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Sample records for calcium 35

  1. Binding of calcium in the EF-hand of Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase Slt35 is important for stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Erik J. van; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1999-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase Slt35 contains a single metal ion-binding site that resembles EF-hand calcium-binding sites. The Slt35 EF-hand is only the second observation of such a domain in a prokaryotic protein. Two crystal structures at 2.1 Å resolution show that both Ca2+ ions and

  2. Effect of in-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with and without addition of calcium on the enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Izadora Quintela Souza; Silva, Lucas Nunes de Brito; Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino de Moraes; de Lima Neto, Cantídio Francisco; Dos Santos, Natanael Barbosa; Fragoso, Larissa Silveira de Mendonça

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness and effects of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with and without calcium on color, micromorphology, and the replacement of calcium and phosphate on the enamel surface. Thirty bovine enamel blocks (5.0 × 5.0 mm) were placed into the following groups: G1: artificial saliva (control); G2: 35% hydrogen peroxide gel without calcium (Whiteness HP Maxx-FGM); and G3: 35% hydrogen peroxide gel with calcium (Whiteness HP Blue-FGM). Three color measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer: untreated (baseline), after performing staining, and after application of bleaching agents. Calcium deposition on the enamel was evaluated before and after the application of bleaching agents using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The enamel surface micromorphology was observed under scanning electron microscopy. The pH of each product was measured. The data were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), and any differences were analyzed using Tukey's test (P < 0.05). G3 showed greater variation in total color after the experiment than G2 and G1; there was no significant difference in calcium or phosphorus concentration before and after the experimental procedures; morphological changes were observed only in G2 and G3; and the pH values of the Whiteness HP Maxx and Whiteness HP Blue bleaching agents were 5.77 and 7.79, respectively. The 35% hydrogen peroxide with calcium showed greater bleaching potential, but the addition of calcium had no effect in terms of reducing morphological changes or increasing the calcium concentration on the enamel surface. PMID:26279091

  3. Deciphering ligand specificity of a Clostridium thermocellum family 35 carbohydrate binding module (CtCBM35 for gluco- and galacto- substituted mannans and its calcium induced stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabinda Ghosh

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of CBM35 from Clostridium thermocellum (CtCBM35 in polysaccharide recognition. CtCBM35 was cloned into pET28a (+ vector with an engineered His6 tag and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 cells. A homogenous 15 kDa protein was purified by immobilized metal ion chromatography (IMAC. Ligand binding analysis of CtCBM35 was carried out by affinity electrophoresis using various soluble ligands. CtCBM35 showed a manno-configured ligand specific binding displaying significant association with konjac glucomannan (Ka = 14.3×10(4 M(-1, carob galactomannan (Ka = 12.4×10(4 M(-1 and negligible association (Ka = 12 µM(-1 with insoluble mannan. Binding of CtCBM35 with polysaccharides which was calcium dependent exhibited two fold higher association in presence of 10 mM Ca(2+ ion with konjac glucomannan (Ka = 41×10(4 M(-1 and carob galactomannan (Ka = 30×10(4 M(-1. The polysaccharide binding was further investigated by fluorescence spectrophotometric studies. On binding with carob galactomannan and konjac glucomannan the conformation of CtCBM35 changed significantly with regular 21 nm peak shifts towards lower quantum yield. The degree of association (K a with konjac glucomannan and carob galactomannan, 14.3×10(4 M(-1 and 11.4×10(4 M(-1, respectively, corroborated the findings from affinity electrophoresis. The association of CtCBM35with konjac glucomannan led to higher free energy of binding (ΔG -25 kJ mole(-1 as compared to carob galactomannan (ΔG -22 kJ mole(-1. On binding CtCBM35 with konjac glucomannan and carob galactomannan the hydrodynamic radius (RH as analysed by dynamic light scattering (DLS study, increased to 8 nm and 6 nm, respectively, from 4.25 nm in absence of ligand. The presence of 10 mM Ca(2+ ions imparted stiffer orientation of CtCBM35 particles with increased RH of 4.52 nm. Due to such stiffer orientation CtCBM35 became more thermostable and its melting temperature was

  4. "Synthesis and smooth muscle Calcium channel antagonist effect of Alkyl, Aminoalkyl 1,4-Dihydro-2,6-Dimethyl-4-Nitroimidazole-3,5 Pyridine Dicarboxylates "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri R

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP class of calcium channel antagonist inhibits the Ca+² influx represented a major therapeutic advance in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina pectoris and other spastic smooth muscle disorders. A novel class of calcium channel antagonist of flunarizine containing arylpiperazinyl moiety has recently been reported. It was therefore of interest to determine the effect that selected C-3 substituents contained amino alkyl and arylpiperazine, in conjunction with a C-4 1-methyl-5-nitro-2-imidazolyl substituents on calcium channel antagonist activity. The unsymmetrical analogues were prepared by a procedure reported by Meyer in which 1-methyl-5-nitro-imidazol-2-carboxaldehyde was reacted with acetoacetic esters and alkyl 3-aminocrotonate. In vitro calcium channel antagonist activities were determined by the use of high K+ contraction of guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle. All compounds exhibited comparable calcium channel antagonist activity (IC50=10^-9 to 10^-11 M against reference drug nifedipine (IC50=2.75±0.36 x 10^-10 M.

  5. Calcium(II)(3) (3,5-Diisopropylsalicylate)(6)(H(2)O)(6) Activates Nitric Oxide Synthase: An Accounting for its Action in Decreasing Platelet Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, D C; Sorenson, J R

    2000-01-01

    Purposes of these studies were first; to determine whether or not Calcium(II)(3) (3,5- diisopropylsalicylate)(6)(H(2)O)(6) [Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)], a lipophilic calcium complex, could decrease activated-platelet aggregation, and second; to determine whether or not it is plausible that Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) decreases activated-platelet aggregation by facilitating the synthesis of Nitric Oxide (NO) by Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS). The influence of Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) on the initial rate of activated-platelet aggregation was determined by measuring the decrease in rate of increase in transmission at 550 nm for a suspension of Thrombin-CaCl(2) activated platelets following the addition of 0, 50, 100, 250, or 500 muM Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6). To establish that the Ca(lI)(3)(3,5- DIPS)(6)-mediated decrease in aggregation was due to activation of NOS, the effect of L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NOS, on the inhibition of platelet aggregation by Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) was determined using a suspension of activated platelets contaimng 0 or 250 muM Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) without or with 1 mM L-NMMA. An in vitro Bovine Brain NOS reaction mixture, containing CaCl(2) for the activation of Phosphodiesterase-3' ,5'-Cyclic Nucleotide Activator required for the activation of NOS, was used to determine whether or not Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) could be used as a substitute for the addition of Ca. The decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, lambda maximum for NADPH, was measured to determine NOS activity following the addition of NOS to the complete reaction mixture containing either CaCl(2), Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6), or neither Ca compound. Increasing the concentration of Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) caused a concentration related decrease in activated platelet aggregation. The addition of L-NMMA to activated platelets, in the absence of Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6), caused a 129% increase in initial rate of platelet aggregation. The initial rate of platelet aggregation decreased 74% with the addition of 250 mu

  6. Cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate binds to annexin I and regulates calcium-dependent membrane aggregation and ion channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B E; Lee, G; Arispe, N; Pollard, H B

    1995-12-27

    The annexin (Anx) gene family comprises a set of calcium-dependent membrane binding proteins, which have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes including membrane fusion and calcium channel activity. We report here that cAMP activates Ca(2+)-dependent aggregation of both phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes and bovine chromaffin granules driven by [des 1-12]annexin I (lipocortin I, Anx1). The mechanism of cAMP action involves an increase in AnxI-dependent cooperativity on the rate of such a reaction without affecting the corresponding k1/2 values. Cyclic AMP causes the values of the Hill coefficient (nH) for AnxI to change from 3 to 6 in both PS liposomes and chromaffin granules. By contrast, ATP inhibits the rate of aggregation activity without affecting the cooperativity or the extent of aggregation process. We were also able to photolabel Anx1 specifically with an 8-azido analogue of cAMP by a calcium-independent process. Such a process is saturable, yielding a Kd = 0.8 microM by Scatchard analysis. Specific displacement occurs in the presence of cAMP and ATP. Finally, we found that cAMP alters the conductance of calcium channels formed by AnxI in planar lipid bilayers. We interpret these data to indicate that AnxI binds both calcium and cAMP independently, and that both actions have functional consequences. This is the first report of a nucleotide binding function for a member of the annexin gene family.

  7. A tyrosine-phosphorylated 55-kilodalton motility-associated bovine sperm protein is regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphates and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, S; Trautman, K D; Goueli, S A; Carr, D W

    1997-06-01

    Sperm motility is regulated by protein phosphorylation. We have recently shown that a serine/threonine phosphatase system is involved in motility regulation. Two of the components of the phosphatase system, GSK-3 and PP1gamma2, are regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. During our investigation of sperm tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins we discovered a 55-kDa protein whose tyrosine phosphorylation correlates closely to the motility state of sperm. This protein is tyrosine phosphorylated to a much higher degree in motile caudal than in immotile caput epididymal sperm. Motility inhibition of caudal epididymal sperm by protein kinase A (PKA) anchoring inhibition or by ionomycin-induced calcium overload led to the virtual disappearance of tyrosine phosphorylation of the 55-kDa protein. Conversely, treatment of sperm with motility activators, isobutylmethylxanthine or 8-bromo-cAMP, resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein. The protein was present in the soluble 100 000 x g supernatants of sperm extracts and was heat labile. Chromatography through diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Western blot analysis showed that this 55-kDa protein is not a regulatory subunit of PKA or alpha-tubulin. Our results represent the identification of a soluble protein whose tyrosine phosphorylation varies directly with motility and suggest that motility regulation may involve cross talk between PKA, calcium, and tyrosine kinase pathways. PMID:9166697

  8. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  9. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  10. Total individual ion activity coefficients of calcium and carbonate in seawater at 25°C and 35%. salinity, and implications to the agreement between apparent and thermodynamic constants of calcite and aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Neil; Sundquist, Eric T.

    1982-01-01

    We have calculated the total individual ion activity coefficients of carbonate and calcium,  and , in seawater. Using the ratios of stoichiometric and thermodynamic constants of carbonic acid dissociation and total mean activity coefficient data measured in seawater, we have obtained values which differ significantly from those widely accepted in the literature. In seawater at 25°C and 35%. salinity the (molal) values of  and  are 0.038 ± 0.002 and 0.173 ± 0.010, respectively. These values of  and  are independent of liquid junction errors and internally consistent with the value . By defining  and  on a common scale (), the product  is independent of the assigned value of  and may be determined directly from thermodynamic measurements in seawater. Using the value  and new thermodynamic equilibrium constants for calcite and aragonite, we show that the apparent constants of calcite and aragonite are consistent with the thermodynamic equilibrium constants at 25°C and 35%. salinity. The demonstrated consistency between thermodynamic and apparent constants of calcite and aragonite does not support a hypothesis of stable Mg-calcite coatings on calcite or aragonite surfaces in seawater, and suggests that the calcite critical carbonate ion curve of Broecker and Takahashi (1978,Deep-Sea Research25, 65–95) defines the calcite equilibrium boundary in the oceans, within the uncertainty of the data.

  11. Levels of available phosphorus and calcium for broilers from 8 to 35 days of age fed rations containing phytase Níveis de fósforo disponível e de cálcio para frangos de corte de 8 a 35 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimar Cardoso Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments using Cobb broiler chicks from 8 to 35 days of age were carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing levels of calcium and available phosphorus in diets supplemented with 500 ftu phytase/kg on the performance of the birds, the content of ashes in the tibia, the metabolizable energy of the diet, and the metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used 1,404 broiler chicks in the experiment 1 to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, food conversion and percentage of the ashes in the tibia. In the experiment 2, simultaneously carried out with experiment 1, a total of 390 birds were transferred to a metabolism room to determine the metabolizable energy and metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used in the two experiments, a complete random design in a 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme with three levels of available phosphorus (0.375; 0.325; and 0.275% and four levels of calcium (0.85; 0.75; 0.65 and 0.55% in the diets, supplemented with phytase. It was also used a control diet without phytase, based on corn and soybean bran, formulated with 0.425% of available phosphorus and 0.85% of calcium. In the experiment 1, the reduction of levels of calcium and phosphorus did not cause a significant difference on the performance and percentage of bone ashes. The levels of calcium and available phosphorus used in the experiment 2 can be reduced down to 0.65 and 0.325%, respectively, because the effects are similar to those obtained with the currently suggested levels.Dois experimentos com pintos de corte da linhagem Cobb no período de 8 a 35 dias de idade foram realizados para avaliar o efeito da redução dos níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 ftu de fitase/kg sobre o desempenho das aves, o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a energia metabolizável (EMAn da dieta e a metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 1

  12. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  13. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  14. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  15. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  16. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  17. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  18. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  19. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  20. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  1. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium wa

  2. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  3. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  4. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  5. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  6. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  7. A Multiplexed Fluorescent Calcium and NFAT Reporter Gene Assay to Identify GPCR Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Heeral; Gorey, Colleen; Roush, Nicole; Smallman, Shelly; Collantes, Elizabeth; Santoro, Maxine; Olson, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Laura; Paul H. Lee; Shen, Xiqiang John

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular calcium response and resulting calcium signaling to an agonist-GPCR interaction are important for the measurement of compound activity in the GPCR drug development. The increase in cytosol calcium concentration can be measured by the fluorescent calcium indicator dye such as Fluo-4 in a quick assay (in 3-5 minutes) using the fluorescence imaging plate reader. The calcium signaling through the transcription factors such as NFAT that induces gene expression can be measured by the ...

  8. 绿茶多酚对D-半乳糖与Aβ25~35诱导Alzheimer病小鼠抗氧化能力和钙稳态的影响%Effects of green tea polyphenols on the anti-oxidative function and calcium overloading of Alzheimer's disease mice induced by Dgalactose and Aβ25~35

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕俊华; 杨文豪; 沈文娟; 徐辰

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究绿茶多酚(green tea polyphenols,GTP)对D-半乳糖与Aβ25~35诱导的拟Alzheimer病(AD)模型小鼠整体抗氧化能力和细胞内钙稳态的影响.方法 D-半乳糖(120 mg/kg)皮下注射给药至第12周,并在第7周时,侧脑室缓慢注射Aβ25~35(4 nmol),制备老年性AD动物模型,实验小鼠分为假手术组、维生素E组、模型组和GTP高、中、低剂量组,12 w后分别取动物脑、肝脏组织和血浆测定SOD活性、 MDA和脂褐素(Lipofuscin,LF)含量;Fura-2/AM负载法和双波长荧光分光法测定红细胞和脑细胞胞浆钙离子浓度.结果 GTP中剂量(250 mg/kg)和高剂量(625 mg/kg)处理明显降低模型动物血浆、肝脏和脑组织MDA含量和LF含量,增加SOD活性;同时,降低红细胞和脑细胞内钙离子浓度.结论 GTP可提高D-半乳糖与Aβ25~35诱导的拟AD模型小鼠全身性抗氧化能力,改善氧化应激损伤引起的细胞内钙超载作用.

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  10. 40 CFR 415.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 415.35 Section 415.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide...

  11. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  12. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  13. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  14. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  15. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium water acclimated fish, ambient cadmium induced significant hypocalcemia, while the structure and morphometry of type-1 and type-2 cells of corpuscles of Stannius were not affected on day 2 and 4. Sub...

  16. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  17. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  18. Calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal in corn roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1991-01-01

    The involvement of calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal was studied using corn roots of a light-insensitive variety (Zea mays L., cv. Patriot). The gravitropic response was calcium-dependent. Horizontal placement of roots preloaded with 32P for three minutes resulted in changes in protein phosphorylation of polypeptides of 32 and 35 kD. Calcium depletion resulted in decreased phosphorylation of these phosphoproteins and replenishment of calcium restored the phosphorylation.

  19. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  20. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  1. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  3. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  4. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  5. Nuclear symmetry energy in calcium-calcium collisions (INDRA-VAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chartier M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The density dependence of the symmetry energy is of great interest to many fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astro-physics. The E503 INDRA-VAMOS experiment performed at GANIL in 2007 is intended to provide further sub-saturation constraints using calcium-calcium collisions around the Fermi energy (35AMeV. In these proceedings this experiment will be discussed in the context of the physics it is aiming to study and will give a brief summary of the current progress of the data analysis.

  6. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  7. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport...

  8. Bone disease in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Szejnfeld, V L; Carvalho, A B; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1994-09-01

    The association between idiopathic hypercalciuria and osteopenia (OP) has been recently recognized. It is not established whether or not calcium intake plays a critical role in the loss of bone mass. Fifty-five calcium stone forming patients with either absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) or fasting hypercalciuria (FH), 29 males and 26 premenopausal females, were submitted to dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Calcium intake was assessed by a 72 hr dietary record. OP was detected in 20% (11/55) of patients, being more common among men, 9/26 (35%) than in women, 2/29 (7%), p < 0.05. Male FH patients presented lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than sex, weight and age-matched control (1.058 +/- 0.18 vs 1.209 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, X +/- SD, p < 0.05). OP was more frequent in FH patients, 7/20 (35%) than in AH patients 4/35 (11%), albeit the difference was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between calcium intake and BMD measurement. Six osteopenic male FH patients were further submitted to histomorphometric evaluation with tetracycline double labeling. Bone volume was lower than the controls (13.2 +/- 3.0 vs 27.2 +/- 3.7%, p < 0.05). Osteoid surfaces were reduced, although not significantly (10.1 +/- 8.2% vs 15.9 +/- 6.7%). Eroded surfaces were markedly increased (23.9 +/- 13.4 vs 4.2 +/- 1.4%, p < 0.05). The bone formation rate was very low with a complete lack of tetracycline double labeling in 4 patients. These data suggest low bone volume, tendency to low bone formation, increased bone resorption and a severe mineralization defect, consistent with normal or low bone turnover osteoporosis. PMID:7994936

  9. 14 CFR 35.35 - Centrifugal load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Centrifugal load tests. 35.35 Section 35.35... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.35 Centrifugal load tests. The applicant must demonstrate... to twice the maximum centrifugal load to which the propeller would be subjected during operation...

  10. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  11. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  12. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  13. Dynamic Changes in the Calcium Content of Several Apple Cultivars During the Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei-wei; YOU Chun-xiang; DU Zhong-jun; ZHAI Heng

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic changes in calcium content were investigated in eight apple cultivars. The results showed that thecalcium concentration in leaves and shoots increased with fruit development. The cultivars displayed only a small difference in the calcium concentration during the early stage of development, the difference became very significant at the late stage of development, especially in shoots. In shoots, for example, calcium content was highest in Starkrimson (19 638.6 mg kg-1) and lowest in Fuji (8 751.3 mg kg-1). Calcium concentration was highest in young fruits and was found to decrease with the growth of fruit, and was characterized by a dramatic drop at the rapid expansion stage. There was a significant difference among cultivars. Young Starkrimson fruits contained the highest calcium concentration of 506.52 mg kg-1 among cultivars tested, followed by Pink Lady and Fuji. The calcium concentration in mature fruits from high to low is as follows: Starkrimson, Sansa, Pink Lady, Senshu, Gala,Fuji, Red General and New Century. In this study, it was found that eight cultivars continuously assimilated calcium during the whole growing season, especially at the young stage when fruit took up 35-46% of total calcium. The calcium content in fruitlets was low in all cultivars; in the expansion stage, there was rapid absorptionof about 30% of total calcium, whereas in the ripening fruit, content of calcium was reduced. The calcium accumulation increased with fruit growth in stalk, similar to that in fruit.

  14. MECHANISM OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY CALCIUM ON CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FECAL WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, HT; TERMONT, DSML; KLEIBEUKER, JH; DEVRIES, EGE; VANDERMEER, R

    1993-01-01

    Dietary calcium supplementation inhibits hyperproliferation of rectal epithelium, possibly by precipitating luminal surfactants and thus preventing their cell-damaging effects. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplemental dietary calcium (35.5 mmol/day) on composition and cytolytic activity of

  15. 48 CFR 6302.35 - Dismissal without prejudice (Rule 35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prejudice (Rule 35). 6302.35 Section 6302.35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.35 Dismissal without prejudice (Rule 35). When... prejudice to its restoration to the Board's docket when the cause of suspension has been eliminated....

  16. Asian Highlands Perspectives 35

    OpenAIRE

    various

    2015-01-01

    This complete version of AHP 35 features four original research articles, three short stories, and seven book reviews. The research articles include studies of camels in Mang ra County, Sinophone Tibetan author Alai, marmot hunting, and the construction and maintenance of yurts.

  17. Asian Highlands Perspectives 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    various

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This complete version of AHP 35 features four original research articles, three short stories, and seven book reviews. The research articles include studies of camels in Mang ra County, Sinophone Tibetan author Alai, marmot hunting, and the construction and maintenance of yurts.

  18. The NA35 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1987-01-01

    The NA35 experiment ran on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. It was used for the study of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions which were used to search for evidence of new types of quark matter. Quarks are found inside protons and neutrons, which in turn make up atoms.

  19. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  20. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  1. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  2. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  3. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  4. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  5. Annex 35: Hybvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The Annex 35 research project is aiming at a better knowledge of hybrid systems and focusing on development of control strategies and performance prediction methods for hybrid ventilation in new and retrofitted office buildings. Its main objectives are: • to develop control strategies for hybrid ...... and cost effective hybrid ventilation systems in office and educational buildings......The Annex 35 research project is aiming at a better knowledge of hybrid systems and focusing on development of control strategies and performance prediction methods for hybrid ventilation in new and retrofitted office buildings. Its main objectives are: • to develop control strategies for hybrid...... ventilation systems in new and retrofitted office and educational buildings • to develop methods to predict ventilation performance in hybrid ventilated buildings • . to select suitable measurement techniques for diagnostic purposes to be used in . buildings with hybrid ventilation systems • to promote energy...

  6. ADONET 35 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The new edition of this Cookbook gives you more than 200 coding solutions and best practices for real problems you're likely to face with this technology using Visual Studio 2008 and the .NET 3.5 platform. Organized to help you find the topic and specific recipe you need quickly and easily, this book also offers clear explanations of how and why each code solution works and warns you of potential pitfalls.

  7. Effect of high calcium concentration influents on enhanced biological phosphorus removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the effect of calcium concentration in wastewater on the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) is investigated as well as its influence in PAO metabolism, specifically in the YPO4 (ratio between phosphorus release and acetic acid uptake). For this study a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anaerobic-aerobic was used, in which the PAO enriched biomass was exposed to different calcium concentrations in the influent wastewater. The results indicate that until a given calcium level in the influent wastewater (35 mg Ca/l) the metabolism is not affect, but higher calcium concentrations lead to significant YPO4 decline. (Author) 18 refs.

  8. Calmidazolium evokes high calcium fluctuations in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu, Alexandre; Gomes, Mayrim M; Melo, Pollyana M; El Chamy Maluf, Sarah; Bagnaresi, Piero; Azevedo, Mauro F; Carmona, Adriana K; Gazarini, Marcos L

    2016-03-01

    Calcium and calmodulin (CaM) are important players in eukaryote cell signaling. In the present study, by using a knockin approach, we demonstrated the expression and localization of CaM in all erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Under extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, calmidazolium (CZ), a potent CaM inhibitor, promoted a transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase in isolated trophozoites, indicating that CZ mobilizes intracellular sources of calcium. In the same extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, the [Ca(2+)]cyt rise elicited by CZ treatment was ~3.5 fold higher when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store was previously depleted ruling out the mobilization of calcium from the ER by CZ. The effects of the Ca(2+)/H(+) ionophore ionomycin (ION) and the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin (MON) suggest that the [Ca(2+)]cyt-increasing effect of CZ is driven by the removal of Ca(2+) from at least one Ca(2+)-CaM-related (CaMR) protein as well as by the mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular acidic calcium stores. Moreover, we showed that the mitochondrion participates in the sequestration of the cytosolic Ca(2+) elicited by CZ. Finally, the modulation of membrane Ca(2+) channels by CZ and thapsigargin (THG) was demonstrated. The opened channels were blocked by the unspecific calcium channel blocker Co(2+) but not by 2-APB (capacitative calcium entry inhibitor) or nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor). Taken together, the results suggested that one CaMR protein is an important modulator of calcium signaling and homeostasis during the Plasmodium intraerythrocytic cell cycle, working as a relevant intracellular Ca(2+) reservoir in the parasite. PMID:26689736

  9. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  10. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  11. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  12. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  13. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  14. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  16. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  17. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  18. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  19. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  20. 玉郎伞多糖对Aβ25-35所致PC12细胞损伤细胞内钙离子浓度的影响%Effects of YLS polysaccharides on intracellular calcium concentration in AD cell model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓宇; 黄仁彬

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察Aβ25-35诱导PC12细胞凋亡损伤模型胞内钙浓度的变化及YLSP的影响.方法 采用Aβ25-35诱导PC12细胞凋亡损伤模型,石杉碱甲作为对照药,给予YLSP预处理后,加入Flu-3/AM,用流式细胞仪(FCM)测定各组细胞的平均荧光强度.结果 各组PC12细胞内钙离子含量存在显著性差异(F=14.051,P<0.01),其中,Aβ25-35作用PC12细胞后,PC12细胞内钙离子含量显著升高(P<0.01),经YLSP处理后,PC12细胞内钙离子含量较模型组细胞显著降低(P<0.01),其中,YLSP高剂量组的PC12细胞内钙离子含量显著低于石杉碱甲组(P<0.01).结论 YLSP能对抗Aβ引起的细胞内钙离子浓度升高,防止钙超载的发生.

  1. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  2. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  3. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  4. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  5. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  6. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  7. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  8. Main: CTRMCAMV35S [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTRMCAMV35S S000460 27-March-2004 (last modified) kehi CT-rich motif (inverted GAGA...) found in a 60-nucleotide region (S1) downstream of the transcription start site of the CaMV 35S RNA; Can e...nhance gene expression; Inverted GAGA; See also S000405, S000427 (GAGA); (TC)4T; CaMV 35S; enhancer; Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) TCTCTCTCT ...

  9. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness. PMID:7488645

  10. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  11. Calcium requirements for Chinese adults by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance studies: an individual participant data and aggregate data meta-regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Aiping; Li Keji; Shi Haoyu; He Jingjing; Li He

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese dietary reference intakes for calcium are largely based on foreign studies.We undertook metaregression to estimate calcium requirements for Chinese adults derived from calcium balance data in Chinese adults.Methods We searched PubMed,Cochrane CENTRAL,and SinoMed from inception to March 5,2014,by using a structured search strategy.The bibliographies of any relevant papers and journals were also screened for potentially eligible studies.We extracted a standardized data set from studies in Chinese adults that reported calcium balance data.The relationship between calcium intake and output was examined by an individual participant data (IPD) and aggregate data (AD) meta-regression.Results We identified 11 metabolic studies in Chinese adults within 18-60 years of age.One hundred and forty-one IPD (n=35) expressed as mg/d,127 IPD (n=32) expressed as mg·kg body wt-1·d-1,and 44 AD (n=132) expressed as mg/d were collected.The models predicted a neutral calcium balance (defined as calcium output (Y) equal to calcium intake (C)) at intakes of 460 mg/d (Y=0.60C+183.98) and 8.27 mg·kg body wt-1·d-1 (Y=0.60C+3.33)for IPD,or 409 mg/d (Y=0.66C+139.00) for AD.Calcium requirements at upper intakes were higher than that at lower intakes in all these models.Conclusion Calcium requirement for Chinese adults 18-60 years of age approximately ranges between 400 mg/d and 500 mg/d when consuming traditional plant-based Chinese diets.

  12. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  13. Mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J

    2013-06-25

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  14. Response to an oral calcium load in nephrolithiasis patients with fluctuating parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available the response to an oral calcium load test was assessed in 17 hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis patients who presented elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH irrespective of the ionized calcium (sCa2+ levels. Blood samples were collected at baseline (0 min and at 60 and 180 min after 1 g calcium load for serum PTH, total calcium, sCa2+, and 1.25(OH2D3 determinations. According to the sCa2+ level at baseline, patients were classified as normocalcemic (N = 9 or hypercalcemic (N = 8. Six healthy subjects were also evaluated as controls. Bone mineral density was reduced in 14/17 patients. In the normocalcemic group, mean PTH levels at 0, 60 and 180 min (95 ± 76, 56 ± 40, 57 ± 45 pg/ml, respectively did not differ from the hypercalcemic group (130 ± 75, 68 ± 35, 80 ± 33 pg/ml but were significantly higher compared to healthy subjects despite a similar elevation in sCa2+ after 60 and 180 min vs baseline in all 3 groups. Mean total calcium and 1.25(OH2D3 were similar in the 3 groups. Additionally, we observed that 5 of 9 normocalcemic patients presented a significantly higher concentration-time curve for serum PTH (AUC0',60',180' than the other 4 patients and the healthy subjects, suggesting a primary parathyroid dysfunction. These data suggest that the individual response to an oral calcium load test may be a valuable dynamic tool to disclose a subtle primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with high PTH and fluctuating sCa2+ levels, avoiding repeated measurements of both parameters.

  15. Response to an oral calcium load in nephrolithiasis patients with fluctuating parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available the response to an oral calcium load test was assessed in 17 hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis patients who presented elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH irrespective of the ionized calcium (sCa2+ levels. Blood samples were collected at baseline (0 min and at 60 and 180 min after 1 g calcium load for serum PTH, total calcium, sCa2+, and 1.25(OH2D3 determinations. According to the sCa2+ level at baseline, patients were classified as normocalcemic (N = 9 or hypercalcemic (N = 8. Six healthy subjects were also evaluated as controls. Bone mineral density was reduced in 14/17 patients. In the normocalcemic group, mean PTH levels at 0, 60 and 180 min (95 ± 76, 56 ± 40, 57 ± 45 pg/ml, respectively did not differ from the hypercalcemic group (130 ± 75, 68 ± 35, 80 ± 33 pg/ml but were significantly higher compared to healthy subjects despite a similar elevation in sCa2+ after 60 and 180 min vs baseline in all 3 groups. Mean total calcium and 1.25(OH2D3 were similar in the 3 groups. Additionally, we observed that 5 of 9 normocalcemic patients presented a significantly higher concentration-time curve for serum PTH (AUC0',60',180' than the other 4 patients and the healthy subjects, suggesting a primary parathyroid dysfunction. These data suggest that the individual response to an oral calcium load test may be a valuable dynamic tool to disclose a subtle primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with high PTH and fluctuating sCa2+ levels, avoiding repeated measurements of both parameters.

  16. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER

    2006-01-01

    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  17. Synthesis and Formation Mechanisms of Calcium Ferrite Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesham I. Saleh

    2004-01-01

    Calcium ferrite compounds were prepared using calcium nitrate and iron nitrate with different molar ratios, 1:1, 0.5:1, and 1:0.5,respectively. The reactions of formation were investigated at different temperatures following the differential thermal analysis (DTA) results. Calcium ferrite compounds are CaFeO3, Ca2FeO3.5, Ca2Fe2O5, CaFe2O4, CaFe4O7, Ca7.2Fe0.8Fe30O53,Ca3Fe15O25, Ca4Fe14O25, and Ca4Fe9O17. Other reactive species of calcium nitrate are still present after firing at 450℃.Compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), DTA, TG, magnetic susceptibility, infrared spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is concluded that the formation mechanism of Ca-ferrite compounds depends mainly on the valency of iron cations which in role depends on its molar ratio and the existing atmosphere.

  18. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  19. Evaluation of calcium ion release and change in pH on combining calcium hydroxide with different vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Grover

    2014-01-01

    of 99.53, 17.98, 74.93% respectively with a significant difference among all groups. Group 1 reached the highest Ca 2+ level (39.79% at the end of 1 day but showed almost complete release of calcium hydroxide at the end of 15 days. Group 3 showed least calcium ion release (17.98% at 15 days. Group 4 showed a sustained release of Ca +2 ions from 74% at 15 days to 95% at the end of 30 days. After the 1 st h; Group 1 showed the highest pH level (11.8. However, pH reduced to 7.8 at the end of 30 days in this group. Group 2 showed the highest pH value (10.35, followed by Group 4 (10.32 after 30 days. Conclusion: Chitosan can be used as a promising vehicle for calcium hydroxide to maintain an alkaline pH and to allow sustained release of calcium ions in the root canal system.

  20. Optimizing calcium selective fluorimetric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Gniadek, Marianna; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2015-11-01

    Recently it was shown that optical nanosensors based on alternating polymers e.g. poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) were characterized by a linear dependence of emission intensity on logarithm of concentration over a few of orders of magnitude range. In this work we focus on the material used to prepare calcium selective nanosensors. It is shown that alternating polymer nanosensors offer competitive performance in the absence of calcium ionophore, due to interaction of the nanospheres building blocks with analyte ions. The emission increase corresponds to increase of calcium ions contents in the sample within the range from 10(-4) to 10(-1) M. Further improvement in sensitivity (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) M) and selectivity can be achieved by incorporating calcium ionophore in the nanospheres. The optimal results were obtained for core-shell nanospheres, where the core was prepared from poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) and the outer layer from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene). Thus obtained chemosensors were showing linear dependence of emission on logarithm of calcium ions concentration within the range from 10(-7) to 10(-1) M. PMID:26452839

  1. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  2. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  3. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  4. Sulfur-35 foam flotation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic is studied of the foam flotation of the trace amounts of 35S with the use of quartenary ammonium salts (QAS), namely alkylbenzyldimethylammoniumchloride and alkyltrimethylammoniumchloride with respect to the pH value of the solution. The rate of the carrying-out QAS and 35S to the foam layer depends on the solution ionic strength, the rate of the isotope extraction being highest and that of the collector - the lowest in the neutral region of pH. The kinetics of the 35S and QAS foam flotation can be described by the first-order reaction equations. The process rate constants have been calculated at various pH values

  5. Effect of chitooligosaccharides on calcium bioavailability and bone strength in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Kyo; Moon, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2006-01-25

    Chitosan polymer with deacetylation degree of 93% was hydrolyzed with an endo-type chitosanase (35,000 U/g protein) with substrate to enzyme ratio of 1 to 1.5 for 18 h in a batch reactor, and then the resultant hydrolysates were fractionated into four different molecular weights using an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane reactor system. An in vitro study elucidated that four kinds of chitooligosaccharides (COSs) could efficiently inhibit the formation of insoluble calcium salts in the neutral pH. In vivo effects of COSs on Ca bioavailability were further studied in the osteoporosis modeling rats induced by ovariectomy and concurrent low calcium intake. During the experimental period corresponding to the menopause with the osteoporosis disease, calcium retention was increased and bone turnover was decreased by COS IV supplementation in the ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After the low Ca diet, COS IV diet including both normal level of calcium and vitamin D significantly decreased calcium loss in feces and increased calcium retention compared to the control diet. The levels of femoral total calcium, bone mineral density (BMD), and femoral strength were also significantly increased by the COS IV diet in a similar level to those of CPP diet group. In the present study, the results proved the beneficial effects of low molecular chitooligosaccharide (COS IV) in preventing negative mineral balance.

  6. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  7. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  8. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  9. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can break easily, even without an obvious injury. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Eat foods that provide the right amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and protein. This kind of diet will give ...

  10. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  11. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  12. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tan; Yulin Deng; Hong Qing

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofi-brillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers in-volved in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium oxide. 184.1210 Section 184.1210 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8) is also known as lime, quick lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone,...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  15. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  16. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Willmann

    2008-01-01

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  17. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate....

  19. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve po

  2. 21 CFR 582.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.1210 Section 582.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Product. Calcium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation...... offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium...... electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...

  8. Serum Calcium Concentration Is Inversely Associated With Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; ZENG, CHAO; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; GAO, SHU-GUANG; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; LEI, GUANG-HUA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To examine the relationship between serum calcium (Ca) concentration and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study covered a total of 2855 subjects. The serum Ca concentration was detected by the Arsenazo III method. The radiographic OA of the knee was defined as changes equivalent to Kellgren–Lawrence grade 2 on 1 side at least. The serum Ca concentration was categorized into 4 quartiles, which are ≤2.27, 2.28–2.34, 2.35–2.41, and ≥2.42 mmol/L, respectively. The relationship...

  9. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  10. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  11. Counter support for WA35

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This assembly was equipped with 78 counters, each consisting of a lucite cone, to produce Cerenkov light, and a CsI scintillator plate of 3 mm thickness glued on the face of the cone. The experiment WA35 was set-up in the s1 beam (West Hall) by the Darmstadt-Heidelberg-Virginia-Warsaw Collaboration to measure angular distributions and multiplicities of pions and recoil protons produced by hadrons interacting in nuclei. (See Annual Report 1976 p. 39)

  12. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  13. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choksi Krishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg. Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.

  14. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, C; Kaiserling, E; Koitschev, A

    2003-08-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) of the temporomandibular joint is rare. The disorder is characterized by the presence of crystal deposits within the affected joint. The deposition of crystals in adjacent soft tissue may lead to the formation of pseudotumors. This form of the disease is called tophaceous pseudogout and typically affects the temporomandibular joint. It is difficult to differentiate the disease, particularly from malignant tumors, on the clinical and radiographic findings alone. The diagnosis is based on histological identification of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals. We present an unusually advanced case of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as treatment options are discussed on the basis of our own experience and a review of the literature. PMID:12942180

  15. Clogging and Cementation Caused by Calcium or Iron Biogrouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V.; Chu, J.; Naeimi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical grouts are often used to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of soil for seepage control purposes. However, chemical grouts can be expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Therefore, two new biogrouts were tested for their bioclogging and biocementation properties. The first was calcium-based biogrout, which contained urease-producing bacteria, calcium chloride and urea for the crystallization of calcite due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The second was iron-based biogrout, which consisted of urease-producing bacteria, ferric chelate, and urea for the precipitation of ferric hydroxide and carbonate due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The permeability of sand (P, 10^-5 m/s), treated with calcium-based biogrout, linearly decreased as a function of the content of precipitated calcium (C, % w/w) according to the following equation: P = 5.1 - 4.0 C. Meanwhile, the permeability of sand treated with iron-based biogrout dropped to 2.7x10^-6 m/s at content of precipitated iron (F, % w/w) about 0.35 % w/w , by the equation: P = 5.1 - 14.6 F , and then slowly decreased to 1.4x10^-7 m/s at content of precipitated iron 1.8% w/w by the following equation: P = 0.36 - 0.23F. Both biogrouts have approximately same efficiency in the reduction of permeability of sand to low values. However, the mechanisms of bioclogging are probably different because the reduction of permeability by calcium-based biogrout was described by linear function of precipitated calcium but the reduction of permeability by iron-based biogrout showed two steps of the clogging. Different functions and mechanisms were related probably to the different type of precipitates. The images of biogrouted sand samples show that calcium-based biogrout produced white amorphous or crystallised calcium carbonate, while iron-based biogrout produced gel-like brown precipitate without visible crystals. The unconfined compressive strengths of the sand treated with different biogrouts (Y, kPa) increased by power

  16. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  17. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this potential role, microscopic and biochemical comparisons were conducted on the different tissues of Medicago truncatula wild-type and the calcium oxalate defective (cod) 5 which lacks the ability to accumulate prismatic crystals in the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. Calcium measurements showed that cod5 seeds had more calcium and cod5 pods contained less calcium than the corresponding wild-type tissues. Roots, stems, and leaves from cod5 and wild-type had similar calcium content. Although cod5 was devoid of prismatic crystals, cod5 pods were observed to form druse crystals of calcium oxalate not found in wild-type pods. Taken together these findings suggest a functional role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport to the seeds. Regulating calcium uptake at the roots also appeared to be another point of control in determining seed calcium content. Overall, regulating the long distance transport and partitioning of calcium to the seeds appears to be a complex process with multiple points of control. PMID:22325887

  18. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  19. Calcium Carbonate versus Sevelamer Hydrochloride as Phosphate Binders after Long-Term Disease Progression in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Törmänen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare the effects of calcium carbonate and sevelamer-HCl treatments on calcium-phosphate metabolism and renal function in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX rats so that long-term disease progression preceded the treatment. After 15-week progression, calcium carbonate (3.0%, sevelamer-HCl (3.0%, or control diets (0.3% calcium were given for 9 weeks. Subtotal nephrectomy reduced creatinine clearance (−40%, plasma calcidiol (−25%, and calcitriol (−70% and increased phosphate (+37%, parathyroid hormone (PTH (11-fold, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 (4-fold. In NX rats, calcium carbonate diet increased plasma (+20% and urinary calcium (6-fold, reduced plasma phosphate (−50% and calcidiol (−30%, decreased creatinine clearance (−35% and FGF 23 (−85%, and suppressed PTH without influencing blood pH. In NX rats, sevelamer-HCl increased urinary calcium (4-fold and decreased creatinine clearance (−45%, PTH (−75%, blood pH (by 0.20 units, plasma calcidiol (−40%, and calcitriol (−65%. Plasma phosphate and FGF-23 were unchanged. In conclusion, when initiated after long-term progression of experimental renal insufficiency, calcium carbonate diet reduced plasma phosphate and FGF-23 while sevelamer-HCl did not. The former induced hypercalcemia, the latter induced acidosis, while both treatments reduced vitamin D metabolites and deteriorated renal function. Thus, delayed initiation influences the effects of these phosphate binders in remnant kidney rats.

  20. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities. PMID:26691955

  1. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  2. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  3. 24 CFR 35.1120 - Hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard reduction. 35.1120 Section... § 35.1120 Hazard reduction. (a) Each PHA shall, in accordance with § 35.1325, abate all lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards identified in the evaluations conducted pursuant to § 35.1115....

  4. 10 CFR 35.27 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision. 35.27 Section 35.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.27 Supervision. (a) A... under the supervision of an authorized user, as allowed by § 35.11(b)(1), shall— (1) In addition to...

  5. 40 CFR 35.936 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936 Procurement. (a) Sections 35.936 through 35.939 set forth policies and minimum standards for procurement of architectural or... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 35.936 Section...

  6. 40 CFR 35.939 - Protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of this section in the discharge of his responsibility to review grantee procurement under 40 CFR 35... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.939 Protests. (a) General. A protest based upon an alleged violation of the procurement requirements of §§ 35.936 through 35.938-9...

  7. 40 CFR 35.2116 - Collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection system. 35.2116 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2116 Collection system. Except as provided in § 35.2032(c), if the project involves collection system work, such work: (a)...

  8. Mammography in women under 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of breast cancer in women under 35 is quite an uncommon event, accounting only for 3.2-3.4% of all breast cancers. To determine the indications for mammography in women under 35, the authors correlated clinical, mammographic, and US findings with fine-needle aspiration/surgical biopsy and follow-up results in 1040 symptomatic women examined at the Center of Senology of the Istitute of Radiology - University of Perugia, Italy, from 1984 to June 1990. Of 1040 women, 482 (41.6%) had normal findings; benign disease was diagnosed in 558 (53.7%) cases, and malignant disease in 49 (4.7%). Mammography was very useful to diagnose malignancy in palpable breast lesions, as well as to suggest the need for biopsy, to detect metachronous cancer and to define lesion sizes. In inflammatory process - e.g., mastitis and abscesses - both mammography and US were capable as its remission after therapy. Galactography had a specific role in the evaluation of the mammary duct and demonstrated intraductal pathologic conditions. In the authors'experiences, mammography never showed occult breast cancers in women with no palpable breast lesions or hematic nipple discharge

  9. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  10. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  11. Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Maria C.; Bruce-Mensah, Araba; Whitmire, Melanie; Rizvi, Ali A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”). The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake (“calcium supplement syndrome”; or CSS) in hospitalized patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR)-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Results: Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8%) satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively); while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40%) received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80%) of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. Conclusion: The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks. PMID:26239247

  12. Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”. The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake (“calcium supplement syndrome”; or CSS in hospitalized patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Results: Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8% satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively; while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40% received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80% of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. Conclusion: The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks.

  13. Binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribello, Gareth A; Liew, CheeChin; Parrinello, Michele

    2009-05-21

    Polyacrylate molecules can be used to slow the growth of calcium carbonate. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the molecules impede the growth rate. A recent computational study (Bulo et al. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3437) used metadynamics to investigate the binding of calcium to polyacrylate chains and has thrown some light on the coiling and precipitation of these polymers. We extend these simulations to examine the binding of calcium and carbonate to polyacrylate chains. We show that calcium complexed with both carbonate and polyacrylate is a very stable species. The free energies of calcium-carbonate-polyacrylate complexes, with different polymer configurations, are calculated, and differences in the free energy of the binding of carbonate are shown to be due to differences in the amount of steric hindrance about the calcium, which prevents the approach of the carbonate ion. PMID:19400592

  14. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  15. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Manali R Srinivasan; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium pho...

  16. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  17. [Calcium carbide of different crystal formation synthesized by calcium carbide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-yuan; Kang, Ming; Jiang, Cai-rong; Tu, Ming-jing

    2006-04-01

    To recycle calcium carbide residue effectively, calcium carbide of different crystal form, including global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide was synthesized. Both the influence of pretreatment in the purity of calcium carbide, and the influence of temperatures of carbonization reaction, release velocity of carbon dioxide in the apparition of calcium carbide of different crystal form were studied with DTA-TG and SEM. The result shows that calcium carbide residue can take place chemistry reaction with ammonia chlorinate straight. Under the condition that pH was above 7, the purity of calcium carbide was above 97%, and the whiteness was above 98. Once provided the different temperatures of carbonization reaction and the proper release velocity of carbon dioxide, global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide were obtained.

  18. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  19. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  20. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  1. Altered calcium signaling following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Weber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI.

  2. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  3. Peroxisome is a reservoir of intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhury, Bikramjit; Gupta, Shreedhara; Banerjee, Shouvik; Datta, Salil C

    2006-07-01

    We have examined fura 2-loaded purified peroxisomes under confocal microscope to prove that this mammalian organelle is a store of intracellular calcium pool. Presence of calcium channel and vanadate sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase in the purified peroxisomal membrane has been demonstrated. We have further observed that machineries to maintain calcium pool in this mammalian organelle are impaired during infection caused by Leishmania donovani. Results reveal that peroxisomes have a merit to play a significant role in the metabolism of intracellular calcium. PMID:16713100

  4. Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium ion (Ca2+ is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research.

  5. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fort...

  6. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    OpenAIRE

    A Rathod; Bonny, O; Guessous, I; Suter, P M; Conen, D; Erne, P; Binet, I; Gabutti, L; Gallino, A; Muggli, F; Hayoz, D; Pechere-Bertschi, A; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; Bochud, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root-transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dep...

  7. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for lunch; and beans, salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and low-fat mozzarella or soy cheese. Try whole-grain crackers with low-fat cheese ...

  8. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. ... that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running). Osteoporosis is a disease of the ...

  9. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  10. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  11. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-28

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  12. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza B Thomsen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A TTX-sensitive fast Na+ spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers. Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none tetrodotoxin (TTX -sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than one second affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could be modulated locally, suggesting that cerebellar glomeruli may be dynamically sub-compartmentalized due to ongoing inhibition mediated by Golgi cells. This could provide a fine-grained control of mossy fibre-granule cell information transfer and synaptic plasticity within a mossy fibre rosette.

  13. An Intracellular Calcium Oscillations Model Including Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Min; LIU Zeng-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger. Mitochondria contributes significantly to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.The experiment of Kaftan et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 275(2000) 25465] demonstrated that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can reduce the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration oscillations of gonadotropes. By considering the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling we develop a three-variable model of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations based on the models of Atri et al. [Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1727] and Falcke et al. [Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 37]. The model reproduces the fact that mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling increases the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which accords with Kaftan's results. Moreover the model predicts that when the mitochondria overload with Ca2+, the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations vanish, which may trigger apoptosis.

  14. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age Publication ... Osteoporosis Program For Your Information The Role of Calcium Calcium is needed for our heart, muscles, and ...

  15. Determinants of Calcium Infusion Rate During Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration with Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ⅲ Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Lin Liu; Li-Feng Huang; Wen-Liang Ma; Qi Ding; Yue Han; Yue Zheng; Wen-Xiong Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:It is unclear that how to decide the calcium infusion rate during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA).This study aimed to assess the determinants of calcium infusion rate during CVVH with RCA in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI).Methods:A total of 18 patients with AKI requiring CVVH were prospectively analyzed.Postdilution CVVH was performed with a fixed blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a replacement fluid flow rate of 2000 ml/h for each new circuit.The infusion of 4% trisodium citrate was started at a rate of 29.9 mmol/h prefilter and adjusted according to postfilter ionized calcium.The infusion of 10% calcium gluconate was initiated at a rate of 5.5 mmol/h and adjusted according to systemic ionized calcium.The infusion rate oftrisodium citrate and calcium gluconate as well as ultrafiltrate flow rate were recorded at 1,2,4,6,12,and 24 h after starting CVVH,respectively.The calcium loss rate by CVVH was also calculated.Results:Fifty-seven sessions of CVVH were performed in 18 AKI patients.The citrate infusion rate,calcium loss rate by CVVH,and calcium infusion rate were 31.30 (interquartile range:2.70),4.60 ± 0.48,and 5.50 ± 0.35 mmol/h,respectively.The calcium infusion rate was significantly higher than that of calcium loss rate by CVVH (P < 0.01).The correlation coefficient between the calcium and citrate infusion rates,and calcium infusion and calcium loss rates by CVVH was-0.031 (P > 0.05) and 0.932 (P < 0.01),respectively.In addition,calcium infusion rate (mmol/h) =1.77 + 0.8 × (calcium loss rate by CVVH,mmol/h).Conclusions:The calcium infusion rate correlates significantly with the calcium loss rate by CVVH but not with the citrate infusion rate in a fixed blood flow rate during CVVH with RCA.

  16. Bone Up on the Need for Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Most grade-schoolers drink milk at each meal, but teens, especially girls, often switch to carbonated soda at mealtime just as they should be building up their bone bank of calcium. Why calcium is important and how to get enough of it are covered. (MT)

  17. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed

  18. Stochastic Kinetics of Intracellular Calcium Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌胜; 曾仁端

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic model of intracellular calcium oscillations is put forward by taking into account the random opening-closing of Ca2+ channels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The numerical results of the stochastic model show simple and complex calcium oscillations, which accord with the experiment results.

  19. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...... enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...

  20. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithel

  1. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  2. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail: sten.ruediger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-10

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  3. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  4. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. M. Mahmud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L. fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa or untreated (0% as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

  6. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  7. Calcium-sensing receptor: a key target for extracellular calcium signaling in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though both clinicians and scientists have long recognized the influence of extracellular calcium on the function of muscle and nervous tissue, recent insights reveal that the mechanisms allowing changes in extracellular calcium to alter cellular excitability have been incompletely understood. For many years the effects of calcium on neuronal signaling were explained only in terms of calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels and biophysical charge screening. More recently however, it has been recognized that the calcium-sensing receptor is prevalent in the nervous system and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal activity via multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the multiplicity of mechanisms by which changes in extracellular calcium alter neuronal signaling and propose that multiple mechanisms are required to describe the full range of experimental observations.

  8. Optogenetic Control of Calcium Oscillation Waveform Defines NFAT as an Integrator of Calcium Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannanta-Anan, Pimkhuan; Chow, Brian Y

    2016-04-27

    It is known that the calcium-dependent transcription factor NFAT initiates transcription in response to pulsatile loads of calcium signal. However, the relative contributions of calcium oscillation frequency, amplitude, and duty cycle to transcriptional activity remain unclear. Here, we engineer HeLa cells to permit optogenetic control of intracellular calcium concentration using programmable LED arrays. This approach allows us to generate calcium oscillations of constant peak amplitude, in which frequency is varied while holding duty cycle constant, or vice versa. Using this setup and mathematical modeling, we show that NFAT transcriptional activity depends more on duty cycle, defined as the proportion of the integrated calcium concentration over the oscillation period, than on frequency alone. This demonstrates that NFAT acts primarily as a signal integrator of cumulative load rather than a frequency-selective decoder. This approach resolves a fundamental question in calcium encoding and demonstrates the value of optogenetics for isolating individual dynamical components of larger signaling behaviors. PMID:27135540

  9. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  10. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  11. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  12. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinjung; Leung, Patrick S C; Bowlus, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the most recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and offers the potential to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Similar to other members of the IL-12 family including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, IL-35 is composed of a heterodimer of α and β chains, which in the case of IL-35 are the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) proteins. However, unlike its proinflammatory relatives, IL-35 has immunosuppressive effects that are mediated through regulatory T and B cells. Although there are limited data available regarding the role of IL-35 in human autoimmunity, several murine models of autoimmunity suggest that IL-35 may have potent effects in regulating immunoreactivity via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. We suggest that similar effects are operational in human disease and IL-35-directed therapies hold significant promise. In particular, we emphasize that IL-35 has immunosuppressive ability that are mediated via regulatory T and B cells that are IL-10 dependent. Further, although deletion of IL-35 does not result in spontaneous breach of tolerance, recombinant IL-35 can improve autoimmune responses in several experimental models.

  13. 40 CFR 35.935 - Grant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant conditions. 35.935 Section 35.935 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935 Grant conditions. In...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2200 - Grant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant conditions. 35.2200 Section 35.2200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2200 Grant conditions....

  15. 20 CFR 220.35 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 220.35 Section 220.35 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.35 Introduction. In addition to its authority to decide whether a claimant is disabled under the...

  16. 43 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Public Lands... STATEMENTS § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ...

  17. 22 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be...

  18. 24 CFR 35.320 - Hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard reduction. 35.320 Section 35... Provided by a Federal Agency Other Than HUD § 35.320 Hazard reduction. Each owner shall conduct interim controls consistent with the findings of the risk assessment report. Hazard reduction shall be conducted...

  19. 28 CFR 35.132 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 35.132 Section 35.132 Judicial... SERVICES General Requirements § 35.132 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in transportation covered by this part....

  20. 40 CFR 35.6555 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 31.38, “Indian Self Determination Act.” (c) Written specifications. The recipient's written... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.6555 Section 35.6555... Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6555 Competition. The recipient must conduct all...

  1. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  2. 40 CFR 35.691 - Funding coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding coordination. 35.691 Section 35.691 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...(g)) § 35.691 Funding coordination. Recipients must use the Lead-Based Paint program funding in a...

  3. 40 CFR 35.250 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Program Implementation (section 23(a)(1)) § 35.250 Purpose. (a) Purpose of section. Sections 35.250 through 35.259 govern Pesticide Program Implementation Cooperative Agreements to States (as defined in section 2 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

  4. 40 CFR 35.646 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. (b) Purpose of program. Pesticide applicator... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pesticide Applicator Certification and Training (section 23(a)(2)) § 35.646 Purpose. (a) Purpose of section. Sections 35.646 through 35.649 govern...

  5. 40 CFR 35.650 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pesticide Program Implementation (section 23(a)(1)) § 35.650 Purpose. (a) Purpose of section. Sections 35.650 through 35.659 govern Pesticide Program... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. (b) Purpose of program. Cooperative agreements are awarded...

  6. 40 CFR 35.230 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section 23(a)(1)) § 35.230 Purpose. (a) Purpose of section. Sections 35.230 through 35.235 govern Pesticide Enforcement Cooperative Agreements to States (as defined in section 2 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act)...

  7. 40 CFR 35.240 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Applicator Certification and Training (section 23(a)(2)) § 35.240 Purpose. (a) Purpose of section. Sections 35.240 through 35.245 govern Pesticide Applicator Certification and Training Grants to States (as defined in section 2 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  8. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2114 - Value engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value engineering. 35.2114 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2114 Value engineering. (a) If the project has not received Step 2 grant assistance the applicant shall conduct value...

  10. 7 CFR 29.35 - Lot seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot seal. 29.35 Section 29.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.35 Lot seal. A seal approved by the Director for sealing lots...

  11. 48 CFR 35.011 - Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data. 35.011 Section 35... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.011 Data. (a) R&D contracts shall specify the technical data to be delivered under the contract, since the data clauses required by part 27 do not require...

  12. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.362 Section 35... 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance....

  13. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  14. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  15. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  16. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  17. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  18. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  19. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-7 - Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design. 35.925-7 Section 35.925-7... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-7 Design. That the treatment works design will be (in the case of projects involving step 2) or has been (in the case of projects...

  1. 19 CFR 113.35 - Individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual sureties. 113.35 Section 113.35 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.35 Individual sureties. (a) Number required. If individuals...) Qualifications to act as surety—(1) Residency and citizenship. Each individual surety on a Customs bond must...

  2. 40 CFR 35.935-8 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision. 35.935-8 Section 35.935-8... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-8 Supervision. In the case of... supervision and inspection of the project to ensure that the construction conforms with the approved plans...

  3. 40 CFR 35.672 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 35.672 Section 35.672... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.672 Definition. Tribe. Any Indian Tribe having a federally recognized governing...

  4. 42 CFR 441.35 - Organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organ transplants. 441.35 Section 441.35 Public... Provisions § 441.35 Organ transplants. (a) FFP is available in expenditures for services furnished in connection with organ transplant procedures only if the State plan includes written standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 35.925-20 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 35.925-20 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-20 Procurement. That the applicant has complied or will comply with the applicable provisions of §§...

  6. 39 CFR 3050.35 - Financial reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reports. 3050.35 Section 3050.35 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.35 Financial reports. (a) The... submission of the Federal Budget by the President to the Congress); and (d) Integrated Financial Plan...

  7. 14 CFR 21.35 - Flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight tests. 21.35 Section 21.35... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.35 Flight tests. (a) Each applicant for an aircraft...) That the aircraft conforms with the type design; and (4) That the Administrator received a flight...

  8. 24 CFR 27.35 - Foreclosure costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreclosure costs. 27.35 Section 27.35 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Mortgages § 27.35 Foreclosure costs. Pursuant to section 369C(5) of the Act (12 U.S.C. 3711(5)),...

  9. 40 CFR 35.3170 - Corrective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corrective action. 35.3170 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3170 Corrective action. (a... will notify the State of such noncompliance and prescribe the necessary corrective action. Failure...

  10. 40 CFR 35.161 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 35.161 Section 35.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.161 Definition....

  11. 40 CFR 35.141 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 35.141 Section 35.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.141 Definitions. In...

  12. 40 CFR 35.140 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 35.140 Section 35.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.140 Purpose. (a) Purpose...

  13. 40 CFR 35.143 - Allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allotment. 35.143 Section 35.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.143 Allotment. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 35.160 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 35.160 Section 35.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.160 Purpose. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train...

  16. 14 CFR 35.36 - Bird impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird impact. 35.36 Section 35.36... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.36 Bird impact. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or... 4-pound bird at the critical location(s) and critical flight condition(s) of a typical...

  17. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  18. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  19. 28 CFR 35.175 - Attorney's fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney's fees. 35.175 Section 35.175... LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Compliance Procedures § 35.175 Attorney's fees. In any action or... allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee,...

  20. 32 CFR 750.35 - Attorney's fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney's fees. 750.35 Section 750.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.35 Attorney's fees. Attorney's fees are limited to 20 percent of any...

  1. 40 CFR 35.3000 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 130.15. (3) The Indian Tribe is reasonably expected to be capable, in the Regional... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 35.3000 Section 35.3000... ASSISTANCE Construction Grants Program Delegation to States § 35.3000 Purpose. (a) This...

  2. 46 CFR 96.35-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 96.35-1 Section 96.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fireman's Outfit § 96.35-1 Application. This subpart, except §...

  3. 46 CFR 97.35-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 97.35-1 Section 97.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-1 Application. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart...

  4. 10 CFR 501.35 - Public file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public file. 501.35 Section 501.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.35 Public file. (a) Contents. The public file shall consist of the rule, order, or petition, with supporting data and supplemental...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2030 - Facilities planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facilities planning. 35.2030 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2030 Facilities planning. (a) General. (1) Facilities planning consists of those necessary plans and studies which directly relate...

  6. 28 CFR 35.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 35.104 Section 35.104... LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General § 35.104 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— Act means..., speech and hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis,...

  7. 46 CFR 67.35 - Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partnership. 67.35 Section 67.35 Shipping COAST GUARD... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.35 Partnership. A partnership meets citizenship... recreational endorsement, at least 50 percent of the equity interest in the partnership is owned by...

  8. 14 CFR 31.35 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 31.35 Section 31.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.35 Fabrication methods. The methods of...

  9. 46 CFR 189.35-7 - Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations. 189.35-7 Section 189.35-7 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Weight Handling Gear § 189.35-7 Examinations. (a) Examination of weight handling gear will normally consist of a visual examination with access covers removed. Suitability of the equipment for...

  10. 24 CFR 146.35 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 146.35 Section 146.35... ASSISTANCE Investigation, Settlement, and Enforcement Procedures § 146.35 Mediation. (a) HUD shall refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, a mediation agency designated by the Secretary...

  11. 24 CFR 3288.35 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 3288.35 Section 3288.35...-Administered States § 3288.35 Mediation. (a) Mediator. The dispute resolution provider will provide for the... identifies any other party that should be included in the mediation, the mediator will contact the...

  12. 40 CFR 35.107 - Work plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work plans. 35.107 Section 35.107... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.107 Work plans. (a) Bases for negotiating work plans. The work plan is negotiated between the applicant and the Regional Administrator...

  13. 40 CFR 35.507 - Work plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work plans. 35.507 Section 35.507... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.507 Work plans. (a) Bases for negotiating work plans. The work plan is negotiated between the applicant and the...

  14. 32 CFR 701.35 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 701.35 Section 701.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.35 Reading room. Location where...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6220 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Core Program Cooperative Agreements § 35.6220 General. The recipient of a Core Program Cooperative Agreement must comply...), records (§§ 35.6700 through 35.6710), and other administrative requirements under a Cooperative...

  16. 22 CFR 35.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 35.2 Section 35.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.2 Definitions. (a) ALJ means an Administrative Law Judge in the authority appointed pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 3105 or...

  17. Neuropeptides labelled with [sup 35]S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Nispen, J.W. van; Sperling, E.M.G.; Vader, J.F. (Organon Int BV, Oss (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    Methionine and cysteine containing peptides can be labelled with [sup 35]S by coupling of [sup 35]S-cysteine or [sup 35]S-methionine with a large excess of suitability protected peptide precursors. This is illustrated for [pGlu[sup 4], Cyt[sup 6

  18. 24 CFR 35.1310 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by EPA under 40 CFR 745.324 to administer and enforce lead-based paint programs. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false References. 35.1310 Section 35.1310... Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1310 References. Further guidance...

  19. 7 CFR 906.35 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 906.35 Section 906.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.35 Accounting....

  20. 7 CFR 953.35 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 953.35 Section 953.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 953.35 Accounting. (a) If, at the end of...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2101 - Advanced treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advanced treatment. 35.2101 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2101 Advanced treatment. Projects proposing advanced treatment shall be awarded grant assistance only after the project has...

  2. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  3. 50 CFR 35.12 - Water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water rights. 35.12 Section 35.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.12 Water...

  4. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the components, including references...

  5. 27 CFR 25.35 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 25.35 Section 25.35... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.35 Tanks. Each stationary tank, vat, cask... contents of tanks or containers in lieu of providing each tank or container with a measuring device....

  6. 10 CFR 71.35 - Package evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package evaluation. 71.35 Section 71.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.35 Package evaluation. The application must include the following: (a)...

  7. Expert review on coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Budoff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Budoff, Khawar M GulDivision of Cardiology, Saint John’s Cardiovascular Research Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: While there is no doubt that high risk patients (those with >20% ten year risk of future cardiovascular event need more aggressive preventive therapy, a majority of cardiovascular events occur in individuals at intermediate risk (10%–20% ten year risk. Accurate risk assessment may be helpful in decreasing cardiovascular events through more appropriate targeting of preventive measures. It has been suggested that traditional risk assessment may be refined with the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC or other methods of subclinical atherosclerosis measurement. Coronary calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis that can be quantified with the use of cardiac CT and it is proportional to the extent and severity of atherosclerotic disease. The published studies demonstrate a high sensitivity of CAC for the presence of coronary artery disease but a lower specificity for obstructive CAD depending on the magnitude of the CAC. Several large clinical trials found clear, incremental predictive value of CAC over the Framingham risk score when used in asymptomatic patients. Based on multiple observational studies, patients with increased plaque burdens (increased CAC are approximately ten times more likely to suffer a cardiac event over the next 3–5 years. Coronary calcium scores have outperformed conventional risk factors, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP and carotid intima media thickness (IMT as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The relevant prognostic information obtained may be useful to initiate or intensify appropriate treatment strategies to slow the progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Current data suggests intermediate risk patients may benefit most from further risk stratification with cardiac CT, as CAC testing is

  8. HEPARIN-INSENSITIVE CALCIUM-RELEASE FROM INTRACELLULAR STORES TRIGGERED BY THE RECOMBINANT HUMAN PARATHYROID-HORMONE RECEPTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEUWEN, K; BODDEKE, HGWM

    1995-01-01

    1 In the present study we have characterized the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced calcium signalling in 293 cells stably transfected with the human PTH receptor cDNA. In these cells, human PTH-I(1-38) strongly stimulates adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formation (EC(50) = 0.39 nM)

  9. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  10. Calcium-imaging with Fura-2 in isolated cerebral microvessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Jörg; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier......Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier...

  11. Relationship of Calcium with Renal, Intestinal and Hormonal Status in Healthy Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed on 38 healthy female volunteers to assess the role of renal, intestinal and hormonal control of calcium level in female with different ages. Women were divided into 4 groups: 25-35 years (12 females), 36-43 years (9 females), 44-49 years (10 females) and 55-59 years (7 females). From the fasting blood sample at the mid menstrual cycle (first three groups), the following parameters were determined: Hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar, creatinine, uric acid, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin B12, folic acid, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, thyroxin, female Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ,and Luteinizing hormone LH. Significant increase in uric acid and creatinine, and significant decrease of folic acid and vitamin B12 were detected among the last group. In addition, there are several significant correlations between calcium and other parameters tested in the first three groups while, no any significant correlation was detected in the last group. These results denoted that increased calcium excretion due to partial renal insufficiency in the elder females could play a role in calcium homeostasis rather than intestinal absorption

  12. The Effect of Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Medication of The Apical Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Mohajer AR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nowadays, calcium hydroxide is used as a dressing for canal sterilization and repair progression of apical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament on the apical microleakage of root filling.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with step-back technique to master apical file (MAF size 35. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20. In group 1, the specimens were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication; and in group 2, the samples did not receive any medication. The teeth were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for one week. After that, calcium hydroxide was removed using irrigation with normal saline and reaming with MAF. The root canals were obturated with gutta- percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique. Specimens were incubated in 100% humility at 37°C for 72 hours and then immersed in India ink for 1 week. Finally, the teeth were cleared and the maximum linear dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at 4X magnification. The data were analyzed by T-test and Chi-square.Results: There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P=0.068. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament did not influence the apical microleakage after final obturation of the root canal system.

  13. Calcium: a code coupling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the calculation performances of computers allow the precise and global simulation of complex industrial processes such as the functioning of a nuclear reactor core. One can question the need for the elaboration of new global numerical models in order to make use of the overall capability of computers. Another less time consuming solution consist in the coupling of existing well validated numerical models in order to make them working together. This paper presents the basic principles of the coupling of numerical codes, the tools required, the Calcium tool for codes coupling and an example of application of this tool in the coupling of the THYC (EdF), COCCINELLE (EdF) and CATHARE (CEA-EdF-Framatome) codes for the modeling of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behaviour of a reactor core during accidental situation. (J.S.)

  14. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography is a powerful fractionation technique that has become indispensable for protein purification and characterization. However, it is difficult to retrieve bound proteins without using harsh or denaturing elution conditions, and the purification of scarce antigens...... to homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m...... chromatography was superior to the traditional immunoaffinity chromatographies and resulted in a nine-fold improvement of the purification factor. The technique is applicable for the purification of proteins in complex mixtures by single-step fractionation without the denaturation of eluted antigens...

  15. Effect of calcium on the salt tolerance of different wheat (triticum aestivum l.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In saline soil conditions the availability and uptake of Ca/sup 2+/ is reduced that results in the loss of membrane integrity and other disorders associated with Ca/sup 2+/ deficiency in plants. A wheat genotype efficient in uptake and utilization of calcium under saline conditions may be better able to withstand saline conditions in the field. Very little information is available on wheat response to salinity and low Ca/sup 2+/ as screening of wheat genotypes has usually been done against salinity alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of different wheat genotypes against salinity at low and adequate calcium supply. The experiment was conducted in hydroponics with four treatments including T1: non-saline with adequate Ca/sup 2+/, T2: non-saline with low Ca/sup 2+/ (level of calcium was 1/4 of the adequate level), T3: saline (125 mM NaCl) with adequate Ca/sup 2+/ and T4: saline with low calcium. All the physical growth parameters including shoot length, root length, and shoot and root fresh weights were decreased significantly due to salinity and low calcium alone as well as in combination. Reduction was more pronounced under the combined stress of salinity and low calcium and different genotypes differed significantly in different stress treatments for shoot and root fresh weight production. In saline treatment (T3), the genotypes 25-SAWSN-39 and 25-SAWSN-31 showed better growth performance and accumulated lower Na+ and higher Ca/sup 2+/ where as the genotypes 25-SAWSN-35 and 25-SAWSN-47 showed less growth and had less accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ and high accumulation of Na+. In salinity + low calcium treatment the genotype 25-SAWSN-39 behaved as a tolerant genotype where as 25-SAWSN-31 behaved similar to the sensitive genotype and these differences were due to high accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ in 25-SAWSN-39 and vice versa. This study shows that the salt tolerance of wheat genotypes differs with the availability and accumulation of calcium

  16. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li-Xia Yang; Yan-Feng Meng; Ping Yin; Ying-Xia Yang; Ying-Ying Tang; Lai-Fen Qin

    2011-04-01

    Calcium sulfate nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and sheets had been synthesized via a facile solution reaction of CaCl2 and H2SO4 in mixed solvents of ethanol/, -dimethylformamide and deionized water at 35°C. The results indicated that well-crystallized CaSO4 nanomaterials with different morphology were obtained by adjusting the volume ratio of ethanol/, -dimethylformamide to deionized water and the reaction time. Samples prepared at 35°C in mixed solvents of 50 mL ethanol and 30 mL water for 1 min and 2 h showed nanowire and sheet morphology, respectively. While increasing the volume ratio of ethanol to deionized water to 78/2, only nanorods were obtained. When , -dimethylformamide was employed to substitute ethanol, the sample heating at 35°C for 2 h was composed of nanowires in 50 mL , -dimethylformamide and 30 mL water. Higher volume ratio of , -dimethylformamide to deionized water caused the formation of nanorods.

  17. Fast kinetics of calcium signaling and sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shen; Reddish, Florence; Zhuo, You; Yang, Jenny J

    2015-08-01

    Fast calcium signaling is regulated by numerous calcium channels exhibiting high spatiotemporal profiles which are currently measured by fluorescent calcium sensors. There is still a strong need to improve the kinetics of genetically encoded calcium indicators (sensors) to capture calcium dynamics in the millisecond time frame. In this review, we summarize several major fast calcium signaling pathways and discuss the recent developments and application of genetically encoded calcium indicators to detect these pathways. A new class of genetically encoded calcium indicators designed with site-directed mutagenesis on the surface of beta-barrel fluorescent proteins to form a pentagonal bipyramidal-like calcium binding domain dramatically accelerates calcium binding kinetics. Furthermore, novel genetically encoded calcium indicators with significantly increased fluorescent lifetime change are advantageous in deep-field imaging with high light-scattering and notable morphology change.

  18. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  19. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  20. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    that caused by osteoporosis in humans. For both mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopes, the isotopic value of the albumen is the highest natural value yet measured. The offset between the δ88/86Sr values of the albumen and shell is 0.45%, less than half that of the δ44/42Ca offset value (1.29%), as predicted by the relative mass differences. However, the yolk is 0.35% heavier than the shell in δ44/42Ca but 0.70% lighter in δ88/86Sr. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr value of the shell (0.70854 ±0.000012, 2σ) is statistically the same as the albumen (0.70856 ±0.000018), but slightly offset from the yolk (0.70830 ±0.000014). The apparent decoupling of Ca and Sr, and the radiogenic offset between yolk and shell, may reflect differences in the residence time of calcium and strontium in different reproductive organs, as well as the contribution of medullary bone to shell formation. In addition, it may also reflect differential discrimination against Sr versus Ca in oviduct and uterus. Further studies could extend to thinning eggshells in wild avian populations, biochemical mechanisms of bone formation, and the mechanism of strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  1. Calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-ping CHENG; Sheng WEI; Li-ping WEI; Alexei VERKHRATSKY

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ions are the most ubiquitous and pluripotent cellular signaling molecules that control a wide variety of cellular processes.The calcium signaling system is represented by a relatively limited number of highly conserved transporters and channels,which execute Ca2+ movements across biological membranes and by many thousands of Ca2+-sensitive effectors.Molecular cascades,responsible for the generation of calcium signals,are tightly controlled by Ca2+ ions themselves and by genetic factors,which tune the expression of different Ca2+-handling molecules according to adaptational requirements.Ca2+ ions determine normal physiological reactions and the development of many pathological processes.

  2. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Christina B; Pase, Luke B; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  3. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  4. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah M.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation. PMID:26731108

  5. Dysbalance of astrocyte calcium under hyperammonemic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haack

    Full Text Available Increased brain ammonium (NH4(+/NH3 plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4(+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4(+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4(+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (∼ 90% experienced a persistent calcium increase by ∼ 50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1-2 mM NH4(+/NH3, developed within 10-20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4(+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4(+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC, the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX, AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4(+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4(+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study

  6. Thermochemistry of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide in fluoride slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-08-01

    Calcium oxide activity in binary CaF2-CaO and ternary CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 and CaF2-CaO-SiO2 slags has been determined by CO2-slag equilibrium experiments at 1400 °C. The carbonate ca-pacity of these slags has also been computed and compared with sulfide capacity data available in the literature. The similarity in trends suggests the possibility of characterizing carbonate capacity as an alternative basicity index for fluoride-base slags. Slag-D2O equilibrium experi-ments are performed at 1400°C with different fluoride-base slags to determine water solubility at two different partial pressures of D2O, employing a new slag sampling technique. A novel isotope tracer detection technique is employed to analyze water in the slags. The water solubility data found show higher values than the previous literature data by an order of magnitude but show a linear relationship with the square root of water vapor partial pressure. The activity of hydroxide computed from the data is shown to be helpful in estimating water solubility in in-dustrial electroslag remelting (ESR) slags.

  7. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy; Jae Jun Sim; Yeong-Su Jang; Siddhartha Kumar Mishra; Keun-Yeong Jeong; Poonam Mander; Oh Byung Chul; Won-Sik Shim; Seung Hyun Oh; Ky-Youb Nam; Hwan Mook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstrea...

  8. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  9. 46 CFR 35.30-35 - Spark producing devices-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spark producing devices-TB/ALL. 35.30-35 Section 35.30... § 35.30-35 Spark producing devices—TB/ALL. (a) Where Grades A, B, C, and D liquid cargoes are involved, power driven or manually operated spark producing devices shall not be used in bulk cargo tanks,...

  10. In vivo Calcium Imaging of Evoked Calcium Waves in the Embryonic Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Pellegrino, Christophe; Jokinen, Ville; Andriichuk, Liliia; Khirug, Stanislav; Khiroug, Leonard; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this ...

  11. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tavares da Silva; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Antônio José Natali

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40) were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day). The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages a...

  12. Technology obtaining of nitrogen fertilizer from the calcium is containing waste of production of calcium saltpetre

    OpenAIRE

    Власян, Світлана Варужанівна; Шестозуб, Анатолій Борисович; Волошин, Микола Дмитрович

    2013-01-01

    The new technology of obtaining nitrogen fertilizer from calcium-containing sludge of calcium saltpeter production is considered in the paper. The main objective of the research is the development of processing technology of sludge of calcium saltpeter production into alkaline nitrogen fertilizer, analysis of the composition of initial material and finished product, testing of fertilizer by means of vegeta­tive studies and determination of expenditure of drying agent that is exhaust gases of ...

  13. Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

  14. 21 CFR 73.35 - Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Astaxanthin. 73.35 Section 73.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.35 Astaxanthin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive astaxanthin is 3, 3′-dihydroxy-β, β-carotene-4,...

  15. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium carbonate has about 40 percent elemental calcium, meaning that 500 mg of calcium carbonate actually contains ... in this trial also contained vitamin D (400 international units [ IU ]). During ... and calcium in relation to prostate cancer risk among more than 142, ...

  16. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  17. Recombinant p35 from bacteria can form Interleukin (IL-)12, but Not IL-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Moll, Jens M; Lokau, Juliane; Grusdat, Melanie; Schröder, Jutta; Plöhn, Svenja; Rose-John, Stefan; Grötzinger, Joachim; Lang, Philipp A; Scheller, Jürgen; Garbers, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The Interleukin (IL)-12 family contains several heterodimeric composite cytokines which share subunits among each other. IL-12 consists of the subunits p40 (shared with IL-23) and p35. p35 is shared with the composite cytokine IL-35 which comprises of the p35/EBI3 heterodimer (EBI3 shared with IL-27). IL-35 signals via homo- or heterodimers of IL-12Rβ2, gp130 and WSX-1, which are shared with IL-12 and IL-27 receptor complexes, respectively. p35 was efficiently secreted in complex with p40 as IL-12 but not with EBI3 as IL-35 in several transfected cell lines tested which complicates the analysis of IL-35 signal transduction. p35 and p40 but not p35 and EBI3 form an inter-chain disulfide bridge. Mutation of the responsible cysteine residue (p40C197A) reduced IL-12 formation and activity only slightly. Importantly, the p40C197A mutation prevented the formation of antagonistic p40 homodimers which enabled the in vitro reconstitution of biologically active IL-12 with p35 produced in bacteria (p35bac). Reconstitution of IL-35 with p35bac and EBI3 did, however, fail to induce signal transduction in Ba/F3 cells expressing IL-12Rβ2 and gp130. In summary, we describe the in vitro reconstitution of IL-12, but fail to produce recombinant IL-35 by this novel approach.

  18. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6305 Obtaining supplies....

  19. 40 CFR 35.6310 - Obtaining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6310 Obtaining equipment....

  20. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function.

  1. Discrete stochastic modeling of calcium channel dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, M E; Levine, H; Tsimring, L S; Baer, Markus; Falcke, Martin; Levine, Herbert; Tsimring, Lev S.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a simple discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. Specifically, the calcium concentration distribution is assumed to give rise to a set of probabilities for the opening/closing of channels which release calcium thereby changing those probabilities. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the mean-field limit of large number of channels per site N, and numerically for small N. As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a non-propagating region of activity to a propagating one changes in nature from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state, in a parameter range where the limiting deterministic model exhibits only single pulse propagation.

  2. Discrete Stochastic Modeling of Calcium Channel Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a discrete stochastic model for calcium dynamics in living cells. A set of probabilities for the opening/closing of calcium channels is assumed to depend on the calcium concentration. We study this model in one dimension, analytically in the limit of a large number of channels per site N , and numerically for small N . As the number of channels per site is increased, the transition from a nonpropagating region of activity to a propagating one changes from one described by directed percolation to that of deterministic depinning in a spatially discrete system. Also, for a small number of channels a propagating calcium wave can leave behind a novel fluctuation-driven state. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... four moles of water per mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  4. Calcium signaling in neocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlén, Per; Fritz, Nicolas; Smedler, Erik; Malmersjö, Seth; Kanatani, Shigeaki

    2015-04-01

    The calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) is an essential second messenger that plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis. In the ventricular zone (VZ) of the neocortex, neural stem cells linger to produce progenitor cells and subsequently neurons and glial cells, which together build up the entire adult brain. The radial glial cells, with their characteristic radial fibers that stretch from the inner ventricular wall to the outer cortex, are known to be the neural stem cells of the neocortex. Migrating neurons use these radial fibers to climb from the proliferative VZ in the inner part of the brain to the outer layers of the cortex, where differentiation processes continue. To establish the complex structures that constitute the adult cerebral cortex, proliferation, migration, and differentiation must be tightly controlled by various signaling events, including cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling. During development, cells regularly exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) activity that stimulates downstream effectors, which can elicit these fundamental cell processes. Spontaneous Ca(2+) activity during early neocortical development depends heavily on gap junctions and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels, whereas later in development neurotransmitters and synapses exert an influence. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on Ca(2+) signaling and its impact on cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the neocortex. We point out important historical studies and review recent progress in determining the role of Ca(2+) signaling in neocortical development.

  5. Effect of albumin and free calcium concentrations on calcium binding in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; DeGuzman, A; Swanson, J W

    1981-01-01

    In vivo equilibrium dialysis studies were performed to define further the characteristics of calcium binding to bovine albumin. The concentration range for albumin (1 to 9 g/dl) as well as ultrafilterable calcium (0.5 to 2.5 mM) studied encompassed those that might be ordinarily encountered in most clinical situations. Major differences in the regressions of total calcium on ultrafilterable calcium occurred at albumin concentrations of 1, 2, and 9 g/dl but only small differences at albumin co...

  6. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Isela Rojas-Molina; Elsa Gutiérrez-Cortez; Moustapha Bah; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Eric Rivera-Muñoz; Alicia del Real; Ma. de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O), weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O)2.375),...

  7. Relating a calcium indicator signal to the unperturbed calcium concentration time-course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abarbanel Henry DI

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical indicators of cytosolic calcium levels have become important experimental tools in systems and cellular neuroscience. Indicators are known to interfere with intracellular calcium levels by acting as additional buffers, and this may strongly alter the time-course of various dynamical variables to be measured. Results By investigating the underlying reaction kinetics, we show that in some ranges of kinetic parameters one can explicitly link the time dependent indicator signal to the time-course of the calcium influx, and thus, to the unperturbed calcium level had there been no indicator in the cell.

  8. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms.

  9. Effect of Calcium on the Vanadium Extraction from High Calcium Type Stone Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Shenxu; LIANG Liang; ZHANG Yimin; HAN Shihua; HU Yangjia

    2015-01-01

    The high calcium type stone coal from Hubei province was leached by water and dilute acid separately after being roasted with different dosage of NaCl. The water leaching rate of vanadium (WLRV) was low and only 26.8%of vanadium can be leached by water when 4%NaCl was added, but the acid leaching rate of vanadium (ALRV) was relatively high. Calcium in the high calcium type stone coal is greatly superfluous relative to vanadium, hence, the calcium reacts with vanadium to form Ca(VO3)2, Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2 orderly during the stone coal roasting process and high temperature is beneficial to the reactions between calcium and vanadium, which was validated by simulated reactions between pure calcium carbonate and vanadium pentoxide. These calcium vanadates are all water insoluble but acid soluble and this causes the low WLRV and relatively high ALRV. After calcium removal by HCl, the WLRV is highly enhanced and reaches about 50%when only 2%NaCl was added. If the HCl content is too high, the stone coal is easily sintered and the formed glass structure can enwrap vanadium, which leads the WLRV to decline. Single water leaching process is not appropriate to extract vanadium from high calcium type stone coal.

  10. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  11. ERp57 modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake through the MCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingquan; Shi, Weikang; Guo, Yu; Chai, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    ERp57 participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Although ERp57 modulates calcium flux across the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, its functions on mitochondria are largely unknown. Here, we found that ERp57 can regulate the expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and modulate mitochondrial calcium uptake. In ERp57-silenced HeLa cells, MCU was downregulated, and the mitochondrial calcium uptake was inhibited, consistent with the effect of MCU knockdown. When MCU was re-expressed in the ERp57 knockdown cells, mitochondrial calcium uptake was restored. Thus, ERp57 is a potent regulator of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  12. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  13. DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM CONTENT IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović-Balaban, Željka R.; Antunović, Vesna R.; Jelić, Dijana R.; Živković, Tanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a macro element that is very important for the human body: its content and circulation in the body is large, it serves as the electrolyte, it has a building role and participates in the process of metabolism. The European Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Food and Drug (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) gave the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances,) for this macro element. The absorption and bioavailability of the calcium may vary depending on a number...

  14. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  15. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  16. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  17. Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and ...

  18. A calcium-induced calcium release mechanism mediated by calsequestrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seon; Keener, James P

    2008-08-21

    Calcium (Ca(2+))-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) is widely accepted as the principal mechanism linking electrical excitation and mechanical contraction in cardiac cells. The CICR mechanism has been understood mainly based on binding of cytosolic Ca(2+) with ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inducing Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). However, recent experiments suggest that SR lumenal Ca(2+) may also participate in regulating RyR gating through calsequestrin (CSQ), the SR lumenal Ca(2+) buffer. We investigate how SR Ca(2+) release via RyR is regulated by Ca(2+) and calsequestrin (CSQ). First, a mathematical model of RyR kinetics is derived based on experimental evidence. We assume that the RyR has three binding sites, two cytosolic sites for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation, and one SR lumenal site for CSQ binding. The open probability (P(o)) of the RyR is found by simulation under controlled cytosolic and SR lumenal Ca(2+). Both peak and steady-state P(o) effectively increase as SR lumenal Ca(2+) increases. Second, we incorporate the RyR model into a CICR model that has both a diadic space and the junctional SR (jSR). At low jSR Ca(2+) loads, CSQs are more likely to bind with the RyR and act to inhibit jSR Ca(2+) release, while at high SR loads CSQs are more likely to detach from the RyR, thereby increasing jSR Ca(2+) release. Furthermore, this CICR model produces a nonlinear relationship between fractional jSR Ca(2+) release and jSR load. These findings agree with experimental observations in lipid bilayers and cardiac myocytes. PMID:18538346

  19. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na+ and Ca2+ for [CaCl2] ranging from 10−8 to 10−2 M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant

  20. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  1. A theory of Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump stimulation and activity

    CERN Document Server

    Graupner, M; Meyer-Hermann, M; Erler, Frido; Graupner, Michael; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ATP-driven Plasma Membrane Calcium (PMCA) pump is characterized by a high affinity to calcium and a low transport rate compared to other transmembrane calcium transport proteins. It plays a crucial role for calcium extrusion from cells. Calmodulin is an intracellular calcium buffering protein which is capable in its Calcium-liganded form to stimulate the PMCA pump by increasing both, the affinity to calcium and the maximum calcium transport rate. We introduce a new model of this stimulation process and deduce analytical expressions for experimental observables in order to determine the model parameter on the basis of specific experiments. Furthermore a model for the pumping activity is developed. In contrast to the biological process we have to describe the pumping rate behavior by assuming a ATP:Calcium stoichiometry of 2 in order to reproduce experimental data. The conjunction of the description of calcium pumping and the stimulation model fully and correctly simulates PMCA pump function. Therewith the ...

  2. Mapping Calcium-Sensitive Regions in the Neuronal Calcium Sensor GCAP2 by Site-Specific Fluorescence Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmann, Stefan; Wallisch, Melanie; Scholten, Alexander; Christoffers, Jens; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2016-05-10

    Myristoylation of most neuronal calcium sensor proteins, a group of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins mainly expressed in neuronal tissue, can have a strong impact on protein dynamics and functional properties. Intracellular oscillations of the free Ca(2+) concentration can trigger conformational changes in Ca(2+) sensors. The position and possible movements of the myristoyl group in the photoreceptor cell-specific Ca(2+) sensor GCAP2 are not well-defined but appear to be different from those of the highly homologous cognate GCAP1. We designed and applied a new group of diaminoterephthalate-derived fluorescent probes to label GCAP2 at a covalently attached 12-azido-dodecanoic acid (a myristoyl substitute) and at cysteine residues in critical positions. Fluorescence emission of dye-labeled GCAP2 decreased when going from low (10(-9) M) to high [Ca(2+)] (10(-3) M), reaching a half-maximal effect of fluorescence emission at 0.44 ± 0.07 μM. The modified acyl group can therefore monitor changes in the protein conformation during binding and dissociation of Ca(2+) in the physiological range of free [Ca(2+)]. However, fluorescence quenching studies showed that the dye-acyl chain was shielded from the quencher by an adjacent polypeptide region. Further probing three cysteine positions (C35, C111, and C131) by dye labeling revealed that all positions were also sensitive to a change in [Ca(2+)], but only one (C131) was sensitive to a change in [Mg(2+)]. We suggest a scenario during illumination of the photoreceptor cell in which Ca(2+) dissociates first from low and medium affinity binding sites. These steps are sensed by dyes in cysteines at positions 35 and 111. Release of Ca(2+) from high affinity sites is sensed by regions adjacent to the dye-labeled fatty acid and involves the critical conformational change leading to activating guanylate cyclase.

  3. 钙代谢紊乱的临床治疗分析%Clinical Treatment of Calcium Metabolism Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the calcium metabolism disorder clinical treatment effect.Methods The clinical treatment of disorders of calcium metabolism data from March 2014 to June 2015 were treated for analysis.Results The clinical treatment of clinical symptoms, results were satisfactory.Conclusion Hypocalcemia remove the cause, correct alkalosis. Asymptomatic, oral calcium and vitamin D2. There are symptoms, should intravenous calcium. Patients need long-term calcium, calcium lactate can be taken orally. There are obvious symptoms or serum calcium up 3.5 to 3.75 mmol/L (ie, 14 to 15 mg/L), regardless of symptoms, should immediately press the accident and emergency treatment.%目的:探讨钙代谢紊乱的临床治疗方法效果。方法选取2014年3月~2015年6月收治的钙代谢紊乱的临床治疗方法资料进行分析。结果经临床治疗临床症状改善,效果满意。结论低钙血症去除病因,纠正碱中毒。无症状者,可口服钙和维生素D2。有症状者,应静脉补钙。对需要长期补钙的患者,可口服乳酸钙。有明显症状或血清钙高达3.5~3.75 mmol/L(即14~15 mg/L),不论有无症状,均应立即按急症治疗。

  4. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO causality assessment, Naranjo′s and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as "certain". This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo′s algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig′s severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used.

  5. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca2+ regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway. (paper)

  6. Increased absolute calcium binding to albumin in hypoalbuminaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; Caro, J F

    1981-01-01

    The amount of calcium bound to protein was measured in 30 patients with differing diseases and varying degrees of hypoalbuminaemia. Total serum calcium increased directly with both serum albumin and ultrafilterable calcium concentrations. The estimated amount of calcium bound per gram of albumin varied inversely with the albumin concentration, decreasing from 2.1 to 1.0 mg calcium/g albumin as albumin concentration increased from 1.7 to 3.1 g/dl. Circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentr...

  7. The effect of dimethylsulfoxide on the calcium paradox.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruigrok, T. J.; Moes, D.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated rat hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). Experiments were undertaken to study the effect of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the occurrence of the calcium paradox in rat heart muscle. DMSO (1.4 mol/l) was added to the calcium-free or the reperfusion medium. Cell damage was quantitated in terms of creatine kinase (CK) release, cardiac electrogram (CEG) changes, and ultras...

  8. Factors to consider in the selection of a calcium supplement.

    OpenAIRE

    Shangraw, R F

    1989-01-01

    Calcium supplements are widely used, yet many questions remain as to the absorption of various calcium salts. Because the solubility of many calcium salts is dependent upon pH, the type of salt used, the condition of the patient, and the time of administration should be considered. Studies show that many calcium supplements on the market today do not meet standards of quality established in the "U.S. Pharmacopeia" (USP). Consumers must be discerning about the products they purchase. Calcium s...

  9. Effect of combining different calcium concentration dialysate on calcium balance in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-ping; WU Bei; LU Li-xia; QIAO Jie; WU Xiang-lan; WANG Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcium and phosphorus metabolic disturbance are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality.Therefore,maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate metabolism and suitable intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)level has become the focus of attention.We investigated the effects of different peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations on calcium phosphate metabolism and iPTH in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD)patients.Methods Forty stable CAPD patients with normal serum calcium were followed for six months of treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.25,PD4,22 patients)or a combination of 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.75,PD2)and PD4(18 patients)twice a day respectively.Total serum calcium(after albumin correction),serum phosphorus,iPTH,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and blood pressure were recorded before and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment commenced.Results No significant difference was found in baseline serum calcium,phosphorus between the two patient groups,but the levels of iPTH were significantly different.No significant changes were found in the dosage of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D during 6 months.In the PD4 group,serum calcium level at the 1st,3rd,6th months were significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus after 6 months treatment.iPTH was significantly higher(P<0.001)at the 1st,3rd,and 6th months compared with the baseline.No differences were seen in ALP and blood pressure.In the PD4+PD2 group,no significant changes in serum calcium,phosphorus,iPTH,ALP and BP during the 6-month follow-up period.Conclusions Treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate for six months can decrease serum calcium,increase iPTH,without change in serum phosphorus,ALP,and BP.The combining of PD4 and PD2 can stabilize the serum calcium and avoid fluctuations in iPTH levels.

  10. 40 CFR 35.935-7 - Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-7 Access. The grantee must insure that EPA and State representatives will have access to the project work whenever it is in... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access. 35.935-7 Section...

  11. 40 CFR 35.272 - Funding coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding coordination. 35.272 Section 35.272 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE....272 Funding coordination. Recipients must use the lead-based paint program funding in a way...

  12. 18 CFR 806.35 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees. 806.35 Section... APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Terms and Conditions of Approval § 806.35 Fees. Project sponsors shall have an affirmative duty to pay such fees as established by the Commission....

  13. 40 CFR 35.6015 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management and planning tool outlining the specific community relations activities to be undertaken during... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 35.6015 Section 35.6015....6015 Definitions. (a) As used in this subpart, the following words and terms shall have the...

  14. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controls are used for a soil area that is subject to erosion, measures shall be taken to contain the soil... specified in § 35.1320, dust control, and lead-contaminated soil control. As provided by § 35.155, interim... be removed. (f) Soil-lead hazards. (1) Interim control treatments used to control soil-lead......

  15. 40 CFR 35.935-2 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-2 Procurement. The grantee and... respect to procurement for step 1, 2, or 3 work. The Regional Administrator will cause appropriate review... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 35.935-2 Section...

  16. 24 CFR 35.1135 - Eligible costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible costs. 35.1135 Section 35....1135 Eligible costs. A PHA may use financial assistance received under the modernization program (CIAP....112 of this title. Eligible costs include: (a) Evaluation and insurance costs. Evaluation and...

  17. 29 CFR 35.15 - Remedial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial action. 35.15 Section 35.15 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Remedial action. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient, in administering...

  18. 50 CFR 35.11 - Scientific uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.11 Scientific uses. Recognizing the scientific value of wilderness, research data gathering and similar scientific... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific uses. 35.11 Section...

  19. 48 CFR 35.013 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. 35.013 Section... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.013 Insurance. Nonprofit, educational, or State institutions performing cost-reimbursement contracts often do not carry insurance. They may claim immunity...

  20. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  1. 40 CFR 35.148 - Award limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitations. 35.148 Section 35.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) §...

  2. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's compliance... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental assessment. 260.35 Section 260.35... assessment. (a) The provision of financial assistance by the Administrator under this Part is subject to...

  3. 24 CFR 35.315 - Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Provided by a Federal Agency Other Than HUD § 35.315 Risk assessment. Each owner shall complete a risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Each risk assessment shall be completed in accordance with... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment. 35.315 Section...

  4. 14 CFR 375.35 - Free transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free transportation. 375.35 Section 375.35 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... transportation. (a) Foreign civil aircraft may be navigated in the United States by a foreign air carrier for...

  5. 45 CFR 63.35 - Dual compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual compensation. 63.35 Section 63.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE... compensation. If a project staff member or consultant of one grantee is involved simultaneously in two or...

  6. 40 CFR 35.927-3 - Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assistance. However, the grantee's costs of rehabilitation beyond “Y” fittings (see definition of “sewage... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation. 35.927-3 Section 35.927... Rehabilitation. (a) Subject to State concurrence, the Regional Administrator may authorize the grantee to...

  7. 38 CFR 21.35 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 21.35...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Definitions § 21.35 Definitions. (a) Employment handicap. This term means an impairment of a veteran's...

  8. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...

  9. 18 CFR 35.23 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions. 35.23 Section 35.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... rate schedule on file that expressly provides for the recovery of all incremental or...

  10. 29 CFR 35.32 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mediation. (a) Referral to mediation. CRC will promptly refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service or the mediation agency designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under 45 CFR part... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mediation. 35.32 Section 35.32 Labor Office of the...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6595 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6595 Contract provisions. (a) General... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract provisions. 35.6595 Section...

  12. 43 CFR 423.35 - Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animals. 423.35 Section 423.35 Public... Animals. (a) You must not bring pets or other animals into public buildings, public transportation vehicles, or sanitary facilities. This provision does not apply to properly trained animals...

  13. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  14. 7 CFR 35.6 - Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipment. 35.6 Section 35.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  15. 7 CFR 35.14 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice. 35.14 Section 35.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  16. 7 CFR 35.2 - Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Person. 35.2 Section 35.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  17. 7 CFR 35.3 - Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary. 35.3 Section 35.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  18. 7 CFR 35.5 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 35.5 Section 35.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  19. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  20. Expanding the neuron's calcium signaling repertoire: intracellular calcium release via voltage-induced PLC and IP3R activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ryglewski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.

  1. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  2. Update on calcium pyrophosphate deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek; Doherty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) associates with ageing, osteoarthritis (OA), uncommon metabolic diseases, mutations and polymorphisms in the ankylosis human gene (ANKH). CPPD is frequently polyarticular, occurs due to a generalised articular predisposition, and the association between CPPD and OA is joint specific, for example CPPD associates with knee OA, but not with hip OA. Other recently identified associations include knee malalignment (knee CC), low cortical BMD and soft-tissue calcification. CPPD is generally asymptomatic. A recent study reported that knees with OA plus CC at the index joint, or at distant joints (in absence of index joint CC), were more likely to have attrition. CPPD can cause acute CPP crystal arthritis, chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis, and is frequently present in joints with OA. Joint aspiration remains the gold standard for diagnosing CPPD, although other promising techniques are emerging. Patients with polyarticular or young onset CPPD should be screened for underlying metabolic abnormalities, however, such testing can be unrewarding. The treatment of CPPD is symptomatic. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is treated with rest, local application of ice-packs, joint aspiration, colchicine and/or intra-articular corticosteroid injection (once infection is excluded). Colchicine, low-dose corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and radiosynovectomy are recommended for the treatment of chronic or recurrent acute CPP crystal arthritis. Recent RCTs did not confirm any benefit from methotrexate, and although there is increasing interest in the use of anti-IL1 agents for acute or chronic CPP crystal arthritis, their efficacy has not been formally examined. Unlike gout, currently there are no treatments to eliminate CPP crystal deposits. PMID:27586801

  3. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study compare

  4. Calcium spikes and calcium plateaux evoked by differential polarization in dendrites of turtle motoneurones in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Kiehn, O

    1993-01-01

    The ability of dendrites in turtle motoneurones to support calcium spikes and calcium plateaux was investigated using differential polarization by applied electric fields. 2. Electric fields were generated by passing current through transverse slices of the turtle spinal cord between two plate......+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaux are present in dendrites of spinal motoneurones of the turtle....

  5. Characterization of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and regulatory properties of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel were studied by isolating protein components of the channel complex from both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Hydrodynamic characterization of the (+)-(3H)PN200-110-labeled cardiac calcium channel revealed that the protein components of the complex had a total molecular mass of 370,000 daltons, a Stokes radius of 86 angstrom, and a frictional ratio of 1.3. A technique is described for the rapid incorporation of the CHAPS solubilized skeletal muscle calcium channel complex into phospholipid vesicles. 45Ca2+ uptake into phospholipid vesicles containing calcium channels was inhibited by phenylalkalamine calcium antagonists. Wheat germ lectin followed by DEAE chromatography of the CHAPS solubilized complex resulted in the dissociation of regulatory components of the complex from channel components. The DEAE preparation gave rise to 45Ca2+ uptake that was not inhibited by verapamil but was inhibited by GTPgS activated G0. The inhibition of 45Ca2+ uptake by verapamil was restored by co-reconstitution of wash fractions from wheat germ lectin chromatography. Phosphorylation of polypeptides in this fraction by polypeptide-dependent protein kinase prevented the restoration of verapamil sensitivity. The partial purification of an endogenous skeletal muscle ADP-ribosyltransferase is also described. ADP-ribosylation of the α2 subunit of the calcium channel complex is enhanced by polylysine and inhibited by GTPγS, suggesting that regulation of this enzyme is under the control of GTP binding proteins. These results suggest a complex model, involving a number of different protein components, for calcium channel regulation in skeletal muscle

  6. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety

    2000-08-01

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  7. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.

  8. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  9. RP-HPLC determination of atorvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate combination in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate and precise reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of atorvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate in tablet dosage forms. A phenomenex Luna C-18, 5 µm column having 250 x 4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM KH 2 PO 4 (20:50:30; pH 3.5 was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 240 nm. The retention time of atorvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate was 7.6 min and 3.2 min respectively. The linearity for atorvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate was in the range of 5-120 µg/ml and 5-100 µg/ml respectively. The proposed method is accurate, precise, specific and rapid for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate in tablets.

  10. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...... not depend on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Chymosin added to milk increases renal calcium excretion in the hours following intake without affecting plasma levels of calcium or calciotropic hormones. The effect most likely represents enhanced intestinal calcium absorption shortly after intake. Further...

  11. Role of mitochondria and network connectivity in intercellular calcium oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Dokukina, I V; Grachev, E A; Gunton, J D; Dokukina, Irina V.; Gracheva, Maria E.; Grachev, Eugene A.; Gunton, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are large-scale regulators of cytosolic calcium under normal cellular conditions. In this paper we model the complex behavior of mitochondrial calcium during the action of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate on a single cell and find results that are in good agreement with recent experimental studies. We also study the influence of the cellular network connectivity on intercellular signalling via gap junction diffusion. We include in our model the dependence of the junctional conductivity on the cytosolic calcium concentrations in adjacent cells. We consider three different mechanisms of calcium wave propagation through gap junctions: via calcium diffusion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion, and both calcium and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion. We show that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion is the mechanism of calcium wave propagation and that calcium diffusion is the mechanism of synchronization of cytosolic calcium oscillations in adjacent cells. We also study the role of different to...

  12. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shan Kong; Bing-bing Wang; Quan Ji; Yan-zhi Xia; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride. The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter (CONE). The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34, and the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), CO and CO_2 concentrations during combustion are much lower compared with those of viscose fibers. Calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were formed during thermal degradation of calcium alginate fibers at different temperatures. The shape of calcium alginate fibers is well kept after LOI test. The rigid combustion residue char acts as an effective barrier to the outward diffusion of flame and heat. The combustion process and flame retardant mechanism of calcium alginate fibers are also discussed.

  13. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  14. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied 45Ca2+ across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since 1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and gravi-induced polar calcium movement and 2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  15. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  16. Division G Commission 35: Stellar Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Marco; Lattanzio, John C.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Dominguez, Inma; Isern, Jordi; Karakas, Amanda; Leitherer, Claus; Marconi, Marcella; Shaviv, Giora; van Loon, Jacco

    2016-04-01

    Commission 35 (C35), ``Stellar Constitution'', consists of members of the International Astronomical Union whose research spans many aspects of theoretical and observational stellar physics and it is mainly focused on the comprehension of the properties of stars, stellar populations and galaxies. The number of members of C35 increased progressively over the last ten years and currently C35 comprises about 400 members. C35 was part of Division IV (Stars) until 2014 and then became part of Division G (Stars and Stellar Physics), after the main IAU reorganisation in 2015. Four Working Groups have been created over the years under Division IV, initially, and Division G later: WG on Active B Stars, WG on Massive Stars, WG on Abundances in Red Giant and WG on Chemically Peculiar and Related Stars. In the last decade the Commission had 4 presidents, Wojciech Dziembowski (2003-2006), Francesca D'Antona (2006-2009), Corinne Charbonnel (2009-2012) and Marco Limongi (2012-2015), who were assisted by an Organizing Committee (OC), usually composed of about 10 members, all of them elected by the C35 members and holding their positions for three years. The C35 webpage (http://iau-c35.stsci.edu) has been designed and continuously maintained by Claus Leitherer from the Space Telescope Institute, who deserves our special thanks. In addition to the various general information on the Commission structure and activities, it contains links to various resources, of interest for the members, such as stellar models, evolutionary tracks and isochrones, synthetic stellar populations, stellar yields and input physics (equation of state, nuclear cross sections, opacity tables), provided by various groups. The main activity of the C35 OC is that of evaluating, ranking and eventually supporting the proposals for IAU sponsored meetings. In the last decade the Commission has supported several meetings focused on topics more or less relevant to C35. Since the primary aim of this document is to

  17. Information flow through calcium binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous mode of biological communication, which regulates a great variety of vital processes in living systems. Such a signal typically begins with an elementary event, in which calcium ions bind to a protein, inducing a change in the protein's structure. Information can only be lost, from what was conveyed through this initial event, as the signal is further transduced through the downstream networks. In the present work we analyze and optimize the information flow in the calcium binding process. We explicitly calculate the mutual information between the calcium concentration and the states of the protein, using a simple model for allosteric regulation in a dimeric protein. The optimal solution depends on the dynamic range of the input as well as on the timescale of signal integration. According to our result, the optimizing strategy involves allowing the calcium-binding protein to be ``activated'' by a partial occupation of its sites, and tuning independently the strengths of cooperative interactions in the binding and unbinding processes.

  18. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  19. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  20. Calcium And Zinc Deficiency In Preeclamptic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Ferdousi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated withincreased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Reduced serum calcium and zinc levels arefound associated with elevated blood pressure in preeclampsia. Objective: To observe serum calciumand zinc levels in preeclamptic women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in theDepartment of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka betweenJuly 2009 to June 2010. In this study, 60 pregnant women of preeclampsia, aged 18-39 years withgestational period more than 20th weeks were included as the study (group B. For comparison ageand gestational period matched 30 normotensive pregnant women control (group A were also studied.All the subjects were selected from Obstetric and Gynae In and Out patient Department of BSMMUand Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Serum calcium was measured by Colorimetric method and serumzinc was measured by Spectrophotometric method. Data were analysed by independent sample t testand Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Mean serum calcium and zinc levels weresignificantly (p<0.001 lower in study group than those of control group. Again, serum calcium andzinc showed significant negative correlation with SBP and DBP in preeclamptic women. Conclusion:This study concludes that serum calcium and zinc deficiency may be one of the risk factor ofpreeclampsia. Therefore, early detection and supplementation to treat this deficiency may reduce theincidence of preeclampsia.

  1. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  2. 40 CFR 35.935-3 - Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-3 Property. (a) The grantee... project, and rights of access, as the Regional Administrator finds sufficient to assure undisturbed...

  3. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  4. 40 CFR 35.6500 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Use of Recipient Employees (âforce Accountâ) Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6500 General.... Procurement Requirements Under a Cooperative Agreement...

  5. 40 CFR 35.6770 - Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6770 Disputes. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding dispute resolution procedures described in 40 CFR 31.70....

  6. Magnetometer Data recovered from 35mm film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The L57 CDMP recovery project takes magnetometer data on 35mm film stored at the archive's climate controlled warehouse and digitizes them.

  7. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  8. Glial calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysioilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexei VERKHRASKY

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal-glial circuits underlie integrative processes in the nervous system.Function of glial syncytium is,to a very large extent,regulated by the intracellular calcium signaling system.Glial calcium signals are triggered by activation of multiple receptors,expressed in glial membrane,which regulate both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.The endoplasmic reticulum also endows glial cells with intracellular excitable media,which is able to produce and maintain long-ranging signaling in a form of propagating Ca2+ waves.In pathological conditions,calcium signals regulate glial response to injury,which might have both protective and detrimental effects on the nervous tissue.

  9. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  10. Impairment of ciprofloxacin absorption by calcium polycarbophil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Imano, Hideki; Kawai, Masayuki; Kuwahara, Shiro; Tsuchishita, Yoshimasa; Yonezawa, Emi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2002-07-01

    The effect of calcium polycarbophil on the absorption of ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, was evaluated in an in vitro and in vivo study. In the in vitro study, the release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence or absence of metal cations was measured using the dissolution test procedure. In the in vivo study, male ST Wistar rats and male volunteers were employed. First, 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin alone (Rat Study 1) or 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin in combination with 64 mg/kg of calcium chloride (Rat Study 2) was administered orally to 3 rats. Second, a volunteer study was employed and a randomized crossover design with twophases was used. In onephase, volunteers received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin alone (Study 1); in the other phase, they received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin and 1200 mg of fine calcium polycarbophil granules concomitantly (Study 2). The plasma and serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence of aluminum, calcium, or iron ions was slower than that in the absence of these metal ions. The AUC0-4 and Cmax in Rat Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Rat Study 1. AUC0-4 was approximately 60% lower in Rat Study 2 than Rat Study 1. In the volunteer study, the AUC0-12 and Cmax in Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Study 1. In particular, AUC0-12 was approximately 50% lowerin Study 2 than in Study 1. These findings suggest that when ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil were coadministered concomitantly, a decrease of ciprofloxacin absorption was observed, and this action was caused by the formation of chelate complexes. Therefore, it seems clear that we should avoid the concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil.

  11. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  12. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  13. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.;

    2004-01-01

    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...... discusses the current knowledge on the structure and potential function of this protein. Several putative binding partners of ALG-2 have been identified hinting to functions of ALG-2 in apoptosis and possibly also in proliferation, endocytosis and transcriptional regulation during development. Gene deletion...

  14. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.)

  15. Calcium and weight control-Publications summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Çelebi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem. And it is known that both energy balance and nutritional factors are effective on it. The effects of dietary calcium on bone health are known however with recent studies, it has become a food item that focused on the effect on body weight control. Most epidemiyolojik studies claim that there is a relationship between long-term consumption of diary milk and milk products and the decrease of body weight and fat mass. In this article, there are different studies that support or do not support this idea. However the effect mechanism of calcium on weight control is tried to be explained.

  16. Effect of high calcium concentration influents on enhanced biological phosphorus removal process; Efecto del proceso de eliminacion biologica de fosforo en enfluentes con elevadas concentraciones de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya Martinez, T.; Aguado Garcia, D.; Ferrer Polo, J.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the effect of calcium concentration in wastewater on the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) is investigated as well as its influence in PAO metabolism, specifically in the Y{sub P}O4 (ratio between phosphorus release and acetic acid uptake). For this study a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anaerobic-aerobic was used, in which the PAO enriched biomass was exposed to different calcium concentrations in the influent wastewater. The results indicate that until a given calcium level in the influent wastewater (35 mg Ca/l) the metabolism is not affect, but higher calcium concentrations lead to significant Y{sub P}O4 decline. (Author) 18 refs.

  17. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  18. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H;

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had....... Androgen deficiency increased the abundance of the renal mRNA and protein of both the luminal transient receptor potential vanilloid-subtype 5 (TRPV5) and intracellular calbindin-D(28K) transporters, which in turn were suppressed by testosterone treatment. There were no significant differences in serum...

  19. The formation of web-like connection among electrospun chitosan/PVA fiber network by the reinforcement of ellipsoidal calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambudi, Nonni Soraya; Kim, Minjeong G; Park, Seung Bin

    2016-03-01

    The electrospun fibers consist of backbone fibers and nano-branch network are synthesized by loading of ellipsoidal calcium carbonate in the mixture of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) followed by electrospinning. The synthesized ellipsoidal calcium carbonate is in submicron size (730.7±152.4 nm for long axis and 212.6±51.3 nm for short axis). The electrospun backbone fibers experience an increasing in diameter by loading of calcium carbonate from 71.5±23.4 nm to 281.9±51.2 nm. The diameters of branch fibers in the web-network range from 15 nm to 65 nm with most distributions of fibers are in 30-35 nm. Calcium carbonate acts as reinforcing agent to improve the mechanical properties of fibers. The optimum value of Young's modulus is found at the incorporation of 3 wt.% of calcium carbonate in chitosan/PVA fibers, which is enhanced from 15.7±3 MPa to 432.4±94.3 MPa. On the other hand, the ultimate stress of fibers experiences a decrease. This result shows that the fiber network undergoes changes from flexible to more stiff by the inclusion of calcium carbonate. The thermal analysis results show that the crystallinity of polymer is changed by the existence of calcium carbonate in the fiber network. The immersion of fibers in simulated body fluid (SBF) results in the formation of apatite on the surface of fibers. PMID:26706559

  20. Apatite precipitation on a novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement containing fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Chevallier, Jacques; Salehi, Hamideh; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Isidor, Flemming; Løvschall, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Calcium silicate cements are widely used in endodontics. Novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement with fluoride (Protooth) has been developed for potential applications in teeth crowns including cavity lining and cementation. Objective: To evaluate the surface apatite-forming ability of Protooth compositions as a function of fluoride content and immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Material and methods: Three cement compositions were tested: Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 10% radiocontrast), ultrafast Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 20% radiocontrast), and high fluoride Protooth (15% fluoride and 25% radiocontrast). Powders were cap-mixed with liquid, filled to the molds and immersed in PBS. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the precipitations morphology and composition after 1, 7, 28, and 56 days. Apatite/belite Raman peak height indicated the apatite thickness. Results: Spherical calcium phosphate precipitations with acicular crystallites were formed after 1-day immersion in PBS and Raman spectra disclosed the phosphate band at 965 cm−1, supporting the apatite formation over Protooth compositions. The apatite deposition continued and more voluminous precipitations were observed after 56 days over the surface of all cements. Raman bands suggested the formation of β-type carbonated apatite over Protooth compositions. High fluoride Protooth showed the most compact deposition with significantly higher apatite/belite ratio compared to Protooth and ultrafast Protooth after 28 and 56 days. Conclusions: Calcium phosphate precipitations (apatite) were formed over Protooth compositions after immersion in PBS with increasing apatite formation as a function of time. High fluoride Protooth exhibited thicker apatite deposition. PMID:27335901

  1. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  2. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1990-01-01

    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  3. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-01

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo.

  4. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-20

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo. PMID:26965706

  5. Moisture transport and adsorption on silica gel-calcium chloride composite adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of moisture uptake curves in silica gel-calcium composite adsorbents is performed by using the thermal gravimetrical method in a relative vapor pressure range from 0.5 to 0.9 at different temperature levels of 25, 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively. Also, dynamic adsorption curves individually corresponding to the temperature and relative pressure conditions of (25 deg. C, 0.7) (35 deg. C, 0.7) and (35 deg. C, 0.5) have been measured. This experimental study shows that the sorption rate is highest for non-impregnated macroporous silica gel; however, the same silica gel impregnated with calcium chloride has a much greater final water loading. This confirms that composite adsorbents result in a better adsorption performance compared with non-impregnated silica gel, leading to a trade off in finalizing the content of CaCl2 in the composite. Through theoretical analysis on the experimental data, it is found that the saturated adsorption data can be well fitted by the FHH model and the dynamic adsorption data well fitted by the Crank diffusion model, simultaneously yielding the effective solid side mass diffusivities. A comparison with these obtained diffusion coefficients further supports that the mass diffusivity in the composite adsorbent also increases with an increase in temperature, as well as in humidity, but drastically decreases due to the presence of salt inside the matrix pores compared with the non-impregnated host matrix

  6. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  7. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Bentov; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jenny Tynyakov; Lilah Glazer; Amir Sagi

    2016-01-01

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates speciali...

  8. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique,; Weiss, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of "ready to use" injectable biomat...

  9. Coupling Effect of Ion Channel Clusters on Calcium Signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a modified intracellular Ca2+ model involving diffusive coupling of two calcium ion channel clusters, the effects of coupling on calcium signalling are numerically investigated. The simulation results indicate that the diffusive coupling of clusters together with internal noise determine the calcium dynamics of single cluster, and for either homogeneous or heterogeneous coupled clusters, the synchronization of clusters, which is important to calcium signalling, is enhanced by the coupling effect

  10. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  11. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  12. Coupling Effect of Ion Channel Clusters on Calcium Signalling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; JIA Ya; YI Ming; MA Jun; YU Guang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on a modified intracellular Ca2+ model involving diffusive coupling of two calcium ion channel clusters,the effects of coupling on calcium signalling are numerically investigated.The simulation results indicate that the diffusive coupling of clusters together with internal noise determine the calcium dynamics of single cluster,and for either homogeneous or heterogeneous coupled clusters,the synchronization of clusters,which is important to calcium signalling,is enhanced by the coupling effect.

  13. Stability of calcium silicate in basic solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生

    2003-01-01

    Mixture of CaO and SiO2 was sintered at 1 200 or 1 400 ℃ according to the mole ratio of CaO/SiO2 of 1 or 2, and then calcium silicate was leached in pure caustic or soda solution. The results indicated that calcium silicate exists much more stably in caustic solution than that in soda solution, and CaO*SiO2 is more stable than β-2CaO*SiO2 whether in caustic solution or in soda solution. The increase of sintering temperature favored the stability of calcium silicate in the leaching process. When β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in soda solution, the increase of leaching temperature and time resulted in decomposing of more calcium silicate. And when β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in caustic solution at high temperature, much 2CaO*SiO2*H2O but little CaO*SiO2*H2O appeared in slag.

  14. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    )-sensitive fast Na(+) spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  16. Three-dimensionally Perforated Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were produced by compression molding using a special mold followed by sintering. The porous calcium phosphate ceramics have three-dimensional and penetrated open pores380-400μm in diameter spaced at intervals of 200μm. The layers of the linear penetration pores alternately lay perpendicular to pore direction. The porosity was 59%-65% . The Ca/P molar ratios of the porous calcium phosphate ceramics range from 1.5 to 1.85. A binder containing methyl cellulose was most effective for preparing the powder compact among vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, stearic acid, methyl cellulose and their mixtures. Stainless steel, polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies for the penetrated open pores. When polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies, the dies were burned out during the sintering process. Using stainless steel as the male dies with the removal of the dies before heat treatment resulted in a higher level of densification of the calcium phosphate ceramic.

  17. The rate of calcium turnover in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports an analysis of the clearance of calcium-47 tracer from the plasma of human patients. Nine subjects have so far been analysed, and the results all deviate somewhat from those predicted from the conventional simple kinetic scheme. 3 figs

  18. Calcium flux assay in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P M

    2001-05-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors of interest to neuroscientists induce transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which can be used as a convenient measure of receptor activation in a variety of applications. This unit describes a simple calcium flux assay applied to Xenopus oocytes. PMID:18428482

  19. The Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The thermogravimetry(TG) and derivative thermogravimetry(DTG) curves of the thermal decomposition reaction of calcium carbonate have been measured at five different heating rates. The kinetic parameters and the reaction mechanism of the reaction were evaluated from analysis of the TG and DTG curves by using the Ozawa method, the combined integral and differential methods and the reduced equations derived by us.

  20. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking... agent in food in an amount not in excess of that reasonably required to produce its intended effect. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sorbate. 582.3225 Section 582.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sorbate. 182.3225 Section 182.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium propionate. 582.3221 Section 582.3221 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  6. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  7. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate... (racemic) form. (b) To assure safe use of the additive, the label and labeling of the food...

  8. Free-calcium distribution and calcium pulses in rat peripheral macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanhua; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Jin, Ying

    2000-10-01

    With Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope (LCSM) system, three aspects of characteristics of free cytoplasmic calcium in rat peripheral macrophages are studied. One is the Ca2+ concentration in different area in the same cell. Second is the Ca2+ concentration in the same area in different dividing stage. Third is the feature of calcium pulses evoked by Kcl or pH changing. The results show that even in one cell, the evolution of the Ca2+ concentration is not the same in a different area. In the same area, the nucleolus Ca2+ concentration in division breaking stage is much higher than that in division stage. From the experiment phenomena, we conclude that Kcl itself can not evoke calcium pulses in the unexcitable macrophage, but the change of pH can trig calcium pulses in the same cells.

  9. Photodissociation studies of calcium-coronene and calcium-pyrene cation clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. C.; Buchanan, J. W.; Flynn, N. D.; Duncan, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Gas-phase cluster cations combining calcium atoms and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) coronene (C24H12) and pyrene (C16H10) are produced in a molecular beam using laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle cluster source. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry reveals the formation of clusters of the form Cax(coronene)y+ for up to x = 4 and y = 3 and Cax(pyrene)y+ for up to x = 2 and y = 3. Mass-selected photodissociation studies show that the calcium cation is the most prominent fragment for each system. Photoinduced calcium carbide formation is prominent when two or more calcium atoms are present. Additionally, there is evidence that these clusters can form sandwich structures.

  10. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  11. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  12. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  13. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B;

    1996-01-01

    Indirect evidence supports a protective role of some EF-hand calcium-binding proteins against calcium-induced neurotoxicity. Little is known about how these proteins influence cytosolic calcium levels. After cloning the parvalbumin cDNA into an expression vector, teratocarcinoma cells (PCC7) were...

  14. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B;

    1996-01-01

    transfected. Parvalbumin-transfected and mock-transfected cells were loaded with the calcium indicator fura-2 and were exposed, in the same dish, to different concentrations of the calcium ionophore A23187 or to KCI. The results show that parvalbumin-transfected PCC7 cells had much better calcium buffering...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. Influence of the calcium sulfate source on the rheological behaviour of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Santacruz, Isabel; García-Maté, Marta; G. Aranda, Miguel Ángel; De la Torre, Ángeles G.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are receiving increasing attention since their manufacture produces much less CO2 than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) [1]. In addition, they show interesting properties such as high early-age strengths, short setting times and impermeability. The main uses of these CSA cements are for quick repairs and pre-cast products or floor concrete applications. They are prepared by mixing the clinker with different amounts of a calcium sulfate set regulator such as ...

  18. Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders due to carbonation and hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Cizer, Özlem; Campforts, J; Balen, Koenraad Van; Elsen, Jan; Gemert, Dionys van

    2006-01-01

    Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders composed of cement, rice husk ash (RHA) and lime in different compositions were studied with mechanical strength, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thermal analysis and SEM. When cement is partially replaced with RHA and lime, hardening occurs as a result of combined hydration, pozzolanic reaction and carbonation reaction. While hydration of cement contributes to the early strength development of the mortars, carbonation is much more pr...

  19. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni

    2010-10-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  1. Mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of sulfur-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments with metaphase plates from blood lymphocytes, conducted during rats' lifetime, a study was made of the mutagenic effect of 35S. Various tumors were diagnosed in the experimental animals after their death. The competitive analysis of the number of stable cytogenetic changes in lymphocytes of the experimental animals at the remote times and tumor occurrence has revealed a highly positive correlation between these indices. Both effects were severest at the highest absorbed 35S dose of less than 10 cGy

  2. Optogenetic measurement of presynaptic calcium transients using conditional genetically encoded calcium indicator expression in dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Sgobio

    Full Text Available Calcium triggers dopamine release from presynaptic terminals of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA neurons in the striatum. However, calcium transients within mDA axons and axon terminals are difficult to study and little is known about how they are regulated. Here we use a newly-developed method to measure presynaptic calcium transients (PreCaTs in axons and terminals of mDA neurons with a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI GCaMP3 expressed in transgenic mice. Using a photomultiplier tube-based system, we measured electrical stimulation-induced PreCaTs of mDA neurons in dorsolateral striatum slices from these mice. Single-pulse stimulation produced a transient increase in fluorescence that was completely blocked by a combination of N- and P/Q-type calcium channel blockers. DA and cholinergic, but not serotoninergic, signaling pathways modulated the PreCaTs in mDA fibers. These findings reveal heretofore unexplored dynamic modulation of presynaptic calcium in nigrostriatal terminals.

  3. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James T Taylor; Xiang-Bin Zeng; Jonathan E Pottle; Kevin Lee; Alun R Wang; Stephenie G Yi; Jennifer A S Scruggs; Suresh S Sikka; Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells,free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear;however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel isminimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers.

  4. In vivo calcium imaging of evoked calcium waves in the embryonic cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eYuryev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this approach we demonstrate induction of calcium waves by laser stimulation. These waves are sensitive to ATP-receptor blockade and are significantly increased by pharmacological facilitation of intracellular-calcium release. This approach is the closest to physiological conditions yet achieved for imaging of calcium in the embryonic brain and as such opens new avenues for the study of prenatal brain development. Furthermore, the developed method could open the possibilities of preclinical translational studies in embryos particularly important for developmentally related diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.

  5. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with active tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. Most p35+CD4+ T cells and EBI3+CD4+ T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB. PMID:27158354

  6. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in patients with active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells. Most p35(+)CD4(+) T cells and EBI3(+)CD4(+) T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB.

  7. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water) on root dentin microhardness

    OpenAIRE

    Hasheminia SM; Norouzynasab S

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled ...

  8. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing R

  9. 40 CFR 35.640 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section 23(a)(1)) § 35... Tribes and Intertribal Consortia authorized under section 23(a)(1) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act for pesticide enforcement. (b) Purpose of program. Cooperative agreements...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6815 - Administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for Administering A Superfund State Contract (ssc) § 35.6815 Administrative... into a support agency Cooperative Agreement with EPA. The use of the support agency...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in... accordance with § 35.1355. Abatement of an intact, factory-applied prime coating on metal surfaces is...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6670 - Financial reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient must comply with the requirements regarding financial reporting described in 40 CFR 31.41. (b... or semiannual reports are required in accordance with 40 CFR 31.41(b)(3), due 30 days after the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reports. 35.6670 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2118 - Preaward costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR part 33, and in the case of acquisition of eligible real property, 40 CFR... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2118 Preaward costs. (a) EPA will not award grant... times, field testing of innovative and alternative technologies, minor sewer rehabilitation,...

  14. 43 CFR 35.33 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND STATEMENTS § 35.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony... the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or deposition. Any such written statement must be provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in...

  15. 40 CFR 35.168 - Award limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.168... current status of the State pollution control program, including the criteria used by the State in determining priority of treatment works. (b) The Regional Administrator may award section 106 funds to...

  16. 20 CFR 402.35 - Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 402.35... Federal Register of Social Security Administration regulations, and by their subsequent inclusion in the... Security. They are binding on all components of the Social Security Administration. These rulings...

  17. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  18. 40 CFR 35.137 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the extent of any programmatic flexibility (i.e., increased effort in some programs and decreased... will negotiate regarding the information necessary to support the rationale for programmatic... evaluation report required in § 35.125, and other environmental and programmatic data sources. (c) A...

  19. 17 CFR 35.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... collar agreement, currency swap agreement, cross-currency rate swap agreement, currency option, any other... Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXEMPTION OF SWAP AGREEMENTS § 35.1 Definitions. (a) Scope. The provisions of this part shall apply to any swap agreement which may be subject...

  20. 48 CFR 35.001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determine and exploit the potential of scientific discoveries or improvements in technology, materials..., means the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge in the design, development, testing, or... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.001 Definitions. Applied research means the effort that...

  1. 40 CFR 35.6405 - Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Real Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6405 Use. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding real property described in 40 CFR 31.31. Copyright Requirements Under a Cooperative Agreement...

  2. 40 CFR 35.6320 - Usage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6320 Usage rate. (a) Usage rate approval. To... be included in the Cooperative Agreement before the recipient incurs these equipment costs. (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6650 Progress reports. (a) Reporting frequency. The recipient must submit progress reports as specified in the Cooperative Agreement. Progress...

  4. 40 CFR 35.6235 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Core Program Cooperative Agreements § 35.6235 Cost sharing. A State must provide at least ten percent of the direct and indirect costs of all activities covered by the Core Program Cooperative Agreement. Indian Tribes are...

  5. 40 CFR 35.6565 - Procurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6565 Procurement methods. The recipient must comply with the requirements for payment to consultants described in 40 CFR 31.36(j)....

  6. 40 CFR 35.6780 - Closeout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6780 Closeout. (a) Closeout of a Cooperative Agreement, or an activity under a Cooperative Agreement, can take place in the following situations:...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6710 - Records access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Records Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6710 Records access. (a) Recipient requirements. The recipient... records access described in 40 CFR 31.36(i)(10). Other Administrative Requirements for...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Records Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a) Applicability... Cooperative Agreement, or are otherwise reasonably considered as pertinent to program regulations or...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6280 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Financial Administration Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6280 Payments. (a) General. In addition to the... CFR 31.21 (f) through (h). (1) Assignment of payment. The recipient cannot assign the right to...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6290 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Financial Administration Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6290 Program income. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding program income described in 40 CFR 31.25. Recoveries of Federal...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6600 - Contractor claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6600 Contractor claims. (a) General... against the recipient under a contract, provided: (1) The claim arises from work within the scope of...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6700 - Project records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Records Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6700 Project records. The lead agency for... provide for maximum free and open competition; (iv) A written justification for the choice of...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6750 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6750 Modifications. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding changes to the Cooperative Agreement described in 40 CFR 31.30....

  14. 40 CFR 35.6230 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Core Program Cooperative Agreements § 35.6230 Application requirements. To receive a Core Program Cooperative Agreement, the applicant must submit an application form (“Application for...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6450 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Copyright Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6450 General requirements. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding copyrights described in 40 CFR 31.34. The recipient...

  16. 49 CFR 230.35 - Pressure testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.35 Pressure testing. The temperature of the steam locomotive boiler shall be raised to at least 70 deg. F any time hydrostatic pressure is applied to the boiler....

  17. 40 CFR 35.937-7 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-7 Profit. The objective of... (direct and indirect) from the price. (Because this definition of profit is based on Federal...

  18. 40 CFR 35.936-12 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-12... award cost or price. (b) The grantee or contractors of the grantee must retain procurement...

  19. 40 CFR 35.936-13 - Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....936-13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-13... than 6 percent higher than the bid or offered price of the nondomestic materials including all costs...

  20. 40 CFR 35.936-4 - Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-4 Profits. Only fair and... included in a formally advertised, competitively bid, fixed price construction contract awarded under §...

  1. 7 CFR 35.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.1 Act. Act or Export Grape and Plum Act means “An Act to promote the foreign trade of...

  2. 45 CFR 5.35 - Time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... call or write to confirm that we have the request and to learn its status if you have not heard from us... circumstances” include situations when we: (1) Search for and collect records from field facilites, archives, or... Denial of Records § 5.35 Time limits. (a) General. FOIA sets certain time limits for us to decide...

  3. Continuous Modeling of Calcium Transport Through Biological Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasielec, J. J.; Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Sokalski, T.; Lewenstam, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work an approach to the modeling of the biological membranes where a membrane is treated as a continuous medium is presented. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including Poisson equation for electric potential is used to describe transport of ions in the mitochondrial membrane—the interface which joins mitochondrial matrix with cellular cytosis. The transport of calcium ions is considered. Concentration of calcium inside the mitochondrion is not known accurately because different analytical methods give dramatically different results. We explain mathematically these differences assuming the complexing reaction inside mitochondrion and the existence of the calcium set-point (concentration of calcium in cytosis below which calcium stops entering the mitochondrion).

  4. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Katie A; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M; Davies, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium's other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  5. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  6. Calcium-dependent and calcium-sensitizing pathways in the mature and immature ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyman, Ronald I; Waleh, Nahid; Kajino, Hiroki; Roman, Christine; Mauray, Francoise

    2007-10-01

    Studies performed in sheep and baboons have shown that after birth, the normoxic muscle media of ductus arteriosus (DA) becomes profoundly hypoxic as it constricts and undergoes anatomic remodeling. We used isolated fetal lamb DA (pretreated with inhibitors of prostaglandin and nitric oxide production) to determine why the immature DA fails to remain tightly constricted during the hypoxic phase of remodeling. Under normoxic conditions, mature DA constricts to 70% of its maximal active tension (MAT). Half of its normoxic tension is due to Ca(2+) entry through calcium L-channels and store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The other half is independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and is unaffected by inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release (ryanodine) or reuptake [cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)]. The mature DA relaxes slightly during hypoxia (to 60% MAT) due to decreases in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Inhibitors of Rho kinase and tyrosine kinase inhibit both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent DA tension. Although Rho kinase activity may increase during gestation, immature DA develop lower tensions than mature DA, primarily because of differences in the way they process Ca(2+). Calcium L-channel expression increases with advancing gestation. Under normoxic conditions, differences in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry account for differences in tension between immature (60% MAT) and mature (70% MAT) DA. Under hypoxic conditions, differences in both calcium L-channel-dependent and calcium L-channel-independent Ca(2+) entry, account for differences in tension between immature (33% MAT) and mature (60% MAT) DA. Stimulation of Ca(2+) entry through reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange or CPA-induced SOC channel activity constrict the DA and eliminate differences between immature and mature DA during both hypoxia and normoxia.

  7. Aggregation of Calcium Silicate Hydrate Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhorme, Maxime; Labbez, Christophe; Turesson, Martin; Lesniewska, Eric; Woodward, Cliff E; Jönsson, Bo

    2016-03-01

    We study the aggregation of calcium silicate hydrate nanoplatelets on a surface by means of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations at thermodynamic equilibrium. Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main component formed in cement and is responsible for the strength of the material. The hydrate is formed in early cement paste and grows to form platelets on the nanoscale, which aggregate either on dissolving cement particles or on auxiliary particles. The general result is that the experimentally observed variations in these dynamic processes generically called growth can be rationalized from interaction free energies, that is, from pure thermodynamic arguments. We further show that the surface charge density of the particles determines the aggregate structures formed by C-S-H and thus their growth modes. PMID:26859614

  8. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods. PMID:19021875

  9. Electronic Structure of Gadolinium Calcium Oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A; Adams, J; Schaffers, K

    2004-07-01

    Gadolinium calcium oxoborate (GdCOB) is a nonlinear optical material that belongs to the calcium--rare-earth (R) oxoborate family, with general composition Ca{sub 4}RO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (R{sup 3+} = La, Sm, Gd, Lu, Y). X-ray photoemission was applied to study the valence band electronic structure and surface chemistry of this material. High resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Gd 3d and 4d, Ca 2p, B 1s and O 1s core lines were used to evaluate the surface and near surface chemistry. These results provide measurements of the valence band electronic structure and surface chemistry of this rare-earth oxoborate.

  10. Ceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Safronova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Present work is aimed at the fabrication of resorbable bioceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate (CPP from the synthesized powders of amorphous hydrated calcium pyrophosphate (AHCPP. Amorphous hydratedcalcium pyrophosphate in the form of nanopowders was precipitated from Ca(NO3 2 and (NH4 4P2O7 solutions at room temperature in the presence of PO3– ions. Crystalline CPP powder was fabricated from AHCPP by its thermal decomposition at 600 °C and consisted of β- and α- phase. Small particles, with the size less than 200 nm, were formed promoting sintering of the ceramic material. The final sample, sintered at 900 °C, exhibits microstructure with submicron grains, apparent density of 87% of theoretical density (TD and demonstrates tensile strength of 70 MPa.

  11. Kinetics of Leaching Calcium from Dolomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesia is obtained from magnesite ore and the production process applied should remove accompanying minerals that reduce its refractoriness. Given that magnesite reservoirs are more exploited and largely exhausted, there is a growing need for production of magnesia on the basis of other magnesium minerals. Dolomite is a promising source of magnesia because it forms large deposits, is easy to exploit, and generally contains a small quantity of impurities.The kinetics of calcium leaching from dolomite by magnesium-nitrate solution has been studied. The research program included the influence of temperature, mass fraction of magnesium nitrate in solution, dolomite particle size and leaching time. Time dependence of calcium leaching is described by relevant kinetic equations. Rate coefficients, their temperature dependence and Arrhenius activation energy have been determined.

  12. Characterization of ionomycin as a calcium ionophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Hermann, T E

    1978-09-10

    The ionophorous properties of a new antibiotic, ionomycin, have been studied. It was found that the antibiotic is capable of extracting calcium ion from the bulk of an aqueous phase into an organic phase. The antibiotic also acts as a mobile ion carrier to transport the cation across a solvent barrier. The divalent cation selectivity order for ionomycin as determined by ion competition experiments was found to be: Ca greater than Mg greater than Sr = Ba, where the binding of strontium and barium by the antibiotic is insignificant. The antibiotic also binds La3+ to some extent, but its complexation with monovalent alkali metal ions is negligible. Measurement of the binding of ionomycin with Ca2+ indicates that ionomycin complexes and transports calcium ion in a one to one stoichiometry. PMID:28319

  13. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  14. Degree of vinyl conversion in experimental amorphous calcium phosphate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarle, Z.; Knežević, A.; Matošević, D.; Škrtić, D.; Ristić, M.; Prskalo, K.; Musić, S.

    2009-04-01

    An experimental dental composite, based on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with the potential to arrest caries development and regenerate mineral-deficient tooth structures has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) attained in experimental composites based on zirconia-modified ACP. Photo-activated resins were based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) [ETHM series with varying EBPADMA/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) molar ratios assigned 0.5-ETHM I, 0.85-ETHM II and 1.35-ETHM III], or 2,2-bis[p-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA) [BTHZ series]. To asses a possible effect of filler particle size on DVC, composites containing 60 mass % resin and 40 mass % of either milled ACP (mACP; median diameter d m = 0.9 μm) or coarse ACP (cACP; d m = 6.0 μm) were prepared, and irradiated with LED curing unit for 40 s. The DVC was calculated as the % change in the ratio of the integrated peak areas between the aliphatic and aromatic absorption bands determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The highest DVCs values were attained in mACP-BTHZ, cACP-BTHZ and mACP-ETHM III formulations. DVC of tested ACP composites (on average (76.76 ± 4.43)%) compares well with or exceeds DVCs values reported for the majority of commercial materials.

  15. Effects of Exterior Abscisic Acid on Calcium Distribution of Mesophyll Cells and Calcium Concentration of Guard Cells in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; MA Yuan-yuan; LIU Zi-hui; LIU Bin-hui

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the direct effects of exterior abscisic acid (ABA) on both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells were examined. The distribution of Ca2+ localization were observed with calcium antimonate precipitate-electromicroscopic-cyto-chemical methods after treated with ABA and pretreated with ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), verapamil (Vp), and trifluoperazine (TFP). The laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure the cytosolic calcium concentrations of guard cells under different treatments. The results showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of mesophyll cells was induced to increase by ABA, but to decrease in both outside cell and the vacuoles within 10 min after treatments. The cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells was increased gradually with the lag in treatment time. However, both EGTA and TFP could inverse those effects, indicating that the increase of cytosolic calcium induced by exterior ABA was mainly caused by calcium influx. The results also showed that calmodulin could influence both the calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells. It shows that calmodulin participates in the process of ABA signal transduction, but the mechanism is not known as yet. The changes both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells further proved that the variations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration induced by ABA were involved in the stomatal movements of maize seedlings.

  16. Viscosity estimation for slags containing calcium fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifeng Shu; Jiayun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on recently published experimental data, the Riboud model was modified for viscosity estimation of the slags containing calcium fluoride. The estimated values were in good agreement with measured data. Reasonable estimation can be achieved using the modified Riboud model for mould fluxes and ESR (eletro slag remelting) slags. Especially for ESR slags, the modified Riboud model can provide much more precise values than the original Riboud model.

  17. Premixed calcium silicate cement for endodontic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based materials (also called MTA) are increasingly being used in endodontic applications. However, the handling properties of MTA are not optimal when it comes to injectability and cohesion. Premixing the cements using glycerol avoids these issues. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of common cement variables on important properties of premixed cements for endodontic applications. In this study, the effects of liquid-to-powder ratio, amount of radiopacifier and am...

  18. Coronary artery calcium scoring in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate coronary artery calcium scoring and the assessment of the risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. During the period of three years, 27 patients with MI were analyzed. The average age of patients was 66.1 years (46 to 81). Coronary arteries calcium was evaluated by multi row detector computed tomography (MTDC) Somatom Volume Zoom Siemens, and, retrospectively by ECG gating data acquisition. Semi automated calcium quantification to calculate Agatston calcium score (CS) was performed with 4 x 2.5 mm collimation, using 130 ml of contrast medium, injected with an automatic injector, with the flow rate of 4 ml/sec. The delay time was determined empirically. At the same time several risk factors were evaluated. Results. Out of 27 patients with MI, 3 (11.1%) patients had low CS (10- 100), 5 (18.5%) moderate CS (101- 499), and 19 (70.4%) patients high CS (>500). Of risk factors, smoking was confirmed in 17 (63.0%), high blood pressure (HTA) in 10 (57.0%), diabetes mellitus in 7 (25.9%), positive family history in 5 (18.5%), pathological lipids in 5 (18.5%), alcohol abuse in 4 (1.8%) patients. Six (22.2%) patients had symptoms of angina pectoris. Conclusions. The research showed high correlation of MI and high CS (>500). Smoking, HTA, diabetes mellitus, positive family history and hypercholesterolemia are significant risk factors. Symptoms are relatively poor in large number of patients. (author)

  19. Calcium metabolism in lithium-treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content (BMC) together with biochemical indices of calcium metabolism were measured in 83 manic-depressive patients on long-term lithium therapy. The patients were diagnosed and divided into a unipolar and a bipolar group according to strict symptomatic course criteria. The patients with bipolar course had a significantly decreased BMC (88% of normal, P < 0.001), while the unipolar patients had normal BMC. Both groups had biochemical changes consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  20. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.