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Sample records for calcium 39

  1. The zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers metabotropic calcium signalling in colonocytes and regulates occludin recovery in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunuwar, Laxmi; Medini, Michal; Cohen, Limor; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Impaired epithelial barrier function is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis, contributing to diarrhoea and perpetuating inflammation. We show that the zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in colonocytes thereby inducing occludin expression. Moreover, ZnR/GPR39 is essential for epithelial barrier recovery in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) ulcerative colitis model. Loss of ZnR/GPR39 results in increased susceptibility to DSS-induced inflammation, owing to low expression of the tight junction protein occludin and impaired epithelial barrier. Recovery of wild-type (WT) mice from the DSS insult was faster than that of ZnR/GPR39 knockout (KO) mice. Enhanced recovery of the epithelial layer and increased crypt regeneration were observed in WT mice compared with ZnR/GPR39 KO, suggesting that ZnR/GPR39 is promoting epithelial barrier integrity following DSS insult. Indeed, cell proliferation and apical expression of occludin, following the DSS-induced epithelial erosion, were increased in WT tissue but not in ZnR/GPR39 KO tissue. Importantly, survival following DSS treatment was higher in WT mice compared with ZnR/GPR39 KO mice. Our results support a direct role for ZnR/GPR39 in promoting epithelial renewal and barrier function following DSS treatment, thereby affecting the severity of the disease. We suggest ZnR/GPR39 as a novel therapeutic target that can improve epithelial barrier function in colitis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377730

  2. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  3. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  4. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ovulation calendar 39 weeks is best Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog News & Media News Videos ... Ovulation calendar 39 weeks is best Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media News & Media ...

  5. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  6. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  7. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  8. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar 39 weeks is best Order bereavement ...

  9. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 39 weeks is best Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog News & Media News Videos Mission stories ... Tools & Resources Frequently asked media questions Blog: News Moms Need Share Your Story community Join us on ...

  10. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  11. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  12. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  13. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar 39 weeks is best Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog News & Media ...

  14. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  15. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  16. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  17. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  18. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  19. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  20. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  1. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  2. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  3. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  4. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  5. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  6. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  7. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  8. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  9. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  10. Calcium And Zinc Deficiency In Preeclamptic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Ferdousi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated withincreased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Reduced serum calcium and zinc levels arefound associated with elevated blood pressure in preeclampsia. Objective: To observe serum calciumand zinc levels in preeclamptic women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in theDepartment of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka betweenJuly 2009 to June 2010. In this study, 60 pregnant women of preeclampsia, aged 18-39 years withgestational period more than 20th weeks were included as the study (group B. For comparison ageand gestational period matched 30 normotensive pregnant women control (group A were also studied.All the subjects were selected from Obstetric and Gynae In and Out patient Department of BSMMUand Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Serum calcium was measured by Colorimetric method and serumzinc was measured by Spectrophotometric method. Data were analysed by independent sample t testand Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Mean serum calcium and zinc levels weresignificantly (p<0.001 lower in study group than those of control group. Again, serum calcium andzinc showed significant negative correlation with SBP and DBP in preeclamptic women. Conclusion:This study concludes that serum calcium and zinc deficiency may be one of the risk factor ofpreeclampsia. Therefore, early detection and supplementation to treat this deficiency may reduce theincidence of preeclampsia.

  11. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  12. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  13. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  14. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  15. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  16. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport...

  17. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  18. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Six New Loci for Serum Calcium Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. O'Seaghdha (Conall); H. Wu (Hongsheng); Q. Yang (Qiong); K. Kapur (Karen); I. Guessous (Idris); P. Zuber (Patrick); A. Köttgen (Anna); C. Stoudmann (Candice); A. Teumer (Alexander); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); M. Mangino (Massimo); A. Dehghan (Abbas); W. Zhang (Weihua); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); G. Li (Guo); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); L. Portas (Laura); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Lohman (Kurt); K. Matsuda (Koichi); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); D. Firsov (Dmitri); R. Sorice; S. Ulivi (Shelia); A.C. Brockhaus (A. Catharina); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); A. Mahajan (Anubha); F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A. Mace (Aurelien); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.E. Arking (Dan); C. Tanikawa (Chizu); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); M.J. Brown (Morris); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); J.-M. Theler (Jean-Marc); D.S. Siscovick (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Vitart (Veronique); A.F. Wright (Alan); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); M. Boban (Mladen); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Navarro (Pau); E.M. Brown (Edward); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); J. Ding (Jinhui); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Girotto; D. Ruggiero; A.P. d' Adamo (Adamo Pio); A. Robino (Antonietta); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Meisinger (Christa); G. Davies (Gail); J.M. Starr (John); J.C. Chambers (John); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); B. Winkelmann; J. Huang (Jian); D. Murgia (Daniela); S.H. Wild (Sarah); H. Campbell (Harry); A.D. Morris (Andrew); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); U. Vol̈ker (Uwe); M. Hannemann (Mario); R. Biffar (Reiner); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); S.-Y. Shin; P. Lescuyer (Pierre); H. Henry (Hughes); C. Schurmann (Claudia); P. Munroe (Patricia); P. Gasparini (Paolo); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Ciullo; C. Gieger (Christian); W. März (Winfried); L. Lind (Lars); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G.D. Smith; I. Rudan (Igor); J.F. Wilson (James); O. Polasek (Ozren); I.J. Deary (Ian); M. Pirastu (Mario); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Y. Liu (Yongmei); B. Kestenbaum (Bryan); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M. Nauck (Matthias); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); O. Bonny (Olivier); C. Fox (Craig); M. Bochud (Murielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCalcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 populati

  19. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  20. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  1. 31 CFR 8.39 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees. 8.39 Section 8.39 Money and... AND FIREARMS Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.39 Fees. No attorney, certified public accountant, or enrolled practitioner may charge an unconscionable fee for representing a client in any...

  2. 39 CFR 3060.21 - Income report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (line 3 less line 6). Line (8): Minimum amount of Institutional Cost contribution required under 39 CFR... calculated under 39 CFR 3060.40. Line (11): Line 9 less line 10. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Income report. 3060.21 Section 3060.21...

  3. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf...

  4. 48 CFR 39.101 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 39.101 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.101 Policy. (a) Division A, Section 101(h), Title VI, Section 622 of the Omnibus Appropriations and Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (Pub. L....

  5. 25 CFR 39.902 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 39.902 Section 39.902 Indians BUREAU OF... Maintenance and Minor Repair Fund § 39.902 Allocation. (a) Interim Maintenance and Minor Repair funds shall be... determining school allocations shall be taken from the facilities inventory maintained by the Division...

  6. 10 CFR 25.39 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 25.39 Section 25.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Violations § 25.39 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation...

  7. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  8. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  9. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5...

  10. 40 CFR 68.39 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 68.39 Section 68.39... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.39 Documentation. The owner or operator shall... passive mitigation that were assumed to limit the quantity that could be released. Documentation...

  11. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  12. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  13. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  14. 28 CFR 39.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications. 39.160 Section 39.160... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 39.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  15. 44 CFR 206.39 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification. 206.39 Section 206.39 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206.39 Notification....

  16. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  17. 10 CFR 76.39 - Public meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public meeting. 76.39 Section 76.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.39 Public meeting. (a) A public meeting will be held on an application for renewal if the Director, in his or...

  18. Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes Induce Calcium Mineral Formation and Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium crystals are present in the synovial fluid of 65%–100% patients with osteoarthritis (OA and 20%–39% patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This study sought to investigate the role of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs in calcium mineral formation. We found that numerous genes classified in the biomineral formation process, including bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla protein/osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, ankylosis progressive homolog, and parathyroid hormone-like hormone, were differentially expressed in the OA and RA FLSs. Calcium deposits were detected in FLSs cultured in regular medium in the presence of ATP and FLSs cultured in chondrogenesis medium in the absence of ATP. More calcium minerals were deposited in the cultures of OA FLSs than in the cultures of RA FLSs. Examination of the micromass stained with nonaqueous alcoholic eosin indicated the presence of birefringent crystals. Phosphocitrate inhibited the OA FLSs-mediated calcium mineral deposition. These findings together suggest that OA FLSs are not passive bystanders but are active players in the pathological calcification process occurring in OA and that potential calcification stimuli for OA FLSs-mediated calcium deposition include ATP and certain unidentified differentiation-inducing factor(s. The OA FLSs-mediated pathological calcification process is a valid target for the development of disease-modifying drug for OA therapy.

  19. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  20. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  1. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  2. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  3. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  4. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  5. z39.50 Information Retrieval Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Kademani, B. S.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the Internet information retrieval protocol z39.50 and it's usage. Brief history, definition and the working of z39.50 are also depicted here. An attempt has also been made to study various versions of z39.50 and on freely available softwares on the web. Some of the problems encountered, current developments and new initiatives are also discussed here.

  6. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  7. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  8. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  9. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  10. 39 CFR 2.4 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... description of the Postal Service emblem is described at 39 CFR 221.7. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES... (ARTICLE II) § 2.4 Seal. (a) The Seal of the Postal Service is filed by the Board in the Office of...

  11. 10 CFR 39.61 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training. 39.61 Section 39.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Training. (a) The licensee may not permit an individual to act as a logging supervisor until that person— (1) Has completed training in the subjects outlined in paragraph (e) of this section; (2)...

  12. 14 CFR 151.39 - Project eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility. 151.39 Section 151.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS... located; and (ii) Adequate replacement housing that is open to all persons, regardless of race,...

  13. 39 CFR 963.15 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 963.15 Section 963.15 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.15 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  14. 39 CFR 964.10 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 964.10 Section 964.10 Postal Service... DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.10 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  15. 7 CFR 652.39 - Mitigating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mitigating factors. 652.39 Section 652.39 Agriculture... factors. In considering whether to decertify, the period of decertification, and scope of decertification, the deciding official will take into consideration any mitigating factors. Examples of...

  16. 27 CFR 72.39 - Final action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final action. 72.39... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.39 Final action. (a) Petitions for remission or mitigation of forfeiture. (1) The Director shall take final action on any petition filed pursuant to these...

  17. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  18. 39 CFR 913.2 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service. 913.2 Section 913.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES PROCEDURES FOR THE ISSUANCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SUBPOENAS UNDER 39 U.S.C. 3016 § 913.2 Service. (a) Service within the United States. A subpoena issued under this section may...

  19. 34 CFR 300.39 - Special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special education. 300.39 Section 300.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  20. 7 CFR 2902.39 - Floor strippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Floor strippers. (a) Definition. Products that are formulated to loosen waxes, resins, or varnishes from floor surfaces. They can be in either liquid or gel form, and may also be used with or without... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor strippers. 2902.39 Section 2902.39...

  1. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  2. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  3. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  4. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  5. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  6. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  7. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  8. 21 CFR 814.39 - PMA supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sterilization procedures. (5) Changes in packaging. (6) Changes in the performance or design specifications..., § 814.39 was amended by adding paragraph (h), effective Aug. 16, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  9. Feshbach resonances in ultracold {sup 39}K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, Chiara [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Zaccanti, Matteo [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fattori, Marco [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, 00184 Roma (Italy); Roati, Giacomo [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Inguscio, Massimo [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Modugno, Giovanni [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Simoni, Andrea [Laboratoire de Physique des Atomes, Lasers, Molecules et Surfaces, UMR 6627 du CNRS and Universite de Rennes, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2007-07-15

    We discover several magnetic Feshbach resonances in collisions of ultracold {sup 39}K atoms, by studying atom losses and molecule formation. Accurate determination of the magnetic-field resonance locations allows us to optimize a quantum collision model for potassium isotopes. We employ the model to predict the magnetic-field dependence of scattering lengths and of near-threshold molecular levels. Our findings will be useful to plan future experiments on ultracold {sup 39}K atoms and molecules.

  10. 49 CFR 1242.30 - Dismantling retired road property and depreciation (accounts XX-17-39, XX-18-39, XX-19-39, 62-17...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismantling retired road property and depreciation (accounts XX-17-39, XX-18-39, XX-19-39, 62-17-00, 62-18-00, and 62-19-00). 1242.30 Section 1242.30....30 Dismantling retired road property and depreciation (accounts XX-17-39, XX-18-39, XX-19-39,...

  11. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  12. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  13. Mutations in SLC39A14 disrupt manganese homeostasis and cause childhood-onset parkinsonism–dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuschl, Karin; Meyer, Esther; Valdivia, Leonardo E.; Zhao, Ningning; Dadswell, Chris; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Hung, Christina Y.; Simpson, Michael A.; Chong, W. K.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Woltjer, Randy L.; Eaton, Simon; Gregory, Allison; Sanford, Lynn; Kara, Eleanna; Houlden, Henry; Cuno, Stephan M.; Prokisch, Holger; Valletta, Lorella; Tiranti, Valeria; Younis, Rasha; Maher, Eamonn R.; Spencer, John; Straatman-Iwanowska, Ania; Gissen, Paul; Selim, Laila A. M.; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Coroleu-Lletget, Wifredo; Mohammad, Shekeeb S.; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Dale, Russell C.; Thomas, Maya; Rihel, Jason; Bodamer, Olaf A.; Enns, Caroline A.; Hayflick, Susan J.; Clayton, Peter T.; Mills, Philippa B.; Kurian, Manju A.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Although manganese is an essential trace metal, little is known about its transport and homeostatic regulation. Here we have identified a cohort of patients with a novel autosomal recessive manganese transporter defect caused by mutations in SLC39A14. Excessive accumulation of manganese in these patients results in rapidly progressive childhood-onset parkinsonism–dystonia with distinctive brain magnetic resonance imaging appearances and neurodegenerative features on post-mortem examination. We show that mutations in SLC39A14 impair manganese transport in vitro and lead to manganese dyshomeostasis and altered locomotor activity in zebrafish with CRISPR-induced slc39a14 null mutations. Chelation with disodium calcium edetate lowers blood manganese levels in patients and can lead to striking clinical improvement. Our results demonstrate that SLC39A14 functions as a pivotal manganese transporter in vertebrates. PMID:27231142

  14. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  15. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  16. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  17. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  18. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  19. AcEST: CL39Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL39Contig1 913 36 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL39contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL39C...ontig1 Contig ID CL39Contig1 Length 913 Number of clones 36 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL39c

  20. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  1. 耐酸油墨THC-39

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    田菱精细化工有限公司推出电容式触摸屏滚轮涂布型耐酸油墨THC-39,具有以下显著特点。 THC-39耐酸油墨在黄光作业下,使用滚轮涂布的方式,将其整版涂布在电容式触摸屏的ITO膜表面,再进行曝光显影作业,以使图案成像,蚀刻出来,

  2. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness. PMID:7488645

  3. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  4. 39 CFR 955.9 - Hearing election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing election. 955.9 Section 955.9 Postal... CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.9 Hearing election. As directed by Board order, each party shall inform the Board... elected, the election should state where and when the electing party desires the hearing to be...

  5. 39 CFR 261.2 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Included is the authority to issue records management policy and to delegate or take appropriate action if... UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT § 261.2... dispose of such property. (b) 39 CFR 262.2 assigns to the Postal Service Records Office, located under...

  6. 39 CFR 3020.55 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 3020.55 Section 3020.55 Postal Service... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.55 Review. The Commission shall review the request, the Postal Service reply, and any public comment to determine whether...

  7. 39 CFR 3020.34 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 3020.34 Section 3020.34 Postal Service... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.34 Review. The Commission shall review the request and responsive comments. The Commission shall either: (a) Approve the...

  8. 39 CFR 3020.75 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 3020.75 Section 3020.75 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Proposal of the Commission To Modify the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.75 Review. The Commission shall...

  9. 39 CFR 3003.6 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees. 3003.6 Section 3003.6 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRIVACY ACT RULES § 3003.6 Fees. The first copy of any record furnished under the Privacy Act of 1974 will be provided without charge. Additional copies will be charged at the...

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.303 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance. 101-39.303... Maintenance. In order to ensure uninterrupted operation of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles, safety and preventive maintenance inspections will be performed at regularly scheduled...

  11. 39 CFR 3002.3 - Official seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official seal. 3002.3 Section 3002.3 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.3 Official seal. (a) Authority. The Seal described in this section is hereby established as the official seal of the Postal Rate...

  12. 39 CFR 262.3 - Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information. 262.3 Section 262.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.3 Information. Data combined with the knowledge of its context and having the potential...

  13. 49 CFR 230.39 - Broken staybolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Staybolts § 230.39 Broken staybolts. (a) Maximum allowable number of broken staybolts. No boiler shall be... inside the firebox or combustion chamber on a straight line. No boiler shall be allowed to remain...

  14. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  15. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  16. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall govern. However, such rules may be relaxed to the extent that the...

  17. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  18. 39 CFR 955.28 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 955.28 Section 955.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.28 Suspension. (a) Whenever at any time it appears that the parties are in agreement as...

  19. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been...

  20. 39 CFR 3020.92 - Public input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public input. 3020.92 Section 3020.92 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by the Postal Service to Change the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.92 Public input. The Commission shall publish...

  1. 39 CFR 3030.21 - Investigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigator. 3030.21 Section 3030.21 Postal... Investigator. The Commission may appoint an investigator to examine issues raised by the complaint and responses thereto. The investigator will use appropriate due diligence under the circumstances and provide...

  2. 39 CFR 3050.35 - Financial reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reports. 3050.35 Section 3050.35 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.35 Financial reports. (a) The... submission of the Federal Budget by the President to the Congress); and (d) Integrated Financial Plan...

  3. 25 CFR 39.1001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Administrative Cost Formula § 39.1001 Definitions. (a) Agency Education Office means a field office of the Office of Indian Education Programs providing administrative direction and supervision to one or more...

  4. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each... competitive products enterprise using a method of allocation based on appropriate revenue or cost...

  5. 39 CFR 491.5 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs. 491.5 Section 491.5 Postal Service UNITED... RATE COMMISSION § 491.5 Costs. The Postal Service's administrative costs in executing the garnishment action shall be added to each garnishment and the costs recovered shall be retained as...

  6. 39 CFR 775.14 - Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearings. 775.14 Section 775.14 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775... §§ 775.11(d)(1) and 775.13 must be complied with whenever a hearing is to be held....

  7. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for...

  8. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 775.2 Section 775.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Postal Service to: (a) Interpret and administer applicable...

  9. 39 CFR 775.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 775.6 Section 775.6 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.6 Categorical exclusions. (a) The classes of actions in this section are those that the... “reference actions” documented under § 775.6(b)(17). (9) Acquisition and disposal through sale,...

  10. 39 CFR 775.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4 Definitions. (a) The definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 1508 apply to this part 775. (b) In addition to the terms defined in 40 CFR part 1508, the following definitions apply to this part: Approving... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 775.4 Section 775.4 Postal...

  11. 39 CFR 775.10 - Environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental assessments. 775.10 Section 775.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.10 Environmental assessments. (a) An environmental assessment must contain: (1) A summary...

  12. 39 CFR 775.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 775.1 Section 775.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.1 Purpose. These procedures implement the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations (40 CFR...

  13. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C....

  14. 39 CFR 3060.20 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports. 3060.20 Section 3060.20 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE... ending September 30, 2008. (f) The accounting practices used by the Postal Service in the reports...

  15. 27 CFR 4.39 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this is necessary in order to prevent confusion as to the person, company, or brand name to which the... with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, TTB will not approve the use of that... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 4.39, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  16. 39 CFR 233.12 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil penalties. False representation and lottery orders— (a) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3005, the... matter which is nonmailable, or engaged in conducting a lottery, gift enterprise, or scheme for the distribution of money or of real or personal property, by lottery, chance, or drawing of any kind....

  17. 39 CFR 3030.11 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service. 3030.11 Section 3030.11 Postal Service... Pleadings § 3030.11 Service. Any person filing a complaint must simultaneously serve a copy of the complaint on the Postal Service at the following address: PRCCOMPLAINTS@usps.gov. A complaint is not...

  18. 39 CFR 952.8 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service. 952.8 Section 952.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.8 Service. (a) Where the Respondent's mailing address is within the United...

  19. 39 CFR 3060.41 - Supporting documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supporting documentation. 3060.41 Section 3060.41 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.41 Supporting documentation. (a) In support of...

  20. 39 CFR 221.5 - Headquarters organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headquarters organization. 221.5 Section 221.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.5 Headquarters organization. (a) Postmaster General—(1) Appointment. The postmaster general (PMG), the...

  1. 39 CFR 3004.12 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 3004.12 Section 3004.12 Postal... Reading room. (a) The Commission maintains a public reading room at its offices (901 New York Avenue, NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20268-0001) and an electronic reading room at http://www.prc.gov. The...

  2. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The...

  3. 39 CFR 10.2 - Advisory service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including 5 CFR part 2638. (b) A Governor may obtain advice and guidance on questions of conflicts of... regulations contained in 5 CFR parts 2635 and 7001, or conduct which creates the appearance of such a... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advisory service. 10.2 Section 10.2 Postal...

  4. 39 CFR 955.34 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attorney, the standards include the rules of professional conduct and ethics of the jurisdictions in which... established for the purpose of the case; (2) Forbidding challenge of the accuracy of any evidence; (3... accordance with 39 CFR Part 951, referral to an appropriate licensing authority, or such other action...

  5. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues....

  6. 7 CFR 1780.39 - Application processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application Processing § 1780.39... providing the services necessary to plan projects including design of facilities, environmental review and... of professional services required and at a fair and reasonable price. (ii) When project...

  7. Evaluation of calcium ion release and change in pH on combining calcium hydroxide with different vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Grover

    2014-01-01

    of 99.53, 17.98, 74.93% respectively with a significant difference among all groups. Group 1 reached the highest Ca 2+ level (39.79% at the end of 1 day but showed almost complete release of calcium hydroxide at the end of 15 days. Group 3 showed least calcium ion release (17.98% at 15 days. Group 4 showed a sustained release of Ca +2 ions from 74% at 15 days to 95% at the end of 30 days. After the 1 st h; Group 1 showed the highest pH level (11.8. However, pH reduced to 7.8 at the end of 30 days in this group. Group 2 showed the highest pH value (10.35, followed by Group 4 (10.32 after 30 days. Conclusion: Chitosan can be used as a promising vehicle for calcium hydroxide to maintain an alkaline pH and to allow sustained release of calcium ions in the root canal system.

  8. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  9. Effect of calcium on the salt tolerance of different wheat (triticum aestivum l.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In saline soil conditions the availability and uptake of Ca/sup 2+/ is reduced that results in the loss of membrane integrity and other disorders associated with Ca/sup 2+/ deficiency in plants. A wheat genotype efficient in uptake and utilization of calcium under saline conditions may be better able to withstand saline conditions in the field. Very little information is available on wheat response to salinity and low Ca/sup 2+/ as screening of wheat genotypes has usually been done against salinity alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of different wheat genotypes against salinity at low and adequate calcium supply. The experiment was conducted in hydroponics with four treatments including T1: non-saline with adequate Ca/sup 2+/, T2: non-saline with low Ca/sup 2+/ (level of calcium was 1/4 of the adequate level), T3: saline (125 mM NaCl) with adequate Ca/sup 2+/ and T4: saline with low calcium. All the physical growth parameters including shoot length, root length, and shoot and root fresh weights were decreased significantly due to salinity and low calcium alone as well as in combination. Reduction was more pronounced under the combined stress of salinity and low calcium and different genotypes differed significantly in different stress treatments for shoot and root fresh weight production. In saline treatment (T3), the genotypes 25-SAWSN-39 and 25-SAWSN-31 showed better growth performance and accumulated lower Na+ and higher Ca/sup 2+/ where as the genotypes 25-SAWSN-35 and 25-SAWSN-47 showed less growth and had less accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ and high accumulation of Na+. In salinity + low calcium treatment the genotype 25-SAWSN-39 behaved as a tolerant genotype where as 25-SAWSN-31 behaved similar to the sensitive genotype and these differences were due to high accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ in 25-SAWSN-39 and vice versa. This study shows that the salt tolerance of wheat genotypes differs with the availability and accumulation of calcium

  10. Mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J

    2013-06-25

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  11. Mars at Ls 39o: Syrtis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    18 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  12. Mars at Ls 39o: Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    4 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. Optical and Magnetic Trapping of Potassium 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensher, Jason; Cornell, Eric; Cataliotti, Francesco; Fort, Chiara; Marin, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Inguscio, Massimo; Ricci, Leonardo; Tino, Guglielmo

    1998-05-01

    We present measurments of optical trapping and cooling and magnetic trapping of ^39K in a double-MOT apparatus. (Optics Lett. 21, 290(1996)) We have measured light-assisted collisional loss rates from our second MOT over a range of trap light intensities. At an intensity of 10 mW/cm^2 we find a loss rate parameter β of 2 x 10-11 cc/s. β increases with trap light intensity and is consistent with the values measured by Williamson and Walker (JOSA B 12, 1393 (1995)). We also present studies of the temperature of atoms in a MOT of ^39K. Under certain conditions of repump light intensity and trap light detuning we measure temperatures nearly as low as the Doppler Limit. Finally, we report on prelimiary results of magnetic trapping in which we have trapped several 10^7 atoms in a quadrupole magnetic trap.

  14. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Vitoria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. Objective: To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. Methods: We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. Results: The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40159.68 mg/L. In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L. Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Discussion: Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium.

  15. Feshbach resonances in ultracold K(39)

    CERN Document Server

    D'Errico, C; Fattori, M; Roati, G; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G; Simoni, A

    2007-01-01

    We discover several magnetic Feshbach resonances in collisions of ultracold K(39) atoms, by studying atom losses and molecule formation. Accurate determination of the magnetic-field resonance locations allows us to optimize a quantum collision model for potassium isotopes. We employ the model to predict the magnetic-field dependence of scattering lengths and of near-threshold molecular levels. Our findings will be useful to plan future experiments on ultracold potassium atoms and molecules.

  16. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  17. Optimizing calcium selective fluorimetric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Gniadek, Marianna; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2015-11-01

    Recently it was shown that optical nanosensors based on alternating polymers e.g. poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) were characterized by a linear dependence of emission intensity on logarithm of concentration over a few of orders of magnitude range. In this work we focus on the material used to prepare calcium selective nanosensors. It is shown that alternating polymer nanosensors offer competitive performance in the absence of calcium ionophore, due to interaction of the nanospheres building blocks with analyte ions. The emission increase corresponds to increase of calcium ions contents in the sample within the range from 10(-4) to 10(-1) M. Further improvement in sensitivity (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) M) and selectivity can be achieved by incorporating calcium ionophore in the nanospheres. The optimal results were obtained for core-shell nanospheres, where the core was prepared from poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) and the outer layer from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene). Thus obtained chemosensors were showing linear dependence of emission on logarithm of calcium ions concentration within the range from 10(-7) to 10(-1) M. PMID:26452839

  18. Analysis list: Suv39h1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Suv39h1 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv...39h1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Suv39h

  19. Analysis list: Suv39h2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Suv39h2 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv...39h2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Suv39h

  20. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  1. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  2. HEPARIN-INSENSITIVE CALCIUM-RELEASE FROM INTRACELLULAR STORES TRIGGERED BY THE RECOMBINANT HUMAN PARATHYROID-HORMONE RECEPTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEUWEN, K; BODDEKE, HGWM

    1995-01-01

    1 In the present study we have characterized the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced calcium signalling in 293 cells stably transfected with the human PTH receptor cDNA. In these cells, human PTH-I(1-38) strongly stimulates adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formation (EC(50) = 0.39 nM)

  3. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  4. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  5. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  6. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can break easily, even without an obvious injury. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Eat foods that provide the right amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and protein. This kind of diet will give ...

  7. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  8. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  9. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tan; Yulin Deng; Hong Qing

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofi-brillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers in-volved in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium oxide. 184.1210 Section 184.1210 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8) is also known as lime, quick lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone,...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  12. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  13. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Willmann

    2008-01-01

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  14. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate....

  16. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve po

  19. 21 CFR 582.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.1210 Section 582.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetsch, Alexander; Greulich, Christina; Braun, Dieter; Stroetges, Christian; Rehage, Heinz; Siebers, Bettina; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Spherical silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized in a co-precipitation route from calcium nitrate/silver nitrate and ammonium phosphate in a continuous process and colloidally stabilized by carboxymethyl cellulose. Nanoparticles with 0.39 wt% silver content and a diameter of about 50-60 nm were obtained. The toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells were determined by viability tests and determination of the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC). Three mammalian cells lines, i.e. human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and blood peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC, monocytes and T-lymphocytes), and two prokaryotic strains, i.e. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were used. Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles and silver acetate showed similar effect toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells with toxic silver concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg mL(-1).

  5. Exploration of As(III)/As(V) Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Synthesized Calcium Sulfate Whisker☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojuan Chen; Liuchun Yang; Junfeng Zhang; Yan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Although common calcium-containing minerals such as calcite and gypsum may fix arsenic, the interaction be-tween modified calcic minerals and arsenic has seldom been reported. The uptake behavior of As(III)/As(V) from aqueous solutions by calcium sulfate whisker (CSW, dihydrate or anhydrite) synthesized through a cooling recrystal ization method was explored. A series of batch experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pH, reaction time, whisker dosage, and initial As concentration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples prepared. The results showed that pH of the aqueous solution was an important parameter for As(III)/As(V) uptake, and an excellent removal efficiency could be achieved under strongly alkaline condition. The data from batch experiments for reaction of As(V) with calcium sulfate dihydrate whisker (CSDW) and calcium sulfate anhydrous whisker (CSAW) were well described with extended Langmuir EXT1 model, from which theoretic maximum adsorption capacity of 46.57 mg As(V)·(g CSDW)−1 and 39.18 mg As(V)·(g CSAW)−1 were obtained. Some calcium arsenate solids products, such as CaAsO3(OH) (weilite, syn), Ca3(AsO4)2 (calcium arsenate), CaO–As2O5, Ca–As–O, Ca5(AsO4)3OH·xH2O (calcium arsenate hydroxide hydrate), and CaH(AsO4)·2H2O (hydrogen calcium arsenic oxide hydrate), were detected at pH = 12.5 through XRD analysis. This indicates that the interaction mechanism between As(V) and CSW is a complex adsorption process combined with surface dissolution and chemical precipitation.

  6. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation...... offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium...... electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...

  7. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  8. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  9. 25 CFR 226.39 - Measurement of gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measurement of gas. 226.39 Section 226.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.39 Measurement of gas. All gas, required to...

  10. 29 CFR 3.9 - Prohibited payroll deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prohibited payroll deductions. 3.9 Section 3.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON PUBLIC BUILDING OR PUBLIC WORK FINANCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES § 3.9 Prohibited payroll...

  11. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69... Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects evidence that a sealed source has ruptured or licensed materials have caused contamination, the...

  12. 49 CFR 663.39 - Post-delivery audit review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-delivery audit review. 663.39 Section 663.39... Audits § 663.39 Post-delivery audit review. (a) If a recipient cannot complete a post-delivery audit because the recipient or its agent cannot certify Buy America compliance or that the rolling stock...

  13. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  14. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 1.39 - Office of Human Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Human Resources. 1.39 Section 1.39 Energy... § 1.39 Office of Human Resources. The Office of Human Resources— (a) Plans and implements NRC policies... agency's human resources; (b) Provides labor relations and personnel policy guidance and...

  16. 32 CFR 516.39 - Duties and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Duties and procedures. 516.39 Section 516.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Environmental Litigation § 516.39 Duties and procedures. (a) Water...

  17. 34 CFR 33.39 - Appeal to Department head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal to Department head. 33.39 Section 33.39 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.39 Appeal... circumstances causing the failure to raise the objection. (i) If any party demonstrates to the satisfaction...

  18. 12 CFR 229.39 - lnsolvency of bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false lnsolvency of bank. 229.39 Section 229.39 Banks... AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229.39 lnsolvency of bank..., collecting, depositary, or returning bank that suspends payment, and which is not paid, shall be returned...

  19. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  20. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  1. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death. (b) Disability. (1) The Secretary will discharge a borrower's liability on the loan in...

  2. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  3. 47 CFR 87.39 - Equipment acceptable for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment acceptable for licensing. 87.39 Section 87.39 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.39 Equipment acceptable for...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.39 - Fire prevention plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention plans. 1910.39 Section 1910.39 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Means of Egress § 1910.39 Fire prevention plans. (a) Application. An employer must have a fire prevention plan when an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The...

  5. 34 CFR 668.39 - Study abroad programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Study abroad programs. 668.39 Section 668.39 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.39 Study abroad programs. A student enrolled in a program of study abroad is eligible to receive title IV, HEA...

  6. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affecting § 622.39, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.39 Section... § 622.39 Bag and possession limits. (a) Applicability. (1) The bag and possession limits apply...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  8. 29 CFR 785.39 - Travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel away from home community. 785.39 Section 785.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Principles Traveltime § 785.39 Travel away from home community. Travel that keeps an employee away from...

  9. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  10. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choksi Krishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg. Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.

  11. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, C; Kaiserling, E; Koitschev, A

    2003-08-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) of the temporomandibular joint is rare. The disorder is characterized by the presence of crystal deposits within the affected joint. The deposition of crystals in adjacent soft tissue may lead to the formation of pseudotumors. This form of the disease is called tophaceous pseudogout and typically affects the temporomandibular joint. It is difficult to differentiate the disease, particularly from malignant tumors, on the clinical and radiographic findings alone. The diagnosis is based on histological identification of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals. We present an unusually advanced case of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as treatment options are discussed on the basis of our own experience and a review of the literature. PMID:12942180

  12. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  13. Analysis list: lin-39 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin-39 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-39....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-39.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin...-39.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-39.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  14. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this potential role, microscopic and biochemical comparisons were conducted on the different tissues of Medicago truncatula wild-type and the calcium oxalate defective (cod) 5 which lacks the ability to accumulate prismatic crystals in the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. Calcium measurements showed that cod5 seeds had more calcium and cod5 pods contained less calcium than the corresponding wild-type tissues. Roots, stems, and leaves from cod5 and wild-type had similar calcium content. Although cod5 was devoid of prismatic crystals, cod5 pods were observed to form druse crystals of calcium oxalate not found in wild-type pods. Taken together these findings suggest a functional role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport to the seeds. Regulating calcium uptake at the roots also appeared to be another point of control in determining seed calcium content. Overall, regulating the long distance transport and partitioning of calcium to the seeds appears to be a complex process with multiple points of control. PMID:22325887

  15. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  16. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  19. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  20. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  1. Binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribello, Gareth A; Liew, CheeChin; Parrinello, Michele

    2009-05-21

    Polyacrylate molecules can be used to slow the growth of calcium carbonate. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the molecules impede the growth rate. A recent computational study (Bulo et al. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3437) used metadynamics to investigate the binding of calcium to polyacrylate chains and has thrown some light on the coiling and precipitation of these polymers. We extend these simulations to examine the binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylate chains. We show that calcium complexed with both carbonate and polyacrylate is a very stable species. The free energies of calcium-carbonate-polyacrylate complexes, with different polymer configurations, are calculated, and differences in the free energy of the binding of carbonate are shown to be due to differences in the amount of steric hindrance about the calcium, which prevents the approach of the carbonate ion. PMID:19400592

  2. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  3. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Manali R Srinivasan; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium pho...

  4. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  5. [Calcium carbide of different crystal formation synthesized by calcium carbide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-yuan; Kang, Ming; Jiang, Cai-rong; Tu, Ming-jing

    2006-04-01

    To recycle calcium carbide residue effectively, calcium carbide of different crystal form, including global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide was synthesized. Both the influence of pretreatment in the purity of calcium carbide, and the influence of temperatures of carbonization reaction, release velocity of carbon dioxide in the apparition of calcium carbide of different crystal form were studied with DTA-TG and SEM. The result shows that calcium carbide residue can take place chemistry reaction with ammonia chlorinate straight. Under the condition that pH was above 7, the purity of calcium carbide was above 97%, and the whiteness was above 98. Once provided the different temperatures of carbonization reaction and the proper release velocity of carbon dioxide, global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide were obtained.

  6. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  7. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  8. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  9. Altered calcium signaling following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Weber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI.

  10. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  11. Peroxisome is a reservoir of intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhury, Bikramjit; Gupta, Shreedhara; Banerjee, Shouvik; Datta, Salil C

    2006-07-01

    We have examined fura 2-loaded purified peroxisomes under confocal microscope to prove that this mammalian organelle is a store of intracellular calcium pool. Presence of calcium channel and vanadate sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase in the purified peroxisomal membrane has been demonstrated. We have further observed that machineries to maintain calcium pool in this mammalian organelle are impaired during infection caused by Leishmania donovani. Results reveal that peroxisomes have a merit to play a significant role in the metabolism of intracellular calcium. PMID:16713100

  12. Analysis list: unc-39 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available unc-39 Embryo,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/...unc-39.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/unc-39.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/unc-39.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/unc-39.Embryo....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/unc-39.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  13. Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium ion (Ca2+ is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research.

  14. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fort...

  15. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    OpenAIRE

    A Rathod; Bonny, O; Guessous, I; Suter, P M; Conen, D; Erne, P; Binet, I; Gabutti, L; Gallino, A; Muggli, F; Hayoz, D; Pechere-Bertschi, A; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; Bochud, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root-transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dep...

  16. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for lunch; and beans, salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and low-fat mozzarella or soy cheese. Try whole-grain crackers with low-fat cheese ...

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. ... that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running). Osteoporosis is a disease of the ...

  18. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  19. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  20. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-28

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  1. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza B Thomsen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A TTX-sensitive fast Na+ spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers. Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none tetrodotoxin (TTX -sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than one second affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could be modulated locally, suggesting that cerebellar glomeruli may be dynamically sub-compartmentalized due to ongoing inhibition mediated by Golgi cells. This could provide a fine-grained control of mossy fibre-granule cell information transfer and synaptic plasticity within a mossy fibre rosette.

  2. An Intracellular Calcium Oscillations Model Including Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Min; LIU Zeng-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger. Mitochondria contributes significantly to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.The experiment of Kaftan et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 275(2000) 25465] demonstrated that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can reduce the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration oscillations of gonadotropes. By considering the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling we develop a three-variable model of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations based on the models of Atri et al. [Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1727] and Falcke et al. [Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 37]. The model reproduces the fact that mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling increases the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which accords with Kaftan's results. Moreover the model predicts that when the mitochondria overload with Ca2+, the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations vanish, which may trigger apoptosis.

  3. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age Publication ... Osteoporosis Program For Your Information The Role of Calcium Calcium is needed for our heart, muscles, and ...

  4. Low in vitro third-body wear on total hip prostheses induced by calcium sulphate used for local antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Heuberger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied – preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear.

  5. Low in vitro third-body wear on total hip prostheses induced by calcium sulphate used for local antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, R; Wahl, P; Krieg, J; Gautier, E

    2014-01-01

    In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied - preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear. PMID:25340804

  6. Bone Up on the Need for Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Most grade-schoolers drink milk at each meal, but teens, especially girls, often switch to carbonated soda at mealtime just as they should be building up their bone bank of calcium. Why calcium is important and how to get enough of it are covered. (MT)

  7. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed

  8. Stochastic Kinetics of Intracellular Calcium Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌胜; 曾仁端

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic model of intracellular calcium oscillations is put forward by taking into account the random opening-closing of Ca2+ channels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The numerical results of the stochastic model show simple and complex calcium oscillations, which accord with the experiment results.

  9. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...... enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...

  10. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithel

  11. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  12. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail: sten.ruediger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-10

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  13. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  14. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  16. 39 CFR 963.9 - Election as to hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Election as to hearing. 963.9 Section 963.9 Postal... THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.9 Election as to hearing. If both parties... election to waive oral hearing must be received by the Recorder no later than 10 days prior to...

  17. 39 CFR 964.5 - Election as to hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Election as to hearing. 964.5 Section 964.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING DISPOSITION OF MAIL WITHHELD FROM DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.5 Election as to hearing. If both parties...

  18. 27 CFR 21.70 - Formula No. 39-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39-A. 21.70... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.70 Formula No. 39-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  19. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  20. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to entering... monitored, funding availability, and program management risk. (c) Appropriate techniques should be...

  1. 7 CFR 906.39 - Recommendations for regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendations for regulations. 906.39 Section 906.39 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... recommendation at the same time such recommendation is submitted to the Secretary....

  2. 27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  3. 14 CFR 147.39 - Display of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of certificate. 147.39 Section 147.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules §...

  4. 28 CFR 0.39b - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Office of Professional Responsibility § 0.39b Confidentiality of information. The Counsel shall not disclose the identity of any person submitting an allegation of misconduct or reprisal pursuant to 28 CFR 0.39a(a)(1) or (2) unless the person consents to the disclosure of his identity or the disclosure...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-39 - Fragrant pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fragrant pears from China. 319.56-39 Section 319.56-39... pears from China. Fragrant pears may be imported into the United States from China only under the... China. (2) All propagative material introduced into a registered production site must be certified...

  6. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... qualifying the herd for herd classification.) As an alternative to testing, the herd may be depopulated. (e... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other interstate movements. 77.39 Section 77.39 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 14 CFR 158.39 - Use of excess PFC revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of excess PFC revenue. 158.39 Section...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.39 Use of excess PFC revenue. (a) If the PFC revenue remitted to the public agency, plus interest earned thereon, exceeds the...

  8. 39 CFR 775.13 - Public notice and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public on request. Inspection, copying, and the furnishing of copies will be in accordance with 39 CFR... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public notice and information. 775.13 Section 775... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.13 Public notice and information. (a) Public notice is given of...

  9. 14 CFR 399.39 - Equipment purchase deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment purchase deposits. 399.39 Section 399.39 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... manufacturers for the purchase of equipment to be delivered in the future, or funds segregated by air...

  10. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113.39 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  11. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  12. 39 CFR 3.2 - Compensation of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation of Board. 3.2 Section 3.2 Postal... (ARTICLE III) § 3.2 Compensation of Board. Section 202(a)(1) of title 39 provides for the compensation of... meetings. Compensation is provided for not more than 42 days of meetings per year....

  13. 7 CFR 46.39 - Inspection of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of commodities. 46.39 Section 46.39..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930...

  14. 38 CFR 39.122 - Inspections, audits, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspections, audits, and reports. 39.122 Section 39.122 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Single Audit Act of 1984 (see part 41 of this chapter). (b) A State will make an annual report on VA...

  15. 38 CFR 39.25 - Inspections, audits, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspections, audits, and reports. 39.25 Section 39.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... State will make an annual report on VA Form 40-0241 (“State Cemetery Data”) signed by the...

  16. LET calibration for CR-39 detectors in different oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High LET (linear energy transfer) radiation is the main contributor to the radiation field in low Earth orbit (LEO) in terms of dose equivalent. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) can measure the LET spectrum and charge spectrum for the complicated radiation field in space. Previous research indicated that the sensitivity of CR-39 is different for CR-39 PNTDs working in different oxygen environments. LET calibration for CR-39 detectors in different oxygen environments is needed. Almost all the previous LET calibration work was carried out for CR-39 detectors in good-oxygen condition, LET calibration work for CR-39 in poor-oxygen condition has not been conducted until our work. Systematic LET calibrations were carried out by JSC-SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group) for CR-39 detectors working in different oxygen environments and abundant results of LET calibrations were obtained. This paper introduces the method for CR-39 LET calibration, presents and discusses the calibration results and some applications

  17. 50 CFR 20.39 - Termination of possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of possession. 20.39 Section... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.39 Termination of...

  18. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  19. 48 CFR 39.104 - Information technology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology services. When acquiring information technology services, solicitations must not describe any... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information technology services. 39.104 Section 39.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  20. 39 CFR 3060.11 - Valuation of assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of assets. 3060.11 Section 3060.11 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.11 Valuation of assets. For the purposes of 39 U.S.C....

  1. Calcium-sensing receptor: a key target for extracellular calcium signaling in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though both clinicians and scientists have long recognized the influence of extracellular calcium on the function of muscle and nervous tissue, recent insights reveal that the mechanisms allowing changes in extracellular calcium to alter cellular excitability have been incompletely understood. For many years the effects of calcium on neuronal signaling were explained only in terms of calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels and biophysical charge screening. More recently however, it has been recognized that the calcium-sensing receptor is prevalent in the nervous system and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal activity via multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the multiplicity of mechanisms by which changes in extracellular calcium alter neuronal signaling and propose that multiple mechanisms are required to describe the full range of experimental observations.

  2. Optogenetic Control of Calcium Oscillation Waveform Defines NFAT as an Integrator of Calcium Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannanta-Anan, Pimkhuan; Chow, Brian Y

    2016-04-27

    It is known that the calcium-dependent transcription factor NFAT initiates transcription in response to pulsatile loads of calcium signal. However, the relative contributions of calcium oscillation frequency, amplitude, and duty cycle to transcriptional activity remain unclear. Here, we engineer HeLa cells to permit optogenetic control of intracellular calcium concentration using programmable LED arrays. This approach allows us to generate calcium oscillations of constant peak amplitude, in which frequency is varied while holding duty cycle constant, or vice versa. Using this setup and mathematical modeling, we show that NFAT transcriptional activity depends more on duty cycle, defined as the proportion of the integrated calcium concentration over the oscillation period, than on frequency alone. This demonstrates that NFAT acts primarily as a signal integrator of cumulative load rather than a frequency-selective decoder. This approach resolves a fundamental question in calcium encoding and demonstrates the value of optogenetics for isolating individual dynamical components of larger signaling behaviors. PMID:27135540

  3. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  4. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  5. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  6. Expert review on coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Budoff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Budoff, Khawar M GulDivision of Cardiology, Saint John’s Cardiovascular Research Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: While there is no doubt that high risk patients (those with >20% ten year risk of future cardiovascular event need more aggressive preventive therapy, a majority of cardiovascular events occur in individuals at intermediate risk (10%–20% ten year risk. Accurate risk assessment may be helpful in decreasing cardiovascular events through more appropriate targeting of preventive measures. It has been suggested that traditional risk assessment may be refined with the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC or other methods of subclinical atherosclerosis measurement. Coronary calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis that can be quantified with the use of cardiac CT and it is proportional to the extent and severity of atherosclerotic disease. The published studies demonstrate a high sensitivity of CAC for the presence of coronary artery disease but a lower specificity for obstructive CAD depending on the magnitude of the CAC. Several large clinical trials found clear, incremental predictive value of CAC over the Framingham risk score when used in asymptomatic patients. Based on multiple observational studies, patients with increased plaque burdens (increased CAC are approximately ten times more likely to suffer a cardiac event over the next 3–5 years. Coronary calcium scores have outperformed conventional risk factors, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP and carotid intima media thickness (IMT as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The relevant prognostic information obtained may be useful to initiate or intensify appropriate treatment strategies to slow the progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Current data suggests intermediate risk patients may benefit most from further risk stratification with cardiac CT, as CAC testing is

  7. Rat pancreas secretes particulate ecto-nucleotidase CD39

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Amstrup, Jan; Rasmussen, Hans N;

    2003-01-01

    In exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and the excurrent ducts express several types of purinergic P2 receptors. Thereby, ATP, or its hydrolytic products, might play a role as a paracrine regulator between acini and ducts. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether this acinar......-ductal signalling is regulated by nucleotidase(s), and to characterize and localize one of the nucleotidases within the rat pancreas. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting we show that pancreas expresses the full length ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, CD39. Immunofluorescence shows CD39 localization...... relocalizes in clusters towards the lumen and is secreted. As a result, pancreatic juice collected from intact pancreas stimulated with CCK-8 contained nucleotidase activity, including that of CD39, and no detectable amounts of ATP. Anti-CD39 antibodies detected the full length (78 kDa) CD39 in pancreatic...

  8. The influence of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Triswantoro; Endarko

    2016-04-01

    The influences of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation in water have been successfully investigated. The study used three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T whilst the electron discharge was generated from television flyback transformer type BW00607 and stainless steel SUS 304 as an electrode. The water sample with an initial condition of 230 mg/L placed in the reactor with flow rate 375 mL/minutes, result showed that the electron discharge can be reduced contain of calcium carbonate the water sample around 17.39% within 2 hours. Meanwhile for the same long period of treatment and flow rate, around 56.69% from initial condition of 520 mg/L of calcium carbonate in the water sample can be achieved by three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T. When the combination of three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T and the electron discharge used for treatment, the result showed that the combination of electron discharge and magnetic field methods can be used to precipitate calcium carbonate in the water sample 300 mg/L around 76.66% for 2 hours of treatment. The study then investigated the influence of the polar position of the magnetic field on calcium carbonate precipitation. Two positions of magnetic field were tested namely the system with alternated polar magnetics and the system without inversion of the polar magnetics. The influence of the polar position showed that the percentage reduction in levels of calcium carbonate in the water sample (360 mg/L) is significant different. Result showed that the system without inversion of the polar magnetics is generally lower than the system with alternated polar magnetics, with reduction level at 30.55 and 57.69%, respectively.

  9. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  10. Calcium-imaging with Fura-2 in isolated cerebral microvessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Jörg; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier......Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier...

  11. Calcium: a code coupling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the calculation performances of computers allow the precise and global simulation of complex industrial processes such as the functioning of a nuclear reactor core. One can question the need for the elaboration of new global numerical models in order to make use of the overall capability of computers. Another less time consuming solution consist in the coupling of existing well validated numerical models in order to make them working together. This paper presents the basic principles of the coupling of numerical codes, the tools required, the Calcium tool for codes coupling and an example of application of this tool in the coupling of the THYC (EdF), COCCINELLE (EdF) and CATHARE (CEA-EdF-Framatome) codes for the modeling of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behaviour of a reactor core during accidental situation. (J.S.)

  12. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography is a powerful fractionation technique that has become indispensable for protein purification and characterization. However, it is difficult to retrieve bound proteins without using harsh or denaturing elution conditions, and the purification of scarce antigens...... to homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m...... chromatography was superior to the traditional immunoaffinity chromatographies and resulted in a nine-fold improvement of the purification factor. The technique is applicable for the purification of proteins in complex mixtures by single-step fractionation without the denaturation of eluted antigens...

  13. Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets

    OpenAIRE

    Adawiah; Toha Sutardi; Toto Toharmat; Wasmen Manalu; Nahrowi

    2006-01-01

    Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient. Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle. Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 ± 40.39 kg) were assigned in...

  14. Fast kinetics of calcium signaling and sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shen; Reddish, Florence; Zhuo, You; Yang, Jenny J

    2015-08-01

    Fast calcium signaling is regulated by numerous calcium channels exhibiting high spatiotemporal profiles which are currently measured by fluorescent calcium sensors. There is still a strong need to improve the kinetics of genetically encoded calcium indicators (sensors) to capture calcium dynamics in the millisecond time frame. In this review, we summarize several major fast calcium signaling pathways and discuss the recent developments and application of genetically encoded calcium indicators to detect these pathways. A new class of genetically encoded calcium indicators designed with site-directed mutagenesis on the surface of beta-barrel fluorescent proteins to form a pentagonal bipyramidal-like calcium binding domain dramatically accelerates calcium binding kinetics. Furthermore, novel genetically encoded calcium indicators with significantly increased fluorescent lifetime change are advantageous in deep-field imaging with high light-scattering and notable morphology change.

  15. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  16. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  17. Silica-calcium zirconate nanocomposite, studying its thermal and electrical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neda Kermani; Maryam Kargar Razi; Seyed Saeed Mirzaee; Reza Tayebee

    2015-06-01

    Silica–calcium zirconate nanocomposite was prepared in a two-step procedure. First, nanocalcium zirconate was synthesized by the modified sol–gel method; then, silica was added to the prepared sol and the resulting product was calcined at 700–1000° C. Dilatometric measurements were performed to determine the coefficient of thermal expansion (). It was concluded that was decreased from 15.96 × 10−6 to 10.26 × 10−6 1° C−1 with the increase in calcium zirconate/silica ratio. Moreover, studies on the dielectric properties and calcination temperature showed that the dielectric constant (r) was increased from 3.9 to 5.7.

  18. Calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-ping CHENG; Sheng WEI; Li-ping WEI; Alexei VERKHRATSKY

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ions are the most ubiquitous and pluripotent cellular signaling molecules that control a wide variety of cellular processes.The calcium signaling system is represented by a relatively limited number of highly conserved transporters and channels,which execute Ca2+ movements across biological membranes and by many thousands of Ca2+-sensitive effectors.Molecular cascades,responsible for the generation of calcium signals,are tightly controlled by Ca2+ ions themselves and by genetic factors,which tune the expression of different Ca2+-handling molecules according to adaptational requirements.Ca2+ ions determine normal physiological reactions and the development of many pathological processes.

  19. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Christina B; Pase, Luke B; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  20. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  1. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah M.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation. PMID:26731108

  2. Dysbalance of astrocyte calcium under hyperammonemic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haack

    Full Text Available Increased brain ammonium (NH4(+/NH3 plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4(+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4(+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4(+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (∼ 90% experienced a persistent calcium increase by ∼ 50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1-2 mM NH4(+/NH3, developed within 10-20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4(+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4(+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC, the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX, AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4(+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4(+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study

  3. Thermochemistry of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide in fluoride slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-08-01

    Calcium oxide activity in binary CaF2-CaO and ternary CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 and CaF2-CaO-SiO2 slags has been determined by CO2-slag equilibrium experiments at 1400 °C. The carbonate ca-pacity of these slags has also been computed and compared with sulfide capacity data available in the literature. The similarity in trends suggests the possibility of characterizing carbonate capacity as an alternative basicity index for fluoride-base slags. Slag-D2O equilibrium experi-ments are performed at 1400°C with different fluoride-base slags to determine water solubility at two different partial pressures of D2O, employing a new slag sampling technique. A novel isotope tracer detection technique is employed to analyze water in the slags. The water solubility data found show higher values than the previous literature data by an order of magnitude but show a linear relationship with the square root of water vapor partial pressure. The activity of hydroxide computed from the data is shown to be helpful in estimating water solubility in in-dustrial electroslag remelting (ESR) slags.

  4. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy; Jae Jun Sim; Yeong-Su Jang; Siddhartha Kumar Mishra; Keun-Yeong Jeong; Poonam Mander; Oh Byung Chul; Won-Sik Shim; Seung Hyun Oh; Ky-Youb Nam; Hwan Mook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstrea...

  5. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  6. 34 CFR 361.39 - State-imposed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM State Plan and Other Requirements for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.39 State... policies relating to the administration or operation of its vocational rehabilitation program that...

  7. In vivo Calcium Imaging of Evoked Calcium Waves in the Embryonic Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Pellegrino, Christophe; Jokinen, Ville; Andriichuk, Liliia; Khirug, Stanislav; Khiroug, Leonard; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this ...

  8. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tavares da Silva; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Antônio José Natali

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40) were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day). The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages a...

  9. Technology obtaining of nitrogen fertilizer from the calcium is containing waste of production of calcium saltpetre

    OpenAIRE

    Власян, Світлана Варужанівна; Шестозуб, Анатолій Борисович; Волошин, Микола Дмитрович

    2013-01-01

    The new technology of obtaining nitrogen fertilizer from calcium-containing sludge of calcium saltpeter production is considered in the paper. The main objective of the research is the development of processing technology of sludge of calcium saltpeter production into alkaline nitrogen fertilizer, analysis of the composition of initial material and finished product, testing of fertilizer by means of vegeta­tive studies and determination of expenditure of drying agent that is exhaust gases of ...

  10. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium carbonate has about 40 percent elemental calcium, meaning that 500 mg of calcium carbonate actually contains ... in this trial also contained vitamin D (400 international units [ IU ]). During ... and calcium in relation to prostate cancer risk among more than 142, ...

  11. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  12. Geological Dating by 40 Ar - 39 Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotope 40 K is radioactive, it decays to 40 Ar stable. The number of 40 Ar atoms produced from 40 K, permits to calculate the date of rocks and minerals. This dating technique is named 'Conventional K-Ar Dating Method'. The 40 Ar - 39 Ar dating method permits to calculate the age of rocks and minerals eliminating the limitation of the K-Ar method by calculating potassium and argon concentrations in a single measurement of the ratio of argon isotopes. In this work, the irradiation of the sample with fast neutrons in the nuclear reactor was established. 39 Ar is obtained from the induced reaction 39 K (n,p) 39 Ar. Thus the ration of 40 Ar -39 Ar allows to obtain the date of rocks and minerals. This ratio was measured in a mass spectrometer. If the measurement of argon concentration in the sample is carried out at different increasing temperature values, it is possible to get information of paleotemperatures. The number of atoms 39 Ar is a function of the number 39 K atoms, irradiation time, neutrons flux, its energy E and the capture cross section σ of 39 K. These parameters are calculate indirectly by obtaining the so called 'J value ' by using a standard mineral with known age (HD-BI y Biot-133), this mineral is irradiated together with the unknown age sample. The values of 'J' obtained are in the interval of 2.85 a 3.03 (x 10-3)J/h. Rocks from 'Tres Virgenes' were dated by the method described in this work, showing an agreement with previous values of different authors. The age of this rocks are from Cenozoico era, mainly in the miocene period. (Author)

  13. 39K Bose-Einstein condensate with tunable interactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Roati, G.; Zaccanti, M.; D'Errico, C; Catani, Jacopo; Modugno, Michele; Simoni, Andrea; Inguscio, M.; Inguscio, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    We produce a Bose-Einstein condensate of 39K atoms. Condensation of this species with a naturally small and negative scattering length is achieved by a combination of sympathetic cooling with 87Rb and direct evaporation, exploiting the magnetic tuning of both inter- and intraspecies interactions at Feshbach resonances. We explore the tunability of the self-interactions by studying the expansion and the stability of the condensate. We find that a 39K condensate is interesting for future experi...

  14. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function.

  15. Discrete stochastic modeling of calcium channel dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, M E; Levine, H; Tsimring, L S; Baer, Markus; Falcke, Martin; Levine, Herbert; Tsimring, Lev S.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a simple discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. Specifically, the calcium concentration distribution is assumed to give rise to a set of probabilities for the opening/closing of channels which release calcium thereby changing those probabilities. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the mean-field limit of large number of channels per site N, and numerically for small N. As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a non-propagating region of activity to a propagating one changes in nature from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state, in a parameter range where the limiting deterministic model exhibits only single pulse propagation.

  16. Discrete Stochastic Modeling of Calcium Channel Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. A set of probabilities for the opening/closing of calcium channels is assumed to depend on the calcium concentration. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the limit of a large number of channels per site N , and numerically for small N . As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a nonpropagating region of activity to a propagating one changes from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... four moles of water per mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  18. Calcium signaling in neocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlén, Per; Fritz, Nicolas; Smedler, Erik; Malmersjö, Seth; Kanatani, Shigeaki

    2015-04-01

    The calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) is an essential second messenger that plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis. In the ventricular zone (VZ) of the neocortex, neural stem cells linger to produce progenitor cells and subsequently neurons and glial cells, which together build up the entire adult brain. The radial glial cells, with their characteristic radial fibers that stretch from the inner ventricular wall to the outer cortex, are known to be the neural stem cells of the neocortex. Migrating neurons use these radial fibers to climb from the proliferative VZ in the inner part of the brain to the outer layers of the cortex, where differentiation processes continue. To establish the complex structures that constitute the adult cerebral cortex, proliferation, migration, and differentiation must be tightly controlled by various signaling events, including cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling. During development, cells regularly exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) activity that stimulates downstream effectors, which can elicit these fundamental cell processes. Spontaneous Ca(2+) activity during early neocortical development depends heavily on gap junctions and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels, whereas later in development neurotransmitters and synapses exert an influence. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on Ca(2+) signaling and its impact on cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the neocortex. We point out important historical studies and review recent progress in determining the role of Ca(2+) signaling in neocortical development.

  19. Effect of albumin and free calcium concentrations on calcium binding in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; DeGuzman, A; Swanson, J W

    1981-01-01

    In vivo equilibrium dialysis studies were performed to define further the characteristics of calcium binding to bovine albumin. The concentration range for albumin (1 to 9 g/dl) as well as ultrafilterable calcium (0.5 to 2.5 mM) studied encompassed those that might be ordinarily encountered in most clinical situations. Major differences in the regressions of total calcium on ultrafilterable calcium occurred at albumin concentrations of 1, 2, and 9 g/dl but only small differences at albumin co...

  20. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Isela Rojas-Molina; Elsa Gutiérrez-Cortez; Moustapha Bah; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Eric Rivera-Muñoz; Alicia del Real; Ma. de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O), weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O)2.375),...

  1. Relating a calcium indicator signal to the unperturbed calcium concentration time-course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abarbanel Henry DI

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical indicators of cytosolic calcium levels have become important experimental tools in systems and cellular neuroscience. Indicators are known to interfere with intracellular calcium levels by acting as additional buffers, and this may strongly alter the time-course of various dynamical variables to be measured. Results By investigating the underlying reaction kinetics, we show that in some ranges of kinetic parameters one can explicitly link the time dependent indicator signal to the time-course of the calcium influx, and thus, to the unperturbed calcium level had there been no indicator in the cell.

  2. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms.

  3. Effect of Calcium on the Vanadium Extraction from High Calcium Type Stone Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Shenxu; LIANG Liang; ZHANG Yimin; HAN Shihua; HU Yangjia

    2015-01-01

    The high calcium type stone coal from Hubei province was leached by water and dilute acid separately after being roasted with different dosage of NaCl. The water leaching rate of vanadium (WLRV) was low and only 26.8%of vanadium can be leached by water when 4%NaCl was added, but the acid leaching rate of vanadium (ALRV) was relatively high. Calcium in the high calcium type stone coal is greatly superfluous relative to vanadium, hence, the calcium reacts with vanadium to form Ca(VO3)2, Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2 orderly during the stone coal roasting process and high temperature is beneficial to the reactions between calcium and vanadium, which was validated by simulated reactions between pure calcium carbonate and vanadium pentoxide. These calcium vanadates are all water insoluble but acid soluble and this causes the low WLRV and relatively high ALRV. After calcium removal by HCl, the WLRV is highly enhanced and reaches about 50%when only 2%NaCl was added. If the HCl content is too high, the stone coal is easily sintered and the formed glass structure can enwrap vanadium, which leads the WLRV to decline. Single water leaching process is not appropriate to extract vanadium from high calcium type stone coal.

  4. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  5. ERp57 modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake through the MCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingquan; Shi, Weikang; Guo, Yu; Chai, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    ERp57 participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Although ERp57 modulates calcium flux across the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, its functions on mitochondria are largely unknown. Here, we found that ERp57 can regulate the expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and modulate mitochondrial calcium uptake. In ERp57-silenced HeLa cells, MCU was downregulated, and the mitochondrial calcium uptake was inhibited, consistent with the effect of MCU knockdown. When MCU was re-expressed in the ERp57 knockdown cells, mitochondrial calcium uptake was restored. Thus, ERp57 is a potent regulator of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  6. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  7. DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM CONTENT IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović-Balaban, Željka R.; Antunović, Vesna R.; Jelić, Dijana R.; Živković, Tanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a macro element that is very important for the human body: its content and circulation in the body is large, it serves as the electrolyte, it has a building role and participates in the process of metabolism. The European Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Food and Drug (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) gave the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances,) for this macro element. The absorption and bioavailability of the calcium may vary depending on a number...

  8. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  9. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  10. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  11. Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and ...

  12. A calcium-induced calcium release mechanism mediated by calsequestrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seon; Keener, James P

    2008-08-21

    Calcium (Ca(2+))-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) is widely accepted as the principal mechanism linking electrical excitation and mechanical contraction in cardiac cells. The CICR mechanism has been understood mainly based on binding of cytosolic Ca(2+) with ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inducing Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). However, recent experiments suggest that SR lumenal Ca(2+) may also participate in regulating RyR gating through calsequestrin (CSQ), the SR lumenal Ca(2+) buffer. We investigate how SR Ca(2+) release via RyR is regulated by Ca(2+) and calsequestrin (CSQ). First, a mathematical model of RyR kinetics is derived based on experimental evidence. We assume that the RyR has three binding sites, two cytosolic sites for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation, and one SR lumenal site for CSQ binding. The open probability (P(o)) of the RyR is found by simulation under controlled cytosolic and SR lumenal Ca(2+). Both peak and steady-state P(o) effectively increase as SR lumenal Ca(2+) increases. Second, we incorporate the RyR model into a CICR model that has both a diadic space and the junctional SR (jSR). At low jSR Ca(2+) loads, CSQs are more likely to bind with the RyR and act to inhibit jSR Ca(2+) release, while at high SR loads CSQs are more likely to detach from the RyR, thereby increasing jSR Ca(2+) release. Furthermore, this CICR model produces a nonlinear relationship between fractional jSR Ca(2+) release and jSR load. These findings agree with experimental observations in lipid bilayers and cardiac myocytes. PMID:18538346

  13. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na+ and Ca2+ for [CaCl2] ranging from 10−8 to 10−2 M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant

  14. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  15. A theory of Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump stimulation and activity

    CERN Document Server

    Graupner, M; Meyer-Hermann, M; Erler, Frido; Graupner, Michael; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ATP-driven Plasma Membrane Calcium (PMCA) pump is characterized by a high affinity to calcium and a low transport rate compared to other transmembrane calcium transport proteins. It plays a crucial role for calcium extrusion from cells. Calmodulin is an intracellular calcium buffering protein which is capable in its Calcium-liganded form to stimulate the PMCA pump by increasing both, the affinity to calcium and the maximum calcium transport rate. We introduce a new model of this stimulation process and deduce analytical expressions for experimental observables in order to determine the model parameter on the basis of specific experiments. Furthermore a model for the pumping activity is developed. In contrast to the biological process we have to describe the pumping rate behavior by assuming a ATP:Calcium stoichiometry of 2 in order to reproduce experimental data. The conjunction of the description of calcium pumping and the stimulation model fully and correctly simulates PMCA pump function. Therewith the ...

  16. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO causality assessment, Naranjo′s and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as "certain". This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo′s algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig′s severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used.

  17. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca2+ regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway. (paper)

  18. Increased absolute calcium binding to albumin in hypoalbuminaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; Caro, J F

    1981-01-01

    The amount of calcium bound to protein was measured in 30 patients with differing diseases and varying degrees of hypoalbuminaemia. Total serum calcium increased directly with both serum albumin and ultrafilterable calcium concentrations. The estimated amount of calcium bound per gram of albumin varied inversely with the albumin concentration, decreasing from 2.1 to 1.0 mg calcium/g albumin as albumin concentration increased from 1.7 to 3.1 g/dl. Circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentr...

  19. The effect of dimethylsulfoxide on the calcium paradox.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruigrok, T. J.; Moes, D.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated rat hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). Experiments were undertaken to study the effect of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the occurrence of the calcium paradox in rat heart muscle. DMSO (1.4 mol/l) was added to the calcium-free or the reperfusion medium. Cell damage was quantitated in terms of creatine kinase (CK) release, cardiac electrogram (CEG) changes, and ultras...

  20. Factors to consider in the selection of a calcium supplement.

    OpenAIRE

    Shangraw, R F

    1989-01-01

    Calcium supplements are widely used, yet many questions remain as to the absorption of various calcium salts. Because the solubility of many calcium salts is dependent upon pH, the type of salt used, the condition of the patient, and the time of administration should be considered. Studies show that many calcium supplements on the market today do not meet standards of quality established in the "U.S. Pharmacopeia" (USP). Consumers must be discerning about the products they purchase. Calcium s...

  1. Duodenopancreatectomias: análise de 39 pacientes Pancreaticoduodenectomies: analysis of 39 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jorge Martins Torres

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pretendemos neste estudo analisar 39 pacientes submetidos à duodenopancreatectomia. MÉTODO: No período de julho de 1998 a março de 2004, trinta e nove pacientes foram submetidos a duodenopancreatectomia no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Maranhão. Foram analisados os dados epidemiológicos, o quadro clínico, os métodos radiológicos, as indicações da operação e as complicações encontradas . RESULTADOS: Havia 22 pacientes do sexo masculino (56,4% e 17 pacientes do sexo feminino (43,6% com média de idade de 54,9 anos (variação de 21-82 anos. O exame radiológico mais utilizado foi a tomografia computadorizada. O diagnóstico histológico definitivo revelou adenocarcinoma periampolar em 35 pacientes (89,7%, pancreatite crônica (três pacientes - 7,7% e adenocarcinoma colo-retal (um paciente - 2,6%. O adenocarcinoma periampolar mais freqüente foi o carcinoma ductal do pâncreas (27 pacientes - 69,2%, seguido por carcinoma de papila de Vater ( cinco pacientes - 12,8%, adenocarcinoma duodenal (dois pacientes - 5,1% e carcinoma de via biliar distal (um paciente - 2,6%. As complicações pulmonares foram as mais freqüentes sendo encontradas em cinco pacientes (12,8%, a sepse peritoneal em quatro pacientes (10,2%, fístula pancreática em três pacientes (7,6% e a hemorragia0 intra-abdominal em três pacientes (7,6%. A mortalidade intra-hospitalar em 30 dias foi 10,2 % (quatro pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A duodenopancreatectomia ainda está associada a morbidade considerável. Entretanto com uma seleção adequada destes pacientes este procedimento pode ser realizado de forma segura com melhores resultados.BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to analyze 39 patients underwent Whipple's operation. METHOD: In the period from July 1998 to March 2004, thirty-nine patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at University Hospital, Federal University of Maranhão. The diagnosis was made on the basis of computed

  2. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies six new Loci for serum calcium concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conall M O'Seaghdha

    Full Text Available Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ≤ 21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P = 9.1E-12, rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P = 4.8E-09 and rs7481584 in CARS (P = 1.2E-10 implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P = 8.2E-11, also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P = 9.1E-10 are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis.

  3. Effect of combining different calcium concentration dialysate on calcium balance in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-ping; WU Bei; LU Li-xia; QIAO Jie; WU Xiang-lan; WANG Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcium and phosphorus metabolic disturbance are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality.Therefore,maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate metabolism and suitable intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)level has become the focus of attention.We investigated the effects of different peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations on calcium phosphate metabolism and iPTH in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD)patients.Methods Forty stable CAPD patients with normal serum calcium were followed for six months of treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.25,PD4,22 patients)or a combination of 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.75,PD2)and PD4(18 patients)twice a day respectively.Total serum calcium(after albumin correction),serum phosphorus,iPTH,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and blood pressure were recorded before and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment commenced.Results No significant difference was found in baseline serum calcium,phosphorus between the two patient groups,but the levels of iPTH were significantly different.No significant changes were found in the dosage of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D during 6 months.In the PD4 group,serum calcium level at the 1st,3rd,6th months were significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus after 6 months treatment.iPTH was significantly higher(P<0.001)at the 1st,3rd,and 6th months compared with the baseline.No differences were seen in ALP and blood pressure.In the PD4+PD2 group,no significant changes in serum calcium,phosphorus,iPTH,ALP and BP during the 6-month follow-up period.Conclusions Treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate for six months can decrease serum calcium,increase iPTH,without change in serum phosphorus,ALP,and BP.The combining of PD4 and PD2 can stabilize the serum calcium and avoid fluctuations in iPTH levels.

  4. Expanding the neuron's calcium signaling repertoire: intracellular calcium release via voltage-induced PLC and IP3R activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ryglewski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.

  5. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  6. Update on calcium pyrophosphate deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek; Doherty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) associates with ageing, osteoarthritis (OA), uncommon metabolic diseases, mutations and polymorphisms in the ankylosis human gene (ANKH). CPPD is frequently polyarticular, occurs due to a generalised articular predisposition, and the association between CPPD and OA is joint specific, for example CPPD associates with knee OA, but not with hip OA. Other recently identified associations include knee malalignment (knee CC), low cortical BMD and soft-tissue calcification. CPPD is generally asymptomatic. A recent study reported that knees with OA plus CC at the index joint, or at distant joints (in absence of index joint CC), were more likely to have attrition. CPPD can cause acute CPP crystal arthritis, chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis, and is frequently present in joints with OA. Joint aspiration remains the gold standard for diagnosing CPPD, although other promising techniques are emerging. Patients with polyarticular or young onset CPPD should be screened for underlying metabolic abnormalities, however, such testing can be unrewarding. The treatment of CPPD is symptomatic. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is treated with rest, local application of ice-packs, joint aspiration, colchicine and/or intra-articular corticosteroid injection (once infection is excluded). Colchicine, low-dose corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and radiosynovectomy are recommended for the treatment of chronic or recurrent acute CPP crystal arthritis. Recent RCTs did not confirm any benefit from methotrexate, and although there is increasing interest in the use of anti-IL1 agents for acute or chronic CPP crystal arthritis, their efficacy has not been formally examined. Unlike gout, currently there are no treatments to eliminate CPP crystal deposits. PMID:27586801

  7. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study compare

  8. Calcium spikes and calcium plateaux evoked by differential polarization in dendrites of turtle motoneurones in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Kiehn, O

    1993-01-01

    The ability of dendrites in turtle motoneurones to support calcium spikes and calcium plateaux was investigated using differential polarization by applied electric fields. 2. Electric fields were generated by passing current through transverse slices of the turtle spinal cord between two plate......+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaux are present in dendrites of spinal motoneurones of the turtle....

  9. Characterization of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and regulatory properties of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel were studied by isolating protein components of the channel complex from both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Hydrodynamic characterization of the (+)-(3H)PN200-110-labeled cardiac calcium channel revealed that the protein components of the complex had a total molecular mass of 370,000 daltons, a Stokes radius of 86 angstrom, and a frictional ratio of 1.3. A technique is described for the rapid incorporation of the CHAPS solubilized skeletal muscle calcium channel complex into phospholipid vesicles. 45Ca2+ uptake into phospholipid vesicles containing calcium channels was inhibited by phenylalkalamine calcium antagonists. Wheat germ lectin followed by DEAE chromatography of the CHAPS solubilized complex resulted in the dissociation of regulatory components of the complex from channel components. The DEAE preparation gave rise to 45Ca2+ uptake that was not inhibited by verapamil but was inhibited by GTPgS activated G0. The inhibition of 45Ca2+ uptake by verapamil was restored by co-reconstitution of wash fractions from wheat germ lectin chromatography. Phosphorylation of polypeptides in this fraction by polypeptide-dependent protein kinase prevented the restoration of verapamil sensitivity. The partial purification of an endogenous skeletal muscle ADP-ribosyltransferase is also described. ADP-ribosylation of the α2 subunit of the calcium channel complex is enhanced by polylysine and inhibited by GTPγS, suggesting that regulation of this enzyme is under the control of GTP binding proteins. These results suggest a complex model, involving a number of different protein components, for calcium channel regulation in skeletal muscle

  10. Personnel neutron dosimetry using electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A personnel neutron dosimetry system has been developed based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This Cr-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. The dosimetry system employs an electrochemical etch procedure that be used to process large numbers of Cr-39 dosimeters. The etch procedure is suitable for operations where the number of personnel requires that many CR-39 dosimeters be processed. Experience shows that one full-time technician can etch and evaluate 2000 foils per month. The energy response to neutrons is fairly flat from about 80 keV to 3.5 MeV, but drops by about a factor of three in the 13 to 16 MeV range. The sensitivity of the dosimetry system is about 7 tracks/cm2/mrem, with a background equivalent to about 8 mrem for new CR-39 foils. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 10 mrem. The dosimeter has a significant variation in directional dependence, dropping to about 20% at 900. This dosimeter has been used for personnel neutron dosimetry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more tha 18 months. 6 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet...

  12. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet...

  13. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers...

  14. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety

    2000-08-01

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  15. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.

  16. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  17. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...... not depend on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Chymosin added to milk increases renal calcium excretion in the hours following intake without affecting plasma levels of calcium or calciotropic hormones. The effect most likely represents enhanced intestinal calcium absorption shortly after intake. Further...

  18. Role of mitochondria and network connectivity in intercellular calcium oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Dokukina, I V; Grachev, E A; Gunton, J D; Dokukina, Irina V.; Gracheva, Maria E.; Grachev, Eugene A.; Gunton, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are large-scale regulators of cytosolic calcium under normal cellular conditions. In this paper we model the complex behavior of mitochondrial calcium during the action of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate on a single cell and find results that are in good agreement with recent experimental studies. We also study the influence of the cellular network connectivity on intercellular signalling via gap junction diffusion. We include in our model the dependence of the junctional conductivity on the cytosolic calcium concentrations in adjacent cells. We consider three different mechanisms of calcium wave propagation through gap junctions: via calcium diffusion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion, and both calcium and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion. We show that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion is the mechanism of calcium wave propagation and that calcium diffusion is the mechanism of synchronization of cytosolic calcium oscillations in adjacent cells. We also study the role of different to...

  19. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shan Kong; Bing-bing Wang; Quan Ji; Yan-zhi Xia; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride. The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter (CONE). The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34, and the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), CO and CO_2 concentrations during combustion are much lower compared with those of viscose fibers. Calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were formed during thermal degradation of calcium alginate fibers at different temperatures. The shape of calcium alginate fibers is well kept after LOI test. The rigid combustion residue char acts as an effective barrier to the outward diffusion of flame and heat. The combustion process and flame retardant mechanism of calcium alginate fibers are also discussed.

  20. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  1. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied 45Ca2+ across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since 1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and gravi-induced polar calcium movement and 2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  2. Convergent landscape. 39 and a half as (multi promotional intertext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kopecka- Piech

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a broader characterisation of the media convergence strategy applied by producers of the Polish commercial television station (TVN series 39 and a half (39 i pół. In order to examine the convergence strategies of production, distribution, promotion and media usage, this paper analyzes metaphors of landscape, terrain, map and simulacrum. Moreover the concept of convergent (intertext is proposed. In the case study of 39 and a half the author examines three main strategies implemented by the creators: the promotional virtualisation of reality, making virtual reality more real, and multiplied fiction. Transmedial and synergetic brands illustrate the hybridisation of the convergent and integrated media landscape.

  3. IAS 39 og konverterbar gæld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund Møller, Peder; Thinggaard, Frank

    , at der er en betydelig beholdning af konverterbare realkreditlån, som der skal aflægges regnskab for. Denne artikel har til formål at belyse de alternativer, der findes i IAS39 til regnskabsmæssig behandling af konverterbar gæld. I juli 2008 kom der en tilføjelse til IAS 39, "Eligible Hedged Items...... konverterbare lån: 1. dagsværdimetode, hvor "hele det konverterbare lån", dvs. både den "rene gæld" og den indbyggede indfrielsesoption, der iflg. IAS 39 udgør de to komponenter i et konverterbart lån, føres til dagsværdi, 2. udskillelsesmetode, hvor der anvendes amortiseret kostpris for den "rene gæld" og...

  4. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  5. Information flow through calcium binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous mode of biological communication, which regulates a great variety of vital processes in living systems. Such a signal typically begins with an elementary event, in which calcium ions bind to a protein, inducing a change in the protein's structure. Information can only be lost, from what was conveyed through this initial event, as the signal is further transduced through the downstream networks. In the present work we analyze and optimize the information flow in the calcium binding process. We explicitly calculate the mutual information between the calcium concentration and the states of the protein, using a simple model for allosteric regulation in a dimeric protein. The optimal solution depends on the dynamic range of the input as well as on the timescale of signal integration. According to our result, the optimizing strategy involves allowing the calcium-binding protein to be ``activated'' by a partial occupation of its sites, and tuning independently the strengths of cooperative interactions in the binding and unbinding processes.

  6. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  7. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  8. Note: fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, S

    2015-03-01

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed. PMID:25832287

  9. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  10. Calcium glycerophosphate supplemented to soft drinks reduces bovine enamel erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Silveira Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP supplemented to soft drinks on bovine enamel erosion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four pH-cycles were performed, alternating demineralization by the beverage and remineralization in artificial saliva. RESULTS: Mean wear (±SD, µm was 7.91±1.13, 7.39±1.01, 7.50±0.91 and 5.21±1.08 for Coca-Cola® without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, respectively, while no wear was detected for CaGP at 5.0 and 10.0 mM. Corresponding figures for Sprite Zero® without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mM were 8.04±1.30, 7.84±0.71, 7.47±0.80, 4.96±0.81, 3.99±0.10 and 1.87±0.12, respectively. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of both beverages with CaGP seems to be an alternative to reduce their erosive potential.

  11. Structure and properties of silver-doped calcium phosphate nanopowders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAVINDER PAL SINGH; UMA BATRA

    2016-09-01

    Stable and antimicrobial silver-doped calcium phosphate nanopowders were synthesized using sol–gel route by setting the atomic ratio of Ag/(Ag +Ca) at 3%and (Ca $+$ Ag)/P at 1.67. Prior to synthesis of nanopowders, influence of time of hydrolyzation on pH and density of precursors were comprehensively studied. Hydrolyzation time was found to have profound influence on pH of constituent precursors. Sufficient hydrolysis resulted in early maturation of sol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the heterogeneous and agglomerated state of particles with average size of $3.9\\pm 1.9$ $\\mu$m. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) presented uniform distributionof O, Ag, Ca and P elements in nanopowder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of apatitic structure, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the multiphase constitution of nanopowdersprimarily composed of $\\beta$-TCP, Ag and other hybrid phases. Crystallite size and lattice parameters of $\\beta$-TCP and Ag phases were increased with the rise in calcination temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed threeregions of weight change and indicated the high thermal stability of nanopowders. Disk diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial resistance of nanopowders against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains. All nanopowders exhibited antimicrobial resistance against both E. coli and S. aureus bacteria.

  12. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  13. Glial calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysioilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexei VERKHRASKY

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal-glial circuits underlie integrative processes in the nervous system.Function of glial syncytium is,to a very large extent,regulated by the intracellular calcium signaling system.Glial calcium signals are triggered by activation of multiple receptors,expressed in glial membrane,which regulate both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.The endoplasmic reticulum also endows glial cells with intracellular excitable media,which is able to produce and maintain long-ranging signaling in a form of propagating Ca2+ waves.In pathological conditions,calcium signals regulate glial response to injury,which might have both protective and detrimental effects on the nervous tissue.

  14. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  15. Impairment of ciprofloxacin absorption by calcium polycarbophil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Imano, Hideki; Kawai, Masayuki; Kuwahara, Shiro; Tsuchishita, Yoshimasa; Yonezawa, Emi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2002-07-01

    The effect of calcium polycarbophil on the absorption of ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, was evaluated in an in vitro and in vivo study. In the in vitro study, the release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence or absence of metal cations was measured using the dissolution test procedure. In the in vivo study, male ST Wistar rats and male volunteers were employed. First, 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin alone (Rat Study 1) or 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin in combination with 64 mg/kg of calcium chloride (Rat Study 2) was administered orally to 3 rats. Second, a volunteer study was employed and a randomized crossover design with twophases was used. In onephase, volunteers received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin alone (Study 1); in the other phase, they received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin and 1200 mg of fine calcium polycarbophil granules concomitantly (Study 2). The plasma and serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence of aluminum, calcium, or iron ions was slower than that in the absence of these metal ions. The AUC0-4 and Cmax in Rat Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Rat Study 1. AUC0-4 was approximately 60% lower in Rat Study 2 than Rat Study 1. In the volunteer study, the AUC0-12 and Cmax in Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Study 1. In particular, AUC0-12 was approximately 50% lowerin Study 2 than in Study 1. These findings suggest that when ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil were coadministered concomitantly, a decrease of ciprofloxacin absorption was observed, and this action was caused by the formation of chelate complexes. Therefore, it seems clear that we should avoid the concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil.

  16. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  17. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  18. Chemical Composition, Nutritive and Energetic Value of Plantain (Musa ssp. Hybrids CRBP 14, CRBP 39, FHIA 17, FHIA 21and Orishele Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics as well as contents in main components such as dry matter, sugars, lipids proteins and some minerals were determined in four banana hybrids CRBP 14, CRBP 39, FHIA 17, FHIA 21 and Orishele variety (used as control. Titrable acidity, pH, and calorific energy of these various cultivars of banana (Musa ssp. were also determined. The results indicated that Orishele variety had the highest content of dry matter, total carbohydrate and potassium. On the other hand, CRBP 39 hybrid which had the highest total acidity was the richest in total sugars and was the most energetic. Concerning FHIA 17, it contained the highest amount of proteins, lipids, magnesium, calcium and iron.

  19. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.;

    2004-01-01

    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...... discusses the current knowledge on the structure and potential function of this protein. Several putative binding partners of ALG-2 have been identified hinting to functions of ALG-2 in apoptosis and possibly also in proliferation, endocytosis and transcriptional regulation during development. Gene deletion...

  20. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.)

  1. Calcium and weight control-Publications summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Çelebi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem. And it is known that both energy balance and nutritional factors are effective on it. The effects of dietary calcium on bone health are known however with recent studies, it has become a food item that focused on the effect on body weight control. Most epidemiyolojik studies claim that there is a relationship between long-term consumption of diary milk and milk products and the decrease of body weight and fat mass. In this article, there are different studies that support or do not support this idea. However the effect mechanism of calcium on weight control is tried to be explained.

  2. 39 CFR 955.31 - Dismissal without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dismissal without prejudice. 955.31 Section 955.31... OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.31 Dismissal without prejudice. In certain cases, appeals docketed before... discretion, dismiss such appeals from its docket without prejudice to their restoration when the cause...

  3. 39 CFR 3030.2 - Scope and nature of complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and nature of complaints. 3030.2 Section 3030.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS General § 3030.2 Scope and nature of complaints. Any interested person (including a duly appointed officer of...

  4. 39 CFR 955.21 - Nature of hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of hearings. 955.21 Section 955.21 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.21 Nature of hearings. Hearings shall be as informal as may be reasonable...

  5. 39 CFR 3001.18 - Nature of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of proceedings. 3001.18 Section 3001.18 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.18 Nature of proceedings. (a) Proceedings to be set for hearing. Except as...

  6. 16 CFR 1209.39 - Certification of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufactured outside the United States, by city and country. The information required by this § 1209.39(a) may..., city and country).” The certificate of compliance must also contain the name of the manufacturer... sold under the private labeler's name, brand, or trademark must issue the certificate of...

  7. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stand-alone special services. 122.2 Section 122.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard for P. O....

  8. 38 CFR 39.22 - Architectural design standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Architectural design...-16-10) Standards and Requirements for Project § 39.22 Architectural design standards. The... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies...

  9. 39 CFR 775.7 - Planning and early coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning and early coordination. 775.7 Section 775.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.7 Planning and early coordination. Early planning and coordination...

  10. 39 CFR 255.7 - Special arrangements for postal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY § 255.7 Special arrangements for postal services. Members of the public who are unable... carriers. (iii) Self-service postal centers. Self-service postal centers contain vending equipment for the... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special arrangements for postal services....

  11. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar method, based on the decay of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 40K, is capable of producing ages with precision better than ± 0.1 %. However, accuracy is limited to no better than 1 % mainly due to the relatively large uncertainty in the 40K decay constants. One approach...

  12. 7 CFR 1773.39 - Utility plant and accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.39 Utility plant and accumulated depreciation. (a) General. The audit of... CPA's determination of materiality, an appropriate sample of transactions must be selected for...

  13. 32 CFR 3.9 - Follow-on production contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed quantity and target prices for the follow-on production units as part of that competition. (3... matter of policy, establishing target prices for production units should only be considered when the risk... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Follow-on production contracts. 3.9 Section...

  14. 41 CFR 109-39.107 - Limited exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 109-39.107 Limited exemptions. The Director, Office of Administrative Services and heads of field organizations for their respective organizations shall seek limited... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited exemptions....

  15. 39 CFR 3010.21 - Calculation of annual limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of annual limitation. 3010.21 Section 3010.21 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.21 Calculation of annual limitation. (a) The...

  16. 27 CFR 21.71 - Formula No. 39-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and one-half gallons of diethyl phthalate and 1/8 gallon of tert-butyl alcohol. (b) Authorized uses... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39-B. 21.71 Section 21.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  17. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., N.F. VII; and 1/8 gallon of tert-butyl alcohol. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  18. 39 CFR 3002.10 - The Commission and its offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Commission and its offices. 3002.10 Section... its offices. (a) The Commissioners. The Postal Regulatory Commission is an independent establishment... accessible through the Internet, on its website at www.prc.gov....

  19. 25 CFR 39.1002 - Allotment of education administrative funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Administrative Cost Formula § 39.1002 Allotment of education administrative funds. The... amount of $50,000 for basic administrative costs; and (b) Each agency or area education office as defined... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allotment of education administrative funds....

  20. 39 CFR 3001.115 - Participant statement or brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participant statement or brief. 3001.115 Section... Participant statement or brief. (a) Participant statement. Upon the filing of the petition for review of a... or she may file a brief as described in paragraph (b) of this section presenting the arguments,...

  1. 39 CFR 3050.25 - Volume and revenue data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume and revenue data. 3050.25 Section 3050.25 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.25 Volume and revenue data. (a) The items in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be provided. (b) The...

  2. 39 CFR 3010.43 - Data collection plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data collection plan. 3010.43 Section 3010.43... Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.43 Data collection plan. The Postal Service shall include with any notice of agreement a detailed plan for...

  3. Atom trap trace analysis of {sup 39}Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welte, Joachim

    2011-12-14

    Detection of {sup 39}Ar in natural water samples can be employed for radiometric dating on a timescale of 50 to 1000 years before present. This experimental work comprises the setup of an atomic beam and trap apparatus that captures and detects {sup 39}Ar atoms by the laser-cooling technique ''Atom Trap Trace Analysis''. With this approach, the limitations of low-level counting, regarding sample size and measurement time, could be overcome. In the course of this work, the hyperfine structure spectrum of the cooling transition 1s{sub 5}-2p{sub 9} has been experimentally determined. A high intensity, optically collimated beam of slow metastable argon atoms has been set up and fluorescence detection of individual {sup 39}Ar atoms in a magneto-optical trap is realized. {sup 39}Ar count rates of 1 atom in about 4 hours have been achieved for atmospheric argon. Recent improvements further suggest that even higher count rates of 1 atom/hour are within reach.

  4. 39 CFR 447.42 - Additional prohibited political activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the public or be in the view of the public; (3) Display a political picture or sticker on his... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional prohibited political activities. 447.42... Political Activities § 447.42 Additional prohibited political activities. (a) In addition to...

  5. 39 CFR 267.4 - Information security standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information security standards. 267.4 Section 267... INFORMATION § 267.4 Information security standards. (a) The Postal Service will operate under a uniform set of information security standards which address the following functional aspects of information flow...

  6. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section 775.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before...

  7. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1508.27. (b) Actions requiring an environmental assessment. Classes of actions that will... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact...

  8. 39 CFR 775.9 - Environmental evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation process. 775.9 Section 775.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.9 Environmental evaluation process. (a) All actions—(1) Assessment of...

  9. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation guidelines. 775.8 Section 775.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.8 Environmental evaluation guidelines. (a) Approach. When dealing...

  10. 39 CFR 3050.40 - Additional financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional financial reporting. 3050.40 Section... financial reporting. (a) In general. The Postal Service shall file with the Commission: (1) Within 40 days...), beginning with the annual report for fiscal year 2010. (c) Financial reporting. The reports required...

  11. 39 CFR 955.27 - Withdrawal of attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of attorney. 955.27 Section 955.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.27 Withdrawal of attorney. Any attorney for either party who has filed...

  12. 39 CFR 273.7 - Concurrence of Attorney General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concurrence of Attorney General. 273.7 Section 273... PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 273.7 Concurrence of Attorney General. (a) The Attorney General is... the Attorney General or his designee approves such action in a written statement which specifies:...

  13. 39 CFR 3000.735-102 - Counseling and advisory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and advisory services. 3000.735-102 Section 3000.735-102 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT General Provisions § 3000.735-102 Counseling and advisory services. (a) The Chairman of the Commission shall...

  14. 39 CFR 3000.735-103 - Financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial interests. 3000.735-103 Section 3000.735-103 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT General Provisions § 3000.735-103 Financial interests. An employee shall not, either directly or indirectly, have...

  15. 39 CFR 3000.735-501 - Ex parte communications prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ex parte communications prohibited. 3000.735-501 Section 3000.735-501 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Ex Parte Communications § 3000.735-501 Ex parte communications prohibited. Decision-making Commission personnel,...

  16. 39 CFR 273.6 - Evaluation by reviewing official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation by reviewing official. 273.6 Section... PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 273.6 Evaluation by reviewing official. (a) Based upon the investigatory report prepared by the Investigating Official, the Reviewing Official shall determine...

  17. 39 CFR 601.107 - Initial disagreement resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial disagreement resolution. 601.107 Section... disagreement resolution. (a) Definitions. (1) Days. Calendar days; however, any time period will run until a... officer or the Supplier Disagreement Resolution Official, as appropriate. (5) SDR Official. The...

  18. 39 CFR 601.108 - SDR Official disagreement resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SDR Official disagreement resolution. 601.108... disagreement resolution. (a) General. If a disagreement under § 601.107 is not resolved within 10 days after it... supplier is not satisfied with the contracting officer's resolution of the disagreement, or if the...

  19. 39 CFR 3050.27 - Workers' Compensation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workers' Compensation Report. 3050.27 Section 3050.27 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.27 Workers' Compensation Report. The Workers' Compensation Report, including summary workpapers, shall be provided by...

  20. 39 CFR 501.10 - Postage Evidencing System modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postage Evidencing System modifications. 501.10... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.10 Postage Evidencing System modifications. (a) An... a previously approved Postage Evidencing System. The notification must include a summary of...

  1. 39 CFR 501.5 - Burden of proof standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of proof standard. 501.5 Section 501.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.5 Burden of proof standard. The burden of proof is on the Postal...

  2. 39 CFR 501.17 - Decertified Postage Evidencing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decertified Postage Evidencing Systems. 501.17... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.17 Decertified Postage Evidencing Systems. (a) A Decertified Postage Evidencing System is a device for which the provider's authority to distribute has...

  3. 39 CFR 501.2 - Postage Evidencing System provider authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postage Evidencing System provider authorization... MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.2 Postage Evidencing System provider authorization. (a) The Postal Service considers Postage Evidencing Systems and their respective infrastructure to...

  4. 39 CFR 501.3 - Postage Evidencing System provider qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postage Evidencing System provider qualification... MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.3 Postage Evidencing System provider qualification. Any person or entity seeking authorization to manufacture and/or distribute Postage Evidencing...

  5. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign tankers. (a) This section applies to each foreign tanker of 10,000 gross tons or more, except a public...

  6. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Reliability... CERTIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.3 Electric Reliability Organization certification. (a)...

  7. 39 CFR 961.10 - Waiver of employee rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waiver of employee rights. 961.10 Section 961.10... EMPLOYEE HEARING PETITIONS UNDER SECTION 5 OF THE DEBT COLLECTION ACT § 961.10 Waiver of employee rights. The Hearing Official may determine the employee has waived his or her right to a hearing and...

  8. 39 CFR 265.5 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public reading rooms. 265.5 Section 265.5 Postal... reading rooms. The Library of the Postal Service Headquarters, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW, Washington, DC 20260-1641, serves as public reading room for the materials which are listed in paragraphs (a)(2), (3),...

  9. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in...

  10. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  11. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  12. 39 CFR 3001.31a - In camera orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In camera orders. 3001.31a Section 3001.31a Postal... Applicability § 3001.31a In camera orders. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided, documents and testimony made subject to in camera orders are not made a part of the public record, but are...

  13. 39 CFR 3060.13 - Valuation of liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of liabilities. 3060.13 Section 3060.13 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.13 Valuation of liabilities. Within 6 months of January...

  14. 39 CFR 912.6 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 912.6 Section... Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be presented by the owner... any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim in accordance with applicable State law....

  15. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal purchasing authority. 601.104 Section 601...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related...

  16. 39 CFR 3001.75 - Service by the Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service by the Postal Service. 3001.75 Section 3001.75 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules Applicable to Requests for Changes in the Nature of Postal Services § 3001.75 Service by the Postal...

  17. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  18. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H;

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had....... Androgen deficiency increased the abundance of the renal mRNA and protein of both the luminal transient receptor potential vanilloid-subtype 5 (TRPV5) and intracellular calbindin-D(28K) transporters, which in turn were suppressed by testosterone treatment. There were no significant differences in serum...

  19. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  20. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1990-01-01

    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  1. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-01

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo.

  2. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-20

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo. PMID:26965706

  3. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  4. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Bentov; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jenny Tynyakov; Lilah Glazer; Amir Sagi

    2016-01-01

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates speciali...

  5. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique,; Weiss, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of "ready to use" injectable biomat...

  6. Coupling Effect of Ion Channel Clusters on Calcium Signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a modified intracellular Ca2+ model involving diffusive coupling of two calcium ion channel clusters, the effects of coupling on calcium signalling are numerically investigated. The simulation results indicate that the diffusive coupling of clusters together with internal noise determine the calcium dynamics of single cluster, and for either homogeneous or heterogeneous coupled clusters, the synchronization of clusters, which is important to calcium signalling, is enhanced by the coupling effect

  7. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  8. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  9. Coupling Effect of Ion Channel Clusters on Calcium Signalling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; JIA Ya; YI Ming; MA Jun; YU Guang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on a modified intracellular Ca2+ model involving diffusive coupling of two calcium ion channel clusters,the effects of coupling on calcium signalling are numerically investigated.The simulation results indicate that the diffusive coupling of clusters together with internal noise determine the calcium dynamics of single cluster,and for either homogeneous or heterogeneous coupled clusters,the synchronization of clusters,which is important to calcium signalling,is enhanced by the coupling effect.

  10. Stability of calcium silicate in basic solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生

    2003-01-01

    Mixture of CaO and SiO2 was sintered at 1 200 or 1 400 ℃ according to the mole ratio of CaO/SiO2 of 1 or 2, and then calcium silicate was leached in pure caustic or soda solution. The results indicated that calcium silicate exists much more stably in caustic solution than that in soda solution, and CaO*SiO2 is more stable than β-2CaO*SiO2 whether in caustic solution or in soda solution. The increase of sintering temperature favored the stability of calcium silicate in the leaching process. When β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in soda solution, the increase of leaching temperature and time resulted in decomposing of more calcium silicate. And when β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in caustic solution at high temperature, much 2CaO*SiO2*H2O but little CaO*SiO2*H2O appeared in slag.

  11. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    )-sensitive fast Na(+) spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  13. Three-dimensionally Perforated Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were produced by compression molding using a special mold followed by sintering. The porous calcium phosphate ceramics have three-dimensional and penetrated open pores380-400μm in diameter spaced at intervals of 200μm. The layers of the linear penetration pores alternately lay perpendicular to pore direction. The porosity was 59%-65% . The Ca/P molar ratios of the porous calcium phosphate ceramics range from 1.5 to 1.85. A binder containing methyl cellulose was most effective for preparing the powder compact among vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, stearic acid, methyl cellulose and their mixtures. Stainless steel, polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies for the penetrated open pores. When polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies, the dies were burned out during the sintering process. Using stainless steel as the male dies with the removal of the dies before heat treatment resulted in a higher level of densification of the calcium phosphate ceramic.

  14. The rate of calcium turnover in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports an analysis of the clearance of calcium-47 tracer from the plasma of human patients. Nine subjects have so far been analysed, and the results all deviate somewhat from those predicted from the conventional simple kinetic scheme. 3 figs

  15. Calcium flux assay in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P M

    2001-05-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors of interest to neuroscientists induce transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which can be used as a convenient measure of receptor activation in a variety of applications. This unit describes a simple calcium flux assay applied to Xenopus oocytes. PMID:18428482

  16. The Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The thermogravimetry(TG) and derivative thermogravimetry(DTG) curves of the thermal decomposition reaction of calcium carbonate have been measured at five different heating rates. The kinetic parameters and the reaction mechanism of the reaction were evaluated from analysis of the TG and DTG curves by using the Ozawa method, the combined integral and differential methods and the reduced equations derived by us.

  17. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking... agent in food in an amount not in excess of that reasonably required to produce its intended effect. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sorbate. 582.3225 Section 582.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sorbate. 182.3225 Section 182.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium propionate. 582.3221 Section 582.3221 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  3. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  4. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate... (racemic) form. (b) To assure safe use of the additive, the label and labeling of the food...

  5. Free-calcium distribution and calcium pulses in rat peripheral macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanhua; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Jin, Ying

    2000-10-01

    With Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope (LCSM) system, three aspects of characteristics of free cytoplasmic calcium in rat peripheral macrophages are studied. One is the Ca2+ concentration in different area in the same cell. Second is the Ca2+ concentration in the same area in different dividing stage. Third is the feature of calcium pulses evoked by Kcl or pH changing. The results show that even in one cell, the evolution of the Ca2+ concentration is not the same in a different area. In the same area, the nucleolus Ca2+ concentration in division breaking stage is much higher than that in division stage. From the experiment phenomena, we conclude that Kcl itself can not evoke calcium pulses in the unexcitable macrophage, but the change of pH can trig calcium pulses in the same cells.

  6. Photodissociation studies of calcium-coronene and calcium-pyrene cation clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. C.; Buchanan, J. W.; Flynn, N. D.; Duncan, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Gas-phase cluster cations combining calcium atoms and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) coronene (C24H12) and pyrene (C16H10) are produced in a molecular beam using laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle cluster source. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry reveals the formation of clusters of the form Cax(coronene)y+ for up to x = 4 and y = 3 and Cax(pyrene)y+ for up to x = 2 and y = 3. Mass-selected photodissociation studies show that the calcium cation is the most prominent fragment for each system. Photoinduced calcium carbide formation is prominent when two or more calcium atoms are present. Additionally, there is evidence that these clusters can form sandwich structures.

  7. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  8. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  9. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  10. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B;

    1996-01-01

    Indirect evidence supports a protective role of some EF-hand calcium-binding proteins against calcium-induced neurotoxicity. Little is known about how these proteins influence cytosolic calcium levels. After cloning the parvalbumin cDNA into an expression vector, teratocarcinoma cells (PCC7) were...

  11. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B;

    1996-01-01

    transfected. Parvalbumin-transfected and mock-transfected cells were loaded with the calcium indicator fura-2 and were exposed, in the same dish, to different concentrations of the calcium ionophore A23187 or to KCI. The results show that parvalbumin-transfected PCC7 cells had much better calcium buffering...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Influence of the calcium sulfate source on the rheological behaviour of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Santacruz, Isabel; García-Maté, Marta; G. Aranda, Miguel Ángel; De la Torre, Ángeles G.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are receiving increasing attention since their manufacture produces much less CO2 than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) [1]. In addition, they show interesting properties such as high early-age strengths, short setting times and impermeability. The main uses of these CSA cements are for quick repairs and pre-cast products or floor concrete applications. They are prepared by mixing the clinker with different amounts of a calcium sulfate set regulator such as ...

  15. Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders due to carbonation and hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Cizer, Özlem; Campforts, J; Balen, Koenraad Van; Elsen, Jan; Gemert, Dionys van

    2006-01-01

    Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders composed of cement, rice husk ash (RHA) and lime in different compositions were studied with mechanical strength, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thermal analysis and SEM. When cement is partially replaced with RHA and lime, hardening occurs as a result of combined hydration, pozzolanic reaction and carbonation reaction. While hydration of cement contributes to the early strength development of the mortars, carbonation is much more pr...

  16. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni

    2010-10-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  18. Optogenetic measurement of presynaptic calcium transients using conditional genetically encoded calcium indicator expression in dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Sgobio

    Full Text Available Calcium triggers dopamine release from presynaptic terminals of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA neurons in the striatum. However, calcium transients within mDA axons and axon terminals are difficult to study and little is known about how they are regulated. Here we use a newly-developed method to measure presynaptic calcium transients (PreCaTs in axons and terminals of mDA neurons with a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI GCaMP3 expressed in transgenic mice. Using a photomultiplier tube-based system, we measured electrical stimulation-induced PreCaTs of mDA neurons in dorsolateral striatum slices from these mice. Single-pulse stimulation produced a transient increase in fluorescence that was completely blocked by a combination of N- and P/Q-type calcium channel blockers. DA and cholinergic, but not serotoninergic, signaling pathways modulated the PreCaTs in mDA fibers. These findings reveal heretofore unexplored dynamic modulation of presynaptic calcium in nigrostriatal terminals.

  19. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James T Taylor; Xiang-Bin Zeng; Jonathan E Pottle; Kevin Lee; Alun R Wang; Stephenie G Yi; Jennifer A S Scruggs; Suresh S Sikka; Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells,free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear;however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel isminimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers.

  20. In vivo calcium imaging of evoked calcium waves in the embryonic cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eYuryev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this approach we demonstrate induction of calcium waves by laser stimulation. These waves are sensitive to ATP-receptor blockade and are significantly increased by pharmacological facilitation of intracellular-calcium release. This approach is the closest to physiological conditions yet achieved for imaging of calcium in the embryonic brain and as such opens new avenues for the study of prenatal brain development. Furthermore, the developed method could open the possibilities of preclinical translational studies in embryos particularly important for developmentally related diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.

  1. A cohort study of relationship between serum calcium levels and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or RHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Deren; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Wei, Chenchen; Ma, Zhenxing; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Ruozhen; Tang, Hehan; Liu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Calcium is an essential element for life and has cerebroprotective property in stroke patients. Low serum calcium levels were found to be related to large hematoma volumes in intracerebral hemorrhagic patients and hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients after thrombolysis. However, their impact on hemorrhage-prone small vessel disease represented by cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is uncertain. We aim to investigate whether low serum calcium levels are associated with presence and location of CMBs.Ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease admitted to our hospital were consecutively and prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were collected and analyzed according to the occurrence and location of CMBs, and levels of serum calcium. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the multivariable adjusted relationship between serum calcium levels and the presence or location of CMBs.Among the 67 patients (28 males; mean age, 67.3 years) in the final analysis, 39 (58.2%) were found to have CMBs. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, and renal impairment, the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs was, respectively, 4.96- and 4.83-fold higher in patients with lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) than in patients with higher serum calcium levels.Lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) are independently associated with the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or rheumatic heart disease, which should be verified and extended in large cohorts, with other types of stroke patients and the general population. PMID:27368027

  2. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water) on root dentin microhardness

    OpenAIRE

    Hasheminia SM; Norouzynasab S

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled ...

  3. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium wa

  4. MB39C326:DC/DC转换器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    富士通半导体(上海)有限公司推出面向便携设备的DC/DC转换器MB39C326,可通过自动切换降压,升压工作模式来扩大工作电压范围。MB39C326通过内置开关FET和采用2.15mm×1.94mm的小型封装构成贴装面积小、物料清单成本低的电源系统,且可通过DAC信号动态控制输出电压,支持APT、ET功能。

  5. Alpha particle track coloration in CR-39: Improved observability

    CERN Document Server

    Oezguemues, A

    1999-01-01

    A comparative study of the observability of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was performed with an optical microscope before and after coloration. The implantation of ink helped in observing the damage zones. At first glance through the microscope, the coloration makes the tracks stand out right away. This coloration is helpful, from the start, in the morphological study of the tracks (size, area, orientation, shape, perimeter). This operation is advantageous in distinguishing the alpha particle tracks from stains or scratches. Thus, the routine counting of the tracks is more easily performed. Consequently, this procedure allowed us: to decrease significantly the standard deviation of the approximate total of the parameters given from the image analysis system (Olympus CUE2); to envision the possibility of reasonably decreasing the etching time in order to limit the loss of information caused by the destruction of the CR-39 during chemical etching and to use a weaker enlarging lens in order to cover a larger fi...

  6. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  7. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Production of strongly bound 39K bright solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Lepoutre, S; Boissé, A; Berthet, G; Salomon, G; Aspect, A; Bourdel, T

    2016-01-01

    We report on the production of 39 K matter-wave bright solitons, i.e., 1D matter-waves that propagate without dispersion thanks to attractive interactions. The volume of the soliton is studied as a function of the scattering length through three-body losses, revealing peak densities as high as $\\sim 5 \\times 10^{20} m^{-3}$. Our solitons, close to the collapse threshold, are strongly bound and will find applications in fundamental physics and atom interferometry.

  9. Experimental study of neutron dose measurements with CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the measurements of neutron dose using CR-39 detectors, its method, etching condition and results of field application. The optimum etching condition found by orthogonal experimental design was 6.5 mol/L KOH solution, at 70 degree C 7 hours. The calibration factor was 7.0 x 10-3 mSv/tr·cm-2. The detectable limit was 0.06 mSv

  10. Aspecte privind anularea recunoasterii activelor financiare conform IAS 39

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carmen Avram

    2006-01-01

    Accounting for financial assets has undergone a real revolution since the publication of IAS 39 "Financial Instruments: Recognition&Measurement". Particularly, the rules concerning the derecognition of these assets are entirely new and complex and therefore not easily applicable. They are based upon the principle of "substance over form" which is not very used in our country. This paper deals with these new rules and presents them in a light that is meant to facilitate their understanding by ...

  11. 39th Annual European Brain and Behaviour Society Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Treves, Edited by: Alessandro; Battaglini, P. Paolo; Chelazzi, Leonardo; Diamond, Mathew; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Tonegawa, Susumu; Abeles, Moshe; Everitt, Barry J.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Maquet, Pierre; and Behaviour, Stress, Brain; Fuchs, E; Pryce, C R; Nadel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The EUROPEAN BRAIN AND BEHAVIOUR SOCIETY has held its 39th Annual General Meeting in Trieste, in the campus next to the Miramare castle and its park, co-hosted by SISSA, the International School for Advanced Studies, and ICTP, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Alessandro Treves (SISSA) was the head and inspiration of the Local Organizing committee, supported by P. Battaglini, L. Chelazzi, M. Diamond and G. Vallortigara. All approaches relating brain and behaviour w...

  12. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing R

  13. Corrosion behavior of Ti–39Nb alloy for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase an orthopedic implant's lifetime, researchers are now concerned on the development of new titanium alloys with suitable mechanical properties (low elastic modulus–high fatigue strength), corrosion resistance and good workability. Corrosion resistance of the newly developed titanium alloys should be comparable with that of pure titanium. The effect of medical preparations containing fluoride ions represents a specific problem related to the use of titanium based materials in dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behavior of β titanium alloy Ti–39Nb in physiological saline solution and in physiological solution containing fluoride ions. Corrosion behavior was studied using standard electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that corrosion properties of the studied alloy were comparable with the properties of titanium grade 2. The passive layer was based on the oxides of titanium and niobium in several oxidation states. Alloying with niobium, which was the important part of the alloy passive layer, resulted in no significant changes of corrosion behavior. In the presence of fluoride ions, the corrosion resistance was higher than the resistance of titanium. - Highlights: • Alloy Ti–39Nb shows excellent corrosion resistance in physiological solution. • Corrosion resistance of Ti–39Nb alloy is significantly higher than that of titanium in the presence of fluoride ions. • The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates a porous passive layer. • Passive layer of the alloy is enriched by niobium

  14. Corrosion behavior of Ti–39Nb alloy for dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fojt, Jaroslav, E-mail: fojtj@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Joska, Ludek [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Malek, Jaroslav [UJP Praha, Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague-Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Sefl, Vaclav [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-01

    To increase an orthopedic implant's lifetime, researchers are now concerned on the development of new titanium alloys with suitable mechanical properties (low elastic modulus–high fatigue strength), corrosion resistance and good workability. Corrosion resistance of the newly developed titanium alloys should be comparable with that of pure titanium. The effect of medical preparations containing fluoride ions represents a specific problem related to the use of titanium based materials in dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behavior of β titanium alloy Ti–39Nb in physiological saline solution and in physiological solution containing fluoride ions. Corrosion behavior was studied using standard electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that corrosion properties of the studied alloy were comparable with the properties of titanium grade 2. The passive layer was based on the oxides of titanium and niobium in several oxidation states. Alloying with niobium, which was the important part of the alloy passive layer, resulted in no significant changes of corrosion behavior. In the presence of fluoride ions, the corrosion resistance was higher than the resistance of titanium. - Highlights: • Alloy Ti–39Nb shows excellent corrosion resistance in physiological solution. • Corrosion resistance of Ti–39Nb alloy is significantly higher than that of titanium in the presence of fluoride ions. • The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates a porous passive layer. • Passive layer of the alloy is enriched by niobium.

  15. Continuous Modeling of Calcium Transport Through Biological Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasielec, J. J.; Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Sokalski, T.; Lewenstam, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work an approach to the modeling of the biological membranes where a membrane is treated as a continuous medium is presented. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including Poisson equation for electric potential is used to describe transport of ions in the mitochondrial membrane—the interface which joins mitochondrial matrix with cellular cytosis. The transport of calcium ions is considered. Concentration of calcium inside the mitochondrion is not known accurately because different analytical methods give dramatically different results. We explain mathematically these differences assuming the complexing reaction inside mitochondrion and the existence of the calcium set-point (concentration of calcium in cytosis below which calcium stops entering the mitochondrion).

  16. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Katie A; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M; Davies, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium's other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  17. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  18. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  19. Palladium p-39F温柔的狂野杰士Palladium P-39F落地音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 对于《Audio》杂志的评论家Von Bernhard Rietschel来说,杰士Palladium P-39F落地音箱带来的震撼,是它深受德国媒体喜欢的原因.该箱注重声音品质,因此被冠以"没有瑕疵的号角音箱".

  20. Calcium-dependent and calcium-sensitizing pathways in the mature and immature ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyman, Ronald I; Waleh, Nahid; Kajino, Hiroki; Roman, Christine; Mauray, Francoise

    2007-10-01

    Studies performed in sheep and baboons have shown that after birth, the normoxic muscle media of ductus arteriosus (DA) becomes profoundly hypoxic as it constricts and undergoes anatomic remodeling. We used isolated fetal lamb DA (pretreated with inhibitors of prostaglandin and nitric oxide production) to determine why the immature DA fails to remain tightly constricted during the hypoxic phase of remodeling. Under normoxic conditions, mature DA constricts to 70% of its maximal active tension (MAT). Half of its normoxic tension is due to Ca(2+) entry through calcium L-channels and store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The other half is independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and is unaffected by inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release (ryanodine) or reuptake [cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)]. The mature DA relaxes slightly during hypoxia (to 60% MAT) due to decreases in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Inhibitors of Rho kinase and tyrosine kinase inhibit both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent DA tension. Although Rho kinase activity may increase during gestation, immature DA develop lower tensions than mature DA, primarily because of differences in the way they process Ca(2+). Calcium L-channel expression increases with advancing gestation. Under normoxic conditions, differences in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry account for differences in tension between immature (60% MAT) and mature (70% MAT) DA. Under hypoxic conditions, differences in both calcium L-channel-dependent and calcium L-channel-independent Ca(2+) entry, account for differences in tension between immature (33% MAT) and mature (60% MAT) DA. Stimulation of Ca(2+) entry through reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange or CPA-induced SOC channel activity constrict the DA and eliminate differences between immature and mature DA during both hypoxia and normoxia.