; Butt, A M

    2017-02-28

    'Calcium signalling' is the ubiquitous response of glial cells to multiple extracellular stimuli. The primary mechanism of glial calcium signalling is by release of calcium from intracellular stores of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Replenishment of ER Ca(2+) stores relies on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). However, despite the importance of calcium signalling in glial cells, little is known about their mechanisms of SOCE. Here, we investigated SOCE in glia of the mouse optic nerve, a typical CNS white matter tract that comprises bundles of myelinated axons and the oligodendrocytes and astrocytes that support them. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we identified Orai1 channels, both Stim1 and Stim2, and the transient receptor potential M3 channel (TRPM3) as the primary channels for SOCE in the optic nerve, and their expression in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes was demonstrated by immunolabelling of optic nerve sections and cultures. The functional importance of SOCE was demonstrated by fluo-4 calcium imaging on isolated intact optic nerves and optic nerve cultures. Removal of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o) resulted in a marked depletion of glial cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]i), which recovered rapidly on restoration of [Ca(2+)]o via SOCE. 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2APB) significantly decreased SOCE and severely attenuated ATP-mediated calcium signalling. The results provide evidence that Orai/Stim and TRPM3 are important components of the 'calcium toolkit' that underpins SOCE and the sustainability of calcium signalling in white matter glia.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study on the efficacy and safety of calcium dobesilate in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Eberhard; Ballarini, Stefania; Lehr, Lorenz

    2016-05-01

    To show the superiority of 500 mg calcium dobesilate vs. placebo in reduction of edema of the lower limbs in patients with chronic venous insufficiency, Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical and Pathophysiological classes C3/C4. A total of 351 patients were randomized (n = 174 calcium dobesilate, n = 177 placebo). Active treatment was 500 mg calcium dobesilate, three times daily for 12 weeks, with a 12-week follow-up. At the end of treatment, the relative volume change in the most pathological leg was -0.6 ± 4.8% with calcium dobesilate compared to -0.3 ± 3.3% with placebo (p = 0.09). At the end of follow-up, this was -1.01 ± 5.4% for calcium dobesilate vs. -0.08 ± 3.5% for placebo (p = 0.002). Calcium dobesilate treatment resulted in no significant volume change in the most pathological leg between baseline and end of treatment. However, the calcium dobesilate group showed a significantly greater volume decrease in the most pathological leg at the end of follow-up. Calcium dobesilate was well-tolerated, with a safety profile consistent with previously published data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lou Guerinot

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Menahem; Korkotian, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival.

  18. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  19. Calcium phosphate: a substitute for aluminum adjuvants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Daniel; Thibaudon, Michel; Bélec, Laurent; Crépeaux, Guillemette

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale. Expert commentary: Calcium phosphate is a compound naturally present in the organism, safe and already used in human vaccination. Beyond comparisons with the other adjuvants, calcium phosphate represents a good candidate to replace or to complete alum salts as a vaccine adjuvant.

  20. Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2012-01-01

    By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization. PMID:23016135

  1. The calcium and vitamin D controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    or subanalyses while maintaining balancing. Though large clinical RCTs currently evaluate the effects of higher vitamin D doses (equivalent to 50–83 μg/d) there is no current research effort regarding the calcium controversy. In the absence of such studies it is not possible to provide clinicians with evidence......Areas of the world where vitamin D levels are low for months of the year and intakes of calcium are high have a high prevalence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. This suggests a public health message of avoiding calcium supplements and increasing vitamin D intake. No message could be more...... welcome as vitamin D can be given as a bolus while calcium must be taken daily and may be poorly tolerated. This approach is based on no evidence from intervention studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D given with calcium elicits a small reduction in fracture risk and deaths...

  2. Expert review on coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Budoff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Budoff, Khawar M GulDivision of Cardiology, Saint John’s Cardiovascular Research Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: While there is no doubt that high risk patients (those with >20% ten year risk of future cardiovascular event need more aggressive preventive therapy, a majority of cardiovascular events occur in individuals at intermediate risk (10%–20% ten year risk. Accurate risk assessment may be helpful in decreasing cardiovascular events through more appropriate targeting of preventive measures. It has been suggested that traditional risk assessment may be refined with the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC or other methods of subclinical atherosclerosis measurement. Coronary calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis that can be quantified with the use of cardiac CT and it is proportional to the extent and severity of atherosclerotic disease. The published studies demonstrate a high sensitivity of CAC for the presence of coronary artery disease but a lower specificity for obstructive CAD depending on the magnitude of the CAC. Several large clinical trials found clear, incremental predictive value of CAC over the Framingham risk score when used in asymptomatic patients. Based on multiple observational studies, patients with increased plaque burdens (increased CAC are approximately ten times more likely to suffer a cardiac event over the next 3–5 years. Coronary calcium scores have outperformed conventional risk factors, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP and carotid intima media thickness (IMT as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The relevant prognostic information obtained may be useful to initiate or intensify appropriate treatment strategies to slow the progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Current data suggests intermediate risk patients may benefit most from further risk stratification with cardiac CT, as CAC testing is

  3. Strontium Substitution for Calcium in Lithogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Chi, Thomas; Miller, Joe; Flechner, Lawrence; Fakra, Sirine; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Strontium has chemical similarity to calcium, which enables the replacement of calcium by strontium in biomineralization processes. Incorporating strontium into human bone and teeth has been studied extensively but little research has been performed of the incorporation of strontium into urinary calculi. We used synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption techniques to examine the presence of strontium in different types of human kidney stones. Materials and Methods Multiple unique human stone samples were obtained via consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies/ureteroscopies. A portion of each stone was sent for standard laboratory analysis and a portion was retained for x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements. X-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements determined the presence, spatial distribution and speciation of strontium in each stone sample. Results Traditional kidney stone analyses identified calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid and cystine stones. X-ray fluorescence measurements identified strontium in all stone types except pure cystine. X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping of the samples revealed co-localization of calcium and strontium. X-ray absorption measurements of the calcium phosphate stone showed strontium predominately present as strontium apatite. Conclusions Advanced x-ray fluorescence imaging identified strontium in all calcium based stones, present as strontium apatite. This finding may be critical since apatite is thought to be the initial nidus for calcium stone formation. Strontium is not identified by standard laboratory stone analyses. Its substitution for calcium can be reliably identified in stones from multiple calcium based stone formers, which may offer opportunities to gain insight into early events in lithogenesis. PMID:23260568

  4. A comparison of total calcium, corrected calcium, and ionized calcium concentrations as indicators of calcium homeostasis among hypoalbuminemic dogs requiring intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Claire R; Kerl, Marie E; Mann, F A

    2009-12-01

    (1) To evaluate whether total calcium (tCa) correlates with ionized calcium (iCa) in hypoalbuminemic dogs; (2) to evaluate whether calcium adjusted for albumin (Alb), or total protein (TP), or both accurately predict iCa concentrations and hence can be used to monitor calcium homeostasis in critically ill hypoalbuminemic dogs; and (3) to evaluate factors associated with any potential discrepancy in calcium classification between corrected total and ionized values. Prospective observational clinical study. Small animal intensive care unit in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with hypoalbuminemia. None. iCa was determined using ion-specific electrode methodology, on heparinized plasma. The tCa concentration was adjusted for Alb and TP using published equations. In total 29% (8/28) of the hypoalbuminemic, critically ill dogs in this study were hypocalcemic at intensive care unit admission, as determined by iCa measurement. Corrected calcium values failed to accurately classify calcium status in 67.9% and 64.3% of cases, according to whether the Alb-adjusted or TP-adjusted values, respectively, were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the tCa to evaluate hypocalcemia was 100% and 47%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the correction formulae were 37.5% and 79% for the Alb-adjusted values and 37.5% and 74% for TP-adjusted values. tCa overestimated the presence of hypocalcemia and underestimated the presence of normocalcemia, while corrected calcium values overestimated the presence of normocalcemia and underestimated the presence of hypocalcemia. Calcium homeostasis in hypoalbuminemic critically ill dogs should be evaluated by iCa concentrations rather than tCa or calcium adjusted for Alb or TP. Given that tCa has 100% sensitivity for detecting hypocalcemia in this population it is recommended that all hypoalbuminemic and critically ill patients with low tCa should be evaluated with an iCa measurement.

  5. Time bound changes (in 24 h in human sperm motility and level of calcium and magnesium in seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsa

    2016-09-01

    Level of calcium (27.2 mg/dl and magnesium (13.54 mg/dl in seminal plasma did not show any significant changes during study period from that of at ½ h. The study concluded that electrolytes under study were not responsible for the decrease in motility during study period.

  6. Late Quaternary paleoceanographic features as deduced from calcium carbonate and faunal changes of planktonic foraminifers in core samples from northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Singh, A.D.

    Two pelagic core samples, ARB-52 and ARB-54 from 2240 m and 800 m depths respectively from the Arabian Sea off Bombay were analysed for determining climatic changes during the past 30,000 yr. based on the interpretation of changes in calcium...

  7. Tuning local calcium availability: cell-type-specific immobile calcium buffer capacity in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Elizabeth A; Schoch, Susanne; Dietrich, Dirk

    2013-09-04

    It has remained difficult to ascribe a specific functional role to immobile or fixed intracellular calcium buffers in central neurons because the amount of these buffers is unknown. Here, we explicitly isolated the fixed buffer fraction by prolonged whole-cell patch-clamp dialysis and quantified its buffering capacity in murine hippocampal slices using confocal calcium imaging and the "added-buffer" approach. In dentate granule cells, the calcium binding ratio (κ) after complete washout of calbindin D28k (Cb), κfixed, displayed a substantial value of ∼100. In contrast, in CA1 oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) interneurons, which do not contain any known calcium-binding protein(s), κfixed amounted to only ∼30. Based on these values, a theoretical analysis of dendritic spread of calcium after local entry showed that fixed buffers, in the absence of mobile species, decrease intracellular calcium mobility 100- and 30-fold in granule cells and OLM cells, respectively, and thereby strongly slow calcium signals. Although the large κfixed alone strongly delays the spread of calcium in granule cells, this value optimizes the benefits of additionally expressing the mobile calcium binding protein Cb. With such high κfixed, Cb effectively increases the propagation velocity to levels seen in OLM cells and, contrary to expectation, does not affect the peak calcium concentration close to the source but sharpens the spatial and temporal calcium gradients. The data suggest that the amount of fixed buffers determines the temporal availability of calcium for calcium-binding partners and plays a pivotal role in setting the repertoire of cellular calcium signaling regimens.

  8. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  9. Calcium and vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Cotterchio, Michelle; Green, Roger; Buehler, Sharon; Zhao, Jinhui; Squires, Josh; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Yun; Dicks, Elizabeth; Campbell, Peter T; Mclaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have been suggestive but inconclusive in demonstrating inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D, dairy product intakes with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a large population-based comparison of such associations in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON). A case control study design was used. Colorectal cancer cases were new CRC patients aged 20-74 years. Controls were a sex and age-group matched random sample of the population in each province. 1760 cases and 2481 controls from NL and ON were analyzed. Information on dietary intake and lifestyle was collected using self-administered food frequency and personal history questionnaires. Controls reported higher mean daily intakes of total calcium and total vitamin D than cases in both provinces. In ON, significant reduced CRC risk was associated with intakes of total calcium (OR of highest vs. lowest quintiles was 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.77, p(trend) = 0.03), total vitamin D (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-1.00), dietary calcium (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.97), dietary vitamin D (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.99), total dairy products and milk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.60-1.00), calcium-containing supplements use (OR = 0.76). In NL, the inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D with CRC risk were most pronounced among calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement users (OR = 0.67, 0.68, respectively). Results of this study add to the evidence that total calcium, dietary calcium, total vitamin D, dietary vitamin D, calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement use may reduce the risk of CRC. The inverse associations of CRC risk with intakes of total dairy products and milk may be largely due to calcium and vitamin D.

  10. Non-calcium desulphurisation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Zhu [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) is traditionally based on limestone/lime sorbent. The majority of the installed FGD systems worldwide use limestone or lime as sorbent. However, technologies are rapidly evolving that allow desulphurisation in regions where there are limited resources of lime or limestone. These technologies provide alternatives to limestone/lime scrubbers for efficient and cost effective control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal combustion. This report reviews the existing and emerging non-calcium based FGD processes as well as FGD technologies currently under development that apply new concepts and different approaches. It looks at the fundamentals and features of these processes, the recent technical advances and their applications in coal-fired power plants. The capital and operating costs of the processes are evaluated where information available. 66 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography is a powerful fractionation technique that has become indispensable for protein purification and characterization. However, it is difficult to retrieve bound proteins without using harsh or denaturing elution conditions, and the purification of scarce antigens...... to homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m...... chromatography was superior to the traditional immunoaffinity chromatographies and resulted in a nine-fold improvement of the purification factor. The technique is applicable for the purification of proteins in complex mixtures by single-step fractionation without the denaturation of eluted antigens...

  12. Correlative micro-Raman/EPMA analysis of the hydraulic calcium silicate cement interface with dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pongprueksa, Pong; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Chen, Zhi; Pedano, Mariano; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize the chemical interplay of hydraulic calcium silicate cements at dentin. Class I cavities were prepared in non-carious human third molars and filled with Biodentine (Septodont) or ProRoot MTA (Dentsply). After 1-day, 1-week, and 1-month Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) storage, the specimens were cross-sectioned perpendicular to the cement-dentin interface. The interfaces were evaluated using micro-Raman (μRaman) spectroscopy and at a higher spatial resolution using field emission gun electron probe microanalysis (Feg-SEM/EPMA). μRaman spectroscopy revealed the formation of a transition zone at the interface of both Biodentine (Septodont) and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) with dentin, having an average thickness of, respectively, 7.5 ± 4.2 and 6.2 ± 5.4 μm, which however was not statistically different. No difference in interfacial ultrastructure and chemistry was found using μRaman spectroscopy between 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month DPBS-stored specimens. The observation of a transition zone at the cement-dentin interfaces contrasts with the EPMA data that revealed a sharper transition from cement to dentin. Again, no difference in interfacial ultrastructure and chemistry was found for different storage periods, with the exception of one 1 month DPBS-stored specimen prepared using Biodentine (Septodont). More specifically, EPMA revealed a gap of about 10-μm wide in the latter specimen that was filled up with newly formed calcium phosphate depositions. Up to 1 month, the interaction of hydraulic calcium silicate cements investigated did not reveal ultrastructural or chemical changes at unaffected dentin with the exception of a calcium phosphate gap-filling property. Hydraulic calcium silicate cements were found to fill gaps by calcium phosphate deposition, however, without conducting chemical changes to the adjacent dentin.

  13. TA-54 (Area G) Risk Assessment from Extreme Wildfire Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Rodman Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koo, Eunmo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Honig, Kristen Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Judith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas have been exposed to at least four significant wildfires since 1977 and there have been numerous others within 50 miles of LANL. Based on this history, wildfires are considered a risk to LANL facilities and their contents. While many LANL facilities are at risk to wildfire to some degree, they are found in a wide variety of conditions, thus they have varying sensitivities to wildfires. Additionally, LANL facilities have various functions and different assets, so they have a wide range of values or consequences if compromised. Therefore, determining the risks and precautions that are warranted to mitigate these risks must be done on a case-by-case basis. In an effort to assess possible wildfire risks to sensitive materials stored in a Perma-Con® in dome TA-54-0375, a conventional fire risk analysis was performed. This conventional risk analysis is documented in Engineering Evaluation Form AP-FIRE-001-FM1, which is dated 9/28/2015 and was titled ‘Wildland Fire Exposure Evaluation for Building TA-54-0375’ (Hall 2015). This analysis acknowledged that there was significant chance of wildfire in the vicinity of TA-54-0375, but the amount of combustible material surrounding the building was deemed low. The wildland fuels that were closest to the building were largely fine fuels and were not expected to have significant duration of heat release. The prevailing winds at this location are from the south and southwest and the nearest significant upwind fuels (tree crowns or unmown grasses) are at least 300 feet away. Based on these factors the conventional wildland fire risk to TA-54-0375 was deemed minimal, “Acceptable As Is, No Action Required.” This risk evaluation was based on a combined assessment of low probability of wildfires arriving at the site from other directions (where higher fuel loadings might be present) as well as the effective setback of fuels in the direction that fire is

  14. Stratigraphy and Observations of Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V54), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N. T.

    2001-01-01

    Initial mapping has begun in Venus' Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V54, 300-330 deg. E, 25-50 deg. S). Major research areas addressed are how the styles of volcanism and tectonism have changed with time, the evolution of shield volcanoes, the evolution of coronae, the characteristics of plains volcanism, and what these observations tell us about the general geologic history of Venus. Reported here is a preliminary general stratigraphy and several intriguing findings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. Calcium phosphate scaffold from biogenic calcium carbonate by fast ambient condition reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Fermani, Simona; Arjun Tekalur, Srinivasan; Vanderberg, Abigail; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Calcium phosphate biogenic materials are biocompatible and promote bioactivity and osteoconductivity, which implies their natural affinity and tendency to bond directly to bones subsequently replacing the host bone after implantation owing to its biodegradability. Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, CaHPO 4·2H 2O, is known to be a nucleation precursor, in aqueous solutions, for apatitic calcium phosphates and, hence, a potential starting material for bone substitutes. Numerous approaches, via hydrothermal and ambient synthetic routes, have been used to produce calcium phosphate from biogenic calcium carbonate, taking advantage of the peculiar architecture and composition of the latter. In this article, the lamellar region of the cuttlefish bone ( Sepia officinalis) was used as a framework for the organized deposition of calcium phosphate crystals, at ambient conditions via a fast procedure involving an amorphous calcium carbonate intermediate, and ending with a conversion to calcium phosphate and a fixation procedure, thereby resulting in direct conversion of biogenic calcium carbonate into calcium phosphates at ambient conditions from the scale of months to hours.

  17. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  18. In vitro antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J; Farine, J C; Garay, R P; Hannaert, P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium dobesilate, a vascular protective agent, was tested in vitro for its scavenging action against oxygen free radicals. Calcium dobesilate was as potent as rutin to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (IC50 = 1.1 vs 0.7 microM, respectively). It was also able to scavenge superoxide radicals, but with 23 times less potency than rutin (IC50 = 682 vs 30 microM, respectively). Calcium dobesilate significantly reduced platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced chemiluminescence in human PMN cells and lipid peroxidation by oxygen free radicals in human erythrocyte membranes, although these actions required calcium dobesilate concentrations > or = 50 microM. Finally, in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, magnesium dobesilate reduced the increase in cytosolic free calcium induced by hydrogen peroxide and inhibited phenazine methosulfate-induced cell potassium loss. In conclusion, calcium dobesilate was effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals in vitro, at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Conversely, higher concentrations of the compound were required to scavenge superoxide radicals or to protect the cells against the deleterious effects of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Further studies in vivo are required to determine if these antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate can play a role in its vascular protective mechanisms.

  19. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  20. Calcium content of different compositions of gallstones and pathogenesis of calcium carbonate gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Kuen; Pan, Huichin; Huang, Shing-Moo; Huang, Nan-Lan; Yao, Chung-Chin; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the calcium content of different gallstone compositions and the pathogenic mechanisms of calcium carbonate gallstones. Between August 2001 and July 2007, gallstones from 481 patients, including 68 calcium carbonate gallstones, were analyzed for total calcium content. Gallbladder bile samples from 33 cases and six controls were analyzed for pH, carbonate anion level, free-ionized calcium concentration and saturation index for calcium carbonate. Total calcium content averaged 75.6 %, 11.8 %, and 4.2 % for calcium carbonate, calcium bilirubinate and cholesterol gallstones. In 29.4 % of patients, chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions were caused by polypoid lesions in the neck region and 70.6 % were caused by stones. A total of 82 % of patients had chronic low-grade inflammation of the gallbladder wall and 18.0 % had acute inflammatory exacerbations. In the bile, we found the mean pH, mean carbonate anion, free-ionized calcium concentrations, and mean saturation index for calcium carbonate to be elevated in comparison to controls. From our study, we found chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions and low-grade GB wall inflammation lead to GB epithelium hydrogen secretion dysfunction. Increased calcium ion efflux into the GB lumen combined with increased carbonate anion presence increases SI_CaCO(3) from 1 to 22.4. Thus, in an alkaline milieu with pH 7.8, calcium carbonate begins to aggregate and precipitate. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  2. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p osteoarthritis treatment.

  3. Experimental Conditions: SE54_S01_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eds of 225 accessions of Arabidopsis SE54_S01_M01 N.A. Not written in the paper. SE54_MS01 UPLC-MS SE54_DS01 High-throughpu...t amino acid and glucosinolate analysis Default SE54_SS01 High-throughput amino acid and glucosinolate analysis ...

  4. 19 CFR 54.6 - Proof of intent; bond; proof of use; liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 54.6 Section 54.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Processing Which Renders Them Fit Only for the Recovery of the Metal Content § 54.6 Proof of intent; bond; proof of use; liquidation. Articles predominating by weight of metal, described in § 54.5(a) shall be...

  5. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 930.54 Prohibition on the use or... 66 FR 232, Jan. 3, 2001, in § 930.54 paragraph (a), the word “normal” was suspended indefinitely. ...

  6. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M.; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. PMID:26231212

  7. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Polowczyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure’s growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO3 particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to ‘stack-like’ structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO3 formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein.

  8. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polowczyk, Izabela; Bastrzyk, Anna; Fiedot, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure’s growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO3 particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to ‘stack-like’ structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO3 formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein. PMID:28774065

  9. Psychological change over 54 months of cochlear implant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, J F; Murray, K T; Husarek, S; Westerhouse, K; Woodworth, G; Gantz, B J; Tyler, R S

    1998-06-01

    To determine the long-term psychological outcome of postlingually deafened adults who received multichannel cochlear implants and to relate the psychological outcome to audiological outcome. Thirty-seven recipients of multichannel cochlear implants who participated in a prospective clinical trial completed psychological assessments before implantation and at regularly scheduled follow-ups through 54 mo of implant use. Standardized measures of affect, social function, and personality were used, and scores on these measures were correlated with asymptotic scores on several audiological measures. Evidence of significant improvement on measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and distress were obtained within a year after implantation and throughout the duration of the follow-up period. For measures of assertiveness and marital satisfaction, improvement was apparent only after long-term implant use. Although favorable changes on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Depression Scale were evidenced only in the initial follow-up period, improvements on the MMPI Paranoia and Social Introversion Scales persisted throughout the 54 mo follow-up. Multichannel cochlear implant use is associated with long-term psychological benefit. Correlations between audiological outcome and psychological outcome, however, suggested that the relation between audiological benefit and psychological benefit is not simple.

  10. Resolving the shocked gas in HH54 with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Liseau, R.; Brinch, C.

    2014-01-01

    as well. The observed features in the line profiles are reproduced using a 3D radiative transfer model of a bow-shock, constructed with the Line Modeling Engine code (LIME). Results. The FIR emission is confined to the HH 54 region and a coherent displacement of the location of the emission maximum of CO...... with increasing J is observed. The peak positions of the high-J CO lines are shifted upstream from the lower J CO lines and coincide with the position of the spectral feature identified previously in CO (10−9) profiles with HIFI. This indicates a hotter molecular component in the upstream gas with distinct....... The spatial proximity of this knot to the peaks of the atomic fine-structure emission lines observed with Spitzer and PACS ([O i]63, 145 μm) suggests that it may be associated with the dissociative shock as the jet impacts slower moving gas in the HH 54 bow-shock....

  11. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  12. Coronary artery calcium score: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes. PMID:28670030

  13. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  14. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  15. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif

    2014-01-01

    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...

  16. Does calcium constrain reproductive activity in insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insects are a poor source of dietary calcium and since they are seasonally abundant, it has been suggested that calcium availability may play a significant role in controlling the timing of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in ...

  17. Model of intracellular calcium cycling in ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Y; Watanabe, M A; Garfinkel, A; Weiss, J N; Karma, A

    2003-12-01

    We present a mathematical model of calcium cycling that takes into account the spatially localized nature of release events that correspond to experimentally observed calcium sparks. This model naturally incorporates graded release by making the rate at which calcium sparks are recruited proportional to the whole cell L-type calcium current, with the total release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) being just the sum of local releases. The dynamics of calcium cycling is studied by pacing the model with a clamped action potential waveform. Experimentally observed calcium alternans are obtained at high pacing rates. The results show that the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is a steep nonlinear dependence of the calcium released from the SR on the diastolic SR calcium concentration (SR load) and/or the diastolic calcium level in the cytosol, where the dependence on diastolic calcium is due to calcium-induced inactivation of the L-type calcium current. In addition, the results reveal that the calcium dynamics can become chaotic even though the voltage pacing is periodic. We reduce the equations of the model to a two-dimensional discrete map that relates the SR and cytosolic concentrations at one beat and the previous beat. From this map, we obtain a condition for the onset of calcium alternans in terms of the slopes of the release-versus-SR load and release-versus-diastolic-calcium curves. From an analysis of this map, we also obtain an understanding of the origin of chaotic dynamics.

  18. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction:Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06).Conclusion:Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality in the elderly, whereas available data do not support an effect of vitamin D alone....... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium.Subjects and Methods:Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each, eight...

  19. Calcium Signaling and Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstrom, Andrew P; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2017-06-09

    There has been a significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which calcium (Ca2+) ions mediate various types of cardiac arrhythmias. A growing list of inherited gene defects can cause potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, congenital long QT syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In addition, acquired deficits of multiple Ca2+-handling proteins can contribute to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in patients with various types of heart disease. In this review article, we will first review the key role of Ca2+ in normal cardiac function-in particular, excitation-contraction coupling and normal electric rhythms. The functional involvement of Ca2+ in distinct arrhythmia mechanisms will be discussed, followed by various inherited arrhythmia syndromes caused by mutations in Ca2+-handling proteins. Finally, we will discuss how changes in the expression of regulation of Ca2+ channels and transporters can cause acquired arrhythmias, and how these mechanisms might be targeted for therapeutic purposes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Morphological Investigation of Calcium Carbonate during Ammonification-Carbonization Process of Low Concentration Calcium Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaigang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine calcium carbonate is a widely used cheap additive. The research is conducted in low degree supersaturation solution in order to study the polymorphic phases’ change and its factors of the calcium carbonate precipitate in the ammonification-carbonization process of the solution with calcium. Fine particles of calcium carbonate are made in the solution containing 0.015 mol/L of Ca2+. Over 98% of the calcium carbonate precipitate without ammonification resembles the morphology of calcite, while the introduction of ammonia can benefit the formation of vaterite. It was inferred that the main cause should be serious partial oversaturation or steric effects. Ammonia also helps to form the twin spherical calcium carbonate. However, particles formed in the process of ammonification-carbonization in solution with low concentration degree of calcium are not even with a scale of the particle diameter from 5 to 12 μm. Inorganic salts, alcohol, or organic acid salts have significant controlling effect on the particle diameter of calcium carbonate and can help to decrease the particle diameter to about 3 μm. Anionic surfactants can prevent the conglobation of calcium carbonate particles and shrink its diameter to 500 nm–1 μm.

  1. Calcium-induced calcium release supports recruitment of synaptic vesicles in auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Muñoz, Manuel; Schnee, Michael E; Ricci, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Hair cells from auditory and vestibular systems transmit continuous sound and balance information to the central nervous system through the release of synaptic vesicles at ribbon synapses. The high activity experienced by hair cells requires a unique mechanism to sustain recruitment and replenishment of synaptic vesicles for continuous release. Using pre- and postsynaptic electrophysiological recordings, we explored the potential contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in modulating the recruitment of vesicles to auditory hair cell ribbon synapses. Pharmacological manipulation of CICR with agents targeting endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores reduced both spontaneous postsynaptic multiunit activity and the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Pharmacological treatments had no effect on hair cell resting potential or activation curves for calcium and potassium channels. However, these drugs exerted a reduction in vesicle release measured by dual-sine capacitance methods. In addition, calcium substitution by barium reduced release efficacy by delaying release onset and diminishing vesicle recruitment. Together these results demonstrate a role for calcium stores in hair cell ribbon synaptic transmission and suggest a novel contribution of CICR in hair cell vesicle recruitment. We hypothesize that calcium entry via calcium channels is tightly regulated to control timing of vesicle fusion at the synapse, whereas CICR is used to maintain a tonic calcium signal to modulate vesicle trafficking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Fractal aspects of calcium binding protein structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isvoran, Adriana [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)], E-mail: aisvoran@cbg.uvt.ro; Pitulice, Laura [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759/Institute Curie-Recherche, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Batiment 112, 91405 Orsay (France); Chiriac, Adrian [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)

    2008-03-15

    The structures of EF-hand calcium binding proteins may be classified into two distinct groups: extended and compact structures. In this paper we studied 20 different structures of calcium binding proteins using the fractal analysis. Nine structures show extended shapes, one is semi-compact and the other 10 have compact shapes. Our study reveals different fractal characteristics for protein backbones belonging to different structural classes and these observations may be correlated to the physicochemical forces governing the protein folding.

  3. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  4. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Eisenberg, Bob [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} for [CaCl{sub 2}] ranging from 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −2} M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant.

  5. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  6. Laboratory study on the high-temperature capture of HCl gas by dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemwell, B; Levendis, Y A; Simons, G A

    2001-01-01

    This is a laboratory study on the reduction of combustion-generated hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions by in-furnace dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents. HCl is a hazardous gaseous pollutant emitted in significant quantities by municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, and other industrial furnaces. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory furnace at gas temperatures of 600-1000 degrees C. HCl gas diluted with N2, and sorbent powders fluidized in a stream of air were introduced into the furnace concurrently. Chlorination of the sorbents occurred in the hot zone of the furnace at gas residence times approximately 1 s. The sorbents chosen for these experiments were calcium formate (CF), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium propionate (CP), calcium oxide (CX), and calcium carbonate (CC). Upon release of organic volatiles, sorbents calcine to CaO at approximately 700 degrees C, and react with the HCl according to the reaction CaO + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O. At the lowest temperature case examined herein, 600 degrees C, direct reaction of HCl with CaCO3 may also be expected. The effectiveness of the sorbents to capture HCl was interpreted using the "pore tree" mathematical model for heterogeneous diffusion reactions. Results show that the thin-walled, highly porous cenospheres formed from the pyrolysis and calcination of CF, CMA, and CP exhibited high relative calcium utilization at the upper temperatures of this study. Relative utilizations under these conditions reached 80%. The less costly low-porosity sorbents, calcium carbonate and calcium oxide also performed well. Calcium carbonate reached a relative utilization of 54% in the mid-temperature range, while the calcium oxide reached an 80% relative utilization at the lowest temperature examined. The data matched theoretical predictions of sorbent utilization using the mathematical model, with activation energy and pre-exponential factors for the calcination reaction of 17,000 K and 300

  7. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  8. Calcium signaling in human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Berecz, Tünde; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2016-03-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide new tools for developmental and pharmacological studies as well as for regenerative medicine applications. Calcium homeostasis and ligand-dependent calcium signaling are key components of major cellular responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Interestingly, these phenomena have not been characterized in detail as yet in pluripotent human cell sates. Here we review the methods applicable for studying both short- and long-term calcium responses, focusing on the expression of fluorescent calcium indicator proteins and imaging methods as applied in pluripotent human stem cells. We discuss the potential regulatory pathways involving calcium responses in hPS cells and compare these to the implicated pathways in mouse PS cells. A recent development in the stem cell field is the recognition of so called "naïve" states, resembling the earliest potential forms of stem cells during development, as well as the "fuzzy" stem cells, which may be alternative forms of pluripotent cell types, therefore we also discuss the potential role of calcium homeostasis in these PS cell types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High speed two-photon imaging of calcium dynamics in dendritic spines: consequences for spine calcium kinetics and buffer capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, L.N.; van Elburg, R.A.J.; Meredith, R.M.; Yuste, R.; Mansvelder, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid calcium concentration changes in postsynaptic structures are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Thus far, the determinants of postsynaptic calcium dynamics have been studied predominantly based on the decay kinetics of calcium transients. Calcium rise times in spines in response to single action

  10. High Speed Two-Photon Imaging of Calcium Dynamics in Dendritic Spines: : Consequences for Spine Calcium Kinetics and Buffer Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, R.A.J.; Cornelisse, L.N; Meredith, R.M; Yuste, R; Mansvelder, H.D

    2007-01-01

    Rapid calcium concentration changes in postsynaptic structures are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Thus far, the determinants of postsynaptic calcium dynamics have been studied predominantly based on the decay kinetics of calcium transients. Calcium rise times in spines in response to single action

  11. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  12. The influence of environmental calcium concentrations on calcium flux, compensatory drinking and epithelial calcium channel expression in a freshwater cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; Weihrauch, Dirk; Grandmaison, Vanessa; Dasiewicz, Patricia; Peake, Stephan J; Anderson, W Gary

    2011-03-15

    Calcium metabolism and mRNA levels of the epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) were examined in a freshwater cartilaginous fish, the lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Lake sturgeon were acclimated for ≥2 weeks to 0.1 (low), 0.4 (normal) or 3.3 (high) mmol l(-1) environmental calcium. Whole-body calcium flux was examined using (45)Ca as a radioactive marker. Net calcium flux was inward in all treatment groups; however, calcium influx was greatest in the low calcium environment and lowest in the high calcium environment, whereas efflux had the opposite relationship. A significant difference in the concentration of (45)Ca in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fish in the low calcium environment led to the examination of drinking rate and calcium flux across the anterior-middle (mid) intestine. Drinking rate was not different between treatments; however, calcium influx across the mid-intestine in the low calcium treatment was significantly greater than that in both the normal and high calcium treatments. The lake sturgeon ECaC was 2831 bp in length, with a predicted protein sequence of 683 amino acids that shared a 66% identity with the closest sequenced ECaCs from the vertebrate phyla. ECaC mRNA levels were examined in the gills, kidney, pyloric caeca, mid-intestine and spiral intestine. Expression levels were highest in the gills, then the kidneys, and were orders of magnitude lower in the GIT. Contrary to existing models for calcium uptake in the teleost gill, ECaC expression was greatest in high calcium conditions and kidney ECaC expression was lowest in low calcium conditions, suggesting that cellular transport mechanisms for calcium may be distinctly different in these freshwater cartilaginous fishes.

  13. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  14. The effect of vitamin D levels on postoperative calcium requirements, symptomatic hypocalcemia, and parathormone levels following parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Danielle; Politz, Douglas; Lopez, Jose; Norman, James

    2011-12-01

    Low vitamin D-25 is common in primary hyperparathyroidism but the effect of this deficiency on postparathyroidectomy calcium requirements is unclear. A prospective study was conducted on 4 groups based on preoperative vitamin D-25 levels: very low (30 ng/mL, n = 500); and supplemented (40 ng/mL, n = 285). Patients were placed on identical postoperative oral calcium regimens, and hypocalcemia symptoms were recorded. Total calcium requirements for 2 weeks postoperation were calculated and parathormone (PTH) levels were measured for 2-6 months. Mean vitamin D levels (ng/mL) for each group were: very low (14.2); low (24.4); normal (38.3); and supplemented (16.5 supplemented to 54.3). Postoperative oral calcium requirements (in grams) were identical for all groups (18.7, 18.2, and 18.6, and 19.0, respectively, all P = NS); the incidence and timing of hypocalcemia symptoms were nearly identical for all groups: 8.1%, 7.9%, and 7.8% (P = .8). Elevated postsurgical PTH was identical (below 8%) and was not influenced by vitamin D levels. The incidence of hypocalcemic symptoms and the postoperative calcium requirements are identical for patients with very low, low, normal, or supplemented (high) vitamin D. The incidence of persistently elevated PTH postoperatively is also unrelated to preoperative vitamin D levels. Vitamin D supplementation from very low to high levels has no clinical benefit. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium and stretch activation modulate power generation in Drosophila flight muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhao, Cuiping; Swank, Douglas M

    2011-11-02

    Many animals regulate power generation for locomotion by varying the number of muscle fibers used for movement. However, insects with asynchronous flight muscles may regulate the power required for flight by varying the calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]). In vivo myoplasmic calcium levels in Drosophila flight muscle have been found to vary twofold during flight and to correlate with aerodynamic power generation and wing beat frequency. This mechanism can only be possible if [Ca(2+)] also modulates the flight muscle power output and muscle kinetics to match the aerodynamic requirements. We found that the in vitro power produced by skinned Drosophila asynchronous flight muscle fibers increased with increasing [Ca(2+)]. Positive muscle power generation started at pCa = 5.8 and reached its maximum at pCa = 5.25. A twofold variation in [Ca(2+)] over the steepest portion of this curve resulted in a two- to threefold variation in power generation and a 1.2-fold variation in speed, matching the aerodynamic requirements. To determine the mechanism behind the variation in power, we analyzed the tension response to muscle fiber-lengthening steps at varying levels of [Ca(2+)]. Both calcium-activated and stretch-activated tensions increased with increasing [Ca(2+)]. However, calcium tension saturated at slightly lower [Ca(2+)] than stretch-activated tension, such that as [Ca(2+)] increased from pCa = 5.7 to pCa = 5.4 (the range likely used during flight), stretch- and calcium-activated tension contributed 80% and 20%, respectively, to the total tension increase. This suggests that the response of stretch activation to [Ca(2+)] is the main mechanism by which power is varied during flight. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential effects of calcium antagonist subclasses on markers of nephropathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George L; Weir, Matthew R; Secic, Michelle; Campbell, Brett; Weis-McNulty, Annette

    2004-06-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (DCAs) and nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists (NDCAs) have differential antiproteinuric effects. Proteinuria reduction is a correlate of the progression of renal disease. In an earlier systematic review, calcium antagonists were shown as effective antihypertensive drugs, but there was uncertainty about their renal benefits in patients with proteinuria and renal insufficiency. A systematic review was conducted to assess the differential effects of DCAs and NDCAs on proteinuria in hypertensive adults with proteinuria, with or without diabetes, and to determine whether these differential effects translate into altered progression of nephropathy. Studies included in the review had to be randomized clinical trials with at least 6 months of treatment, include a DCA or NDCA treatment arm, have one or more renal end points, and have been initiated after 1986. Summary data were extracted from 28 studies entered into two identical but separate databases, which were compared and evaluated by independent reviewers. The effects of each drug class on blood pressure (N= 1338) and proteinuria (N= 510) were assessed. After adjusting for sample size, study length, and baseline value, there were no statistically significant differences in the ability of either class of calcium antagonist to decrease blood pressure. The mean change in proteinuria was +2% for DCAs and -30% for NDCAs (95% CI, 10% to 54%, P= 0.01). Consistently greater reductions in proteinuria were associated with the use of NDCAs compared with DCAs, despite no significant differences in blood pressure reduction or presence of diabetes. This analysis supports (1) similar efficacy between subclasses of calcium antagonists to lower blood pressure, and (2) greater reductions in proteinuria by NDCAs compared to DCAs in the presence or absence of diabetes. Based on these findings, NDCAs, alone or in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme

  17. Calcium supplementation and risk of dementia in women with cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Kern, Silke; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Waern, Margda; Guo, Xinxin; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Skoog, Ingmar; Östling, Svante

    2016-10-18

    To determine whether calcium supplementation is associated with the development of dementia in women after a 5-year follow-up. This was a longitudinal population-based study. The sample was derived from the Prospective Population Study of Women and H70 Birth Cohort Study in Gothenburg, Sweden, and included 700 dementia-free women aged 70-92 years. At baseline in 2000-2001, and at follow-up in 2005-2006, the women underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric and somatic examinations. A CT scan was performed in 447 participants at baseline. Information on the use and dosage of calcium supplements was collected. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. Women treated with calcium supplements (n = 98) were at a higher risk of developing dementia (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.37, p = 0.046) and the subtype stroke-related dementia (vascular dementia and mixed dementia) (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.54-12.61, p = 0.006) than women not given supplementation (n = 602). In stratified analyses, calcium supplementation was associated with the development of dementia in groups with a history of stroke (OR 6.77, 95% CI 1.36-33.75, p = 0.020) or presence of white matter lesions (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.28-6.96, p = 0.011), but not in groups without these conditions. Calcium supplementation may increase the risk of developing dementia in elderly women with cerebrovascular disease. Because our sample was relatively small and the study was observational, these findings need to be confirmed. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. PTHrP regulation and calcium balance in sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) under calcium constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Lu, W.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream were exposed to diluted seawater (2.5 per thousand salinity; DSW) for 3 h or, in a second experiment, acclimated to DSW and fed a control or calcium-deficient diet for 30 days. Branchial Ca(2+) influx, drinking rate and plasma calcium levels were assessed. Sea bream

  19. Calcium spikes and calcium plateaux evoked by differential polarization in dendrites of turtle motoneurones in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Kiehn, O

    1993-01-01

    The ability of dendrites in turtle motoneurones to support calcium spikes and calcium plateaux was investigated using differential polarization by applied electric fields. 2. Electric fields were generated by passing current through transverse slices of the turtle spinal cord between two plate......+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaux are present in dendrites of spinal motoneurones of the turtle....

  20. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  1. Calcium response to vitamin D supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of serum vitamin D sufficient levels to prevent multiple chronic diseases. However, vitamin D supplementation and its effects on urine calcium excretion remain controversial. The objective of this prospective and interventional study was to evaluate urine calcium excretion in women with normal calciuria or hypercalciuria, once serum vitamin D sufficiency was achieved. We studied 63 women with idiopathic hypercalciuria, (9 with renal lithiasis and 50 normocalciuric women. Both groups had serum vitamin D levels low (deficiency or insufficiency. Baseline urine calcium excretion was measured before being supplemented with vitamin D2 or D3 weekly or vitamin D3 100.000 IU monthly. Once serum vitamin D levels were corrected achieving at least 30 ng/ml, a second urine calcium excretion was obtained. Although in the whole sample we did not observe significant changes in urine calcium excretion according to the way of supplementation, some of those with weekly supplementation had significant higher urine calcium excretion, 19% (n = 12 of hypercalciuric women and 12% (n = 6 of the normocalciuric group. Monthly doses, also showed higher urine calcium excretion in 40% of hypercalciuric women (n = 4/10 and in 44% (n = 4/9 of the renal lithiasis hypercalciuric patients. In conclusion, different ways of vitamin D supplementation and adequate serum levels are safe in most patients, although it should be taken into account a subgroup, mainly with monthly loading doses, that could increase the calciuria significantly eventually rising renal lithiasis risk or bone mass loss, if genetically predisposed.

  2. Diagnosis of unilateral trapezius muscle palsy: 54 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Paul; Stojkovic, Tanya; Lefevre-Colau, Marie Martine; Lenglet, Timothée

    2017-08-01

    We assessed medical and surgical causes of unilateral trapezius muscle (TM) palsy and/or wasting. Clinical and electrodiagnostic data were collected in 54 patients with TM impairment over 21 years. In total, 35 cases had a medical origin: neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, n = 22), idiopathic unilateral TM palsy (n = 5), regional neck radiotherapy for different conditions (n = 2), facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSH) (n = 4), abnormal loop of the jugular vein (n = 1), or basilar impression (n = 1). Other etiologies were neck surgery (n = 16), cervicofacial lift (n = 2), or trauma (n = 1). There were 5 main diagnostic findings in unilateral TM palsy: (1) dynamic examination of the scapula provides a new clinical sign; (2) NA is the most frequent medical cause; (3) in medical cases, partial preservation of the upper TM can offer good recovery; (4) FSH must be considered, especially in young patients; and (5) minor neck surgery can lead to severe TM palsy. Muscle Nerve 56: 215-223, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysis of break test of 54 cluster fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Kawamata, Nobuhiro; Kamoshida, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    A break test of down pipe and main steam tube of 54 cluster fuels were carried out in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in fiscal 1996. The safety evaluation code for `Fugen` was investigated by analysing the break tests by RELAP 5 code. The tests were carried out by ATR safety experimental facility which was consisted of steam drum, lower header, pressure tube, inlet tube, riser, recirculation pump and non-return valve. Break is modified by breaking a rupture disk in both cases of test. Pressure, pressure difference, temperature, water level and flow rate at channel inlet were measured. The results proved the following: The safety evaluation code for `Fugen` estimated the higher temperature of cladding tube after dry out. A return model of the best evaluation for `Fugen` was confirmed to make reappear dry out and quenching phenomena of temperature behavior of cladding tube under the experimental conditions. RELAP 5 code made a reproduction of heat transfer fluid phenomena of LOCA experiment modifying break of down pipe of Fugen. The result proved that the code is also able to use for LOCA analysis of ATR system. (S.Y.)

  4. Streptococcus canis infections in humans: retrospective study of 54 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpérine, Tatiana; Cazorla, Cécile; Blanchard, Elodie; Boineau, Françoise; Ragnaud, Jean-Marie; Neau, Didier

    2007-07-01

    This 5-year retrospective study reports 54 patients with infection, caused by Streptococcus canis, a pyogenic Lancefield group G streptococcus initially isolated from various animal sources. During 1997-2002, Streptococcus canis accounted for 1% of all streptococci isolated. The clinical signs, outcome and bacteriological characteristics were reviewed. All except eight were symptomatic. Clinical manifestations were: soft tissue infection (n=35), bacteremia (n=5), urinary infection (n=3), bone infection (n=2) and pneumonia (n=1). The course was favorable in 52 cases while two died from sepsis. Cultures were often polymicrobial (n=42, 77.8%) apart from hemocultures. The isolates were sensitive to most antibiotics. Presence of the bacteria did not always signify infection owing to the possible occurrence of colonization. The frequency of S. canis infections is rare and likely underestimated owing to the fact that streptococci are sought only on the basis of the Lancefield classification. The search for S. canis is recommended whenever patients present with symptoms evocative of exposure to a potentially contaminated animal.

  5. Calcium carbonate polyamorphism and its role in biomineralization: how many amorphous calcium carbonates are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Checa, Antonio G; Gale, Julian D; Gebauer, Denis; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio

    2012-11-26

    Although the polymorphism of calcium carbonate is well known, and its polymorphs--calcite, aragonite, and vaterite--have been highly studied in the context of biomineralization, polyamorphism is a much more recently discovered phenomenon, and the existence of more than one amorphous phase of calcium carbonate in biominerals has only very recently been understood. Here we summarize what is known about polyamorphism in calcium carbonate as well as what is understood about the role of amorphous calcium carbonate in biominerals. We show that consideration of the amorphous forms of calcium carbonate within the physical notion of polyamorphism leads to new insights when it comes to the mechanisms by which polymorphic structures can evolve in the first place. This not only has implications for our understanding of biomineralization, but also of the means by which crystallization may be controlled in medical, pharmaceutical, and industrial contexts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J

    2015-03-10

    In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights

  7. Discovery and Development of Calcium Channel Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Godfraind

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883. Interest in the intracellular role of calcium arose 60 years later out of Kamada (Japan and Heibrunn (USA experiments in the early 1940s. Studies on pharmacology of calcium function were initiated in the mid 1960s and their therapeutic applications globally occurred in the the 1980s. The first part of this report deals with basic pharmacology in the cardiovascular system particularly in isolated arteries. In the section entitled from calcium antagonists to calcium channel blockers, it is recalled that drugs of a series of diphenylpiperazines screened in vivo on coronary bed precontracted by angiotensin were initially named calcium antagonists on the basis of their effect in depolarized arteries contracted by calcium. Studies on arteries contracted by catecholamines showed that the vasorelaxation resulted from blockade of calcium entry. Radiochemical and electrophysiological studies performed with dihydropyridines allowed their cellular targets to be identified with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. The modulated receptor theory helped the understanding of their variation in affinity dependent on arterial cell membrane potential and promoted the terminology calcium channel blocker (CCB of which the various chemical families are introduced in the paper. In the section entitled tissue selectivity of CCBs, it is shown that characteristics of the drug, properties of the tissue, and of the stimuli are

  8. Store-operated calcium entry and increased endothelial cell permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, N; Moore, T M; Dean, D A; Bhattacharjee, R; Li, M; Stevens, T

    2000-11-01

    We hypothesized that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) links calcium release to activation of store-operated calcium entry, which is important for control of the endothelial cell barrier. Acute inhibition of MLCK caused calcium release from inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium stores and prevented subsequent activation of store-operated calcium entry by thapsigargin, suggesting that MLCK serves as an important mechanism linking store depletion to activation of membrane calcium channels. Moreover, in voltage-clamped single rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, thapsigargin activated an inward calcium current that was abolished by MLCK inhibition. F-actin disruption activated a calcium current, and F-actin stabilization eliminated the thapsigargin-induced current. Thapsigargin increased endothelial cell permeability in the presence, but not in the absence, of extracellular calcium, indicating the importance of calcium entry in decreasing barrier function. Although MLCK inhibition prevented thapsigargin from stimulating calcium entry, it did not prevent thapsigargin from increasing permeability. Rather, inhibition of MLCK activity increased permeability that was especially prominent in low extracellular calcium. In conclusion, MLCK links store depletion to activation of a store-operated calcium entry channel. However, inhibition of calcium entry by MLCK is not sufficient to prevent thapsigargin from increasing endothelial cell permeability.

  9. The spatial pattern of atrial cardiomyocyte calcium signalling modulates contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lauren; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Berridge, Michael J; Conway, Stuart J; Bootman, Martin D

    2004-12-15

    We examined the regulation of calcium signalling in atrial cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling, and how changes in the distribution of calcium impacts on contractility. Under control conditions, calcium transients originated in subsarcolemmal locations and showed local regeneration through activation of calcium-induced calcium release from ryanodine receptors. Despite functional ryanodine receptors being expressed at regular (approximately 2 microm) intervals throughout atrial myocytes, the subsarcolemmal calcium signal did not spread in a fully regenerative manner through the interior of a cell. Rather, there was a diminishing centripetal propagation of calcium. The lack of regeneration was due to mitochondria and SERCA pumps preventing the inward movement of calcium. Inhibiting these calcium buffering mechanisms allowed the globalisation of action potential-evoked responses. In addition, physiological positive inotropic agents, such as endothelin-1 and beta-adrenergic agonists, as well as enhanced calcium current, calcium store loading and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate infusion also led to regenerative global responses. The consequence of globalising calcium signals was a significant increase in cellular contraction. These data indicate how calcium signals and their consequences are determined by the interplay of multiple subcellular calcium management systems.

  10. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  11. Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yutao

    Geological calcium carbonate exists in both crystalline phases and amorphous phases. Compared with crystalline calcium carbonate, such as calcite, aragonite and vaterite, the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is unstable. Unlike geological calcium carbonate crystals, crystalline sea urchin spicules (99.9 wt % calcium carbonate and 0.1 wt % proteins) do not present facets. To explain this property, crystal formation via amorphous precursors was proposed in theory. And previous research reported experimental evidence of ACC on the surface of forming sea urchin spicules. By using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), we studied cross-sections of fresh sea urchin spicules at different stages (36h, 48h and 72h after fertilization) and observed the transition sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated ACC → dehydrated ACC → biogenic calcite. In addition, we unexpectedly found hydrated ACC nanoparticles that are surrounded by biogenic calcite. This observation indicates the dehydration from hydrated ACC to dehydrated ACC is inhibited, resulting in stabilization of hydrated ACC nanoparticles. We thought that the dehydration was inhibited by protein matrix components occluded within the biomineral, and we designed an in vitro assay to test the hypothesis. By utilizing XANES-PEEM, we found that SM50, the most abundant occluded matrix protein in sea urchin spicules, has the function to stabilize hydrated ACC in vitro.

  12. Do Calcium Supplements Predispose to Urolithiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Paridis, Dionysios; Karatzas, Anastasios; Soukias, Georgios; Dailiana, Zoi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of calcium supplements, with or without vitamin D, in urinary stone formation in healthy population and in osteoporotic patients as well. Moreover, this review aims to clarify whether or not, and above which dose, they are associated with the risk of lithiasis. A research in Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases up to September 2015 was conducted using the following keywords: calcium, supplements, vitamin D, complications, lithiasis, and urinary stone. All types of studies were taken into account (cohort studies, reviews, meta-analyses), and in case they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were included in our review. The analysis of the data showed that calcium supplements, probably in association with anti osteoporotic treatment, do not create a predisposition towards lithiasis formation among women suffering from osteoporosis, neither among non-osteoporotic older men. In healthy postmenopausal as well as younger women, the supplements might increase susceptibility to urinary stone formation in long-term basis. The consumption of calcium supplements with the meals could play a protective role in women and younger males. There is certain evidence that supplements containing citrate may be more beneficial over the rest of calcium supplements, particularly when consumed during the meal. Osteoporotic women and healthy men are not at risk of stone formation. On the contrary, healthy women should be aware of the potential risk of developing urinary lithiasis in long-term basis.

  13. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takahiro; Adams, David J.

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are a large and functionally diverse group of membrane ion channels ubiquitously expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. VGCCs contribute to various physiological processes and transduce electrical activity into other cellular functions. This chapter provides an overview of biophysical properties of VGCCs, including regulation by auxiliary subunits, and their physiological role in neuronal functions. Subsequently, then we focus on N-type calcium (Cav2.2) channels, in particular their diversity and specific antagonists. We also discuss the role of N-type calcium channels in nociception and pain transmission through primary sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons (nociceptors). It has been shown that these channels are expressed predominantly in nerve terminals of the nociceptors and that they control neurotransmitter release. To date, important roles of N-type calcium channels in pain sensation have been elucidated genetically and pharmacologically, indicating that specific N-type calcium channel antagonists or modulators are particularly useful as therapeutic drugs targeting chronic and neuropathic pain.

  14. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  15. 28 CFR 54.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 54.425 Section 54.425 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.425 Counseling and use of...

  16. 28 CFR 54.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 54.210 Section 54.210 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION... Coverage § 54.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not...

  17. 26 CFR 54.4974-1 - Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities. 54.4974-1 Section 54.4974-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-1 Excise tax on accumulations in...

  18. 26 CFR 54.4974-2 - Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans. 54.4974-2 Section 54.4974-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-2 Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement...

  19. 26 CFR 54.4975-1 - General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions. 54.4975-1 Section 54.4975-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-1 General rules relating to excise tax on prohibite...

  20. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions. 54.4979-1 Section 54.4979-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-1 Excise tax on certain excess...

  1. 43 CFR 44.54 - What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution legislation? 44.54 Section 44.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Distributes Payments § 44.54 What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation? (a) If a State repeals or amends distribution legislation, the State must immediately notify the Department in...

  2. 19 CFR 10.54 - Gobelin and other hand-woven tapestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gobelin and other hand-woven tapestries. 10.54 Section 10.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Works of Art § 10.54 Gobelin and other hand-woven tapestries. Pursuant to subheading 5805.00.10...

  3. 45 CFR 260.54 - Do States have flexibility to grant good cause domestic violence waivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic violence waivers? 260.54 Section 260.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Special Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.54 Do States have flexibility to grant good cause domestic violence waivers? (a) Yes; States have broad flexibility to grant these waivers to...

  4. 7 CFR 761.54 - Withdrawals from a supervised bank account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawals from a supervised bank account. 761.54 Section 761.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.54...

  5. 47 CFR 54.709 - Computations of required contributions to universal service support mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... demand for the federal universal service support mechanisms for high-cost areas, low-income consumers... universal service support mechanisms. 54.709 Section 54.709 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.709...

  6. 7 CFR 400.54 - Submission and accuracy of production reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission and accuracy of production reports. 400.54 Section 400.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.54...

  7. 26 CFR 54.4980B-2 - Plans that must comply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans that must comply. 54.4980B-2 Section 54... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-2 Plans that must comply. The following questions-and-answers apply in determining which plans must comply with the COBRA continuation coverage...

  8. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? 900.54 Section 900.54 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN...

  9. 37 CFR 2.54 - Requirements for drawings submitted on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for drawings submitted on paper. 2.54 Section 2.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.54 Requirements for...

  10. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract or...

  11. 42 CFR 431.54 - Exceptions to certain State plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to certain State plan requirements. 431.54 Section 431.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... General Administrative Requirements § 431.54 Exceptions to certain State plan requirements. (a) Statutory...

  12. 75 FR 21149 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006- 54 AGENCY...-54, Procedures for Requesting Competent Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. DATES: Written... Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. OMB Number: 1545-2044. Revenue Procedure Number: Rev. Proc. 2006-54...

  13. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources. 63.54 Section 63.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.54 Preconstruction review procedures for new affected...

  14. 7 CFR 981.54 - Payment to handlers for services rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to handlers for services rendered. 981.54 Section 981.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.54 Payment to handlers for...

  15. 77 FR 57191 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Notice 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Notice 2006-54 AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Notice 2006-54, Alternative Fuel... Motor Vehicle Credit. OMB Number: 1545-1993. Notice Number: Notice 2006-54. Abstract: This notice sets...

  16. 22 CFR 228.54 - Suppliers of services-foreign government-owned organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of services-foreign government-owned organizations. 228.54 Section 228.54 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.54 Suppliers of...

  17. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions The Application § 1.54 Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. (a...

  18. 49 CFR 511.54 - Review of initial decision in absence of appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of initial decision in absence of appeal. 511.54 Section 511.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL....54 Review of initial decision in absence of appeal. The Administrator may, by order, review a case...

  19. 49 CFR 176.54 - Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances. 176.54 Section 176.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Operating Requirements § 176.54 Repairs involving welding...

  20. 78 FR 40826 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006- 54 AGENCY...-54, Procedures for Requesting Competent Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. DATES: Written... Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. OMB Number: 1545-2044. Revenue Procedure Number: Rev. Proc. 2006-54...