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Sample records for calcined wastes

  1. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m/sup 3//min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures. (DLC)

  2. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, Merle Daniel; M. C. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    This report documents an inventory of calcined waste produced at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center during the period from December 1963 to May 2000. The report was prepared based on calciner runs, operation of the calcined solids storage facilities, and miscellaneous operational information that establishes the range of chemical compositions of calcined waste stored at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The report will be used to support obtaining permits for the calcined solids storage facilities, possible treatment of the calcined waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and to ship the waste to an off-site facility including a geologic repository. The information in this report was compiled from calciner operating data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, calcine temperature monitoring records, and facility design of the calcined solids storage facilities. A compact disk copy of this report is provided to facilitate future data manipulations and analysis.

  4. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  5. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  6. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  7. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, M. Daniel, Swenson, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    This comprehensive report provides definitive volume, mass, and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Calcine composition data are required for regulatory compliance (such as permitting and waste disposal), future treatment of the caline, and shipping the calcine to an off-Site-facility (such as a geologic repository). This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins. The Calcined Solids Storage Facilities (CSSFs) were designed by different architectural engineering firms and built at different times. Each CSSF has a unique design, reflecting varying design criteria and lessons learned from historical CSSF operation. The varying CSSF design will affect future calcine retrieval processes and equipment. Revision 4 of this report presents refinements and enhancements of calculations concerning the composition, volume, mass, chemical content, and radioactivity of calcined waste produced and stored within the CSSFs. The historical calcine samples are insufficient in number and scope of analysis to fully characterize the entire inventory of calcine in the CSSFs. Sample data exist for all the liquid wastes that were calcined. This report provides calcine composition data based on liquid waste sample analyses, volume of liquid waste calcined, calciner operating data, and CSSF operating data using several large Microsoft Excel (Microsoft 2003) databases and spreadsheets that are collectively called the Historical Processing Model. The calcine composition determined by this method compares favorably with historical calcine sample data.

  8. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  9. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Staiger

    2007-06-01

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  10. Isotopic variability of mercury in ore, mine-waste calcine, and leachates of mine-waste calcine from areas mined for mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Sarah J; Gray, John E; Wanty, Richard B; Macalady, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) was determined in cinnabar ore, mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), and leachates obtained from water leaching experiments of calcine from two large Hg mining districts in the U.S. This study is the first to report significant mass-dependent Hg isotopic fractionation between cinnabar ore and resultant calcine. Data indicate that delta202Hg values relative to NIST 3133 of calcine (up to 1.52 per thousand) in the Terlingua district, Texas, are as much as 3.24 per thousand heavier than cinnabar (-1.72 per thousand) prior to retorting. In addition, delta202Hg values obtained from leachates of Terlingua district calcines are isotopically similar to, or as much as 1.17 per thousand heavier than associated calcines, most likely due to leaching of soluble, byproduct Hg compounds formed during ore retorting that are a minor component in the calcines. As a result of the large fractionation found between cinnabar and calcine, and because calcine is the dominant source of Hg contamination from the mines studied, delta202Hg values of calcine may be more environmentally important in these mined areas than the primary cinnabar ore. Measurement of the Hg isotopic composition of calcine is necessary when using Hg isotopes for tracing Hg sources from areas mined for Hg, especially mine water runoff.

  11. Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

    2001-10-15

    The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution

  12. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  13. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. (ed.)

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  14. Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, F.A.

    1981-06-01

    In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner.

  15. High-level waste vitrification by spray calcination/in-can melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Bonner, W.F. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    Federal regulations require that high-level liquid waste (HLLW) be converted to a solid for custody in a Federal repository. The Spray Solidification/In-Can Melting process has been developed and is being demonstrated for commercial application. The bases used are similar to those of the NFS plant and to anticipated regulations for waste canister receipt at a Federal repository. The reference NFS flowsheet combines plant HA Column Wastes, Low-Level Wastes, and various HLLW process recycle streams to produce a borosilicate glass. After the canister is filled and sealed, the lid weld will be inspected and decontaminated. Equipment and instrumentation for feed supply to the calciner, calcination, melting, welding, weld inspection, canister decontamination, and in-cell canister storage are being designed and demonstrated. Preliminary facility layouts, equipment design data, and instrumentation needs are provided for major process equipment systems. Additional demonstration work is being performed to verify and complete the plant scale equipment design, including full-scale nonradioactive equipment testing, nonradioactive facility mockup for equipment remote operation and maintenance demonstration, and pilot plant production of waste glass from commercial fuel HLLW. The technology for spray calcination and in-can melting is ready for commercial application. Required additional work is described. A preliminary evaluation is made of materials that may be released from the process from normal and abnormal operations in the facility. 34 figures, 20 tables. (DLC)

  16. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville vicinity, Butte County, Idaho -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data. Historical American engineering record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the history of the Old Waste Calcining Facility. It begins with introductory material on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Materials Testing Reactor fuel cycle, and the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report then describes management of the wastes from the processing plant in the following chapters: Converting liquid to solid wastes; Fluidized bed waste calcining process and the Waste Calcining Facility; Waste calcining campaigns; WCF gets a new source of heat; New Waste Calcining Facility; Last campaign; Deactivation and the RCRA cap; Significance/context of the old WCF. Appendices contain a photo key map for HAER photos, a vicinity map and neighborhood of the WCF, detailed description of the calcining process, and chronology of WCF campaigns.

  17. Environmental assessment: Closure of the Waste Calcining Facility (CPP-633), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to close the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). The WCF is a surplus DOE facility located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Six facility components in the WCF have been identified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Ace (RCRA)-units in the INEL RCRA Part A application. The WCF is an interim status facility. Consequently, the proposed WCF closure must comply with Idaho Rules and Standards for Hazardous Waste contained in the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA) Section 16.01.05. These state regulations, in addition to prescribing other requirements, incorporate by reference the federal regulations, found at 40 CFR Part 265, that prescribe the requirements for facilities granted interim status pursuant to the RCRA. The purpose of the proposed action is to reduce the risk of radioactive exposure and release of hazardous constituents and eliminate the need for extensive long-term surveillance and maintenance. DOE has determined that the closure is needed to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment, and to comply with the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act (HWMA) requirements.

  18. Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. King; Vince Maio

    2011-09-01

    To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could

  19. Research about the pozzolanic activity of waste materials from calcined clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To recycle and reutilise waste materials and find definite applications for their use, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of them. The aim of this study is to study the possibility of using waste materials from calcined clay, actually ceramic tile, once crushed and grounded, as pozzolanic material. For this purpose, different tests are carried out in order to establish the pozzolanic activity of this material. At the same time, these results are compared to those of other industrial by-products, fly ash and silica fume, which are pozzolanic materials usually employed to elaborate mortars and concretes.

    Para llevar a cabo labores encaminadas al reciclado y revalorización de residuos es necesario un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la posibilidad de utilizar materiales de desecho procedentes de arcilla cocida, concretamente teja cerámica, una vez triturada y molida, como puzolana. Para ello, se efectúan diferentes ensayos dirigidos a establecer la actividad puzolanica del material. A su vez, estos resultados son comparados con otros residuos industriales, ceniza volante y humo de sílice, habituales en la elaboración de morteros y hormigones.

  20. Nano-porous pottery using calcined waste sediment from tap water production as an additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuk, Supin; Khunthon, Srichalai; Nilpairach, Siriphan

    2010-10-01

    A suspension of sediment from a lagoon in a tap water production plant was collected for this experiment. The suspension was spray dried and calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. After calcining, 30 wt.% of the sediment were mixed with pottery clay. Samples with and without calcined sediment were sintered at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The results show that calcined sediment can be used as an additive in pottery clay. The samples with calcined sediment show higher porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, especially for 900 and 1000 °C. At 900 °C, samples with calcined sediment show a porosity of 50% with an average pore size of 68 nm, water absorption of 31% and flexural strength of 12.61 MPa.

  1. Mercury and methylmercury contents in mine-waste calcine, water, and sediment collected from the Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.E.; Greaves, I.A.; Bustos, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines, produced about 2,900 t of mercury during mining of cinnabar ore from 1953 to 1976. More than 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining, much of which were used to construct a jetty in nearby Honda Bay. Since 1995, high Hg contents have been found in several people living near the mine, and 21 of these people were treated for mercury poisoning. Samples of mine-waste calcine contain high total Hg concentrations ranging from 43-660 ??g/g, whereas total Hg concentrations in sediment samples collected from a mine pit lake and local stream vary from 3.7-400 ??g/g. Mine water flowing through the calcines is acidic, pH 3.1-4.3, and total Hg concentrations ranging from 18-31 ??g/l in this water significantly exceed the 1.0-??g/l drinking water standard for Hg recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total Hg contents are generally lower in water samples collected from surrounding domestic wells, the mine pit lake, Honda Bay, and the nearby stream, varying from 0.008-1.4 ??g/l. Methylmercury concentrations in water draining mine calcines range from <0.02-1.4 ng/l, but methylmercury is highest in the pit lake water, ranging from 1.7-3.1 ng/l. Mercury methylation at the Palawan mine is similar to or higher than that found in other mercury mines worldwide. Much of the methylmercury generated in Palawan mine-waste calcines and those in Honda Bay is transferred to water, and then to marine fish and seafood. A food source pathway of Hg to humans is most likely in this coastal, high fish-consuming population.

  2. Spring 2009 Semiannual (III.H. and I.U.) Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post-Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility at the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Ann M.

    2009-05-31

    The Waste Calcining Facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1999, the Waste Calcining Facility was closed under and approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the Waste Calcining Facility to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment.

  3. Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility at the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Cleanup Project

    2006-06-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1998, the WCF was closed under an approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) Closure Plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a final HWMA/RCRA post-closure permit on September 15, 2003, with an effective date of October 16, 2003. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the WCF to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment. The post-closure permit also includes semiannual reporting requirements under Permit Conditions III.H. and I.U. These reporting requirements have been combined into this single semiannual report.

  4. Dissolution Kinetics of Alumina Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2001-09-01

    Dissolution kinetics of alumina type non-radioactive calcine was investigated as part of ongoing research that addresses permanent disposal of Idaho High Level Waste (HLW). Calcine waste was produced from the processing of nuclear fuel at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Acidic radioactive raffinates were solidified at ~500°C in a fluidized bed reactor to form the dry granular calcine material. Several Waste Management alternatives for the calcine are presented in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The Separations Alternative addresses the processing of the calcine so that the HLW is ready for removal to a national geological repository by the year 2035. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the separations alternative.

  5. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of calcined alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of conventional and low-cement ferrochrome slag-based castables were prepared from 40 wt.% ferrochrome slag and 45 wt.% calcined bauxite. Rest fraction varied between high alumina cement (HAC acting as hydraulic binder and calcined alumina as pore filling additive. Standard ASTM size briquettes were prepared for crushing and bending strengths evaluation, and the samples were then subjected to firing at 800, 1100 and 1300 °C for a soaking period of 3 h. The microstructure and refractory properties of the prepared castables have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cold crushing strength, modulus of rupture and permanent linear changes (PLCs test. Castables show good volume stability (linear change <0.7% at 1300 °C. The outcomes of these investigations were efficacious and in accordance with previously reported data of similar compositions. High thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties were attained pointing out an outstanding potential to increase the refractory lining working life of non-recovery coke oven and reheating furnaces.

  6. Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: Properties and hydration characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Na, E-mail: zhangna06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu Xiaoming [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun Henghu [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Li Longtu [State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes for use as a cementitious material. The developed cementitious material containing 30% of the bauxite-calcination-method red mud possessed compressive strength properties at a level similar to normal Portland cement, in the range of 45.3-49.5 MPa. Best compressive strength values were demonstrated by the specimen RSFC2 containing 30% bauxite-calcination-method red mud, 21% blast-furnace slag, 10% fly ash, 30% clinker, 8% gypsum and 1% compound agent. The mechanical and physical properties confirm the usefulness of RSFC2. The hydration characteristics of RSFC2 were characterized by XRD, FTIR, {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR and SEM. As predominant hydration products, ettringite and amorphous C-S-H gel are principally responsible for the strength development of RSFC2. Comparing with the traditional production for ordinary Portland cement, this green technology is easier to be implemented and energy saving. This paper provides a key solution to effectively utilize bauxite-calcination-method red mud.

  7. Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: properties and hydration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Henghu; Li, Longtu

    2011-01-15

    Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes for use as a cementitious material. The developed cementitious material containing 30% of the bauxite-calcination-method red mud possessed compressive strength properties at a level similar to normal Portland cement, in the range of 45.3-49.5 MPa. Best compressive strength values were demonstrated by the specimen RSFC2 containing 30% bauxite-calcination-method red mud, 21% blast-furnace slag, 10% fly ash, 30% clinker, 8% gypsum and 1% compound agent. The mechanical and physical properties confirm the usefulness of RSFC2. The hydration characteristics of RSFC2 were characterized by XRD, FTIR, (27)Al MAS-NMR and SEM. As predominant hydration products, ettringite and amorphous C-S-H gel are principally responsible for the strength development of RSFC2. Comparing with the traditional production for ordinary Portland cement, this green technology is easier to be implemented and energy saving. This paper provides a key solution to effectively utilize bauxite-calcination-method red mud.

  8. Alternative calcination development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  9. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  10. Experimental Test Plan for Grouting H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 4400 cubic meters of solid high-level waste called calcine are stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Under the Idaho Cleanup Project, dual disposal paths are being investigated. The first path includes calcine retrieval, package "as-is", and ship to the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The second path involves treatment of the calcine with such methods as vitrification or grouting. This test plan outlines the hot bench scale tests to grout actual calcine and verify that the waste form properties meet the waste acceptance criteria. This is a necessary sequential step in the process of qualifying a new waste form for repository acceptance. The archive H-3 calcine samples at the Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Building attached to New Waste Calcining Facility will be used in these tests at the Remote Analytical Laboratory. The tests are scheduled for the second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

  11. Stabilization of Pb²⁺ and Cu²⁺ contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and waste cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Khim, Jeehyeong; Wazne, Mahmoud; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Jeong-Hun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-05-01

    Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) contamination at army firing ranges poses serious environmental and health risks to nearby communities necessitating an immediate and prompt remedial action. In this study, a novel mixture of calcined oyster shells (COSs) and waste cow bones (WCBs) was utilized to immobilize Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) in army firing range soils. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the Korean Standard leaching test. The treatment results showed that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization in the army firing range soil was effective in significantly reducing Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) leachability upon the combined treatment with COS and WCB. A drastic reduction in Pb(2+) (99%) and Cu(2+) leachability (95%) was obtained as compared to the control sample, upon treatment with 5 wt.% COS and 5 wt.% WCB. The combination treatment of COS and WCB was more effective for Pb immobilization, than the treatment with COS or WCB alone. The 5 wt.% COS alone treatment resulted in 95% reduction in Cu(2+) leachability. The SEM-EDX results suggested that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization was most probably associated with the formation of ettringite, pozzolanic reaction products and pyromorphite-like phases at the same time.

  12. Fall 2010 Semiannual (III.H. and I.U.) Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility and the CPP 601/627/640 Facility at the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Ann

    2010-11-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1999, the Waste Calcining Facility was closed under an approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) Closure Plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a final HWMA/RCRA post-closure permit on September 15, 2003, with an effective date of October 16, 2003. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the Waste Calcining Facility to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment. The post closure permit also includes semiannual reporting requirements under Permit Conditions III.H. and I.U. These reporting requirements have been combined into this single semiannual report, as agreed between the Idaho Cleanup Project and Idaho Department of Environmental Quality. The Permit Condition III.H. portion of this report includes a description and the results of field methods associated with groundwater monitoring of the Waste Calcining Facility. Analytical results from groundwater sampling, results of inspections and maintenance of monitoring wells in the Waste Calcining Facility groundwater monitoring network, and results of inspections of the concrete cap are summarized. The Permit Condition I.U. portion of this report includes noncompliances not otherwise required to be reported under Permit Condition I.R. (advance notice of planned changes to facility activity which may result in a noncompliance) or Permit Condition I.T. (reporting of noncompliances which may endanger human health or the environment). This report also provides groundwater sampling results for wells that were installed and monitored as part of the Phase 1 post-closure period of the landfill closure components in accordance with HWMA/RCRA Landfill Closure Plan for the CPP-601 Deep

  13. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  14. Characterization and Dissolution Kinetics Testing of Radioactive H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2002-09-01

    Characterization and dissolution kinetics testing were performed with Idaho radioactive H-3 calcine. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the Separations Alternative identified in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The impact of the extent of dissolution on the feasibility of Separations must be clearly quantified.

  15. Structural Integrity Program for INTEC Calcined Solids Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Bryant

    2008-08-30

    This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual'. Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

  16. One-pot synthesis of carbon supported calcined-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides for antibiotic removal by slow pyrolysis of biomass waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Shaobo; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Cai, Xiaoxi; Yan, Zhili; Yang, Chunping; Hu, Xinjiang; Chen, Bo

    2016-12-01

    A biochar supported calcined-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composite (CLDHs/BC) was synthesized by a one-pot slow pyrolysis of LDHs preloaded bagasse biomass. Multiple characterizations of the product illustrated that the calcined-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) were successfully coated onto the biochar in slow pyrolysis of pre-treated biomass. The as-synthesized CLDHs/BC could efficiently remove antibiotic tetracycline from aqueous solutions. The coating of CLDHs significantly increased the adsorption ability of biochar, and CLDHs/BC exhibited more than 2 times higher adsorption capacity than that of the pristine biochar (BC) in the tested pH range. The maximum adsorption capacity of CLDHs/BC for tetracycline was 1118.12 mg/g at 318 K. The experimental results suggested that the interaction with LDHs on biochar played a dominant role in tetracycline adsorption, accompanied with π–π interaction and hydrogen bond. This study provides a feasible and simple approach for the preparation of high-performance material for antibiotics contaminated wastewater treatment in a cost-effective way.

  17. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  18. Summary of Calcine Disposal Development Using Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wahlquist, Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCartin, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, has demonstrated the effectiveness of the hot isostatic press (HIP) process for treatment of hazardous high-level waste known as calcine that is stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at Idaho National Laboratory. HIP trials performed with simulated calcines at Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex and an Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization facility from 2007 to 2010 produced a dense, monolithic waste form with increased chemical durability and effective (storage) volume reductions of ~10 to ~70% compared to granular calcine forms. In December 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy signed an amended Record of Decision selecting HIP technology as the treatment method for the 4,400 m3 of granular zirconia and alumina calcine stored at INTEC. Testing showed that HIP treatment reduces the risks associated with radioactive and hazardous constituent release, post-production handling, and long-term (repository) storage of calcines and would result in estimated storage cost savings in the billions of dollars. Battelle Energy Alliance has the ability to complete pilot-scale HIP processing of INTEC calcine, which is the next necessary step in implementing HIP processing as a calcine treatment method.

  19. Investigation on Calcination Behaviors of Coal Gangue by Fluidized Calcination in Comparison with Static Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively utilize coal gangue, we present fluidized calcination as a new thermal technology for activating coal gangue and systematical study was conducted in comparison with static calcination. The calcined products obtained by different calcination methods under various temperatures were characterized by the means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetry-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Chemical and physical characteristics such as aluminium leaching rate, chemical oxygen demand and whiteness of calcined products were also investigated. The results show that aluminium leaching rate could reach to the maximal value 74.42% at 500 °C by fluidized calcination, while the maximal value of 66.33% could be reached at 600 °C by static calcination. Products by fluidized calcination obtained higher whiteness and lower chemical oxygen demand (COD under the same calcination temperature. The well-crystallized kaolinite transform to amorphous meta-kaolinite under 600 °C and mullite presence under 1000 °C according to phase transformation, chemical bond variation and microstructure evolution analysis. Fluidized calcination was more efficiently for combustion of carbon/organic matter and dehydroxylation of kaolinite, which might applied in coal gangue industry in future.

  20. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  1. Processing of Spent Ion Exchange Resins in a Rotary Calciner - 12212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kascheev, Vladimir; Musatov, Nikolay [Joint Stock Company ' A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' (VNIINM), Rogova st., 5A (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Processing Russian nuclear ion exchange resin KU-2 using a 'Rotary' calciner was conducted. The resulting product is a dry free flowing powder (moisture content 3 wt.%, Angle of repose of ≅ 20 deg.). Compared with the original exchange resin the volume of the final product is about 3 times less.. Rotary calciner product can be stored in metal drums or in special reinforced concrete cubicles. After thermal treatment in a rotary calciner, the spent resin product can be solidified in cement yielding the following attributes: - The cemented waste is only a 35% increase over the volume of powder product; - The volume of cement calciner product is almost 9 times less (8.7) than the volume of cement solidified resin; - The mechanical strength of cemented calciner product meets the radioactive waste regulations in Russia. (authors)

  2. Potencialidades da metacaolinita e do tijolo queimado moído como substitutos parciais do cimento Portland Potentialities of metakaolin and crushed waste calcined clay brick as partial replacement of Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Farias Filho

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalia-se, neste trabalho, a potencialidade do uso da metacaolinita e dos resíduos de produção de tijolos cerâmicos queimados finamente moídos, como substitutos parciais do cimento Portland. Os materiais foram caracterizados física, química e mineralogicamente, além de determinado o índice de atividade pozolânica com cimento Portland. A evolução da resistência a compressão e a flexão das argamassas foi avaliada até as idades de, respectivamente, 365 e 208 dias. As porcentagens de substituição do cimento Portland, em peso, pelos materiais pozolânicos, variaram de 20 a 50%, enquanto o fator água/cimento variou de 0,37 a 0,45. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a metacaolinita e o tijolo moído queimado possuem elevada atividade pozolânica e que a resistência a compressão, aos 28 dias, das argamassas mistas, foi superior à das argamassas de cimento Portland para os níveis de substituição e fatores água/cimento estudados. Um modelo matemático para predição da resistência à compressão das argamassas mistas é proposto com base em um desenho fatorial de experimentos.This paper evaluates the potentiality of metakaolin and crushed waste fired clay brick as cement replacement materials. They were characterised physically, chemically and mineralogically and their activity with Portland cement determined. The influence of the partial replacement of Portland cement on the development of compressive and flexural strength was evaluated until the age of, respectively, 365 and 208 days. The percentage of cement replacement, in weight, ranged from 20 to 50%, whereas the water/cement ratio ranged from 0.37 to 0.45. The results obtained show that the metakaolin and crushed calcined clay brick presented a good pozolanic activity and that the compressive strength of the blended mortars after 28 days of cure was higher than that observed for the reference Portland cement for all levels of cement replacement and water/cement ratio. A

  3. Dissolution properties of calcined gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huajian Li; Henghu Sun; Xuchu Tie; Xuejun Xiao

    2006-01-01

    To study the dissolution mechanism of gangue, dissolution characteristics of the gangue samples calcined at different temperatures in alkaline solutions and alkali metal silicate solutions with respect to Si and A1 ions were analyzed by identical coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP). The results show that the extent of dissolution of A1 and Si varies with calcination temperature. It shows that the samples have a higher degree of dissolution in NaOH than in KOH medium. Si and A1 appear to have synchro-dissolution behavior in alkaline solution, which means that Si and A1 could dissolve from the mineral surface in certain linked forms. The result that a higher degree of dissolution exists in sodium silicate solution and a lower degree of dissolution exists in sodium-potassium silicate solution of A1 is proved by the 29Si NMR spectra and the mean connectivity degree of these alkali metal silicate solutions.

  4. Effect of fly ash calcination in geopolymer synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Jatiningrum, Mirna; Arisiani, Gresia

    2015-12-01

    Geopolymer, a largely amorphous class of inorganic polymer consisting of aluminosilicate repeat units, is an environmentally attractive engineering material due to its ability to consume aluminosilicate waste as raw materials. This work studies the effect of the calcination temperature of a coal fly ash generated by a low-efficiency boiler on the mechanical strength of geopolymer mortar synthesized using a mixture of the fly ash, potassium hydroxide as the alkali activator, and locally available sand as the filler aggregate. The calcination temperature is varied between 500-700 °C, with a calcination period of 2 hours in an electric furnace. Two sand samples with different particle size distributions are used. The key response variable is the compressive strength at room temperature, measured after curing at 80 °C for 7 and 14 days. Uncalcined ash, with a carbon content of approximately 31.0%, is not amenable for geopolymer synthesis. Analysis of experimental data using the ANOVA method for general factorial design identifies significant main effects for all three experimental variables. Two-way interactions are significant, except that between sand type and curing period. Higher calcination temperature significantly improves the strength of the mortar. However, the strength of the obtained geopolymer mortars are still significantly lower than that of ordinary Portland cement mortar.

  5. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Chemical Composition of Calcine at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Frazee; J. D. Christian

    2004-02-01

    To send calcine produced at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Yucca Mountain Project for disposal, characterization information will be required. To sample calcine from its existing storage location would require extensive personnel exposure. Sufficient analyses of the chemical composition of the calcine would be extremely difficult and very expensive. In support of characterization development, the chemical composition of calcine from Bin 3 of Calcine Solid Storage Facility II was thermodynamic modeled. This calcine was produced in the Waste Calcination Facility during its second processing campaign, operating with indirect heating at 400 C and 0.744 bar (0.734 atm) during processing of aluminum high-level liquid waste (first cycle extraction raffinate from reprocessing aluminum-clad fuels) from tanks WM-180 and -182 from December 27, 1966 through August 26, 1967. The current modeling effort documents the input compositional data (liquid feed and calciner off-gas) for Batches 300 - 620 and a methodology for estimating the calcine chemical composition. The results, along with assumptions and limitations of the thermodynamic calculations, will serve as a basis for benchmarking subsequent calculations. This will be done by comparing the predictions against extensive analytical results that are currently being obtained on representative samples of the modeled calcine. A commercial free-energy minimization program and database, HSC 5.1, was used to perform the thermodynamic calculations. Currently available experimental data and process information on the calcine were used to make judgments about specific phases and compounds to include and eliminate in the thermodynamic calculations. Some off-gas species were eliminated based on kinetics restrictions evidenced by experimental data and other estimates, and some calcine components and off-gas compounds were eliminated as improbable species (unreliable thermodynamic data). The current Yucca

  6. XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Jayapradhi [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States); Gialanella, Stefano [Materials Science and Industrial Technology Department, University of Trento (Italy); Aswath, Pranesh B., E-mail: aswath@uta.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The structure of dried and calcined bones from chicken, bovine, deer, pig, sheep and chamois was examined using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The oxygen K-edge absorption edge indicates that the surface of dried bone has a larger proportion of carbonate than the interior that is made up of phosphates. The phosphorus L and K edge clearly indicate that pyrophosphates, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and hydrogen phosphates of Ca do not exist in either the dried bone or calcined bone and phosphorus exists as either β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or hydroxyapatite, both in the dried and calcined conditions. The Ca K-edge analysis indicates that β-TCP is the likely form of phosphate in both the dried and calcined conditions. - Highlights: • For the first time bones of five different species of vertebrates have been compared in both the dried and calcined states. • O, P and Ca edges detail the local coordination of these atoms in dried and calcined bone. • O K-edge shows that the surface of bone has more CO{sub 3} while the interior has more PO{sub 4}. • P and Ca edges eliminate the presence of pyrophosphates and confirmed the presence of HA and β-TCP. • The stability of these phosphates on calcination has been examined using XANES.

  7. Activity and Structure of Calcined Coal Gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Coal gangue was activated by means of calcination in seven temperature ranges. Systematic research was made about activation mechanism and structural evolution. Glycerin-ethanol method, SEM, MIP and XRD were used to determine the variation of structure and activation of coal gangue during the calcination.The experimental results show that because of heat treatment in the range of calcination temperature, mineral composition and microstructure of coal gangue are changed. In addition, its activity is improved evidently. The amount of lime absorbed by the sample calcined at 700 C is 2-4 times that by uncalcined coal gangue in the course of hydration. When NaOH is added to coal gangue-lime system, hydration reaction of the system is sped up and the microstructure of hydrating samples of coal gangue is improved.

  8. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-07-01

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner.

  9. 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended systems with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete, and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest  res...

  10. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  11. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  12. Calcination/dissolution chemistry development Fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    The task {open_quotes}IPC Liaison and Chemistry of Thermal Reconstitution{close_quotes} is a $300,000 program that was conducted in Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Research and Development (EM-53) Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program supported under technical task plan (TTP) RL4-3-20-04. The principal investigator was Cal Delegard of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The task encompassed the following two subtasks related to the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste: (1) Technical Liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science (IPC/RAS) and its research into the chemistry of transuranic elements (TRU) and technetium (Tc) in alkaline media. (2) Laboratory investigation of the chemistry of calcination/dissolution (C/D) (or thermal reconstitution) as an alternative to the present reference Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment flowsheet, Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW). This report fulfills the milestone for the C/D subtask to {open_quotes}Provide End-of-Year Report on C/D Laboratory Test Results{close_quotes} due 30 September 1995. A companion report, fulfilling the milestone to provide an end-of-year report on the IPC/RAS liaison, also has been prepared.

  13. Experimental and modeling study of flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay particles in a gas suspension calciner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    Calcination of kaolinite particles under appropriate conditions to produce materials that can replace part of the CO2 intensive clinker is gaining an increasing interest in cement industry worldwide. This paper presents a study of flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay particles in a pilot scale...... gas suspension calciner, with the aim to derive useful guidelines on smart calcination for obtaining products of the best pozzolanic properties. Calcination tests are performed in the calciner under six different operation conditions. The raw feed and the calcined clay samples are all characterized...... experimentally and a mathematical model is also developed to predict the conversion of the clay particles. The model properly accounts for the particle–ambient flow interaction and numerically solves all the processes occurring within the clay particles. The model predictions are compared against...

  14. Calcination-Digestion-Desliming of Phosphorus Ore Bearing Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qin; Zhang Jie; Wang Jing; Qiu Yue qin

    2004-01-01

    The recoveries of phosphorus and RE of ore from Zhijin in Guizhou were studied.The influences of the calcination temperature, resident time, the digested time and water volume of the calcinating on concentrate yield by desliming were also investigated by orthogonal design.Appropriate calcination temperature is initial condition that makes carbonate mineral decomposition.The recovery of phosphorus is 83.02% and rare earth is 90.56% in phosphorus concentrate when calcined temperature is 900 ℃, other conditions include: calcined time is 30 min, digestion water volume is 300 ml, digestion time is 20 min.The results show that the pre-treatment of the ore is favorable for the separation and enrichment of rare earth from phosphorus ore, and a process of calcination-digestion-desliming was promised.

  15. EFFECT OF CALCINATION TEMPERATURE OF TUNISIAN CLAYS ON THE PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essaidi N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are amorphous three dimensional aluminosilicate materials that may be synthesized at room or slightly higher temperature by alkaline activation of aluminosilicates obtained from industrial wastes, calcined clays and natural minerals. Among the different family of geopolymers, two Tunisian clays (a kaolinite clay from Tabarka and illito/kaolinitic clay from Medenine are tested for their feasibility of geopolymers at low temperature. The unfired and calcined clays were dissolved in strongly alkaline solution in order to produce consolidated materials whose pastes were characterized by their compressive strength. Hardened geopolymer samples were also submitted to X-Ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The geopolymer strength is related to the structure and reactivity of the clay generated by thermal treatment and to the role of associated minerals in clays. The amorphous character of obtained geopolymers and the displacement of the IR wavenumber are signature of geopolymerisation reaction.

  16. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  17. Calcination of kaolinite clay particles for cement production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kaolinite rich clay particles calcined under certain conditions can attain favorable pozzolanic properties and can be used to substitute part of the CO2 intensive clinker in cement production. To better guide calcination of a clay material, a transient one-dimensional single particle model...

  18. Modeling of calcination of single kaolinitic clay particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    The present work aims at modeling of the calcination (dehydroxylation) process of clay particles, specifically kaolinite, and its thermal transformation. For such purpose, 1D single particle calcination model was developed based on the concept of shrinking core model to assess the dehydroxylation...

  19. Stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil using calcined oyster shells and steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Young; Baek, Kitae; Ok, Yong Sik; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-07-01

    In this study, As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil was stabilized using calcined oyster shells (COS) and steel slag (SS). The As-contaminated soil was obtained from a timber mill site where chromate copper arsenate (CCA) was used as a preservative. On the other hand, Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil was obtained from a firing range. These two soils were thoroughly mixed to represent As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil. Calcined oyster shells were obtained by treating waste oyster shells at a high temperature using the calcination process. The effectiveness of stabilization was evaluated by 1-N HCl extraction for As and 0.1-N HCl extraction for Pb and Cu. The treatment results showed that As, Pb, and Cu leachability were significantly reduced upon the combination treatment of COS and SS. The sole treatment of SS (10 wt%) did not show effective stabilization. However, the combination treatment of COS and SS showed a significant reduction in As, Pb, and Cu leachability. The best stabilization results were obtained from the combination treatment of 15 wt% COS and 10 wt% SS. The SEM-EDX results suggested that the effective stabilization of As was most probably achieved by the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates. In the case of Pb and Cu, stabilization was most probably associated with the formation of pozzolanic reaction products such as CSHs and CAHs.

  20. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Powders (P25 via Calcination Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available P25 TiO2 powders were calcined at different temperatures in a muffle furnace in air. The P25 powders before and after calcination treatment were characterized with XRD FTIR, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange aqueous solution under UV light irradiation in air. The results showed that calcination treatment obviously influenced the microstructures and photocatalytic activity of the P25 TiO2 powders. The synergistic effect of the phase structure, BET surface area, and crystallinity on the photocatalytic of TiO2 powders (P25 after calcination was investigated. An optimal calcination temperature ( was determined. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders calcined at was nearly 2 times higher than that of the uncalcined P25 TiO2. The highest photocatalytic activities of the calcined samples at for 4 h might be ascribed to the enhancement of anatase crystallization and the optimal mass ratio (ca. 1 : 2 of rutile to anatase.

  1. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  2. Talc-based cementitious products: Effect of talc calcination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the use of calcined talc for cementitious products making. The calcination is used to enhance the availability of magnesium from talc to react with phosphate for cement phase formation. It is shown that previous calcination of talc leads to products having enhanced mechanical performance due to the formation of more cement phase than in products based on raw talc. Talc fired at 900 °C was found to be the one in which magnesium release was maximal. Firing at temperature high...

  3. Process optimization for Ni(II) removal from wastewater by calcined oyster shell powders using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Li, Jun Yan

    2015-09-15

    Waste oyster shells cause great environmental concerns and nickel is a harmful heavy metal. Therefore, we applied the Taguchi method to take care of both issues by optimizing the controllable factors for Ni(II) removal by calcined oyster shell powders (OSP), including the pH (P), OSP calcined temperature (T), Ni(II) concentration (C), OSP dose (D), and contact time (t). The results show that their percentage contribution in descending order is P (64.3%) > T (18.9%) > C (8.8%) > D (5.1%) > t (1.7%). The optimum condition is pH of 10 and OSP calcined temperature of 900 °C. Under the optimum condition, the Ni(II) can be removed almost completely; the higher the pH, the more the precipitation; the higher the calcined temperature, the more the adsorption. The latter is due to the large number of porosities created at the calcination temperature of 900 °C. The porosities generate a large amount of cavities which significantly increase the surface area for adsorption. A multiple linear regression equation obtained to correlate Ni(II) removal with the controllable factors is: Ni(II) removal(%) = 10.35 × P + 0.045 × T - 1.29 × C + 19.33 × D + 0.09 × t - 59.83. This equation predicts Ni(II) removal well and can be used for estimating Ni(II) removal during the design stage of Ni(II) removal by calcined OSP. Thus, OSP can be used to remove nickel effectively and the formula for removal prediction is developed for practical applications.

  4. CSER 97-004: PFP production denitration calciner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesland, K.E.

    1997-09-11

    The plutonium stabilization program at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) includes conversion of acidic plutonium nitrate solution into plutonium oxide. Conversion is facilitated through use of a vertical calciner installed in Glovebox HC-23OC-2, which is located in RM 230C of this facility. This evaluation supports the Criticality Prevention Specification for the calcining process inside this glovebox. As the product of the calciner is a high density plutonium oxide, a number of limits are required to insure criticality safety. The containers allowed are product receiver vessels and 0.5 C slip lid cans and polyjars. The limits allow for two ``unit masses`` of 2 V total volume each, separated by a distance of at least 25.4 cm (10 in.). This evaluation allows for operation of the calciner for product densities not in excess of 5.5 g Pu/cm{sup 3}.

  5. Crystallographic transformation of limestone during calcination under CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Medina, Santiago

    2015-09-14

    The calcination reaction of limestone (CaCO3) to yield lime (CaO) is at the heart of many industrial applications as well as natural processes. In the recently emerged calcium-looping technology, CO2 capture is accomplished by the carbonation of CaO in a gas-solid reactor (carbonator). CaO is derived by the calcination of limestone in a calciner reactor under necessarily high CO2 partial pressure and high temperature. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been employed in this work to gain further insight into the crystallographic transformation that takes place during the calcination of limestone under CO2, at partial pressures (P) close to the equilibrium pressure (Peq) and at high temperature. Calcination under these conditions becomes extremely slow. The in situ XRD analysis presented here suggests the presence of an intermediate metastable CaO* phase stemming from the parent CaCO3 structure. According to the reaction mechanism proposed elsewhere, the exothermicity of the CaO* → CaO transformation and high values of P/Peq inhibit the nucleation of CaO at high temperatures. The wt% of CaO* remains at a relatively high level during slow calcination. Two diverse stages have been identified in the evolution of CaO crystallite size, L. Initially, L increases with CaCO3 conversion, following a logarithmic law. Slow calcination allows the crystallite size to grow up from a few nanometers at nucleation up to around 100 nm near the end of conversion. Otherwise, quick calcination at relatively lower CO2 concentrations limits CaO crystallite growth. Once calcination reaches an advanced state, the presence of CaO* drops to zero and the rate of increase of the CaO crystallite size is significantly hindered. Arguably, the first stage in CaO crystallite growth is driven by aggregation of the metastable CaO* nanocrystals, due to surface attractive forces, whereas the second one is consistent with sintering of the aggregated CaO crystals, and persists with time after full

  6. CSER 99-001: PFP LAB Dentirating calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILLER, E.M.; DOBBIN, K.D.

    1999-02-22

    A criticality safety evaluation report was prepared for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) laboratory denigrating calciner, located in Glovebox 188-1, that converts Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solutions to the high fired stable oxide PuO{sub 2}. Fissile mass limits and volume limits are set for the glovebox for testing operations and training operators using only nitric acid feed to a plutonium oxide bed in the calciner.

  7. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800℃ for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  8. Adsorption removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by calcined hydrotalcite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jiang; YANG Min; ZHANG Xiao-jin; WU Tao; CAO Nan; WEI Na; BI Yan-jun; WANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    A hydrotalcite with Mg/Al molar ratio 2 was prepared by co-precipitation method and was characterized by XRD,TG/DTA, Zeta potential and BET surface area. The hydrotalcite was calcined at 500℃, with the dehydration from interlayer, the dehydroxilation from the brucite-like layer and the decomposition of carbonate successively, transformed into the mixed oxide type.The removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by using the original hydrotalcite and calcined hydrotalcite (HTC-500) was investigated. The results showed that the thiocyanate adsorption capacity of calcined hydrotalcite was much higher than that of the original form. Calcined hydrotalcite was particularly effective at removing thiocyanate, and that the effective range of pH for the thiocyanate removal are between 5.5-10.0. The experimental data of thiocyanate removal fit nicely with Langmuir isotherm, and the saturated adsorption uptake was 96.2 mg SCN-/g HTC-500. The adsorption ofthiocyanate by calcined hydrotalcite follows first-order kinetics. And the intercalation to the structure recovery for calcined hydrotalcite. But the presence of additional anions could affect the adsorption behavior of thiocyanate.

  9. Adsorption removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by calcined hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Jiang; Yang, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Wu, Tao; Cao, Nan; Wei, Na; Bi, Yan-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A hydrotalcite with Mg/Al molar ratio 2 was prepared by co-precipitation method and was characterized by XRD, TG/DTA, Zeta potential and BET surface area. The hydrotalcite was calcined at 500 degrees C, with the dehydration from interlayer, the dehydroxilation from the brucite-like layer and the decomposition of carbonate successively, transformed into the mixed oxide type. The removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by using the original hydrotalcite and calcined hydrotalcite (HTC-500) was investigated. The results showed that the thiocyanate adsorption capacity of calcined hydrotalcite was much higher than that of the original form. Calcined hydrotalcite was particularly effective at removing thiocyanate, and that the effective range of pH for the thiocyanate removal are between 5.5-10.0. The experimental data of thiocyanate removal fit nicely with Langmuir isotherm, and the saturated adsorption uptake was 96.2 mg SCN-/g HTC-500. The adsorption of thiocyanate by calcined hydrotalcite follows first-order kinetics. And the intercalation to the structure recovery for calcined hydrotalcite. But the presence of additional anions could affect the adsorption behavior of thiocyanate.

  10. Structure transition of nano-titania during calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国华; 王大伟; 徐铸德; 陈卫祥

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the structure transition during calcination, nano-titania powders prepared by hydrolyzing precipitation approach and calcined at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 ℃ were characterized by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction(ED), respectively. The results show that titania powders calcined below 500 ℃ are almost composed of anatase, rutile appears below 500 ℃ and its ratio increases gradually with increase of calcin temperature;nano-titania particles are smaller than 40 nm mostly and the dispersion is related to calcining temperature; the interplanar distances of nano-anatase single crystalline change gradually when calcing temperature increases to 500 ℃; so do that of nano-rutile single crystalline when calcining temperature charges from 600 to 700 ℃. The conclusions can be drawn that the temperature of transformation from anatase to rutile is below 500 ℃ and the process carries on gradually. Both inter-planar distances and the structure of nano-titania transform gradually with increasing calcing temperature.

  11. The Kinetics of Calcination of High Calcium Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Okonkwo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of calcination of a high calcium type of limestone was studied. Ukpilla limestone found in the central region of Nigeria was studied. The limestone composition shows that the limestone has 51.29% calcium oxide and 41.53% loss on ignition and magnesium oxide content of 2.23%. The following parameters were determined; diffusion coefficient of lime layer, and mass transfer coefficient, conductivity of lime layer and beat transfer coefficient, convective parameter and diffusive parameter for temperatures 9000C, 10000C, 10600C and 10800C. The reaction was found to be limited by mass and heat transfers across the tune layer of the calcining article, theoptimal temperature of calcination was found to be 10600C. Diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient decreases with increase in calcination temperature. The thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperature. The diffusive and convective parameter decreases with increase in temperature. The reactivity of lime calcined at different temperatures were determined. The reactivity of the lime increases with decrease in calcination temperature.

  12. Mechanism of boron uptake by hydrocalumite calcined at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xinhong, E-mail: qxinhong@gmail.com [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University,Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sasaki, Keiko; Takaki, Yu; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University,Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ideta, Keiko; Miyawaki, Jin [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8180 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Higher sorption density of borate was observed at higher calcination temperature. • Sorption of borate by Ca-Al-LDH was mainly through DR mechanism. • Removal of borate by Ca-LDH-300 and Ca-LDH-500 were through forming of ettringite. • Boron was mainly adsorbed and intercalated into hydration of Ca-Al-LDH-900. - Abstract: Hydrocalumite (Ca-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH)) was prepared and applied for the removal of borate. The properties of Ca-Al-LDH calcined at different temperatures were diverse, which affected the sorption density and mechanism of boron species. The sorption density increased with increase in calcined temperature and the sample calcined at 900 °C (Ca-Al-LDH-900) showed the maximum sorption density in this work. The solid residues after sorption were characterized by {sup 11}B NMR, {sup 27}Al NMR, SEM, and XRD to investigate the sorption mechanism. Dissolution–reprecipitation was the main mechanism for sorption of borate in Ca-Al-LDH. For Ca-Al-LDH calcined at 300 and 500 °C, regeneration occurred in a short time and the newly forming LDHs were decomposed to release Ca{sup 2+} ions and formed ettringite with borate. Two stages occurred in the sorption of boron by Ca-Al-LDH calcined at 900 °C. In the first stage, boron species adsorbed on the alumina gel resulting from the hydration of calcined products. In this stage, borate was included as an interlayer anion into the newly forming LDHs in the following stage, and then immobilized as HBO{sub 3}{sup 2−} into the interlayer, most the LDHs.

  13. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  14. Total oxidation of toluene over calcined trimetallic hydrotalcites type catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, Luz A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, IBB - Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Grupo Catalizadores y Adsorbentes, Universidad de Antioquia 1-317, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Velasquez, Juliana; Echavarria, Adriana [Grupo Catalizadores y Adsorbentes, Universidad de Antioquia 1-317, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Faro, Arnaldo [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, CT bloco A, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramoa Ribeiro, F. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, IBB - Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, M. Filipa, E-mail: filipa.ribeiro@ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, IBB - Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-05-15

    Two trimetallic ZnCuAl and MnCuAl hydrotalcites have been successfully synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The manganese based material was identified as a new hydrotalcite phase. Both lamellar precursors were calcined at 450 and 600 deg. C and the resulting catalysts were tested on reaction of total oxidation of toluene. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption and H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction. It was found that ZnCuAl materials are composed of copper and zinc oxides supported on alumina; while MnCuAl ones comprise basically spinel phases, which were not completely identified. The catalytic behavior of the calcined samples showed that Mn hydrotalcite calcined at 450 deg. C exhibited the best catalytic performance that corresponds to 100% toluene conversion into CO{sub 2} at about 300 deg. C.

  15. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangdaeng, S; Sata, V; Aguiar, J B; Pacheco-Torgal, F; Chindaprasirt, P

    2015-06-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer was investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali concentration and curing temperature. The calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer with relatively high compressive strength could be fabricated for use as biomaterial. The mix with 50% white Portland cement and 50% calcined kaolin had 28-day compressive strength of 59.0MPa and the hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked sample surface was clearly evident.

  16. Talc-based cementitious products: Effect of talc calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Ngally Sabouang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of calcined talc for cementitious products making. The calcination is used to enhance the availability of magnesium from talc to react with phosphate for cement phase formation. It is shown that previous calcination of talc leads to products having enhanced mechanical performance due to the formation of more cement phase than in products based on raw talc. Talc fired at 900 °C was found to be the one in which magnesium release was maximal. Firing at temperature higher than 900 °C leads to the stabilization of enstatite, which decreased the magnesium availability. The cement phase is struvite, which was better detected on the X-ray patterns of the products involving fired talc. All the products have very rapid setting time and low shrinkage.

  17. Dissolution kinetics of ulexite prepared under different calcination temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkiran, N.; Kuenkuel, A. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: ndemirkiran@inonu.edu.tr

    2008-10-15

    Ulexite is one of the boron minerals used as a raw material in the production of boron compounds. It contains a substantial amount of hydration water. Using calcination methods, the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} grade of ulexite can be increased. In this study, the effect of calcination temperature on dissolution kinetics of ulexite in ammonium chloride solutions was investigated in a batch reactor employing the parameters of concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio and reaction temperature. It was found that the dissolution rate increased with increasing concentration and reaction temperature and with decreasing solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest dissolution rate was obtained with the sample calcined at 413 K. It was determined that the dissolution rate fit to the second order pseudo-homogeneous model. The activation energy of this dissolution process was found to be 64.3 kJ/mo L. (author)

  18. Morphology, crystal structure and hydration of calcined and modified anhydrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-qing Niu; Ji-chun Chen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of calcination and modification on the morphology (shapes and textures) and crystal structure of anhydrite powders were studied. The results show that, calcination at 100°C causes anhydrite to disintegrate into smaller crystals, accompanied by a slight in-crease in d-spacing. Without calcination and modification, the solidification time and curing time of anhydrite are 15 and 77 h, respectively. After the treatment, however, the solidification time and curing time are shortened significantly to 9.5 and 14 min, respectively. The com-pressive and flexural strengths of hydration products made from the treated anhydrite reach 10.2 and 2.0 MPa, respectively. The much shorter solidification and curing time make it possible to use anhydrite as a building and construction material.

  19. Synthesis of NaY Zeolite Using Mixed Calcined Kaolins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin is one of several types of clay minerals. The most common crystalline phase constituting kaolin minerals is kaolinite, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH4. Kaolin is mostly used for manufacturing traditional ceramics and also to synthesize zeolites or molecular sieves. The Si-O and Al-O structures in kaolin are inactive and inert, so activation by calcination is required. This work studies the conversion of kaolin originating from Bangka island in Indonesia into calcined kaolin phase as precursor in NaY zeolite synthesis. In the calcination process, the kaolinite undergoes phase transformations from metakaolin to mullite. The Bangka kaolin is 74.3% crystalline, predominantly composed of kaolinite, and 25.7% amorphous, with an SiO2/Al2O3 mass ratio of 1.64. Thermal characterization using simultaneous DSC/TGA identified an endothermic peak at 527°C and an exothermic peak at 1013°C. Thus, three calcination temperatures (700, 1013, and 1050 °C were selected to produce calcined kaolins with different phase distributions. The best product, with 87.8% NaY zeolite in the 54.7% crystalline product and an SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of 5.35, was obtained through hydrothermal synthesis using mixed calcined kaolins with a composition of K700C : K1013C : K1050C = 10 : 85 : 5 in %-mass, with seed addition, at a temperature of 93 °Cand a reaction time of 15 hours.

  20. Flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay and impact of process conditions on the quality of the calcines: A way to reduce CO2 footprint from cement industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    deplete metakaolin into unwanted products (e.g., mullite), which limits the use of the calcines as a supplementary cementitious material. With this regard, a dynamic model of flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay particles is developed using gPROMS (general PROcess Modeling System) to predict...... suspension calciner. The model is validated by the experimental data (e.g., the degree of dehydroxylation and the density of the calcines). Based on the model, the impacts of process conditions and feed properties on the quality of the calcination products are thoroughly examined....

  1. Analytical comparison between unprepared and calcined magnetitum(Cishi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; JIN Tongshun; YOU Juan; WANG Lu; WU Qinan

    2007-01-01

    The phases, chemical composition, surface appearance,crystal size,specific surface and thermal behavior of the unprepared and calcined forms of the mineral Magnetitum(Cishi),used as Chinese traditional medicine,were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction,scan electron microscopy,inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectometry(ICP)and thermogravimetrie(TG).The results indicated that after calcination the main phase Fe304 of the calcined Magnetitum(Duan Cishi)remained,while the Fe203 phase disappeared.The contents of the harmful chemical elements Cd and Pb were obviously reduced,while the crystal size increased from 24.5 to 35.7 nm and surface loosened.There were different TG curves for unprepared and calcined Magnetitum(Cishi)samples on heating.The former showed two weight-losing steps(at 367.9-422.1℃ and 568.8-594.1℃),and the latter only one.These results might serve as a base for quality evaluation of Magnetitum (Cishi).

  2. Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-09-01

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.

  3. KINETICS OF SORPTION OF FLUORIDE ON CALCINED MAGNESITE IN BATCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singano, J. J.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mtalo, F. W.;

    1997-01-01

    A series of sorption of fluoride on calcined magnesite are obtained from thermostatic pH-chemostat and jar test experiments. The fluoride removal is observed not to start instantly, as normal, but after a lag time of up to ½ an hour of contact time. A model for sorption kinetics is developed, bas...

  4. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  5. Pollution and Prevention of Pb during Cement Calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Emission pollution and prevention measures of Pb during cement calcination were discussed. The content of Pb and the variation of composition were explored by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction. The results show that a number of Pb emits during cement calcination, F and C1 promote the emission of Pb, and Pb is enriched in kiln dust. The smaller the particle of kiln dust, the higher the content of Pb. When utilizing the raw materials with a high content of Pb, a more efficient dust collector should be used and the kiln dust should be used as the addition of cement. Pb in clinker is enriched in the intermediate phase. The reduction of silica modulus is useful to increase the solidification content of Pb in clinker. The solidification content of Pb in calcium sulphoaluminate mineral is higher than that in calcium aluminate mineral.

  6. Calcined sodium silicate as solid base catalyst for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Peng, Zhen-Gang; Dai, Jian-Ying; Xiu, Zhi-Long [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This paper examined the use of calcined sodium silicate as a novel solid base catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. The calcined sodium silicate was characterized by DTA-TG, Hammett indicator method, XRD, SEM, BET, IR and FT-IR. It catalyzed the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with a yield of almost 100% under the following conditions: sodium silicate of 3.0 wt.%, a molar ratio of methanol/oil of 7.5:1, reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 60 C, and stirring rate of 250 rpm. The oil containing 4.0 wt.% water or 2.5 wt.% FFA could also be transesterified by using this catalyst. The catalyst can be reused for at least 5 cycles without loss of activity. (author)

  7. Sorption of aspartic and glutamic aminoacids on calcined hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, Fabiano; Dos Reis, Márcio José; Tronto, Jairo; Valim, João Barros

    2013-12-01

    Sorption of aspartic and glutamic aminoacids by regeneration of calcined hydrotalcite is reported. Hydrotalcite was synthesized by coprecipitation and calcined at 773 K. Sorption experiments were performed at 298 K and 310 K, and the results reveal that at low aminoacids equilibrium concentrations, intercalation of hydroxyl anions takes place while at high equilibrium concentrations, the sorption process occur by means re-hydration and aminoacids intercalation of hydrotalcite. The results also suggested that Asp and Glu sorption is a temperature dependent process. The amount of sorbed amino acid decreases as the temperature increase. The effect is more pronounced for Glu sorption probably due to its higher hydrophobic character, which makes the sorption more difficult in comparison with sorption of Asp at higher temperature.

  8. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde C. Meisingset

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this paper.

  9. Atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination of composite submicron fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecká, Veronika; Kováčik, Dušan; Tučeková, Zlata; Zahoranová, Anna; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The plasma assisted calcination of composite organic/inorganic submicron fibers for the preparation of inorganic fibers in submicron scale was studied. Aluminium butoxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers prepared by electrospinning were treated using low-temperature plasma generated by special type of dielectric barrier discharge, so called diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) at atmospheric pressure in ambient air, synthetic air, oxygen and nitrogen. Effect of plasma treatment on base polymer removal was investigated by using Attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Influence of working gas on the base polymer reduction was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and CHNS elemental analysis. Changes in fibers morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High efficiency of organic template removal without any degradation of fibers was observed after plasma treatment in ambient air. Due to the low-temperature approach and short exposure time, the plasma assisted calcination is a promising alternative to the conventional thermal calcination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  10. Mathematical modeling of an in-line low-NOx calciner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Ion; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Lars Skaarup

    2002-01-01

    The reduction of the NOx content in in-line-calciner-type kiln systems can be made by optimization of the primary filing in the rotary kiln and of the secondary firing in the calciner. Because the optimization of calciner offers greater opportunities the mathematical modeling of this reactor...... is very important. A heterogeneous, dynamic mathematical model for an in-line low-NOx calciner based on non-isothermal diffusion reaction models for char combustion and limestone calcination has been developed. The importance of the rate at which preheated combustion air was mixed into the main flow...

  11. Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Hyun, Seunghun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-12-01

    A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM-EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS-FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS-FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil.

  12. Thermal treatment and utilization of Al-rich waste in high calcium fly ash geopolymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk; Vongvoradit, Pimdao; Jenjirapanya, Supichart

    2012-09-01

    The Al-rich waste with aluminium and hydrocarbon as the major contaminant is generated at the wastewater treatment unit of a polymer processing plant. In this research, the heat treatment of this Al-rich waste and its use to adjust the silica/alumina ratio of the high calcium fly ash geopolymer were studied. To recycle the raw Al-rich waste, the waste was dried at 110°C and calcined at 400 to 1000°C. Mineralogical analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the phase change. The increase in calcination temperature to 600, 800, and 1000°C resulted in the phase transformation. The more active alumina phase of active γ-Al2O3 was obtained with the increase in calcination temperature. The calcined Al-rich waste was then used as an additive to the fly ash geopolymer by mixing with high calcium fly ash, water glass, 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sand. Test results indicated that the calcined Al-rich waste could be used as an aluminium source to adjust the silica/alumina ratio and the strength of geopolymeric materials. The fly ash geopolymer mortar with 2.5wt% of the Al-rich waste calcined at 1000°C possessed the 7-d compressive strength of 34.2 MPa.

  13. Experimental Results of NWCF Run H4 Calcine Dissolution Studies Performed in FY-98 and -99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Sierra, Tracy Laureena

    2001-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on actual samples of NWCF Run H-4 radioactive calcine in fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Run H-4 is an aluminum/sodium blend calcine. Typical dissolution data indicates that between 90-95 wt% of H-4 calcine can be dissolved using 1gram of calcine per 10 mLs of 5-8M nitric acid at boiling temperature. Two liquid raffinate solutions composed of a WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend and a WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend were converted into calcine at the NWCF. Calcine made from each blend was collected and transferred to RAL for dissolution studies. The WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend calcine was dissolved with resultant solutions used as feed material for separation treatment experimentation. The WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend calcine dissolution testing was performed to determine compositional analyses of the dissolved solution and generate UDS for solid/liquid separation experiments. Analytical fusion techniques were then used to determine compositions of the solid calcine and UDS from dissolution. The results from each of these analyses were used to calculate elemental material balances around the dissolution process, validating the experimental data. This report contains all experimental data from dissolution experiments performed using both calcine blends.

  14. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  15. Effects of calcination temperature on the pore size and wall crystalline structure of mesoporous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-Xi; Zheng, Ting-Ting; Bo, Qi-Bing; Du, Miao; Forsling, Willis

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, mesoporous alumina with different pore sizes and wall crystalline structures was synthesized at calcination temperatures over 550 degrees C. The characterization of the samples calcined at 550, 800, 1100, and 1300 degrees C, respectively, was performed using TEM, XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques. The correlation between pore size and wall crystalline structure on calcination temperature was systematically investigated.

  16. Feasibility of Carbonaceous Nanomaterial-Assisted Photocatalysts Calcined at Different Temperatures for Indoor Air Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kuen Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-assisted TiO2 (MWNT-TiO2 nanocomposites calcined at different temperatures to assess their potential indoor air applications. It was confirmed that the composites calcined at low temperatures (300 and 400°C contained TiO2 nanoparticles bound intimately to the MWNT networks. Meanwhile, almost no MWNTs were observed when the calcination temperature was increased to 500 and 600°C. The MWNT-TiO2 composites calcined at low temperatures showed higher photocatalytic decomposition efficiencies for aromatic hydrocarbons at indoor concentrations than those calcined at high temperatures. The mean efficiencies for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX by the composite calcined at 300°C were 32, 70, 79, and 79%, respectively, whereas they were 33, 71, 78, and 78% for the composite calcined at 400°C, respectively. In contrast, the efficiencies decreased to close to zero when the calcination temperature was increased to 600°C. Moreover, the MWNT-TiO2 exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the decomposition efficiencies compared to TiO2 under conventional UV-lamp irradiations. Consequently, these carbonaceous nanomaterial-assisted photocatalysts can be applied effectively to indoor air applications depending upon the calcination temperature.

  17. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  18. Non-Isothermal Calcination Kinetics of Phosphate Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Bayrakçeken

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of thermal decomposition of the phosphate rock was studied by means of thermal analysis techniques (TG/DTG in inert nitrogen (N2 atmosphere at heating rates of 2, 5, 10, and 20 K min-1. TG and DTG measurements indicated that calcination of the phosphate rock has single-stage degradation in between 873-1173 K. Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO isoconversional methods were applied to the data obtained from TG and DTG curves and the activation energies were found as 170 ve 187 kJmol-1, respectively. It was determined that the thermal decomposition mechanism of phosphate rock was occurred via nucleation and growth (-ln(1-α2/3 mechanism. Pre-exponentional factor (lnA was determined as 20.47.

  19. Ignition Dynamic Parameters for Coke in Cement Calciners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical ignition model was established and researches of ignition dynamic parameters for coke in some typical coal samples from cement plants was carried out according to circumstances of coal combusted in cement plants.In order to get the ignitioin temperature Tpi of carbon particles more accurately,the temperature rising experimental method was used and the actual heating circumstances for pulverized coal in calciners(in cement plants)were also considered.With this method,the accurate determination of the ignition temperature of coke in coal was achieved,so as to get some ignition dynamic parameters.These research results provide a theoretical basis for investigating coal ignition characteristics more scientifically and more accurately.

  20. Microstructural changes in porous hematite nanoparticles upon calcination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Rune; Knudsen, Kenneth D.; Molenbroek, Alfons M.

    2011-01-01

    This combined study using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and adsorption isotherm techniques demonstrates radical changes in the microstructure of porous hematite (-Fe2O3) nanoparticles upon calcination in air. TEM...... images of the as-synthesized hematite sample show that it consists of subrounded nanoparticles [50 (8)–61 (11) nm in average minimum and maximum diameters] with an apparent porous structure of nanosized pores/ channels or cracks. SANS data confirm the presence of two characteristic sizes, one originating...... data reveal that the crystallite size increases significantly, and the SANS and adsorption isotherm studies suggest that the specific surface area decreases by a factor of 5–6. The TEM images show that the particles are sintered into larger agglomerates, but they also show that parts of the porous...

  1. STUDY ON HIGH ACID LEACHING REACTIVE CALCINED KAOLIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leaching experiments on metakaolin show that the final Al extraction ratio reached in a batch reaction is strikingly influenced by the inferior pore structure geometry of the metakaolin pellets. By calcining kaolin particles adhered in low humidity state,a variety of metakaolin pellet,inside which a large openings structure developed,has been prepared. The structure remarkably benefits leachant ion transference,so,the variety has high acid leaching reactivity,even coarse as the pellets are,its aluminum extracted ratio still has a linear relationship with leaching time,and the leaching kinetics is maintained zero order up to a significant conversion degree. A revised Pellet-Particle Model has been developed to interpret the structure influence on Al extraction ratio.

  2. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcali M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD. In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet were investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc and iron recovery (% increases with increasing temperature as well as time. Pelletizing was found to be a better method than using the powder as received for the zinc recovery and iron conversion (. In the calcination (roasting process, crude zinc oxide, which evaporated from non-ferric metals were collected as condensed product (crude waelz oxide, was heated in air atmosphere. Lead, cadmium as well as chlorine and other impurities were successfully removed from crude waelz oxide by this method. In the calcination experiments; temperature and time are investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc purification (% increases with increasing temperature. The highest zinc refining (% was obtained at 1200°C for 120 minutes. A kinetic study was also undertaken to determine the activation energy of the process. Activation energies were 242.77 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with powder forms, 261.99 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with pellet forms respectively. It was found that, initially, the reaction was chemically controlled.

  3. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakel, Allen J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Conner, Cliff [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  4. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-10-05

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  5. Modeling of in-line low-NOx calciners - a parametric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Ion; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Anker;

    2002-01-01

    Simulations with a heterogeneous model of an in-line low-NOx calciner, based on non-isothermal diffusion-reaction models for char combustion and limestone calcination combined with a kinetic model for NO formation and reduction, are reported. The analysis shows that the most important hydrodynamic...... parameter is the mixing rate of preheated combustion air into the sub-stoichiometric suspension leaving the reducing zone and the most important combustion parameter is the char reactivity. Also, the calcination rate modifies very much the temperature in the calciner, char and limestone conversion...... and NO emission. Carbon monoxide is a key component for the reduction of NO and reliable data for the kinetics of NO reduction by CO over CaO are very important for the prediction of the NO emission. The internal surface area of char and limestone particles influences the combustion and calcination rates...

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  7. Direct cementitious waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafoe, R.E.; Losinski, S.J.

    1998-02-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target data of 2035. This study investigates the direct grouting of all ICPP calcine (including the HLW dry calcine and those resulting from calcining sodium-bearing liquid waste currently residing in the ICPP storage tanks) as the treatment method to comply with the settlement agreement. This method involves grouting the calcined waste and casting the resulting hydroceramic grout into stainless steel canisters. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for grouting treatment will be from 2013 through 2032, and all the HLW will be treated and in interim storage by the end of 2032.

  8. Cycle of waste heat energy transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, H.; Voneynatten, C.; Krause, R.; Rudolph, W.; Gneuss, G.; Groesche, F.

    1983-08-01

    Transformation of industrial waste heat with temperatures up to 300 C into mechanical or electrical energy using organic Rankine cycles technique is considered. Behavior of working fluid was studied and plant components were optimized. A pilot plant (generated power 30 kW) was installed under industrial operating conditions. The working fluid is a fluorochlorohydrocarbon; the expansion machine is a piston type steam engine. The results of the pilot plant were used for the planning and building of a prototype plant (120 kW) with an additional power heat coupling for preheating the boiler heat water. The waste heat source is a calciner process. The predicted results are obtained although full working load is not reached due to reduced available waste heat of the calciner process.

  9. Technical summary: Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Browne, L.M.; Bryan, G.H.; Holton, L.K.; Irish, E.R.; Siemens, D.H.

    1979-05-01

    Six PWR fuel assemblies, containing 2.3 metric tons uranium from Point Beach, have been processed by a conventional Purex-type process. U and other chemicals were added to the dilute HLLW, and the waste was then vitrified to produce two canisters of glass. The on-stream efficiency of the waste preparation facility exceeded 90% for the first 3 weeks; the overall average was 62%. The only processing difficulty in the vitrification facility was a partial failure in the spray calciner nozzle. The Pu byproduct of waste preparation was purified by ion exchange and calcined to oxide; one can of oxide ruptured due to self-heating. 27 figures, 16 tables. (DLC)

  10. Immobilization of Penicillin G Acylase on Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ling-ling; HE Jing; Evans D. G.; DUAN Xue

    2003-01-01

    A hydrotalcite-like Mg2+/Al3+ layered double hydroxide(LDH) material was prepared by means of a modified coprecipitation method involving a rapid mixing step followed by a separate aging process. LDH calcined at 500 ℃, denoted as CLDH, was characterized by XRD, IR and BET surface area measurements. CLDH has a poor crystalline MgO-like structure with a high surface area and porosity. CLDH was used as a support for the immobilization of penicillin G acylase(PGA). The effect of varying the immobilization conditions, such as pH, contact time and the ratio of enzyme to support, on the activity of the immobilized enzyme in the hydrolysis of penicillin G has been studied. It was found that the activity of the immobilized enzyme decreased slightly with decreasing pH and reached a maximum after a contact time of 24 h. The activity of the immobilized enzyme increased with increasing the ratio of enzyme to support. It was found that the adsorption of PGA inhibited the expected reaction of CLDH with an aqueous medium to regenerate a LDH phase. Its original activity(36%) after 15 cycles of reuse of the immobilized enzyme was retained, but no further loss in the activity was observed.

  11. Bibliography of PNL publications in management of radioactive wastes, subject-indexed (alphabetically) and listed chronologically (latest issues first)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1976-07-01

    The citations are arranged under: actinides, alpha particles, americium, beta particles, calcination, cements, ceramics, cesium, containers, decontamination, evaporation, fluidized bed, glass, ground release, high-level wastes, incinerators, liquid wastes, marine disposal, melting, nonradioactive waste disposal, Pu, radiation doses, radiation protection, disposal, processing, radionuclide migration, Ru, safety, separation processes, soils, solidification, solid wastes, stack disposal, temperature, thermal conductivity, transmutation, tritium, underground disposal, U, volatility, and waste disposal/management/processing/storage/transportation. (DLC)

  12. SYNTHESIS OF SnO2 NANOCRYSTALS BY SOLID STATE REACTION FOLLOWED BY CALCINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmin Gao; Li Pang; Hongwei Che; Xiaoping Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 was synthesized by direct mixing and grinding of SnCl4·5H2O and NaOH at roomtemperature, followed by calcination at different temperatures for different times in air. Product samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, revealing that the amorphous precursor SnO2 was transformed to crystals at 200 ℃ for 3 h, and that the average particle size increased upon raising the calcining temperature or prolonging the calcining time. The mechanism of the phase transformation of the products is discussed.

  13. Effect of Heat Treatment Temperature on Properties of Chinese Calcined Flint Clay Based Plastic Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; DAI Wenyong; YU Xinfeng; LI Liang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of different heat treatment temperatures on properties of Chinese calcined flint clay based plastic refractories were investigated using Chinese calcined flint clay as starting material,aluminum sulfate and fireclay as binding system.The results showed that with temperature rising,Chinese calcined flint clay based plastic refractories shrinked firstly and then expanded.The modulus of rupture (MOR) and the cold crushing strength (CCS) increased firstly and then decreased from 110 ℃ to 600 ℃,then increased obviously.Thermal expansion coefficient increased from 110 ℃ to 760 ℃,decreased from 760 ℃ to 1 300 ℃,and increased from 1 300 ℃ to 1 500 ℃.

  14. 煤矸石煅烧实验研究%Coal Gangue Calcined Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏星

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the three major factors affecting coal gangue calcined whitening and structure changes before and after calcination,points out that the calcination process selection is the ket section,but the factors is associated,mutual penetration,should not be ignored.%论述了影响煤矸石煅烧增白的三大因素及煅烧前后的结构变化,指出煅烧工艺选择是关键,但各因素又是相关连、互相渗透的,都不应忽视。

  15. Mechanism of Calcined Phosphogypsum for the Volume Change of Blended Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into the volume change of cement mortar specimen at the three kinds of different curing schedules including 20℃ and 5% Na2SO4 solution curing, tap water standard curing, 50% RH curing for 90 days. The testing results of hydration heat, chemical shrinking and XRD prove that calcined phosphogypsum has evident excitation effect on the activity of high calcium ash and steel slag. Simultaneously, calcined phosphogypsum has the function of decreasing volume shrinkage to blended cement possessing steel slag and high calcium ash. In sulfate curing, calcined phosphogypsum can avoid the phenomenon of protrude apex of the blended cement.

  16. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  17. Decomposition of bastnasite and monazite mixed rare earth minerals calcined byalkali liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yanhui; LIU Haijiao; MENG Zhijun; CUI Jianguo; ZHAO Wenyi; LI Liangcai

    2012-01-01

    The process of decomposion of the bastnasite and monazite rare earth concentrates by alkali solutions was investigated.The mixed slurries of the rare earth concentrates and the alkali solutions were calcined at different temperatures in a rotary tubular electric furnace.The effects of calcination temperature on the decomposing ratio of rare earth,the oxidation ratio of cerium,the stripping of fluorine and phosphorous after calcinations,and the adaptability of the process to the mixed rare earth concentrates of different grade were studied.The results showed that the decomposition ratio of rare earth and the oxidation ratio of cerium could reach 95.8% and 93.7%,respectively,while the calcinating temperature was above 300 ℃.

  18. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium-rich solids. The calciner and some of its ancillary equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  19. Kinetics Analysis on Mixing Calcination Process of Fly Ash and Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Laishi Li; Dezhou Wei

    2014-01-01

    abstract The further development of the extraction of alumina that is produced in the calcination process of ammonium sulfate mixed with fly ash was limited because of the lack of systematic theoretical study. In order to aggrandize the research of the calcination process, the kinetics and reaction mechanism of the calcinations were studied. The result suggests that there are two stages in the calcination process, and the alumina extraction rate increases swiftly in the initial stage, but slows down increasing in the later stage. The apparent activation energy of the initial and later stages equals to 13.31 and 35.65 kJ·mol-1, respectively. In the initial stage, ammonium sulfate reacts directly with mullite in the fly ash to form ammonium aluminum sulfate, while in the later stage, alumi-num sulfate is formed by the reaction between ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium sulfate.

  20. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  1. Synthesis of Dy2O3 nanoparticles via hydroxide precipitation:effect of calcination temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahaa M. Abu-Zied; Abdullah M. Asiri

    2014-01-01

    This work described the preparation of dysprosium oxide, Dy2O3, nanoparticles using the homogeneous precipitation method. Dy3+ions were precipitated using NaOH solution. The obtained product was filtered, dried, and then calcined for 1 h at the temperature range of 300-700 °C in static air. The calcination temperature of the Dy-precursor was chosen based on its decomposi-tion as indicated by the TGA analysis. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of the calcined solids were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray pho-toelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The obtained results revealed that Dy2O3 with crystallites size of 11-21 nm was formed at 500 °C. Such value increased to 25-37 nm for the sample calcined at 700 °C.

  2. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.

  3. Effect of Calcination Conditions on the Performance of Co-precipitation Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method, and the effect of calcination temperature and calcination time on the performances of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the optimum calcination temperature and calcination time of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were 450 °C and 7 h, respectively. Using the catalysts which prepared under the optimum calcination conditions catalytic wet oxidation of methyl orange simulated wastewater, after 90 min, the COD, COD removal rate, absorbance, decolorization rate and pH of the methyl orange simulated wastewater were 737.7, 70.5%, 0.348, 95.3%, and 5.31, respectively. According to the analyses of the SEM, FTIR, and TG-DTA curves, the components of the catalysts which prepared under the optimum calcination conditions distributed evenly, and the chemical compositions of the catalysts including C-O, -OH, and H-O-H, showing a good thermal stability.

  4. Origin of Activity and Stability Enhancement for Ag3PO4 Photocatalyst after Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pristine Ag3PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, followed by being calcined at different temperatures to obtain a series of calcined Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. This work aims to investigate the origin of activity and stability enhancement for Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination based on the systematical analyses of the structures, morphologies, chemical states of elements, oxygen defects, optical absorption properties, separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and active species. The results indicate that oxygen vacancies (VO˙˙ are created and metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are formed by the reaction of partial Ag+ in Ag3PO4 semiconductor with the thermally excited electrons from Ag3PO4 and then deposited on the surface of Ag3PO4 microspheres during the calcination process. Among the calcined Ag3PO4 samples, the Ag3PO4-200 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and greatly enhanced photocatalytic stability for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB solution under visible light irradiation. Oxygen vacancies play a significantly positive role in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity, while metallic Ag has a very important effect on improving the photocatalytic stability. Overall, the present work provides some powerful evidences and a deep understanding on the origin of activity and stability enhancement for the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination.

  5. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Morphological and Topography of Nickel-Alumina Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwani Khairul Ilman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dip coating process promises good potential of nickel-alumina catalyst deposition on metal substrate for various applications especially in gas conversion reaction. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different calcination temperature on nickel-alumina catalysts thin film formation. Four different calcination temperature were used, which are 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. The calculation process was conducted for a duration of 90 minutes. The deposited thin films were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD equipment. The AFM result showed that the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina increase proportionally from 56 to 275 nm when the calcination temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. From an observation at high calcination temperature, the atom of grains assisted diffusion at the crystallite point causing grain with lower surface energy become larger. As the calcination temperature increase, the surface profile becomes rough and uneven representing high surface roughness. Thus, the effect of calcination temperature greatly influences the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina thin film.

  6. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project`s scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary.

  7. Characterization of magnetic biochar amended with silicon dioxide prepared at high temperature calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baig Shams Ali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcination is considered to increase the hardness of composite material and prevent its breakage for the effective applications in environmental remediation. In this study, magnetic biochar amended with silicon dioxide was calcined at high temperature under nitrogen environment and characterized using various techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed elimination of Fe3O4 peaks under nitrogen calcination and formation of Fe3Si and iron as major constituents of magnetic biochar-SiO2 composite, which demonstrated its superparamagnetic behavior (>80 A2·kg−1 comparable to magnetic biochar. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA revealed that both calcined samples generated higher residual mass (>96 % and demonstrated better thermal stability. The presence of various bands in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was more obvious and the elimination of H–O–H bonding was observed at high temperature calcination. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed certain morphological variation among the samples and the presence of more prominent internal and external pores, which then judged the surface area and pore volume of samples. Findings from this study suggests that the selective calcination process could cause useful changes in the material composites and can be effectively employed in environmental remediation measures.

  8. Adsorptive removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions using raw and calcinated dolomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, S; Gürses, A; Ejder, M; Açikyildiz, M

    2006-02-06

    This study explored the feasibility of utilizing raw and calcinated dolomite under CO2 atmosphere for phosphate removal in laboratory experiments. The experimental work emphasized the evaluation of phosphate adsorption characteristics of this adsorbent material. Studies were conducted to delineate the effect of contact time, initial phosphate concentration, temperature, pH, stirring speed, adsorbent dose and calcination temperature. Phosphate removal decreased with increasing temperature and slightly increased with increasing of pH. The observed decrease in the adsorption capacity with increase of the temperature from 20 to 40 and to 60 degrees C indicates that the low temperatures favor the phosphate removal by adsorption onto dolomite. Phosphate removal was seen to decrease with increasing calcination temperature due to the structural changes occurring in the structure and pore size distribution of dolomite samples during calcination. The experimental data obtained were applied to the Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, Halsey, Harkins-Jura, Smith and Henderson isotherm equations to test the fit of these equations to raw and calcinated dolomite samples. By considering the experimental results and adsorption models applied in this study, it can be concluded that adsorption of phosphate occurs predominantly through physical interactions, and the dolomite sample has a heteroporous structure. The large values of the constants for Henderson equation and the high value of y(m) obtained from BET equation indicate the microporous structure is more stable in raw and calcinated dolomite samples.

  9. Carbon dioxide absorption and release properties of pyrolysis products of dolomite calcined in vacuum atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kuzuya, Toshihiro; Hirai, Shinji; Li, Jihua; Li, Te

    2014-01-01

    The decomposition of dolomite into CaO and MgO was performed at 1073 K in vacuum and at 1273 K in an Ar atmosphere. The dolomite calcined in vacuum was found to have a higher specific surface area and a higher micropore volume when compared to the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. These pyrolysis products of dolomite were reacted with CO2 at 673 K for 21.6 ks. On the absorption of CO2, the formation of CaCO3 was observed. The degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in vacuum was determined to be above 50%, which was higher than the degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. The CO2 absorption and release procedures were repeated three times for the dolomite calcined in vacuum. The specific surface area and micropore volume of calcined dolomite decreased with successive repetitions of the CO2 absorption and release cycles leading to a decrease in the degree of absorption of CO2.

  10. Influence of Light Calcining Hydration of Magnesite on MgO Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Huan; YU Jingkun; KUANG Shibo

    2009-01-01

    Sintered magnesia clinker (also called sintered MgO ) was prepared with Mg(OH)2 (prepared by light calcining hydration of magnesite) and magnesite as starting materials, respectively, by the technical process : light calcining (850 ℃ 1 h )→grinding → molding →firing ( 1 600 ℃ 3 h ). The morphology and struc-ture of light calcined MgO powders prepared with mag-nesite or Mg(OH)2 were analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. The sinterability and microstructure of sintered magnesia prepared with magnesite or Mg(OH)2 were re-searched. The results showed that: (1) light calcined MgO powders prepared with magnesite or Mg (OH)2 were both face-centered cubic structure. The light cal-cined MgO prepared with magnesitehad the residual of functional group CO32- , and that prepared with Mg (OH)2 didn't have CO32-, and was easy to break, which reduced the grinding time. (2) Because of the high activity of the light calcined MgO prepared with Mg(OH)2 and the catalysis of the water residual in the decomposing process of Mg(OH)2, the apparent porosity of sintered magnesia decreased to 0.6% from 2.0% of before hydration, closed porosity decreased to 2.8% from 6.1%, and bulk density increased to 3.46 g·cm-3 from 3.29 g·cm-3

  11. Transportation and transformation of mercury in a calcine profile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Gu, Chunhao; Feng, Xinbin; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Ningning

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of Hg ores has resulted in serious contamination of mercury (Hg) in the environment. To understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile, the speciation of Hg in a profile of a large calcine pile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China was investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile. Higher concentrations of Hg were observed at the 30-50 cm depth of the profile, corresponding to a cemented layer. This layer is observed in the entire pile, and was formed due to cementation of calcines. Hg species in calcines include cinnabar (α-HgS), metacinnabar (β-HgS), elemental Hg(0), and minor mercuric chloride (HgCl2), but these Hg species show dramatic changes in the profile. Variations in Hg speciation suggest that extensive mobilization of Hg can occur during weathering processes. We show that the cemented layer can prevent the leaching of Hg and the emission of Hg(0) from the pile. High MeHg concentrations were found near the cemented layer, indicating Hg methylation occurs. This study provides important insights into the environmental risk of Hg in mining areas.

  12. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  13. Influence of acid leaching and calcination on iron removal of coal kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-wang Zhu; Wei-qiang Zeng; Xiu-lin Xu; Le-ming Cheng; Xiao Jiang; Zheng-lun Shi

    2014-01-01

    Calcination and acid leaching of coal kaolin were studied to determine an effective and economical preparation method of calcined kaolin. Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that 900°C was the suitable temperature for the calcination. Leaching tests showed that hydrochloric acid was more effective for iron dissolution from raw coal kaolin (RCK), whereas oxalic acid was more effective on iron dissolution from calcined coal kaolin (CCK). The iron dissolution from CCK was 28.78wt%, which is far less effective than the 54.86wt% of RCK under their respective optimal conditions. Through analysis by using Mössbauer spectroscopy, it is detected that nearly all of the structural ferrous ions in RCK were removed by hydrochloric acid. However, iron sites in CCK changed slightly by oxalic acid leaching because nearly all ferrous ions were transformed into ferric species after firing at 900°C. It can be concluded that it is difficult to remove the structural ferric ions and ferric oxides evolved from the structural ferrous ions. Thus, iron removal by acids should be conducted prior to calcination.

  14. Effect of Calcined Temperature on the Solubility of Trace Elements from Manifanshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Hanlie; TIE Liyun; BIAN Qiujuan; ZHOU Yong

    2006-01-01

    A medical stone manifanshi were researched by using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) methods. The XRD pattern of the raw Manifanshi indicates that it is dominantly composed of plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, and that of the calcined Manifanshi at 1000 ℃ shows that the distortion of crystal structure in both plagioclase and orthoclase takes place at the calcined temperature. The polarized light microscopy observation suggests that the Manifanshi is naturally weathered monzo-granite porphyry. Chemical analyses reveal that the Manifanshi contains a number of healthful trace elements and rare toxic trace elements, therefore, it is a high quality Manifanshi. The solubility of trace elements was determined by measuring the concentration of trace elements from Manifanshi calcined under varying temperature conditions by ICP method, the results suggest that the calcined product at 1000 ℃ shows the ideal result in ionic concentrations and dissolution rate of trace elements in water, which is contributed to the distortion of the crystal structure of feldspar at the calcined temperature.

  15. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  16. Research and development activities: high-level waste immobilization program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.; Bonner, W.F.; Henry, M.H.

    1979-12-01

    Test results are available on 21 out of a total of 65 glass compositions in a generic study of composition effects on waste glass properties such as Soxhlet leach rate, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and volatility. Preliminary results indicate the leaching behavior of a Cermet waste form prepared at ORNL is similar to that of waste glass and supercalcine. Scanning transmission electron microscopy has confirmed that supercalcine contains up to 10 vol% glassy phase and that small fractions of Cs, Sr, and rare earth reside in the glassy phase. Two long-term runs were completed in the ceramic melter coupled directly to the full-scale spray calciner. Two new ceramic melters were put into operation. A preliminary test in the small spray calciner indicates that coal, which is present in some Savannah River Plant wastes, is only partially decomposed during spray calcination. 15 figures, 11 tables.

  17. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  18. Effects of nanosized metallic palladium loading and calcination on characteristics of composite silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉程; 吴侠; 李广海; 张立德

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nanosized metallic palladium loading and calcination on the characteristics of composite silica,the silica was prepared by sol-gel technique,leading to an amorphous solid with mesoporosity,and the pore size distribution is narrow,centered at 3-5 nm.The composite silica was formed by impregnating palladium precursor into the porous network with sequel calcination in hydrogen.The results show that the nanosized palladium as guest phase in the composite silica is subjected to the mesoporous structure and calcination,resulting in the changes of optical adsorption that red-shifted to higher wavelength with the palladium loading and the heating temperature.The tailoring of the optical properties can be ascribed to the effect of the nanosized metal particles and interactions occurred between palladium and silica.

  19. Ce - promoted catalyst from hydrotalcites for CO2 reforming of methane: calcination temperature effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Daza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce-promoted Ni-catalysts from hydrotalcites were obtained. The effect of calcination temperature on the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts was studied. Several techniques were used to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of oxides. The apparent activation energies of reduction were determined. Catalytic experiments at 48 L g-1h-1 without pre-reduction in CO2 reforming of methane were performed. The spinel-like phase in these oxides was only formed at 1000 ºC. The reduction of Ni2+ in the oxides was clearly affected by the calcination temperature which was correlated with catalytic performance. The catalyst calcined at 700 ºC showed the greatest activity.

  20. Effect of fly ash preliminary calcination on the properties of geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuujin, J; van Riessen, A

    2009-05-30

    The influence of preliminary calcination of fly ashes on the geopolymerisation process has been studied. Preliminary calcination at 500 and 800 degrees C causes decarbonation of the fly ash while it also leads to a decrease of the amorphous content of the fly ashes from 60 to 57%. Geopolymer prepared using raw fly ash exhibited a compressive strength 55.7(9.2)MPa, while for 500 and 800 degrees C calcined samples it reduced to 54(5.8) and 44.4(5.4)MPa, respectively. The decrease in compressive strength of the geopolymers is discussed in terms of partial surface crystallisation of the fly ash particles. Reactivity of the fly ash also has been correlated with the shrinkage rate and presence of efflorescence on the surface of geopolymers.

  1. Mensuration of microstructure multi-fractal spectra of calcined limestone particle surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyu Shang; Songling Wang; Chunbo Wang; Chunchang Song

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure of the surface of a calcined limestone particle is multi-fractal.We develop an analytic method that surveys the boundary curve multi-fractal dimensions with SEM,gets a three-dimensional surface structure α-f(α)curve via zero-sets,and finally calculates the multi-fractal spectrum values of the particle surface's microstructural topography.After analyzing two spectra from limestone particles calcined at 850 ℃ and 900 ℃,it was shown that the microstructural topographies of the surfaces of calcined limestone multi-particle system have some degree of self-similarity.This mensuration method is proposed to describe the multi-fractal characteristics of a micro-scale particle's surface topography.

  2. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD.

  3. Effect of Different Calcination Duration on Physicochemical Properties of Vanadium Phosphate Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphate catalysts have been prepared by calcining VOHPO44·0.5H2O which were prepared via two methods i.e. organic (VPO method and dihydrate (VPD method routes for different duration under anaerobic atmosphere. Increasing the calcinations duration led to a decrease in total surface area. It is also promote the formation of V5+ phase in the catalysts. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed that the morphologies of all catalysts composed of plate-like crystallites that were arranged into the characteristic of rosette cluster. However, by increasing the pretreatment duration in an inert environment, the rosette-shape of the clusters which normally obtained in reaction condition was collapsed. Prolong the duration of N2 calcination also resulted in an increment in the amount of oxygen desorbed (from O2-TPD and removed (obtained from H2-TPR.

  4. Effects of Calcination Condition on Porous Reduced Titanium Oxides and Oxynitrides via Preceramic Polymer Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, George; Sato, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Ren, Yang; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-03-16

    The preceramic polymer route from titanium-based inorganic-organic hybrid networks provides electro conductive N-doped reduced titanium oxides (TinO2n–1) and titanium oxynitrides (TiOxNy) with a monolithic shape as well as well-defined porous structure. This methodology demonstrates advantageously lower temperature of crystal phase transition compared to the reduction of TiO2 by carbon or H2. In this study, effects of calcination condition on various features of the products have been explored by adopting three different atmospheric conditions and varying the calcination temperature. The detailed crystallographic and elemental analyses disclose the distinguished difference in phase transition behavior with respect to calcination atmosphere. Correlation between the crystallization and nitridation behaviors, porous properties and electric conductivities in the final products has been discussed.

  5. Study of as-synthesized and calcined hydrocalumites as possible antacid agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carlos F Linares; Freddy Ocanto; Pablo Bretto; Maricela Monsalve

    2014-06-01

    A hydrocalumite-type solid was synthesized by the homogeneous co-precipitation method by using Ca and Al nitrate solutions in a basic medium (NaOH). This solid was calcined at 700 and 900 °C, respectively. Then, solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT–IR spectroscopy and BET surface area measurements. Finally, these solids were tested as antacids by using a synthetic gastric juice. Results showed that calcined samples were able to neutralize the synthetic gastric juice in more extension as an as-synthesized hydrocalumite; however, the last solid showed better conditions as a potential antacid.

  6. Study of structural transformations and phases formation upon calcination of Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcite nanosheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhanshuang Li; Yanchao Song; Jun Wang; Qi Liu; Piaoping Yang; Milin Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a general process for the synthesis of highly crystalline Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcitelike materials. The structure and thermal decomposition of the prepared samples are studied by XRD, FT–IR, TG–DSC, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption. The morphology of large-sized, porous and hexagonal platelike Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcite is affected by calcination temperature. BET specific surface area and pore volume are observed to increase with increase of the calcination temperature up to 700°C followed by a further decrease with increasing temperature.

  7. Investigation of the possibility of copper removal from industrial leachate by raw and calcined phosphogypsum: D-optimal and Taguchi designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesci, Basak [Engineering Faculty, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Turan, Nurdan Gamze [Engineering Faculty, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Ozgonenel, Okan [Engineering Faculty, Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    In the present study, the removal of Cu(II) was evaluated by raw and calcined phosphogypsum (PG) as an industrial product. The role of experimental factors on the removal of Cu(II) was examined by using D-optimal and Taguchi designs. The experimental factors and their related levels were selected as initial pH of 3-6-8, adsorbent content of 5, 10, and 25 g L{sup -1}, contact time of 5, 10, and 20 min, and temperature of 20, 40, and 60 C. The results are evaluated by ANOVA test to extract important experimental factors and their levels. The performances of the suggested factorial designs were then compared and regression models that took into account the significant main and interaction effects were suggested. Taguchi design was found as a reliable solution with less number of experiments for adsorption studies with the optimized values. The resultant removal efficiency is calculated as 78.34%. The results revealed that calcined PG is an appropriate adsorbent for Cu(II) removal from leachate of industrial waste. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Influence of calcinated and non calcinated nanobioglass particles on hardness and bioactivity of sol-gel-derived TiO2-SiO2 nano composite coatings on stainless steel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadash, Mohammad Saleh; Karbasi, Saeed; Esfahani, Mojtaba Nasr; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza; Vali, Hojatollah

    2011-04-01

    Thick films of calcinated and non calcinated nanobioglass (NBG)-titania composite coatings were prepared on stainless steel substrates by alkoxide sol-gel process. Dip-coating method was used for the films preparation. The morphology, structure and composition of the nano composite films were evaluated using environmental scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The SEM investigation results showed that prepared thick NBG-titania films are smooth and free of macrocracking, fracture or flaking. The grain size of these films was uniform and nano scale (50-60 nm) which confirmed with TEM. Also FTIR confirmed the presence of Si-O-Si bands on the calcinated NBG-titania films. The hardness of the prepared films (TiO(2)-calcinated NBG and TiO(2)-Non calcinated NBG) was compared by using micro hardness test method. The results verified that the presence of calcinated NBG particles in NBG-titania composite enhanced gradually the mechanical data of the prepared films. The in vitro bioactivity of these films was discussed based on the analysis of the variations of Ca and P concentrations in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and their surface morphologies against immersion time. Surface morphology and Si-O-Si bands were found to be of great importance with respect to the bioactivity of the studied films. The results showed that calcinated NBG-titania films have better bioactivity than non calcinated NBG-titania films.

  9. 石油焦煅烧技术方案比较%Comparison of calcination technical schemes of petroleum coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆二军; 刘慧

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons of different calcination technologies,such as the vertical shaft calciner, rotary kiln,rotary hearth furnace and electrically calcined furnace. The comparisons from process performance perspective, thermodynamic principle, calcination technology, calcination product quality, environment of engineering construction and the main technical and economic indexes etc., are made. The characteristics of different calcination technologies in the production of anode used in aluminum industry are discussed, the advantages and disadvantages of different calcination technology are analyzed, and further optimizing for the design and operation of the main calcination technology is pointed out.%对罐式炉、回转窑、回转床、电煅炉等炭素煅烧处理方式从工艺流程、热工原理、煅烧工艺技术、煅烧质量、工程建设环境及主要技术经济指标等方面进行综合比较;基于目前生石油焦质量与供应等情况,讨论了石油焦煅烧技术对生产铝用阳极焦的适应性;分析了不同煅烧方式的优缺点,提出了对主要煅烧技术需进一步优化设计与工艺操作的建议.

  10. Effect of sulfuric acid concentration of bentonite and calcination time of pillared bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Ady; Wijaya, Karna; Trisunaryati, Wega; Mudasir

    2016-04-01

    An activation of natural clay has been developed. Activation was applied by refluxing the natural bentonite in variation of the sulfuric acid concentration and calcination time of pillared bentonite (PLC). Calcination was applied using oven in microwave 2,45 GHz. Determination of acidity was applied by measuring the amount of adsorbed ammonia and pyridine. Morphological, functional groups and chrystanility characterizations were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD. Porosity was analyzed using SSA. The results showed that the greater of the concentration of sulfuric acid and calcination time was, the greater the acidity of bentonite as well as the pore diameter were. FTIR spectra showed no fundamental changes in the structure of the natural bentonite, SEM, and TEM images were showing an increase in space or field due to pillarization while the XRD patterns showed a shift to a lower peak. Optimization was obtained at a concentration of 2 M of sulfuric acid and calcination time of 20 minutes, keggin ion of 2.2 and suspension of 10 mmol, respectively each amounted to 11.7490 mmol/gram of ammonia and 2.4437 mmol/gram of pyridine with 154.6391 m2/gram for surface area, 0.130470 m3/gram of pore volume and 3.37484 nm of pore diameter.

  11. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation under aqueous condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh Patil; Swati D Jadhav; M B Deshmukh

    2013-07-01

    A convenient, eco-friendly and economic method for Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with active methylene compounds using calcined eggshell (CES) as an efficient natural catalyst in aqueous medium has been reported. CES is a new, ecologically safe and inexpensive green catalyst obtained from renewable resources.

  12. Restart Plan for the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner [SD Coversheet has Incorrect Document Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-07-26

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.

  13. Effect of the rate of calcination of kaolin on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Kenne Diffo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin samples of the same mass were treated at 700 °C for the same duration of 30 min by varying the rate of calcination (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C/min in order to obtain metakaolins which were used to produce geopolymers. Depending on the nature of each type of material, kaolin, metakaolins and geopolymers were characterized using thermal analysis, chemical analysis, XRD, FTIR, particle size distribution, specific surface area, bulk density, setting time and compressive strength. FTIR and XRD analyses showed that metakaolins except at 1 °C/min contained residual kaolinite whose quantity increased with the rate of calcination of kaolin and which influenced the characteristics of geopolymers. Thus as the rate of calcination of kaolin increased, the setting time increased (226 min (rate of 1 °C/min–773 min (rate of 20 °C/min while the compressive strength reduced (49.4 MPa (rate of 1 °C/min–20.8 MPa (rate of 20 °C/min. From the obtained results the production of geopolymers having high compressive strength along with low setting time requires that the calcination of kaolin be carried out at a low rate.

  14. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakaria, S.M.; Zein, S.H. Sharif; Othman, M.R.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600 degrees C. The diameter of the fiber was fo

  15. Effect of Boric Acid on Properties of Calcined Flint Clay-Bauxite Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; DAI Wenyong

    2010-01-01

    In order to prolong the working time of calcined flint clay-bauxite castables during construction at high temperature,boric acid was added into the castables.The effect of boric acid on working time and curing cold crushing strength of the castables at 25 ℃ and 35 ℃were investigated.After 24 h curing in mould and another 24 h curing at 110 ℃ after demoulding,the specimens were heat treated at 1 000 ℃,1 300 ℃,and1 500 ℃ for 3 h,respectively.The permanent linear change,bulk density,modulus of rupture,and cold crushing strength were determined.The result shows that there is no need to add boric acid when calcined flint clay-bauxite ca.stables works at 25 ℃ ; when calcined flint clay-bauxite castables works at 35 ℃,boric acid can increase the working time of the castables,but decrease the curing cold crushing strength a little.Adding boric acid into calcined flint clay-bauxite castables doesn' t worsen performance of the castablcs.

  16. Calcination/acid-activation treatment of an anodic oxidation TiO2/Ti film catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhongping; JIANG Yanli; JIANG Zhaohua; ZHU Hongkui; BAI Xuefeng

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of calcination/acid-activation on the composition, structure, and photocatalytic (PC) re-duction property of an anodic oxidation TiO2/Ti film catalyst. The surface morphology and phase composition were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The catalytic property of the film catalysts was evaluated through the removal rate of potassium chromate during the PC reduction process. The results showed that the film catalysts were composed of anatase and mtile TiO2 with a mi-cro-porous surface structure. The calcination treatment increased the content of TiO2 in the film, changed the relative ratio of anatase and rutile TiO2, and decreased the size of the micro pores of the film cat.a/ysts. The removal rate of potassium chromate was related to the tech-nique parameters of calcination/acid-activation treatment. When the anodic oxidation TiO2Ti film catalyst was calcined at 873 K for 30 min and then acid-activated in the concentrated H2SO4 for 60 min, it presented the highest catalytic property, with the removal rate of potassium chromate of 96.3% during the PC reduction process under the experimental conditions.

  17. Effect of calcination methods on electrochemical performance of NiO used as electrode materials for supercapacitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Wang; X Y Qin

    2014-05-01

    Ni(OH)2 precursors were prepared via the precipitation transformation method, which was originated from Na2C2O4, NiSO4.6H2O and urea. NiO samples were successfully obtained by calcining Ni(OH)2 precursor with different calcination methods. Some were calcination in a tube furnace under the nitrogen flow and others were calcination in a muffle furnace. The products were well-characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of calcination methods on electrochemical performance of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible reason was proposed. The charge storage mechanism of NiO positive electrode in aqueous electrolyte was discussed. The electrochemical test showed that the as-prepared NiO prepared in a tube furnace can exhibit a good pseudocapacitance behaviour due to the higher utilization of active material.

  18. Extraction of potassium from K-feldspar via the CaCl2 calcination route☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yuan; Chun Li; Bin Liang; Li Lü; Hairong Yue; Haoyi Sheng; Longpo Ye; Heping Xie

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of potassium from K-feldspar via a calcium chloride calcination route was studied with a focus on the effects of the calcination atmosphere, calcination temperature and time, mass ratio of CaCl2 to K-feldspar ore and particle size of the K-feldspar ore. The results demonstrated that a competing high-temperature hydrolysis reaction of calcium chloride with moisture in a damp atmosphere occurred concurrently with the conversion reaction of K-feldspar with CaCl2, thus reducing the amount of potassium extracted. The conversion reaction started at approximately 600 °C and accelerated with increasing temperature. When the temperature rose above 900 °C, the extraction of potassium gradually decreased due to the volatilization of the product, KCl. As much as approximately 41%of the potassium was volatilized in 40 min at 1100 °C. The mass ratio of CaCl2/K-feldspar ore significantly affected the extraction. At a mass ratio of 1.15 and 900 °C, the potassium extraction reached 91%in 40 min, while the extraction was reduced to only 22%at the theoretical mass ratio of 0.2. Optimal process conditions are as follows:ore particle size of 50–75μm, tablet forming pressure of 3 MPa, dry nitrogen atmosphere, mass ratio of CaCl2/ore 1.15:1, calcination temperature of 900 °C, and calcination time of 40 min. The XRD analysis revealed that a complex phase transition of the product SiO2 was also accompanied by the con-version reaction of K-feldspar/CaCl2. The SiO2 product formed at the initial stage was in the quartz phase at 900 °C and was gradually transformed into cristobalite after 30 min.

  19. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  20. Color and shade parameters of ultramarine zeolitic pigments synthesized from kaolin waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Raquel Aranha de; Paz, Simone Patricia Aranha da; Angelica, Romulo Simoes; Neves, Roberto de Freitas; Pergher, Sibele Berenice Castella, E-mail: raquel_arn@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Grupo de Mineralogia e Geoquimica Aplicada

    2014-08-15

    Ultramarine pigments were successful synthesized from zeolite A obtained from kaolin waste. This waste has been used as an excellent source of silicon and aluminum for zeolite synthesis because of its high kaolinite concentrations and low contents of other accessory minerals. The cost is naturally less than the industrialized product. Color additives (Sulfur and Sodium Carbonate) were mixed with different proportions of zeolite A and further calcined for 5 h at 500 °C. They were characterized by XRD and XRF in addition to visual classification by color and shade. These products show colors from blue to green at different shades, both influenced by the amount of additives and cooling rate after calcination. Thus, a different quantity of the same additives in the same zeolitic matrix provides an increase in the color intensity. Cooling rate after calcination induces the color change which is substantially important in the pigments production. (author)

  1. Influence of the Calcination Temperature on the Combustion Synthesized Perovskite LaMnO3 Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shelke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple combustion method based on principles of propellent chemistry in which Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as fuel and nitrates as oxidizer were used for synthesizing the perovskite like LaMnO3 powders. The oxidizer to fuel ratio was maintained at 5 : 1. The darkish black powder obtained was calcined at 800 °C and 1000 °C for 5 hour. The combustion and thermal decomposition of the precursor were investigated using the TG-DTA and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern of all three samples i.e., un-heated LaMnO3 powder (LMO-UH, calcined at 800 °C (LMO-800 and at 1000 °C (LMO-1000 were carried out. The single phase orthorhombic crystal structure was revealed to crystallize at LMO-800 and LMO-1000 with elevation in the crystalline size. A small impurity peak at 28.7° was seen of Mn3O4 for LMO-UH, which vanished after calcining it. The strong absorption in FT-IR spectra found at around 615 cm – 1 was due to the formation of metal-oxygen (M-O bond. Moreover a small shift in this M-O bond with increase in calcination temperature suggested the strained LaMnO3 compound. Elemental analysis using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF indicated the presence of La and Mn with increase in the Mn contents after calcinations. The oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen content in the sample were determined from the ONH analysis indicating a decrease in the oxygen content for LMO-800. Well defined porous-foam like morphology of the sample was achieved from scanning electron microscopic (SEM study, which become compact with calcination process. Magnetic properties were found to transform from the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase for LMO-UH sample, while reduction in magnetization values and coercivity at low temperatures was obtained for LMO-800 and LMO-1000 samples.

  2. A facile thermal-treatment route to synthesize ZnO nanosheets and effect of calcination temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Mohammed Al-Hada

    Full Text Available A facile thermal-treatment route was successfully used to synthesize ZnO nanosheets. Morphological, structural, and optical properties of obtained nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures were studied using various techniques. The FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM and TEM images confirmed the formation of ZnO nanosheets through calcination in the temperature between 500 to 650 °C. The SEM images showed a morphological structure of ZnO nanosheets, which inclined to crumble at higher calcination temperatures. The XRD and FTIR spectra revealed that the samples were amorphous at 30 °C but transformed into a crystalline structure during calcination process. The average particle size and degree of crystallinity increased with increasing calcination temperature. The estimated average particle sizes from TEM images were about 23 and 38 nm for the lowest and highest calcination temperature i.e. 500 and 650 °C, respectively. The optical properties were determined by UV-Vis reflection spectrophotometer and showed a decrease in the band gap with increasing calcination temperature.

  3. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...

  4. Effect of Reaction Rate and Calcination Time on CaNb2O6 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Dudhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of CaNb2O6 nanoparticles synthesized by coprecipitation method under controlled reaction rate and extended calcination time were studied. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern shows single orthorhombic phase of the material with lattice parameters: a=15.0147 Å, b=5.74148 Å, and c=5.30296 Å. The morphology and size of particles was found to be improved due to the controlled reaction rate and extended calcination time. The average sizes of the particles were estimated as 40 nm and 90 nm for sintering temperatures 650°C and 800°C, respectively. The material was found to possess dielectric constant which is inversely proportional to the frequency. Surprisingly, the material shows ferroelectric behavior, the possible origin of which is discussed here.

  5. Ce-doped titania nanoparticles: The effects of doped amount and calcination temperature on photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwen; Zou, Yajun; Ma, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    A series of Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with different doped amount and calcination temperature were prepared by sol-gel method. These obtained samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Results showed that Ce doping inhibits the growth of crystal size and the phase transformation from anatase to rutile, leads to lattice distortion and expansion of TiO2. Furthermore, Ce doping brings the red-shift of absorption profile and the increase of photons absorption in the range of 400-600 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange shows that Ce doping improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The optimal doped amount is 0.05 mol% and the optimal calcined temperature is 600 °C for the maximum photocatalytic degradation efficiency in our experiment.

  6. Influence of Calcination on the Physical Characteristics and Nitrogen Removal Performance of Clinoptilolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hai; JIN Xin; DONG Yingbo; HUO Hanxin; LIU Quanli

    2014-01-01

    The influences of roasting activation on the particle morphology, microscopic structure, and adsorption properties of natural clinoptilolites were investigated. The experimental results show that the optimal modified conditions include a calcination temperature at 400℃, a roasting time of 0.5 h, and furnace cooling. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate from analog renewable water of the modified clinoptilolites reached 72%in the optimized conditions, which is 12%higher than that of natural ones. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the surface morphology changed, the micro-hole size increased, and the surface became smoother and more uniform after calcination. The single-point total adsorption average pore width increased from 7.74 nm to 10.64 nm.

  7. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Maisurah; Sharif Zein, Sharif Hussein; Othman, Mohd Roslee; Jansen, John A

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600°C. The diameter of the fiber was found to be influenced by applied voltage and spinning distance. The injection flowrate did not affect the diameter significantly. The electrospinning method successfully reduced the commercial HA particle size in the range of 400-1100 nm into <100 nm. The dispersion of the finally calcined HA nanoparticles was improved significantly after anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant was introduced. The experimental data of HA growth kinetics were subjected to the integral method of analysis, and the rate law of the reaction was found to follow the first order reaction.

  8. High-Temperature Release of SO2 from Calcined Cement Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of alternative fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions may occur and cause reductive decomposition of sulfates from calcined cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2...... concentration, which may cause deposit formation in the kiln system. In this study, the release of sulfur from calcined cement raw materials under both oxidizing and reducing conditions is investigated. The investigations include thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the temperature interval of 800–1500 °C...... and experiments in a tube furnace reactor in the temperature interval of 900–1100 °C. The investigated conditions resemble actual conditions in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. It was found that the sulfates CaSO4, K2SO4, and Na2SO4 were all stable under oxidizing conditions but began to decompose...

  9. A parametric study of a solar calcinator using computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidaros, D.K.; Baxevanou, C.A.; Vlachos, N.S. [University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece). Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2007-11-15

    In this work a horizontal rotating solar calcinator is studied numerically using computational fluid dynamics. The specific solar reactor is a 10 kW model designed and used for efficiency studies. The numerical model is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas flow, and on Lagrangean dynamics for the discrete particles. All necessary mathematical models were developed and incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics model with the influence of turbulence simulated by a two-equation (RNG k-{epsilon}) model. The efficiency of the reactor was calculated for different thermal inputs, feed rates, rotational speeds and particle diameters. The numerically computed degrees of calcination compared well with equivalent experimental results. (author)

  10. Bone mineral change during experimental calcination: an X-ray diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Sergio; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz

    2014-11-01

    The effects of calcination (400-1200°C) on pig bones have been studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary modifications, such as color change and weight loss. The characterisation by powder XRD confirmed the presence of the crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite, and comparison of the results obtained at different temperatures suggested that at 650°C, all the organic components and carbonate substitutions were completely removed. Accordingly, these samples were white. In addition, the crystallinity degree and the crystallite size progressively increased with the calcination temperature until 650°C, remaining stable until 1200°C. Below 650°C, bone samples presented organic compounds, resulting in background noise in the diffractogram and gray or black color. In addition, impurities in the lattice correspond to low crystallite sizes.

  11. Prediction model of microwave calcining of ammonium diuranate using incremental improved back-propagation neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingwei LI; Bingguo LIU; Jinhui PENG; Wei LI; Daifu HUANG; Libo ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    The incremental improved Back-Propagation (BP) neural network prediction model using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based on optimizing theory is put forward,which can solve the problems existing in the process of calcinations for ammonium diuranate (ADU) by microwave heating,such as long testing cycle,high testing quantity,difficulty of optimization for process parameters. Many training data probably were offered by the way of increment batch and the limitation of the system memory could make the training data infeasible when the sample scale was large. The prediction model of the nonlinear system is built,which can effectively predict the experiment of microwave calcining of ADU,and the incremental improved BP neural network is very useful in overcoming the local minimum problem,finding the global optinal solution and accelerating the convergence speed.

  12. Preparation of ITO nano-powders by hydrothermal-calcining process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ying-ying; QIN Li-ping; LIU Xue-ying

    2006-01-01

    Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) nano-powders were prepared by hydrothermal-calcining process. Using SnCl4·5H2O and In as starting materials, the crystallites were characterized by XRD, TEM and BET. The effects of the conditions on the product were investigated. The results show that the phase of hydrothermal precursor obtained by hydrothermal process is related to the temperature of hydrothermal reaction, I. E. , the phases are amorphous In(OH)3 in 160 - 180℃; In(OH)3 crystal in 200℃ and (In1-xSnx)OOH crystal in 200 - 300℃. ITO nano-powders with hexagonal structure and average size of 65 nm are obtained by calcining the precursor derived from the hydrothermal process at 350 - 650℃. The BET of ITO crystal can reach 84. 023 4 m2·g-1.

  13. Limestone Calcination Nearby Equilibrium: Kinetics, CaO Crystal Structure, Sintering and Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, J.M.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Pérez-Maqueda, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In this work, we analyze limestone calcination kinetics at environmental conditions involving a CO2 partial pressure P close to the equilibrium pressure Peq by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. In contrast with previous empirical observations carried out mostly at conditions far from equilibrium (P/Peq « 1), our results show that the decarbonation rate decreases as the temperature in increased while P/Peq is kept co...

  14. In-situ investigation of the calcination process of mixed oxide xerogels with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitz, J.C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The controlled calcination of materials derived by sol-gel reactions is important for the evolution of the final structure. Raman spectroscopy is an ideal tool for the identification of surface species under in-situ conditions, as demonstrated in the following for the example of a molybdenum oxide-silica xerogel. Raman spectra of this particular sample were recorded at temperatures as high as 1173 K, and compared with those of a reference material.(author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Preparation of NiO nanoflakes under different calcination temperatures and their supercapacitive and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangshan; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The NiO nanocrystals were successfully prepared by calcinating Ni(OH)2 precursor synthesized via a facile ion diffusion controlled by ion exchange membrane without adding any solvent or template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) analysis were used to investigate the crystallinity, morphology, surface and porosity characteristics, chemical composition and optical properties in more detail. The pseudocapacitive behavior of the NiO samples was investigated by cyclic voltammograms (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 2 M KOH. The results analysis reveals that both specific capacitance and surface area decrease with the increase of calcination temperatures. Among the NiO samples, the NiO-400 nanoflakes calcinated at 400 °C possess the highest specific capacitance of 381 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, but much lower than the Ni(OH)2 sample. In addition, the UV-vis analysis shows that there is a red shift of absorption peak for the three NiO samples with the increasing temperature and the NiO-400 has a broad band gap of 3.3 eV, which renders the material highly interesting for application in photocatalyst.

  16. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-08-13

    The prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner (VDC) is installed in glovebox 188 in the Plutonium Process Support Laboratory (PPSL). Safety analysis contained in WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 (FSAR) Rev. 0-L and Addendum to WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021, ''Laboratory Prototype Calciner'' establishes the prototype VDC needs to be shut down if a seismic event of greater than 0.07 g occurs. Shut down is to be automatic upon detection of the seismic event. This requires tie-in of various valves and power for the prototype VDC into the existing Seismic Shutdown System for the Ventilation Supply Fans described in FSAR 5.4.1.2.4. The proposed changes covered by this USQ evaluation include: (1) the physical tie-in modifications, including drawings and Engineering Change Notice (ECN), (2) the work package for accomplishing the modifications, (3) the changes to the System Description Documents, (4) the changes to the Safety Equipment List necessitated by the modifications, and (5) the changes to the failure modes and effects analysis. WHC-SDCP-OSR-010, Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) 3.2.3 has been revised to include the requirement for the existing seismic shutdown system to also shut down the laboratory calciner in the event of detection of a greater than 0.07 g seismic event.

  17. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-08-31

    The prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner (VDC) is installed in glovebox 188 in the Plutonium Process Support Laboratory (PPSL). Safety analysis contained in WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 (FSAR) Rev. 0-L and Addendum to WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021, ''Laboratory Prototype Calciner'' establishes the prototype VDC needs to be shut down if a seismic event of greater than 0.07 g occurs. Shut down is to be automatic upon detection of the seismic event. This requires tie-in of various valves and power for the prototype VDC into the existing Seismic Shutdown System for the Ventilation Supply Fans described in FSAR 5.4.1.2.4. The proposed changes covered by this USQ evaluation include: (1) the physical tie-in modifications, including drawings and Engineering Change Notice (ECN), (2) the work package for accomplishing the modifications, (3) the changes to the System Description Documents, (4) the changes to the Safety Equipment List necessitated by the modifications, and (5) the changes to the failure modes and effects analysis. WHC-SDCP-OSR-010, Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) 3.2.3 has been revised to include the requirement for the existing seismic shutdown system to also shut down the laboratory calciner in the event of detection of a greater than 0.07 g seismic event.

  18. Effect of Calcination at Synthesis of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niar Kurnia Julianti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrotalcite in catalysis has wide attention in academic research and industrial parties. Based on its utilization, hydrotalcite can be active catalyst or support. This research is focused on the investigation of characteristic like spesific surface area of Mg-Al hydrotalcite which is prepared with different temperature of calcination. Synthesis of Mg-Al hydrotalcites with Mg/Al molar ratio 3:1 were prepared by co-precipitation method. Mg(NO33.6H2O and Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors of Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Na2CO3 was used as precipitant agent and NaOH was used as buffer solution. The solution was mixed and aging for 5 hours at 650oC. The dried precipitate was calcined at 2500oC, 3500oC, 4500oC, 5500oC and 6500oC. The characterization of functional group was determined by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR. The Identical peaks diffractogram were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The spesific surface area was determined by adsorption-desorption of nitrogen. The largest surface area that obtained from the calcination temperature of 650oC is 156.252 m2/g.

  19. Impact of natural and calcined starfish (Asterina pectinifera) on the stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Eun; Sung, Jwa Kyung; Sarkar, Binoy; Wang, Hailong; Hashimoto, Yohey; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-04-01

    Metal stabilization using soil amendments is an extensively applied, economically viable and environmentally friendly remediation technique. The stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated soils was evaluated using natural starfish (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF) wastes at different application rates (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt%). An incubation study was conducted over 14 months, and the efficiency of stabilization for Pb, Zn and As in soil was evaluated by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced by 76.3-100 and 91.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. The TCLP-extractable Zn was also reduced by 89.8-100 and 93.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. These reductions could be associated with the increased metal adsorption and the formation of insoluble metal precipitates due to increased soil pH following application of the amendments. However, the TCLP-extractable As was increased in the soil treated with NSF, possibly due to the competitive adsorption of phosphorous. In contrast, the TCLP-extractable As in the 10 % CSF treatment was not detectable because insoluble Ca-As compounds might be formed at high pH values. Thermodynamic modeling by visual MINTEQ predicted the formation of ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O) and portlandite (Ca(OH)2) in the 10 % CSF-treated soil, while SEM-EDS analysis confirmed the needle-like structure of ettringite in which Pb was incorporated and stabilized in the 10 % CSF treatment.

  20. Effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and photocatalytic activity of Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jianbo; Xin, Wei; Liu, Guanglong; Lin, Die; Zhu, Duanwei, E-mail: liugl@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Engineering Research, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} catalysts were synthesized by modified sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique using polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as template and carbon precursor and the effect of calcination temperature on their structural properties and photocatalytic activity were investigated. The XRD results showed undoped and Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} calcined at 400 deg C only include anatase phase and the rutile phase appears when the calcination temperature reached to 600 deg C. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the absorption spectra are strongly modified by the calcination temperature. Moreover, the Mn-C-TiO{sub 2} calcined at 400 deg C showed the lowest PL intensity due to a decrease in the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes under light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under the simulate daylight irradiation and all the prepared Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} samples exhibited high photocatalytic activities for photocatalytic decolorisation of methyl orange aqueous solution. At 400 deg C, the Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} samples showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to synergetic effects of good crystallize ation, appropriate phase composition and slower recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers, which further confirms the calcination temperature could affect the properties of Mn-C-codoped TiO2 significantly. (author)

  1. Role of Calcination Temperature on the Hydrotalcite Derived MgO–Al2O3 in Converting Ethanol to Butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group and Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Job, Heather [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Santosa, Daniel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Li, Xiaohong Shari [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Karkamkar, Abhi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Wang, Yong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group and Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; ; Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-10-09

    In the base catalyzed ethanol condensation reactions, the calcined MgO-Al2O3 derived hydrotalcites used broadly as catalytic material and the calcination temperature plays a big role in determining the catalytic activity. The characteristic of the hydrotalcite material treated between catalytically relevant temperatures 450ºC and 800ºC have been studied with respect to the physical, chemical, and structural properties and compared with catalytic activity testing. With the increasing calcination temperature, the total measured catalytic basicity dropped linearly with the calcination temperature and the total measured acidity stayed the same for all the calcination temperatures except 800ºC. However, the catalyst activity testing does not show any direct correlation between the measured catalytic basicity and the catalyst activity to the ethanol condensation reaction to form 1-butanol. The highest ethanol conversion of 44 percent with 1-butanol selectivity of 50 percent was achieved for the 600ºC calcined hydrotalcite material.

  2. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF Co-Fe MIXED OXIDES OBTAINED BY CALCINATION OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pérez Bernal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Solids containing Co(II and Fe(III with molar ratios of 2/1, 3/2, 1/1, 2/3 and 1/2 have been synthetised by coprecipitation at constant pH. All they displayed a hydrotalcite-like structure with interlayer carbonate, which crystallinity decreases as the iron content was increased. No other crystalline phase was identified, even in the Fe-rich samples. They have been characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and temperature-programmed reduction, in addition to specific surface area assessment by nitrogen adsorption at -196°C. A minor oxidation of Co(II to Co(III is observed in the Co-rich samples, although it reverses again to Co(II upon calcination in oxygen at ca. 850°C. Thermal decomposition takes place in a single step up to ca. 350°C, and the specific surface area increases with the iron content, probably because of the presence of hydrated amorphous iron oxides. The solids calcined at 1200°C in air contain crystalline CoO, Co3O4 and CoFe2O4 (spinel, this one being the dominant phase, and only phase detected for large Fe contents. Metallic species are more easily reduced in the original solids than in the calcined ones, and in all cases iron seems to be reduced at a higher temperature than cobalt.

  3. Adsorption of phosphate ions from an aqueous solution by calcined nickel-cobalt binary hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Ueta, Erimi; Toda, Megumu; Otani, Masashi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    Different molar ratios of a Ni/Co binary hydroxide (NiCo82, NiCo91, and Ni100) were prepared and calcined at 270 °C (NiCo82-270, NiCo91-270, and Ni100-270). The properties of the adsorbents and the amount of adsorbed phosphate ions were evaluated. The adsorbents calcined at 270 °C had a nickel oxide structure. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions, the amount of hydroxyl groups, and the specific surface area of the calcined adsorbents at 270 °C were greater than those of the uncalcined adsorbents. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions was related to the amount of hydroxyl groups and the specific surface area; the correlation coefficients were 0.966 and 0.953, respectively. The adsorption isotherm data for NiCo91 and NiCo91-270 were fit to both the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions increased with increasing temperature. The experimental data fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. A neutral pH was optimal for phosphate ion adsorption. In addition, the phosphate ions that were adsorbed onto NiCo91-270 could be recovered using sodium hydroxide, and the adsorbent was useful for the repetitive adsorption/desorption of phosphate ions. Collectively, these results suggest that NiCo91-270 is prospectively useful for the adsorption of phosphate ions from aqueous solutions.

  4. Structure and Pozzolanic Activity of Calcined Coal Gangue during the Process of Mechanical Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Dongxu; CHEN Jianhua; YANG Nanru

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing coal gangue's chemical and mineral compositions, the structure change of coal gangue during the mechanical activation was investigated by XRD, FTIR,NMR, and the mechanical strength of the cement doped coal gangue with various specific surface area was tested. The experimental results indicate that, the lattice structure of metakaolin in coal gangue samples calcined at 700 ℃ disorganizes gradually and becomes disordered, and the lattice structure of α-quartz is distorted slightly. The pozzolanic activity of the coal gangue increases obviously with its structural disorganization.

  5. Effects of Composition and Calcination Temperature on Photocatalytic Evolution over from Glycerol and Water Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Cancan Fan; Xitao Wang; Huanxin Sang; Fen Wang

    2012-01-01

    A series of sulfide coupled semiconductors supported on SiO2, (), was prepared by incipient wet impregnation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR, and UV/Vis DRS. Characterization results show that the chemical actions between ZnS and CdS resulted in the formation of solid solutions on the surface of the support and the formation of them is affected by the molar ratio of ZnS/CdS and calcination temperature. Performance of photocatalysts was tested in the home made ...

  6. Research and development activities: high-level waste immobilization program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.; Bonner, W.F.; Henry, M.H.

    1979-11-01

    Liquid waste, made from zirconium-clad UO/sub 2/ power reactor fuel with an average burnup of 25,000 MWd/MT, was converted to glass by the in-can melting process. An intrinsic-gamma melt-level detection system was tested during the NWVP demonstrations; results showed that if a sufficient number of collimators are used the system will track the melt surface with a precision of 1 in. during the filling of cans with waste glass. The two canisters filled in the NWVP are both 8 in. in diameter and contain borosilicate glass of very similar compositions. One canister contains 116 kg of glass that generated 0.38 kW of self-heat when produced; the other contains 145 kg of glass, and generates 1.01 kW. Spray calcination of simulated Savannah River Plant liquid waste at a rate of 400 L/h was demonstrated in the 36-in.-dia. calciner. Five waste forms are being compared: concrete-containing waste calcine, sintered waste glass, glass-ceramic, Synroc B (a crystalline assemblage of titanates), and borosilicate waste glass (composition 76-68). Results of initial tests indicate that the reaction rate of carbon with water, previously found to be very low, may be increased in a radiation field.

  7. Calcined Solution-Based PVP Influence on ZnO Semiconductor Nanoparticle Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimah Mohamed Kamari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A water-based solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP at various concentrations and zinc nitrates were used in conjunction with calcination to produce zinc oxide semiconductor nanoparticles. The extent to which the zinc oxide semiconductor nanoparticles had become crystallized was measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD, whilst morphological characteristics were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM supported by XRD results were used to evaluate the average particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was then carried out in order to identify the composition phase, since this suggested that the samples contained metal oxide bands and that all organic compounds had been effectively removed after calcination. A UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to determine the energy band gap and illustrate optical features. Additionally, photoluminescence (PL spectra revealed that the intensity of photoluminescence decreased with a decrease in particle size. The obtained results have mainly been inclusive for uses by several semiconductor applications in different fields, such as environmental applications and studies, since an absorption process for energy wavelengths could efficiently occur.

  8. Preparation of Nanosized LaCoO3 through Calcination of a Hydrothermally Synthesized Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tepech-Carrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for obtaining nanosized LaCoO3 crystals from calcination of a precursor powder synthesized by a hydrothermal route is reported. Details concerning the evolution of the microstructure and formation mechanism of the perovskite phase were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. It was found that the morphology of the sample progressively turns from a mix of fibers and rods to interconnected nanocrystals. It is determined that LaCoO3 phase is produced by a reaction of cobalt and lanthanum oxides, the latter produced by a two-step dehydration process of La(OH3. Finally, it was found that nearly stoichiometric LaCoO3 nanocrystals can be obtained at temperatures as low as 850°C. Nevertheless, whether higher calcination temperatures are used, appropriate reaction times and a controlled atmosphere are required in order to avoid formation of lanthanum carbonates and high density of lattice defects.

  9. Adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solutions by calcined ZnMgAl hydrotalcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dong; Zhou, Liangqin; Fu, Dayou

    2017-02-01

    The calcined ZnMgAl hydrotalcite was used for degration of methyl orange (MO). The adsorbent was characterized by XRD, SEM, and FT-IR. The results reveal that the ZnMgAl layered structures were disappeared after calcining for 5 h at 500 °C, then were recovered to layer hydrotalcite structure after adsorbing MO anions. The several important affecting factors of adsorption behavior, including the initial pH value of solution, adsorbent dosage, and the initial concentration of solution, were also discussed. The adsorption kinetic processes were fitted with the equations of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion, respectively, in which the pseudo-second-order equation fitting results was the better. The equilibrium isotherm of MO was described by both Langmuir and Freundlich model, but better complys with the Langmuir model ( R 2 > 0.98). The possible adsorption mechanism has been presumed. The adsorption experiments indicated that the ZnMgAl hydrotalcite had good adsorption ability to methyl orange in wastewater.

  10. Calcined Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide as an absorber for the removal of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, methyl orange (MO was effectively removed from aqueous solution with the calcined product of hydrothermal synthesized Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH. The structure, composition, morphology and textural properties of the Mg/Fe-LDH before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption apparatus and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was confirmed that MO had been absorbed by calcined Mg/Fe-LDH which had strong interactions with MO. The adsorption of MO onto the Mg/Fe-LDH was systematically investigated by batch tests. The adsorption capacity of the Mg/Fe-LDH toward MO was found to be 194.9 mg • g−1. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption of MO onto Mg/Fe-LDH was a spontaneous and endothermic process. These results indicate that Mg/Fe-LDH is a promising material for the removal of MO.

  11. Calcined Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide as an absorber for the removal of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chao [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Dai, Jing [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jianying, E-mail: Yujianyingwhut@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yin, Jian [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan (China)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, methyl orange (MO) was effectively removed from aqueous solution with the calcined product of hydrothermal synthesized Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH). The structure, composition, morphology and textural properties of the Mg/Fe-LDH before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption apparatus and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was confirmed that MO had been absorbed by calcined Mg/Fe-LDH which had strong interactions with MO. The adsorption of MO onto the Mg/Fe-LDH was systematically investigated by batch tests. The adsorption capacity of the Mg/Fe-LDH toward MO was found to be 194.9 mg • g{sup −1}. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption of MO onto Mg/Fe-LDH was a spontaneous and endothermic process. These results indicate that Mg/Fe-LDH is a promising material for the removal of MO.

  12. 焙烧短窑研制浅谈%Synopsis Discussing Manufacture of Short Calcining Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉新

    2014-01-01

    介绍了红土镍矿资源现状、红土镍矿的处理工艺方法及焙烧短窑的研发背景。焙烧短窑作为新兴的环保设备,具有螺旋往返快速均匀给料、液压倾翻排料、还原时间可控、热效率高、利用率高的特点,在稀有贵重金属冶炼方面具有非常广泛的应用前景。%T his article briefly introduces present situation of nickeliferous laterites , the processes for pro-ducing nicheliferous laterites and background of inventing short calcining kiln . It is the newly arisen envi-ronmental protection equipments , It has the characteristics of quickly and evenly feeding , discharging with hydraulic pressure , controling deoxidize time ,supernal thermal efficiency and widely using . The short cal-cining kiln have widely using in smelting of the rare noble metal .

  13. Grain Growth Kinetics of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals During Calcining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-lan; He, Xi; Yang, Hai-ping; Qu, Yi-xin; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2008-06-01

    BaTiO3 nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method using barium acetate (Ba(CH3COO)2) and tetra-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as raw materials. Xerogel precursors and products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the calcination temperature and duration on the lattice constant, the lattice distortion, and the grain size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals was discussed based on the XRD results. The grain growth kinetics of BaTiO3 nanocrystals during the calcination process were simulated with a conventional grain growth model which only takes into account diffusion, and an isothermal model proposed by Qu and Song, which takes into account both diffusion and surface reactions. Using these models, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the rate constant were estimated. The simulation results indicate that the isothermal model is superior to the conventional one in describing the grain growth process, implying that both diffusion and surface reactions play important roles in the grain growth process.

  14. Manganese oxide phases and morphologies: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Augustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mnx+ oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure–property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnOx species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent phase transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and morphological investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnOx species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnOx species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species.

  15. Grain Growth Kinetics of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals During Calcining Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lan Song; Xi He; Hai-ping Yang; Yi-xin Qu; Guan-zhou Qiu

    2008-01-01

    BaTiO3 nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method using barium acetate (Ba(CH3COO)2) and tetra- butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as raw materials. Xerogel precursors and products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmis- sion electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the calcination temperature and duration on the lattice constant, the lattice distortion, and the grain size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals was discussed based on the XRD results. The grain growth kinetics of BaTiO3 nanocrystals during the calcination process were simulated with a conventional grain growth model which only takes into account diffusion, and an isothermal model proposed by Qu and Song, which takes into account both diffusion and surface reactions. Using these models, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the rate constant were estimated. The simulation results indicate that the isothermal model is superior to the conventional one in describing the grain growth process, implying that both diffusion and surface reactions play important roles in the grain growth process.

  16. Effects of Composition and Calcination Temperature on Photocatalytic Evolution over from Glycerol and Water Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancan Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of sulfide coupled semiconductors supported on SiO2, (, was prepared by incipient wet impregnation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR, and UV/Vis DRS. Characterization results show that the chemical actions between ZnS and CdS resulted in the formation of solid solutions on the surface of the support and the formation of them is affected by the molar ratio of ZnS/CdS and calcination temperature. Performance of photocatalysts was tested in the home made reactor under both UV light and solar-simulated light irradiation by detecting the rate of the photocatalytic H2 evolution from glycerol solution. The hydrogen production rates are related to the catalyst composition, surface structure, photoabsorption property, as well as the amount of solid solution. The maximum rate of hydrogen production, 550 μmol·h−1 under UV light irradiation and 210 μmol·h−1 under solar-simulated light irradiation, was obtained over Cd0.8Zn0.2S/SiO2 solid solution calcined at 723 K.

  17. Adsorption of perchlorate from aqueous solution by the calcination product of Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqiong; Gao, Naiyun; Chu, Wenhai; Zhang, Yongji; Ma, Yan

    2012-03-30

    The calcination products containing Mg(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with varying Mg/Al/Fe molar ratios at 550°C were used as the adsorbent to remove perchlorate from aqueous solution, while the Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite compounds were synthesized by co-precipitation method at a constant pH value. The Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite compounds (HMAF) were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TG-DTA. The characteristics showed that the layered double hydroxides structures in the HMAF were lost during calcination at 550°C, but were reconstructed subsequent to adsorption of perchlorate, indicating that the 'memory effect' appeared to play an important role in perchlorate adsorption. Batch adsorption studies were conducted under various equilibration conditions, such as molar ratios of Mg/Al/Fe, calcined temperature, different initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, initial perchlorate concentration, and co-existing anions. It was found that the existence of ferric iron in calcined Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite compound (CHMAF) was favorable to removal of perchlorate from water, and the best ratio of Mg/Al/Fe is 3:0.8:0.2 (CHMAF5%). This study demonstrated that the calcination product of Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite-like compound was a promising adsorbent for control of the perchlorate pollution in water.

  18. Effects of calcinations temperature and precursor concentration on crystallinity of NiO nanocrystalline powder synthesized via Ethylene Glycol route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlaily, Prawistin; Nugraha, Mohamad Insan; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2015-04-01

    Nickel Oxide (NiO) nanocrystalline has been successfully synthesized by Ethylene Glycol (EG) route. The samples were prepared using NiCl2.6H2O as precursor, EG as solvent and agglomeration preventing agent, and ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant. In this research, the effect of calcination temperature and precursor concentration were investigated. The experimental result showed that crystallite sizes of NiO were 4.8 nm, 9.1 nm, and 15.3 nm when the calcinations temperature was 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C respectively. It was obvious that when calcinations temperature increased, the crystallite size of NiO increased, then the calculated activation energy for NiO nanocrystalline growth during calcinations is 21.33 kJmol-1.In the effect of precursor concentration,by using concentrations 0.25 M, 0.5 M, and 1 M, crystallite sizes increase with the increasing concentration as 17.4 nm, 15.7 nm, and 24.8 nm respectively. These result implied that crystallite size of NiO powder can be controlled not only by calcinations temperature but also controlled by precursor concentration.

  19. Calcinated calcium killing of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawasaki, S; Nazuka, E; Isshiki, K

    2002-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calcinated calcium, 200 ppm chlorine water (1% active chlorine), and sterile distilled water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of spot-inoculated tomatoes. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with calcinated calcium, chlorinated water, or sterile distilled water (control) and hand rubbed for 30 s. Populations of E coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and in the residual (0.1% peptone) wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and calcinated calcium resulted in 3.40- and 7.85-log10 reductions of E. coli O157:H7, respectively, and 2.07- and 7.36-log10 reductions of Salmonella, respectively. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and calcinated calcium reduced L monocytogenes numbers by 2.27 and 7.59 log10 CFU per tomato, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that calcinated calcium could be useful in controlling pathogenic microorganisms in fresh produce.

  20. Relevant influence of limestone crystallinity on CO₂ capture in the Ca-looping technology at realistic calcination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, J M; Sanchez-Jimenez, P E; Perez-Maqueda, L A

    2014-08-19

    We analyze the role of limestone crystallinity on its CO2 capture performance when subjected to carbonation/calcination cycles at conditions mimicking the Ca-looping (CaL) technology for postcombustion CO2 capture. The behavior of raw and pretreated limestones (milled and thermally annealed) is investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests under realistic sorbent regeneration conditions, which necessarily involve high CO2 partial pressure in the calciner and quick heating rates. The pretreatments applied lead to contrasting effects on the solid crystal structure and, therefore, on its resistance to solid-state diffusion. Our results show that decarbonation at high CO2 partial pressure is notably promoted by decreasing solid crystallinity. CaO regeneration is fully achieved under high CO2 partial pressure at 900 °C in short residence times for the milled limestone whereas complete regeneration for raw limestone requires a minimum calcination temperature of about 950 °C. Such a reduction of the calcination temperature and the consequent mitigation of multicyclic capture capacity decay would serve to enhance the efficiency of the CaL technology. On the other hand, the results of our study suggest that the use of highly crystalline limestones would be detrimental since excessively high calcination temperatures should be required to attain full decarbonation at realistic conditions.

  1. Cementitious waste option scoping study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

  2. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides information on the progress of activities during fiscal year 1993 in the Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a new program, efforts are just getting underway toward addressing major issues related to the fuel and waste stored at the ICPP. The SF&WMTDP has the following principal objectives: Investigate direct dispositioning of spent fuel, striving for one acceptable waste form; determine the best treatment process(es) for liquid and calcine wastes to minimize the volume of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and low level waste (LLW); demonstrate the integrated operability and maintainability of selected treatment and immobilization processes; and assure that implementation of the selected waste treatment process is environmentally acceptable, ensures public and worker safety, and is economically feasible.

  3. Study on Effects of Calcine Conditions on Physic-chemical Character of Calcined Kaolinite%煅烧条件对煤系煅烧高岭土物化性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of material fines,calcinating temperature,raising temperature's velocity,addition agent as well as hydrogenant condition on physic-chemical character of calcined kaolinite are investigated.%研究了煤系高岭土在煅烧过程中原料细度、煅烧温度、恒温时间、升温速度、添加剂及还原气氛对产品物化性能的影响。

  4. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  5. Effects of precoating and calcination on microstructure of 3D silica fiber reinforced silicon nitride based composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Gong-jin; ZHANG Chang-rui; HU Hai-feng

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional silica fiber reinforced silicon nitride based composites were fabricated by preceramic polymer infiltration and pyrolysis method using perhydropolysilazane as a precursor. The effects of precoating and high temperature calcination on the microstructures of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. For the composite without a precoating, the fracture surface is plain, and the fiber/matrix interfaces become very unclear after calcination at 1 600 ℃ due to intense interfacial reactions. The composite with a precoating shows tough fracture surface with distinct fiber pull-outs, and the fiber/matrix interfaces are still clear after calcination at 1 600 ℃. It is the appropriate precoating process that contributes to the good interfacial microstructures for the composite.

  6. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  7. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Currently about 6.8 million L of acidic, radioactive liquid waste that is not amenable to calcination, and about 3800 m{sup 3} of calcine exist at the ICPP. Legal drivers (court orders) and agreements between the state of Idaho, the U.S. Navy, and DOE exist that obligate INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for treatment and interim storage of the radioactive liquid and calcine wastes. Per these agreements, all tank waste must be removed from the underground liquid storage tanks by the year 2012, and high-level radioactive waste must be treated and removed from INEL by 2035. Separation of the radionuclides from the wastes, followed by immobilization of the high-activity and low-activity fractions in glass and grout, respectively, is the approach preferred by INEL. Technologies to remove actinides (U, Np, Pu, and Am), Cs, Sr, and possibly Tc from highly acidic solutions are required to process INEL wastes. Decontamination of the wastes to NRC Class A low-level waste (LLW) is planned. Separation and isolation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) from the highly radioactive waste streams may also be required. Remediation efforts will begin in FY 1997 to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides (Cs and Sr) from groundwater located at the Test Area North facility at INEL. A plume of VOCs and radionuclides has spread from the former TSF-05 injection well, and a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Conservation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation action is under way. A Record of Decision was signed in August 1995 that commits INEL to remediate the plume from TSF-05. Removal of Sr and Cs from the groundwater using commercially available ion-exchange resins has been unsuccessful at meeting maximum contaminant levels, which are 119 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L for Cs and Sr, respectively. Cesium and Sr are the major contaminants that must be removed from the groundwater.

  8. Photocatalytic Denitrogenation over Modiifed Waste FCC Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liuping; Lin Mei; Huang Yingying; Yan Guiyang; Zheng Binquan; Li Ling

    2013-01-01

    The strontium modiifed waste FCC catalyst was prepared by magnetic stirring method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse relfectance spectrometry (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Meanwhile, its photocatalytic denitrogenation performance was evaluated in terms of its ability to degrade the N-containing simulation oil under visible light. A mixture of strontium nitrate solution (with a concentration of 0.5 mol/L) and waste FCC catalyst was calcined at 400℃for 5 h prior to taking part in the photocatalytic denitrogenation reaction. The test results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of pyridine contained in simulation oil in the presence of the strontium modiifed FCC catalyst could reach 92.0%under visible light irradiation for 2.5 h.

  9. The Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: II.Fly Ash and Coal Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Delong

    2009-01-01

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation,removal of carbon remains and fine comminution,calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology,and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  10. Application of coal-water slurry on the rotary calcining kiln of pedgion magnesium reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-qing; XIE Shui-sheng; LIU Jin-ping; WU Peng-yue; HUANG Guo-jie

    2006-01-01

    Energy saving has been an important concept in modern industry especially to the countries and regions with energy shortage such as China and Japan. Utilization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) can improve the burning efficiency of coal and reduce the pollutions of soot, sulfide and the nitride by burning lump coal directly. The CWS is a promising energy saving technique and the effectual substitute of oil. The study on the preparation and application of the CWS has made progresses in many aspects. The present paper studied the basal problems for applying the CWS on the rotary kilns during the calcining-dolomite process in the magnesium factory, summarized the key points for the application process of the CWS and gave the corresponding solutions.

  11. Effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation of HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Kaur, Charanpreet [Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jagdish [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Oxides nanomaterials exhibit unique physical, chemical and structural properties and motivated a big research that focus in the integration of these materials for various optoelectronic device applications. In present work, hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized using precipitation method. Hafnium tetrachloride and sodium hydroxide has been used as starting precursors. Prepared oxide material has been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The phase transformation from amorphous to monoclinic is observed with the increase in calcination temperature from 500 °C and 800 °C. In FTIR spectra, the characteristic bands at ν ∼ 758.53 and 509.57 cm{sup −1} reveals the monoclinic phase of prepared HfO{sub 2} NPs. UV-Vis spectroscopy shows an absorption peak at 204 nm and the bandgap calculated is 6.07 eV.

  12. Twofold role of calcined hydrotalcites in the degradation of methyl parathion pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Alvaro; Fetter, Geolar; Villafuerte-Castrejon, María Elena; Tejeda-Cruz, Adriana; Bosch, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is a very toxic organophosphate pesticide used as a non-systematic insecticide and acaricide on many corps. As MP and its by-products are highly toxic, they have to be retained to avoid pollution of rivers and lakes. Highly efficient sorbents are hydrotalcites (HTs) (or anionic clays). We have correlated the degradation of an aqueous solution of MP at room temperature, with the basicity of the adsorbing materials. It was found that the metal composition of hydrotalcites determines both the surface electronic properties (basic or acidic) and the sorption capacity. Depending on the basic strength, some calcined hydrotalcites can catalyze the transformation of MP to p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and retain its by-products. Such a process has the advantage of being able to be carried out at room temperature and at the pH of the pesticide solution.

  13. Twofold role of calcined hydrotalcites in the degradation of methyl parathion pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sampieri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion (MP is a very toxic organophosphate pesticide used as a non-systematic insecticide and acaricide on many corps. As MP and its by-products are highly toxic, they have to be retained to avoid pollution of rivers and lakes. Highly efficient sorbents are hydrotalcites (HTs (or anionic clays. We have correlated the degradation of an aqueous solution of MP at room temperature, with the basicity of the adsorbing materials. It was found that the metal composition of hydrotalcites determines both the surface electronic properties (basic or acidic and the sorption capacity. Depending on the basic strength, some calcined hydrotalcites can catalyze the transformation of MP to p-nitrophenol (p-NP and retain its by-products. Such a process has the advantage of being able to be carried out at room temperature and at the pH of the pesticide solution.

  14. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from brewers' spent grain by calcined-red mud pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jishi; Zang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the utilization of calcined-red mud (CRM) pretreatment to enhance fermentative hydrogen yields from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The BSG samples were treated with different concentrations (0.0-20g/L) of CRM at 55°C for 48h, before the biohydrogen process with heat-treated anaerobic sludge inoculum. The highest specific hydrogen production of 198.62ml/g-VS was obtained from the BSG treated with 10g/L CRM, with the corresponding lag time of 10.60h. Hydrogen yield increments increased by 67.74%, compared to the control tests without CRM. The results demonstrated that the CRM could hydrolyze more cellulose and further provided adequate broth and suitable pH value for efficient fermentative hydrogen. The model-based analysis showed that the modified Gompertz model presented a better fit for the experimental data than the first-order model.

  15. Effect of calcining temperature on electrical and dielectric properties of cadmium stannate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, V.S.; Shinde, S.S.; Deokate, R.J.; Bhosale, C.H.; Chougule, B.K. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Rajpure, K.Y., E-mail: rajpure@yahoo.com [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The cadmium stannate samples were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method using stannic chloride pentahydrate (SnCl{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O) and cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) as precursors by carefully controlling the preparative parameters. The effect of calcining temperature on the phase, microstructure, morphological and electrical properties of cadmium stannate has been investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the conversion of rhombohedral to spinel cubic crystal structure and polycrystallinity of the samples. SEM study of Cd{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} sample shows randomly distributed cubic crystals of varying sizes. The dc resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency. To understand the conduction mechanism in the samples AC conductivity was measured.

  16. Physical Properties of Calcined Kaolin (Kibi,Ghana) Aggregate Refractory Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Amoako-Appiagyei

    1998-01-01

    Properties of refractories affect their perfor-mance and deformation behaviour as well as their ultimate failure mode,Therefore in ordr to assess the capabilities of materials,used for refractory lin-ings,in service their properties must be evaluated.In this work the evaluation of some physical properties of calcined kaloin(Kibi,Ghana)aggregate re-fractory bodies showed an average porosity and spe-cific gravity of 24% and 2.78 respectively,An av-erage cold crushing strength of 19.6 MPa was also obtained .Thermal expansion and behaviour under a constant hot load of 196 kPa also showed good resis-tance to high temperature deformation.

  17. Characterization of red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Chuxia; Wu, Yonggui

    2007-07-19

    Red mud can be derived from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination red mud (BPBCRM) differs markedly from those of the pure Bayer Process red mud (PBPRM). In this study, red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method was characterized. The results show that pH of the red mud decreased with increasing duration of storage time. Na dominated among the soluble cations, but the concentration of soluble Na decreased with increasing duration of storage time as a result of leaching. Cation exchange capacity also decreased with increasing duration of storage time, probably due to a decrease in pH causing a reduction in negatively charged sites on the red mud particles. Ca was the predominant exchangeable cation in the fresh red mud but the concentration of exchangeable Ca markedly decreased in the old red mud, which was dominated by exchangeable Na. The degree of crystallization and thermal stability of the red mud increased with increasing duration of storage. The acid neutralizing capacity of red mud obtained from this study was about 10 mol kg(-1), which is much greater than the reported values for the pure Bayer Process red mud. Column filtering experiment indicates that the red mud also had a very strong capacity to remove Cu, Zn and Cd from the filtering solution. It is conservatively estimated that the simultaneous removal rates of Cd, Zn and Cu by red mud are over 22,250 mg kg(-1), 22,500 mg kg(-1) and 25,000 mg kg(-1), respectively. The affinity of these metals to the red mud was in the following decreasing order: Cu>Zn>Cd. In general, the fresh red mud retained more heavy metals than the old red mud did.

  18. Surface complexation modeling calculation of Pb(II) adsorption onto the calcined diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-12-01

    Removal of noxious heavy metal ions (e.g. Pb(II)) by surface adsorption of minerals (e.g. diatomite) is an important means in the environmental aqueous pollution control. Thus, it is very essential to understand the surface adsorptive behavior and mechanism. In this work, the Pb(II) apparent surface complexation reaction equilibrium constants on the calcined diatomite and distributions of Pb(II) surface species were investigated through modeling calculations of Pb(II) based on diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites. Batch experiments were used to study the adsorption of Pb(II) onto the calcined diatomite as a function of pH (3.0-7.0) and different ionic strengths (0.05 and 0.1 mol L-1 NaCl) under ambient atmosphere. Adsorption of Pb(II) can be well described by Freundlich isotherm models. The apparent surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K) were obtained by fitting the batch experimental data using the PEST 13.0 together with PHREEQC 3.1.2 codes and there is good agreement between measured and predicted data. Distribution of Pb(II) surface species on the diatomite calculated by PHREEQC 3.1.2 program indicates that the impurity cations (e.g. Al3+, Fe3+, etc.) in the diatomite play a leading role in the Pb(II) adsorption and dominant formation of complexes and additional electrostatic interaction are the main adsorption mechanism of Pb(II) on the diatomite under weak acidic conditions.

  19. Stabilized γ-BIMNVOX solid electrolyte: Ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel synthesis, microwave-assisted calcination, and structural and electrical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Areqi, Niyazi A.S., E-mail: niyazi.alareqi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Beg, Saba [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Al-Alas, Ahlam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Hafeez, Shehla [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •γ-BIMNVOX was synthesized by ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. •γ-BIMNVOX crystallizes by 25-min microwave-assisted calcination. •Smaller particle sizes for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. •Best oxide-ion performance for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. -- Abstract: Samples of γ-BIMNVOX (Bi{sub 2}V{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 5.5−x/2}; 0.13 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20) system were synthesized by an ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. The resulting xerogels were then calcined by the microwave heating using a modified domestic microwave oven operated at 2.45 GHz. Microwave-assisted calcination samples in comparison with other conventionally calcined samples were characterized in terms of phase crystallization, stabilization and particle size using simultaneous thermogravimetric–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AC impedance spectroscopy was employed for electrical characterization. It was found that the microwave-assisted calcination route successfully produces better crystalline stabilized γ-BIMNVOX samples with appreciably small average particle sizes after only 25 min of microwave heating. The electrical properties of microwave calcined γ-BIMNVOX system make it an advanced low-temperature solid electrolyte suitable for use in oxide-ion based electrochemical applications.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of boehmites with various particle sizes and transition to α-Al2O3 powders by calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Boehmite powders with various particle sizes have been prepared by hydrothermal method and the α-Al2 O3 powders yielded after subsequent calcination have been studied. Dispersive crystalline boehmite powders of 30-100 nm, 0.4-0. 6μm and 1μm in size were obtained respectively by changing the hydrothermal precursors and the pH value of hydrothermal slurry. Calcination of boehmite powders of 30-100 nm at 1250℃ for 1h resulted in the formation of single-phase α-Al2O3,and the products consisted of vermicular particles. The boehmite powders of 0.4-0.6μm were also fully converted to α-Al2O3 at 1250℃, and the products consisted of plate-like particles with the same size of 0. 4-0. 6μm. The boehmite powders of 1μm calcined at 1350℃ for 2h were still composed of a little proportions of transition aluminas besides α-Al2 O3, and the particles sintered severely. The reaction processes for the formation of crystalline boehmites under hydrothermal conditions and α-Al2O3 powders during calcination have been discussed.

  1. Influence of calcination temperature on sol-gel synthesized single-phase bismuth titanate for high dielectric capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiruramanathan, Pandirengan; Marikani, Arumugam [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Physics; Madhavan, Durairaj [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Bharadwaj, Suresh; Awasthi, Anand Mohan [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore (India). Thermodynamics Lab.

    2016-05-15

    An inexpensive sol-gel combustion method using citric acid as fuel has been used to synthesize bismuth titanate, Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowders. Thermogravimetric analysis proved that a calcination temperature of 900 C is sufficient for the preparation of single-phase bismuth titanate. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to examine the influence of calcination temperature on the structural growth of the Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowder. The average crystallite size estimated by using the Scherrer method and the Williamson-Hall method was found to increase with calcination temperature. Photoluminescence behavior as a function of calcination temperature was observed at two different excitation wavelengths of 300 nm and 420 nm. The morphology of the particles analyzed using images obtained from field emission scanning electron microscopy displayed irregular, random sized, and spherical-shaped structures. The stoichiometry and purity of the nanopowder are confirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The broadband dielectric results established the highest dielectric constant (ε{sub r} = 450) for a frequency of 100 Hz achieved with a potential capacitance of 138 pF m{sup -2}. This establishes Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} as a promising dielectric material for achieving high energy density capacitors for the next-generation passive devices.

  2. Synthesis of titanium dioxide by ultrasound assisted sol-gel technique: effect of calcination and sonication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, D V; Prasad, Krishnamurthy; Gogate, P R; Mhaske, S T; Pandit, A B

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured titanium dioxide has been synthesized using both conventional and ultrasound assisted sol-gel technique with an objective of understanding the role of cavitational effects in the synthesis process. The experiments were conducted at a constant calcination temperature of 750 °C and the calcination time was varied from 30 min to 3 h to study the effect of calcination time on the properties of the synthesized TiO₂. The TiO₂ specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of the sonication time on the phase transformation process from anatase to rutile and also on the crystallite size and percentage crystallinity of the synthesized TiO₂ has also been investigated. It was observed that 100% phase transformation occurred after 3 h of calcination for the ultrasound assisted sol-gel synthesized TiO₂. The study on the phase transformation via variation of sonication time yielded interesting results. It was observed that as the sonication time increased, an initial increase in the rutile content is obtained and beyond optimum sonication time, the rutile content decreased. In general, the ultrasound assisted process results in synthesis of TiO₂ material with higher rutile content as compared to the conventional sol-gel process.

  3. Effect of calcination temperature and reaction conditions on methane partial oxidation using lanthanum-based perovskite as oxygen donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiaoping; YU Changchun; LI Ranjia; WU Qiong; SHI Kaijiao; HAO Zhengping

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calcination temperature, reaction temperature, and different amounts of replenished lattice oxygen on the partial oxidation of methane (POM) to synthesis gas using perovskite-type LaFeO3 oxide as oxygen donor instead of gaseous oxygen, which was prepared by the sol-gel method, and the oxides were characterized by XRD, TG/DTA, and BET. The results indicated that the particle size increased with the calcination temperature increasing, while BET and CH4 conversion declined with the calcination temperature increasing using LaFeO3 oxide as oxygen donor in the absence of gaseous oxygen. CO selectivity remained at a high level such as above 92%, and increased slightly as the calcination temperature increased. Exposure of LaFeO3 oxides to methane atmosphere enhanced the oxygen migration of in the bulk with time online owing to the loss of lattice oxygen and reduction of the oxidative stated Fe ion simultaneously. The high reaction temperature was favorable to the migration of oxygen species from the bulk toward the surface for the synthesis gas production with high CO selectivity. The product distribution and evolution for POM by sequential redox reaction was determined by amounts of replenished lattice oxygen with gaseous oxygen. The optimal process should decline the total oxidation of methane, and increase the selectivity of partial oxidation of methane.

  4. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Catalytic Activity and Textual Property of Cu/HMOR Catalysts in Dimethyl Ether Carbonylation Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Zhang; Yu-ping Li; Song-bai Qiu; Tie-jun Wang; Long-long Ma; Qi Zhang; Ming-yue Ding

    2013-01-01

    The effect of calcination temperature on the catalytic activity for the dimethyl ether (DME) carbonylation into methyl acetate (MA) was investigated over mordenite supported copper (Cu/HMOR) prepared by ion-exchange process.The results showed that the catalytic activity was obviously affected by the calcination temperature.The maximal DME conversion of 97.2% and the MA selectivity of 97.9% were obtained over the Cu/HMOR calcined at 430 ℃ under conditions of 210 ℃,1.5 MPa,and GSHV of 4883 h-1.The obtained Cu/HMOR catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction,N2 absorption,NH3 temperature program desorption,CO temperature program desorption,and Raman techniques.Proper calcination temperature was effective to promote copper ions migration and diffusion,and led the support HMOR to possess more acid activity sites,which exhibited the complete decomposing of copper nitrate,large surface area and optimum micropore structure,more amount of CO adsorption site and proper amount of weak acid centers.

  5. Simulation and characterization of a Hanford high-level waste slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    The baseline waste used for this simulant is a blend of wastes from tanks 101-AZ, 102-AZ, 106-C, and 102-AY that have been through water washing. However, the simulant used in this study represents a combination of tank waste slurries and should be viewed as an example of the slurries that might be produced by blending waste from various tanks. It does not imply that this is representative of the actual waste that will be delivered to the privatization contractor(s). This blended waste sludge simulant was analyzed for grain size distribution, theological properties both as a function of concentration and aging, and calcining characteristics. The grain size distribution allows a comparison with actual waste with respect to theological properties. Slurries with similar grain size distributions of the same phases are expected to exhibit similar theological properties. Rheological properties may also change because of changes in the slurry`s particulate supernate chemistry due to aging. Low temperature calcination allows the potential for hazardous gas generation to be investigated.

  6. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...... available about industrial waste – maybe also influenced by the policy of the industry as to making information publicly available. The data presented in this chapter is scarce and maybe not fully representative for the industrial sectors and hence should be used with caution only....

  7. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  9. Infrared Spectral Analysis for Calcined Borax%煅硼砂的红外光谱分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠; 任丽莉; 王栋; 周平; 张倩; 王伯涛

    2011-01-01

    对煅硼砂饮片进行质量评价.以18个不同含水量的煅硼砂样品为研究对象,使用傅里叶红外光谱仪采集样品的红外吸收图谱,并对红外图谱进行分析,再根据分析结果对煅硼砂饮片进行质量评价.发现煅硼砂的红外光谱主要包括OH、BO3-3和BO5-4振动引起的三个吸收带,OH振动吸收带的位置及宽度依赖于含水量的高低,含水量越高,吸收带越宽;BO3-3及BO5-4振动吸收带的数目也取决于含水量的高低,含水量越高,氢键作用越强,B原子的对称性越低,红外吸收峰数目越多.结论:因含水量与煅硼砂样品的质量直接相关,故红外光谱法可为煅硼砂的质量分析与评价研究提供一种灵敏、客观的方法和手段.%To valuate the quality of calcined borax which is sold in the market, 18 samples of calcined borax were studied using the Fourier transform infrared, and samples with different water content were selected and analyzed. Then, the results of analysis were used to evaluate the quality of calcined borax. Results show that the infrared spectra of calcined borax include OH vibration, BO3-3 vibration and BQ5-4 vibration absorption bands. The position and width of OH vibration absorption band depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, the wider the absorption band. The number of BO3-3 vibration and BO5-4 vibration bands also depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, and the stronger the hydrogen bond and the lower the symmetry of B atoms, the more the number of infrared absorption peaks. It was concluded that because the quality of calcined borax has direct correlation with water content, the infrared spectroscopy is an express and objective approach to quality analysis and evaluation of calcined borax.

  10. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  11. Development of a high energy efficient pressure calciner. Final report, June 1, 1994--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.F.

    1997-12-18

    During the life of this contract, the design, procurement, and construction of a pilot, self-fluidizing, pressure calciner for the production of smelting grade alumina was completed. Initial operating characteristics were determined, and the first half of the first DOX was completed. A design capacity of at least 100 kg/hr of product had been chosen to insure a 100:1 maximum scale-up ratio for the semi-commercial unit. Detailed numerical analysis was made for the heat exchanger design to set the active tube length at 8.5 m (28 ft). The instrumentation and data logging system was designed to obtain the detailed engineering parameters for design of the semi-commercial unit. The pressure feed, discharge, and burner systems were chosen from existing commercial designs to reduce the development work required. Auxiliary equipment, steam condenser, cooling tower, and product cooler, were chosen to simplify operation during the experimental program. Self-fluidizing capabilities were determined to exist both from temperature profiles and heat transfer coefficient calculations.

  12. The effect of calcination on reactive milling of anthracite as potential precursor for graphite production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess-Clifford, Caroline E.; Van Essendelft, Dirk T. [The EMS Energy Institute, C211 Coal Utilization Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Narayanan, Deepa L. [Puget Sound Energy, 10885 NE 4th PSE-09S, Bellevue, WA 98004 (United States); Jain, Puja; Lueking, Angela D. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 120 Hosler, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sakti, Apurba [School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The effect of a pretreatment using reactive ball milling and calcination on the graphitizability of an anthracite coal is explored. A thermal anneal of Buck Mountain anthracite at 1400 C in argon increased the L{sub c} crystallite dimension (from 12 to 20 A) and led to an increase in the oxidation temperature of the product. Ball milling of the coal reduced particle size with a nominal effect on carbon order and the degree of graphitization after the 1400 C thermal anneal (L{sub c} from 18 to 29 A). Ball milling in cyclohexene led to a substantial increase in the graphitizability at 1400 C (L{sub c} from 12 to 50 A). The enhanced reactivity was due to both carbon structure and introduced metal. The products of the mechano-chemical pretreatment and thermal anneal consisted of nanographene ribbons and multi-walled nanopolyhedral particles. It oxidized at moderate temperatures and had a high (74.3%) degree of graphitization based on X-ray diffraction analysis; the derived material has potential as filler for production of graphite. (author)

  13. Strength of Limestone-based Non-calcined Cement and its Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zongshou; ZHAO Qian

    2009-01-01

    A new type of cement was prepared with ground limestone powder,blastfurnace slag,steel slag and gypsum without calcination.The fraction of ground limestone powder in the cement was as high as 40 wt%-60 wt%without Portland clinker.All of its physical properties can meet the requirements of masonry cement standards.The impact of limestone content on physical properties of the cement and determined its impact on law was investigated.The steel slag can excit the aquation activity of this cement effectively,and the influence of its quantity on the strength of the materials was studied,which shows that the optimum quantity of mixing is 10%.By way of changing the different content of the lime stone by quartzy sample,the law of the compression strength and the PH value was determined,confirming that the lime stone can promote the early aquation of the slag and improve the early strength.The main hydration product of this cement is calcium aluminate hydrate, ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate,as indicated by XRD and SEM analysis.

  14. Kinetics of Hg(II) adsorption and desorption in calcined mussel shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Fernández-Calviño, David; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza

    2010-08-15

    The potential use of calcined mussel shells to purify water contaminated with mercury was evaluated. The Hg(II) adsorption and desorption kinetics were studied in batch-type and stirred-flow chamber experiments. The adsorption/desorption experiments revealed some differences between the batches of shells used. The batch of shells that displayed the greatest capacity to adsorb Hg(II), via a highly irreversible reaction, also contained more Fe and Al than the other batches. The results of the stirred-flow chamber experiments indicated a high degree of irreversibility in the process of Hg(II) adsorption in the mussel shell, and that Hg(II) was rapidly retained. The results of these experiments also revealed that the efficiency of depuration differed depending on the length of time that the system was used: when the system was operated for 55 min, depurating 162 mL of inflowing water g(-1) mussel shell, a 90% reduction in the initial concentration of Hg(II) was obtained; use of the system for 90 min, depurating 265 mL water g(-1) mussel shell, produced a 75% reduction in the initial Hg(II), and use of the system for 162.5 min, depurating 487 mL of water g(-1) mussel shell, resulted in a 50% reduction in the initial Hg(II).

  15. Mineral Phase and Physical Properties of Red Mud Calcined at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different characterizations were carried out on red mud uncalcined and samples calcined in the range of 100°C–1400°C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structural transition of red mud heated from room temperature are indicated by XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM techniques. The mean particle diameter, density, and bond strength of these samples also have been investigated. The results indicate the decomposition of gibbsite into Al2O3 and H2O between 300°C and 550°C and calcite into CaO and CO2 in the interval of 600–800°C. Tricalcium aluminate and gehlenite are formed in the range of 800–900°C. Combined with the SEM images, the results of physical property testing show that the particle size and the strength each has a continuous rise during the heat treatment from 150°C to 1350°C. But the value of density will undergo a little drop before 450°C and then increases to a higher value at the temperature of 1200°C. These obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of red mud.

  16. [XPS study on the influence of calcination conditions to cerium ion valence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Yan, Jian-ping; Nie, Zuo-ren

    2010-01-01

    For the system of Ce(NO3)2.6H2O and urea solution during homogeneous precipitation method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrum (IR) and especially X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study and characterize the product structure, variety of cerium ion valence, compound surface character and kernel electronic configurations. The results of XRD and IR showed that calcination temperature had a great effect on the cerium ion valence. The products are orthorhombic Ce2 O(CO3)2.H2O with valence III by using homogeneous precipitation method directly. When heated from the temperature 200 degrees C to 250 degrees C, the product of CeO(CO3)2.H2O with valence VI was finally changed into stable CeO2 with valence IV. XPS was used to study the surface character and kernel electronic configurations of the three different compounds through fine scanning of O(1s), Ce(3d) and Ce(4d) apices, and the results approved that the compounds with different valences are caused by the different valence electronic configurations of the products.

  17. Chloride adsorption by calcined layered double hydroxides in hardened Portland cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using calcined layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) to prevent chloride-induced deterioration in reinforced concrete. CLDHs not only adsorbed chloride ions in aqueous solution with a memory effect but also had a much higher binding capacity than the original layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the cement matrix. We investigated this adsorption in hardened cement paste in batch cultures to determine adsorption isotherms. The measured and theoretical binding capacities (153 mg g -1 and 257 mg g-1, respectively) of the CLDHs were comparable to the theoretical capacity of Friedel\\'s salt (2 mol mol-1 or 121 mg g-1), which belongs to the LDH family among cementitious phases. We simulated chloride adsorption by CLDHs through the cement matrix using the Fickian model and compared the simulation result to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chlorine map. Based on our results, it is proposed that the adsorption process is governed by the chloride transport through the cement matrix; this process differs from that in an aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the CLDH rebuilds the layered structure in a cementitious environment, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of applying CLDHs to the cement and concrete industries. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced mineral calciner for regeneration of lime. Final report, March 1995--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namazian, M.; Nickeson, R.; Lovas, B.; Miller, G.; Kelly, J.

    1997-12-31

    There are approximately 800 pulp, paper and paperboard mills in the United States. Pulp and paper is the ninth largest industry in US, uses 2.8 quads of energy per year and ranks third among all domestic US industries in the cost of energy consumed. A significant fraction of the energy consumed in pulp and paper plants is needed to recover chemicals that are used in breaking down the wood chips into pulp. In particular, 0.1 quads of energy per year are used to regenerate lime. Furthermore, pulp and paper plant operations generate 9,870 tons of NOx per year. Additionally over two million tons of spent lime are sent to landfills each year. In addition, growth in paper demand and changes in plant processes (e.g., bleaching), as a result of environmental pressures, will continue to drive the need for more lime regeneration capacity. Unless the increased capacity can be delivered productively and inexpensively, the growth in pulp and paper may occur in overseas markets. Furthermore, if new environmental constraints cannot be met at low cost, existing US pulp and paper production capacity may also move off-shore. The advanced mineral calciner (AMC) technology was developed to address this lime regeneration need. Prior to describing the technology, and the program of work that was used to test the concept, conventional lime regeneration systems and their limitations are described.

  19. Preparation of magnesium phosphate cement by recycling the product of thermal transformation of asbestos containing wastes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Asbestos containing wastes have been employed for the first time in the formulation of magnesium phosphate cements. Two samples were mixed with magnesium carbonate and calcined at 1100 and 1300 C. Under these conditions, complete destruction of asbestos minerals is known to occur. The product, containing MgO, after reaction with water-soluble potassium di-hydrogen phosphate, led to the formation of hydrated phases at room temperature. Crystalline and amorphous reaction products were detected,...

  20. Synthesis and calcinations effects on size analysis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanospheres and their superparamagnetic behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandha Babu, G. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu (India); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Kumaresavanji, M. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Porto, 687 Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-02-01

    Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave process using citric acid as a capping agent. Interestingly, when calcination temperature is increased to 600 °C, nanoparticles were formed into nanospheres of about less than 20 nm observed from SEM images. The particles were aggregated into bigger size of about 65 nm when the calcination temperature was increased to 800 °C. The samples calcined at 400 °C and 800 °C show superparamagnetism above the blocking temperature and the existence of small ferromagnetism is observed when Tcalcination temperature of the sample. - Highlights: • Spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are synthesized by fast and effective microwave route. • Tuning of size and morphology of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated by calcination temperatures. • Well defined sphere morphology was achieved for the calcinations of 600 °C. • The prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was modified into moderate size of less than 20 nm for 600 °C. • The 600 °C calcined sample completely obeys superparamagnetism nature from 5K–300K.

  1. Phase and morphology evolution of (Na1-xKxNbO3 powders related to calcinations and K2CO3 content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Milne

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-potassium niobate ((Na1-xKxNbO3 powders with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 were prepared following the conventional mixed oxide method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD and SEM techniques.The effects of calcination temperature, dwell time and K2CO3 content on phase formation behavior and morphology of the powders were investigated. The calcination temperature and dwell time were found tohave a pronounced effect on the phase formation of the calcined sodium-potassium niobate powders. It was found that the crystallized phase depended on calcination conditions. The high calcination temperature andlong dwell time clearly favored particle growth and the formation of large and hard agglomerates. All the (Na1-xKxNbO3 powders showed a similar orthorhombic phase structure. The K2CO3 content significantlyaffected the calcination temperature and particle size and shape. Large particle size, cubic shape and a lower calcined condition were observed in (Na1-xKxNbO3 powder with low K2CO3 content (x = 0.2.

  2. Effect of calcining temperature and time on the characteristics of Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Zhong; Baoping Yang; Xiaoliang Zhang; Junhong Jia; Gewen Yi

    2012-01-01

    Spherical Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel route,employing SnCl4·5H2O and SbCl3 as precursors in an ethanol solution.The influences of the calcining temperature and calcining time on the crystallite size,crystallinity,lattice parameters,lattice distortion ratio and the resistivity of the ATO nanoparticles were synthetically investigated.The results suggested that the ATO nanoparticles were crystallized in a tetragonal cassiterite structure of SnO2 with a highly (110)-plane-preferred orientation.The calcining temperature had a dominating effect on the crystallite size,crystallinity,lattice distortion ratios and resistivity of the ATO.As the calcining temperature increased,the average crystallite size increased,the crystallinity was promoted accompanied by a decrease in the lattice distortion ratio and a corresponding decrease in the resistivity of the ATO.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) analysis revealed that Sb ions could not entirely supplant the Sn ions in the SnO2 lattice for a calcining time of less than 0.5 h,even at a calcining temperature of 1000℃.The ATO nanoparticles calcined at 1000℃ for 3.0h possessed the lowest resistivity of 10.18Ωcm.

  3. [Based on Curing Age of Calcined Coal Gangue Fine Aggregate Mortar of X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zuo-chao; Xia, Jun-wu; Duan, Xiao-mu; Cao, Ji-chang

    2016-03-01

    By using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis method, we stud- ied the activity of coal gangue fine aggregate under different calcination temperature. In view of the activity of the highest-700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate mortar of hydration products, microstructure and strength were discussed in this paper, and the change laws of mortar strength with curing age (3, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d) growth were analyzed. Test results showed that coal gangue fine aggregate with the increase of calcination temperature, the active gradually increases. When the calcination temperature reaches 700 degrees C, the activity of coal gangue fine aggregate is the highest. When calcining temperature continues to rise, activity falls. After 700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate has obvious ash activity, the active components of SiO2 and Al2 O3 can be with cement hydration products in a certain degree of secondary hydration reaction. Through on the top of the activity of different curing age 700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate mortar, XRD and SEM analysis showed that with the increase of curing age, secondary hydration reaction will be more fully, and the amount of hydration products also gradually increases. Compared with the early ages of the cement mortar, the products are more stable hydration products filling in mortar microscopic pore, which can further improve the microstructure of mortar, strengthen the interface performance of the mortar. The mortar internal structure is more uniform, calcined coal gangue fine aggregate and cement mortar are more of a strong continuous whole, which increase the later strength of hardened cement mortar, 700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate pozzolanic effect is obvious.

  4. Effects of Calcination Temperature on the Acidity and Catalytic Performances of HZSM-5 Zeolite Catalysts for the Catalytic Cracking of n-Butane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangyin Lu; Zhen Zhao; Chunming Xu; Aijun Duan; Pu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The acidic modulations of a series of HZSM-5 catalysts were successfully made by calcination at different treatment temperatures, i.e. 500, 600, 650, 700 and 800 ℃, respectively. The results indicated that the total acid amounts, their density and the amount of B-type acid of HZSM-5 catalysts rapidly decreased, while the amounts of L-type acid had almost no change and thus the ratio of L/B was obviously enhanced with the increase of calcination temperature (excluding 800 ℃). The catalytic performances of modified HZSM-5 catalysts for the cracking of n-butane were also investigated. The main properties of these catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, N2 adsorption at low temperature, NH3-TPD, FTIR of pyridine adsorption and BET surface area measurements. The results showed that HZSM-5 zeolite pretreated at 800 ℃ had very low catalytic activity for n-butane cracking. In the calcination temperature range of 500-700 ℃, the total selectivity to olefins, propylene and butene were increased with the increase of calcination temperature, while, the selectivity for arene decreased with the calcination temperature.The HZSM-5 zeolite calcined at 700 ℃ produced light olefins with high yield, at the reaction temperature of 650 ℃ the yields of total olefins and ethylene were 52.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Besides, the more important role is that high calcination temperature treatment improved the duration stability of HZSM-5zeolites. The effect of calcination temperature on the physico-chemical properties and catalytic performance of HZSM-5 for cracking of n-butane was explored. It was found that the calcination temperature had large effects on the surface area, crystallinity and acid properties of HZSM-5 catalyst, which further affected the catalytic performance for n-butane cracking.

  5. Effect of calcination method on the product distribution from catalytic degradation of polystyrene in the presence of 1% Pd/Al2O3 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Anita; Kun, Lim Sheo; Kait, Chong Fai; Yahya, Noorhana; Daud, Hanita

    2012-11-01

    Incipient wetness impregnation method was used to prepare 1% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst which was calcined at 500 °C for 16 hr as well as in a domestic microwave at 650W for 5 and 10 min. These catalysts were tested in the catalytic degradation of polystyrene (PS) into liquid fuels at catalyst to PS ratio of 0.2 (w/w). The organic liquid product (OLP) collected was analysed using Gas Chromatography (GC). Results show that the conventional calcined catalyst gives petrol as the main product while kerosene was the main product for the microwave calcined catalysts.

  6. Study of composition and morphology features of alumina producing waste for its application in road building technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, Igor; Bochkov, Nikolay; Zhyzhaev, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The research of component composition of complex mineral binder material obtained using non-toxic alumina producing waste was performed. The strength characteristics of road mixtures and binder mineral product structure were studied. The technology of subgrade building on the basis of nepheline slime, gypsum-anhydrite waste and dust from cleaning collectors of electrostatic gas treatment systems of calcination furnaces of Achinsk alumina plant was developed and experimentally tested. It provides beside of part of waste utilization also increasing of strength properties and frost resistance of road mixtures.

  7. Influence of calcination atmosphere on photocatalytic reactivity of K2La2Ti3O10 for water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The layered perovskite type oxide K2La2Ti3O10 powders were prepared under air, Ar and H2 calcination atmospheres by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The influence of the calcination atmosphere on the photocatalytic reactivity of K2La2Ti3O10 for hydrogen production was investigated.The photocatalytic reactivity of K2La2Ti3O10 prepared under air, Ar and H2 atmospheres was compared with that prepared under ultraviolet and visible light radiation using I- as electronic donor. The results show that K2La2Ti3O10 prepared under Ar and H2atmospheres has higher photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production than that prepared under air atmosphere. The hydrogen

  8. Characterization and use of in natura and calcined rice husks for biosorption of heavy metals ions from aqueous effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. A. Vieira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal removal by adsorption using rice husks as a bioadsorbent was evaluated as an alternative for wastewater treatment. Batch equilibrium experiments and kinetic sorption studies were performed using monocomponent solutions of Ni(II, Cd(II, Zn(II, Pb(II and Cu(II in surface samples of in natura(RH and calcined rice husks (RHA. RHA showed higher potential for removing lead and copper. Experimental data for adsorption isotherms of lead and copper were adjusted by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevick (D-R models, being better represented by the Langmuir model. The calcination of RH increased its surface area, improving its adsorption properties. From a morphological analysis obtained by SEM and diffraction patterns (XRD, a longitudinal fibrous and amorphous structure was observed for RH. TGA resultsindicated a total mass loss of around 60% for RH and 24.5% for RHA.

  9. Studies of the Catalytic Activity and Deactivation of Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides in the Reaction of Ethanol with Propylene Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reaction of ethanol with propylene oxide over calcined layered double hydroxides(CLDH) was investigated. The results show that CLDH has a good activity and a good selectivity, but the activity and the selectivity of CLDH decrease when CLDH reforms LDH- the so called "memory effect". The influence of the "memory effect" on the CLDH returning to LDH was studied by the hydration reaction. It is shown that the "memory effect" is not complete, and the decreases of the Mg/Al molar ratio of LDH and the crystallite size due to the increase of the hydration reaction time result in the drop of the activity and the selectivity.Keyworcds Ethanol, Propylene oxide, Calcined layered double hydroxide, "Memory effect", Hydration

  10. Comparative studies on physico-mechanical properties of composite materials of low density polyethylene and raw/calcined kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mallik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation of the composite materials of low density polyethylene (LDPE as the base mixed separately with raw kaolin and the same calcined at 800 °C under the same variation in weight percentage using single-screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between 190 and 200 °C. Some of the mechanical and physical properties such as Young's modulus, elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fractions of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the mechanical properties. Absorption test was done in water at different immersion times for different composites. The degree of water absorption of composite materials was found to decrease with increasing wt% of kaolin filler (0–15% according to Fick's law. Calcined kaolin produces better mechanical properties than raw kaolin.

  11. CFD Modelling and Experimental Testing of Thermal Calcination of Kaolinite Rich Clay Particles - An Effort towards Green Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay

    Cement industry is one of the major industrial emitters of greenhouse gases, generating 5-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Consequently, use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) to replace part of the CO2-intensive cement clinker is an attractive way to mitigate CO2 emissions...... from cement industry. SCMs based on industrial byproducts like fly ashes and slags are subject to availability problems. Yet clays are the most ubiquitous material on earth's crust. Thus, properly calcined clays are a very promising candidate for SCMs to produce green cements. Calcination...... PROcess Modeling System) software, which is suspended during the project due to the adjustment made by the project consortium. The model results from both C++ and gPROMS software show good similarity. Various experiments have been performed to derive key kinetic data, to collect data from a gas suspension...

  12. HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

    2003-02-27

    This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

  13. Effect of calcination temperature on the structural and electrical properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandekar, M.S. [Ferrite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Solapur University, Solapur 413255, MS (India); Kambale, R.C. [Composite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India); Patil, J.Y. [Ferrite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Solapur University, Solapur 413255, MS (India); Kolekar, Y.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, MS (India); Suryavanshi, S.S., E-mail: sssuryavanshi@rediffmail.com [Ferrite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Solapur University, Solapur 413255, MS (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by autocombustion method with hexamine as a fuel. > TGA measurements confirm the stable phase formation of the phase above 700 deg. C. > Effect of calcination temperature on the structural and electrical properties of cobalt ferrite was investigated. > The particle size strongly affects the electrical property. > ac conductivity measurement reveals the conduction in the present phase is of small polaron type. - Abstract: In this paper, the structural and electrical properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by combustion route with hexamine as a fuel are reported for the first time. Thermogravemetric analysis (TGA) confirm the stable phase formation of the phase above 700 deg. C. Structural characterizations of all the samples were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It reveals an increase in the particle size with the calcination temperature (i.e. 700, 800 and 900 deg. C). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy confirms the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes within the spinel lattice. DC resistivity as function of temperature indicates that all the samples obey the semiconducting behavior and it decreases with calcination temperature. The variation of dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) and ac conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}), for all the samples have been studied as a function of applied frequency in the range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The dielectric constant increases with the calcination temperature and all the samples exhibit usual dielectric dispersion which is due to the Maxwell-Wagner-type interfacial polarization. The ac conductivity measurement suggests that the conduction is due to small polaron hopping.

  14. Tailoring the Microstructure of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Support by Calcination and Milling of YSZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifi, Amir Reza; Laguna-Bercero, Miguel A.; Sandhu, Navjot Kaur; Etsell, Thomas H.; Sarkar, Partha

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of calcination and milling of 8YSZ (8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia) used in the nickel-YSZ anode on the performance of anode supported tubular fuel cells were investigated. For this purpose, two different types of cells were prepared based on a Ni-YSZ/YSZ/Nd2NiO4+δ-YSZ configuration. For the anode preparation, a suspension was prepared by mixing NiO and YSZ in a ratio of 65:35 wt% (Ni:YSZ 50:50 vol.%) with 30 vol.% graphite as the pore former. As received Tosoh YSZ or its calcined form (heated at 1500 °C for 3 hours) was used in the anode support as the YSZ source. Electrochemical results showed that optimization of the fuel electrode microstructure is essential for the optimal distribution of gas within the support of the cell, especially under electrolysis operation where the performance for an optimized cell (calcined YSZ) was enhanced by a factor of two. In comparison with a standard cell (containing as received YSZ), at 1.5 V and 800 °C the measured current density was -1380 mA cm-2 and -690 mA cm-2 for the cells containing calcined and as received YSZ, respectively. The present study suggests that the anode porosity for improved cell performance under SOEC is more critical than SOFC mode due to more complex gas diffusion under electrolysis mode where large amount of steam needs to be transfered into the cell.

  15. Effects of Calcination Temperature on Preparation of Boron-Doped TiO2 by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Being calcinated at temperatures from 300°C to 600°C, all the 3% B-TiO2 samples presented anatase TiO2 phase, and TiO2 crystallite sizes were calculated to be 7.6, 10.3, 13.6, and 27.3 nm, respectively. The samples were composed of irregular particles with rough surfaces in the size range within 3 μm. Ti atoms were in an octahedron skeleton and existed mainly in the form of Ti4+, while the Ti-O-B structure was the main boron existing form in the 3% B-TiO2 sample. When calcination temperature increased from 300°C to 600°C, specific surface area decreased sharply from 205.6 m2/g to 31.8 m2/g. The average pore diameter was 10.53 nm with accumulative pore volume of 0.244 mL/g for the 3% B-TiO2 sample calcinated at 400°C, which performed optimal photocatalytic degradation activity. After 90 min of UV-light irradiation, degradation rate of methyl orange was 96.7% on the optimized photocatalyst.

  16. Enhanced remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil by incorporating a calcined-hydrotalcite-based permeable reactive barrier with electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Xu, Yunfeng; Li, Wentao; Zhou, Jizhi; Zhao, Jun; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2012-11-15

    This paper describes the enhanced Cr(VI)-contaminated soil remediation via a combination of electrokinetics (EK) with a calcined-hydrotalcite-based permeable reactive barrier (PRB). First, this combination proved to be feasible, and remarkably facilitated Cr(VI) remediation in a column test. Then, lightly-to-severely (0.16-1.65 mg/g) Cr(VI)-contaminated soil was remediated in a simulated test with the calcined hydrotalcite as the PRB under an voltage of 10-30 V (i.e. an electric field intensity of 0.7-2.0 V/cm). The observations demonstrated that both PRB and EK are critical to efficient remediation and the high de-contamination efficiency is supposedly attributed to the synergistic effect, for which EK concentrates anionic chromate to the anode region and PRB media (calcined hydrotalcite) absorbs and immobilizes it. Thus we have shown that the combined PRB-EK system is highly adaptive and effective in remediation of a larger area contaminated with chromate and various anionic pollutants.

  17. Process for capturing CO2 arising from the calcination of the CaCO3 used in cement manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N; Alonso, M; Grasa, G; Abanades, J Carlos

    2008-09-15

    This paper outlines a new CaCO3 calcination method for producing a stream of CO2 (suitable for permanent geological storage after purification and compression). The process is based on the use of very hot CaO particles (T >1000 degrees C) to transfer heat from a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) to a calciner (fluidized with CO2 and/or steam). Since the fluidized bed combustor and calciner have separate atmospheres, the CO2 resulting from the decomposition of CaCO3 can be captured, while the CO2 generated in the combustion of the fuel in air is emitted to the atmosphere. We demonstrate that with this system it is possible to reduce the CO2 emissions of a cement plant by around 60%. Furthermore, since the key pieces of equipment are similar to the commercial CFBCs used in power generation plants, it is possible to establish the additional investment required for the system and to estimate the cost per ton of CO2 avoided for this process to be about 19 $/tCO2 avoided.

  18. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  19. The decrease of carbonation efficiency of CaO along calcination-carbonation cycles: Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, E.; Leyssens, G.; Schonnenbeck, C.; Gilot, P. [Laboratoire de Gestion des Risques et Environnement, Mulhouse (France)

    2009-05-15

    Successive calcination-carbonation cycles, using CaO as sorbent, have been performed either in a classical fixed bed reactor or using a thermogravimetric analyser. Significant differences in carbonation efficiencies were obtained, possibly due to different conditions prevailing for CaO sintering during the calcination stage. The effect of the presence of CO{sub 2} on sintering was confirmed. A simple model of the decay of the carbonation capacity along cycles based on the specific surface area of non-sintered micrograins of CaO is able to predict the decrease of the extent of conversion obtained after 40 carbonations along calcination-carbonation cycles. The asymptotic extent of conversion is obtained when all the micrograins present within a grain are sintered. A detailed model of the carbonation shows that the voids present between the micrograins are filled up by carbonate when a critical thickness of the carbonate layer around each micrograin reaches 43 nm. Then, carbonation becomes controlled by diffusion at the scale of the whole grain, with the CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient decreasing (at 650 {sup o}C) from 2 x 10{sup -12} to 6.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s as carbonation proceeds from 50% conversion to 76% (first cycle). This scale change for diffusion is responsible for the drastic decrease of the carbonation rate after the voids between micrograins are filled up.

  20. Maximizing Sustainability of Concrete through the Control of Moisture Rise and Drying Shrinkage Using Calcined Clay Pozzolan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Solomon Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ghanaian concrete industry is really a booming industry due to many infrastructural developments and the surge in residential development. However, many developmental projects that utilize concrete do suffer from the negative impact of moisture rise including paint peeling-off, bacterial and fungi growth, and microcracks as well as unpleasant looks on buildings. Such negative outlook resulting from the effects of moisture rise affects the longevity of concrete and hence makes concrete less sustainable. This study seeks to develop materials that could minimize the rise of moisture or ions through concrete medium. The experimental works performed in this study included pozzolanic strength activity index, water sorptivity, and shrinkage test. Calcined clay produced from clay was used as pozzolan to replace Portland cement at 20%. The strength activity test showed that the cement containing the calcined material attained higher strength activity indices than the control. The thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the pozzolan behaved partly as a filler material and partly as a pozzolanic material. The sorptivity results also showed that the blended mix resulted in lower sorptivity values than the control mortar. The study recommends that calcined clay and Portland cement mixtures could be used to produce durable concrete to maximize sustainability.

  1. Mesoporous Titania Powders: The Role of Precursors, Ligand Addition and Calcination Rate on Their Morphology, Crystalline Structure and Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Masolo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the influence of the use of different titania precursors, calcination rate, and ligand addition on the morphology, texture and phase content of synthesized mesoporous titania samples, parameters which, in turn, can play a key role in titania photocatalytic performances. The powders, obtained through the evaporation-induced self-assembly method, are characterized by means of ex situ X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD measurements, N2 physisorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy. The precursors are selected basing on two different approaches: the acid-base pair, using TiCl4 and Ti(OBu4, and a more classic route with Ti(OiPr4 and HCl. For both precursors, different specimens were prepared by resorting to different calcination rates and with and without the addition of acetylacetone, that creates coordinated species with lower hydrolysis rates, and with different calcination rates. Each sample was employed as photoanode and tested in the water splitting reaction by recording I-V curves and comparing the results with commercial P25 powders. The complex data framework suggests that a narrow pore size distribution, due to the use of acetylacetone, plays a major role in the photoactivity, leading to a current density value higher than that of P25.

  2. Synthesis of type A zeolite from calcinated kaolin; Sintese de zeolita tipo A a partir de caulim calcinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, E.C.; Neves, R.F.; Souza, J.A.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPEQ/UFPA), Abaetetuba, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao; Moraes, C.G.; Macedo, E.N., E-mail: mersone7@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (PRODERNA/UFPA), Abaetetuba, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Recursos Naturais da Amazonia

    2011-07-01

    The mineral production has caused great concern in environmental and industrial scenario due to the effects caused to the environment. The industries of processing kaolin for paper are important economically for the state of Para, but produce huge quantities of tailings, which depend on large areas to be stocked. This material is rich in silico-aluminates can be recycled and used as raw material for other industries. The objective is to synthesize zeolite A at different temperatures of calcination and synthesis. The starting materials and synthesis of zeolite A have been identified and characterized through analysis of X-ray diffraction (DRX) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The synthesis process of zeolite A, using as source of silica and the aluminum metakaolin, which was calcined at temperatures of 700 ° C and 800 ° C for 2 hours of landing in a burning furnace type muffle. Observed in relation to the calcination of kaolin as the main phase, the metakaolin. This is just a removal of water from its structure, so we opted for the lower temperature, less energy consumption. The synthesis process of zeolite A, produced good results for the formation of zeolites type A, which were characterized with high purities. (author)

  3. Low Temperature Synthesis of Single-crystal Alpha Alumina Platelets by Calcining Bayerite and Potassium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Su; Jiangong Li

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystal alpha alumina (α-Al2O3) platelets were synthesized by calcining a powder mixture of bayerite (α-AI(OH)3) and potassium sulfate (K2SO4) at 900℃. The crystalline phase evolutions and morphologies of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized samples mainly consisted of single-crystal α-Al2O3 platelets with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 μm and a thickness of 50-150 nm. Moreover, with 3, 5, and 8 wt% (referred to the obtained alumina) α-Al2O3 seeds adding into the powder mixture of bayerite and potassium sulfate, the average diameter of α-Al2O3 platelets can be reduced to 450, 240, and 220 nm, respectively. It is found that the sequence of the phase transformation is the bayerite (α-Al(OH)3) → boehmite (γ-AIOOH) →γ-Al2O3 → α-Al2O3. Further analysis indicated that K2SO4 can promote the phase transformation from α-Al2O3 to α-Al2O3 and the formation of single-crystal α-Al2O3 platelets might be attributed to the liquid phase K3AI(SO4)3.

  4. Chloride adsorption by calcined layered double hydroxides in hardened Portland cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seyoon [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Moon, Juhyuk, E-mail: juhyuk.moon@stonybrook.edu [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Bae, Sungchul [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Duan, Xiaonan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Giannelis, Emmanuel P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Center for Refining and Petrochemicals, The Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Monteiro, Paulo M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using calcined layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) to prevent chloride-induced deterioration in reinforced concrete. CLDHs not only adsorbed chloride ions in aqueous solution with a memory effect but also had a much higher binding capacity than the original layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the cement matrix. We investigated this adsorption in hardened cement paste in batch cultures to determine adsorption isotherms. The measured and theoretical binding capacities (153 mg g{sup −1} and 257 mg g{sup −1}, respectively) of the CLDHs were comparable to the theoretical capacity of Friedel's salt (2 mol mol{sup −1} or 121 mg g{sup −1}), which belongs to the LDH family among cementitious phases. We simulated chloride adsorption by CLDHs through the cement matrix using the Fickian model and compared the simulation result to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chlorine map. Based on our results, it is proposed that the adsorption process is governed by the chloride transport through the cement matrix; this process differs from that in an aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the CLDH rebuilds the layered structure in a cementitious environment, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of applying CLDHs to the cement and concrete industries. - Highlights: • We examine the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of CLDH in the hydrated cement. • CLDH capacity to bind chloride ions in the hydrated cement paste is determined. • We model chloride adsorption by CLDH through the cement matrix. • CLDH reforms the layered structure with ion adsorption in the cement matrix.

  5. Calcination products of gibbsite studied by X-ray diffraction, XPS and solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malki, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Mekhalif, Z.; Detriche, S.; Fonder, G. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Electrochimie des Surfaces, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Boumaza, A., E-mail: charif_boumaza@yahoo.com [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Djelloul, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria)

    2014-07-01

    The changes caused by heat treatment of gibbsite powder at 300–1473 K were studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra and {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR). XRD analysis indicates that the transformation sequence involves the formation of κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an intermediate phase between χ- and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The crystallite size of χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. XPS analysis indicates that the ratio of aluminium atoms to oxygen atoms in χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases, whereas the expected ratio is observed in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in the transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Graphical abstract: The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Highlights: • Calcination products of gibbsite studied by XRD, XPS and solid-state NMR. • The crystallite size of χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. • The Al/O atomic ratio determined by XPS is larger than 2/3 in χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The percentage of AlO{sub 4} in the aluminas follows the same behaviour as the Al/O atomic ratio.

  6. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Suli; Huang, Chengdu; Lv, Jing; Li, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N2-physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500° C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/SiO2 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO2 catalyst.

  7. Fabrication of nano structural biphasic materials from phosphogypsum waste and their in vitro applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: Kh_rezk966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mousa, Sahar M. [Chemistry Department, Science and Art College, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box 344, 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O. Box 12622, 11787 Cairo (Egypt); El Bassyouni, Gehan T. [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Medical Physics Department, College of Medicine, Taif University (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schema of the process, (b) TEM of nano particles of biphasic materials and (c) SEM of post-immersion. - Highlights: • Ratio of HA and β-TCP phases were controlled by thermal treatment. • HA partially decomposed into β-TCP with other bioactive phases. • Calcined HA at 900 °C is the best for the bioactivity behavior. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process of preparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) is proposed. Also its bioactivity for the utilization of the prepared BCP as a biomaterial is studied. A mixture of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) could be obtained by thermal treatment of HAP which was previously prepared from phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The chemical and phase composition, morphology and particle size of prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was investigated by soaking of the calcined samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results confirmed that the calcination temperatures played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate (CP) materials. XRD results indicated that HAP was partially decomposed into β-TCP. The in vitro data confirmed that the calcined HAP forming BCP besides other phases such as pyrophosphate and silica are bioactive materials. Therefore, BCP will be used as good biomaterials for medical applications.

  8. Catalyst used in 1,2-epoxyalkane preparation is obtained by heating tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkyl siloxanes and amines, calcining and treating with a tetraalkoxy compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    NOVELTY - The catalyst, used in 1,2-epoxyalkane preparation, is obtained by heat treating an aqueous composition comprising tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkyl siloxanes and amines, removing the template by calcining and treating with a tetraalkoxy compound......NOVELTY - The catalyst, used in 1,2-epoxyalkane preparation, is obtained by heat treating an aqueous composition comprising tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkyl siloxanes and amines, removing the template by calcining and treating with a tetraalkoxy compound...

  9. The Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan, Low-Cao Steel Slag and Granite Dust On the Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sarfo-Ansah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low CaO steel slag, calcined clay and granite dust on the alkali-silica reaction was investigated over a period of 35 days under accelerated curing conditions. The mineral admixtures were used to replace varying portions of high alkali Portland limestone cement up to an admixture content of 25% in order to study their effect on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR. Portland limestone cement used for the study had a total Na2Oeq of 4.32. XRD analysis of hydrated mortar bar samples confirmed the formation of an expansive sodium silica gel in the reference Portland cement mortar bar as the agent responsible for ASR. Stable calcium silicates were formed in the mortar bars containing calcined clay in increasing quantities whilst the presence of the sodium silicate gel decreased.The occurrence of these stable silicates in hydrated samples containing steel slag and granite dust was however minimal, compared to calcined clay cement mortars. The highest expansion was recorded for granite dust mortar bars, reaching a maximum of 25.98% at 35 days. Mortar-bar expansion decreased as calcined clay content in the cement increased;mortar bars with 25% calcined clay were the least expansive recording expansion less than 0.1% at all test ages. Whilst the expansion was reduced by between 42.5% and 107.8% at 14 days with increasing calcined clay content, expansion rather increased between 36.8% and 169.5% at 14 days with increasing granite dust content.Steel slag mortar bars experienced reduction in 14 days expansion between 14.3% - 46.2%.The study confirms that steel slag and calcined clay pozzolan have greater influence on ASR in mortar bars than granite dust and shows that calcined clay and low CaO steel slag could be considered as remedial admixtures for ASR at replacement levels of 25% and 15% respectively.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Au/Pd Modified-TiO2 Photocatalysts for Phenol and Toluene Degradation under Visible Light—The Effect of Calcination Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cybula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutile loaded with Au/Pd nanoparticles was prepared using a water-in-oil microemulsion system of water/AOT/cyclohexane followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature (from 350 to 700°C on the structure of Au/Pd nanoparticles deposited at rutile matrix and the photocatalytic properties of Au/Pd-TiO2 was investigated in two model reactions (toluene degradation in gas phase and phenol degradation in aqueous phase. Toluene was irradiated over Au/Pd-TiO2 using light emitting diodes (LEDs, λmax⁡ = 415 nm. The sample 0.5 mol% Pd/TiO2 exhibited the highest activity under visible light irradiation in gas and aqueous phase reaction among all photocatalysts calcined at 350°C, while the sample modified only with gold nanoparticles showed the lowest activity. The Au/Pd-TiO2 sample calcinated at 350°C possesses the highest photocatalytic activity when degrading phenol under visible light, which is 14 times higher than that of the one calcinated at 450°C. It was observed that increasing temperature from 350 to 700°C during calcination step caused segregation of metals and finally resulted in photoactivity drop.

  11. Limestone calcination under calcium-looping conditions for CO2 capture and thermochemical energy storage in the presence of H2O: an in situ XRD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Medina, Santiago

    2017-03-02

    This work reports an in situ XRD analysis of whether the calcination/carbonation behavior of natural limestone (CaCO3) is affected by the addition of H2O to the calciner at a very low concentration under relevant Calcium-Looping (CaL) conditions for CO2 capture in coal fired power plants (CFPP) and Thermochemical Energy Storage (TCES) in Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP). Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of steam in the calciner at a high concentration yields a significant increase in the reaction rate. However, a further undesired consequence is the serious deterioration of the CaO mechanical strength, which would lead to particle attrition and mass loss in any CaL process based on the use of circulating fluidized beds. The results presented in this manuscript on the time evolution of the wt% and crystallite size of the phases involved in the calcination/carbonation reactions indicate that the calcination rate is still notably increased by the presence of H2O at very low concentrations whereas the reactivity toward carbonation and crystal structure of the formed CaO are not essentially affected, which suggests that the CaO mechanical strength is not impaired. Thus, the benefit of using steam for calcination in the CaL process could be still retained while at the same time particle attrition would not be promoted.

  12. Multibarrier waste forms. Part II. Characterization and evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.; Gray, W.J.; Wald, J.W.

    1979-08-01

    The multibarrier concept for the storage of radioactive waste is to use up to three barriers to isolate radionuclides from the environment: a solidified waste inner core, an impervious coating, and a metal matrix. The four multibarrier waste forms were evaluated for thermal stability (volatility), mechanical strength (impact resistance), and leach resistance. This report discusses the characterization of the multibarrier waste forms and compares them to reference calcine and glass waste forms. The weight loss of supercalcine-ceramics after 4 h in dry air ranges between 0.01 and 1.6 wt % from 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C and is dependent upon composition. Glass marbles in a cast lead alloy offer approximately an order of magnitude decease in the wt % fines < 37 ..mu..m released after impact as compared to a glass monolith. CVD-coated supercalcine in a sintered 410 SS matrix offers up to two orders of magnitude decrease. Hot-pressed supercalcine ceramics may offer no increase in impact resistance or leach resistance over that of a glass monolith. Supercalcine may offer no advantage over waste glasses in leach resistance. Glass and PyC/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ coatings provide effective inert leaching barriers.

  13. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  14. Landfills - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  15. Development of New Ecological Ceramic Tiles by Recycling of Waste Glass and Ceramic Materials; Incorporacion de residuos derivados de la fabricacion ceramica y del vidrio reciclado en el proceso ceramico integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, C.; Ramon Trilles, V.; Gomez, F.; Allepuz, S.; Fraga, D.; Carda, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    The following research work shows the results of the introduction of waste generated by the ceramic industry, such as the calcined clay from fired porcelain of stoneware and raw biscuit, sludge and cleaning water, as well as waste from other sectors like the recycling glass. In this way, it can be obtained a stoneware porcelain slab, engobe-glaze and satin glaze that contains high percentage of recyclable raw materials. (Author)

  16. Adsorption of a cationic dye (Yellow Basic 28 ontothe calcined mussel shells: Kinetics, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane EL Ouahabi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to valorise the mussel shells and evaluate the adsorption capacity of calcined mussel shells for the cationic dyes.  The adsorbent was characterized by DRX, FTIR, BET and SEM, respectively. The adsorption of Yellow Basic28 on calcined mussel shells was investigated using the parameters such as concentrations (10-50mg/L, pH (3-10, ionic strength (0-2 mol / L and temperature (288 - 318 °C.  The adsorption rate data were analysed according to the first and second-order kinetic models.  The adsorption kinetics was found to be best represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.  The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Elovich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm equations on the dye-adsorbent system. The experimental data yielded excellent fits with Freundlich isotherm equation (R² = 0.966. It was indicative of the heterogeneity of the adsorption sites on the CMS particles.  Various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of adsorption ΔH°, free energy change ΔG°and entropy ΔS° were estimated.  The positive value of ΔH°(30.321 kJ/mol and negative values of ΔG° (from -5.392 to -2.873 kJ/mol show the process is endothermic and spontaneous.  The negative value of entropy ΔS° (-87.172 J/mol K suggest the decreased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the adsorption of dyes onto calcined mussel shells.

  17. Elimination of phosphate and zirconium in the high-activity fraction resulting from TRUEX partitioning of ICPP zirconium calcines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, K.N.; Tillotson, R.D.; Tullock, P.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Laboratory testing was undertaken with the aim of developing a TRUEX flowsheet that would efficiently remove actinides from solutions of dissolved zirconium calcine and minimize the glass volume produced from the ensuing high-activity fraction. A TRUEX flowsheet is recommended for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant based on the results from this testing. These laboratory tests show that zirconium recovery in the high activity fraction is minimized by scrubbing with an optimized NHF concentration of 0.2 M. This NH4F concentration in the scrub allowed the HEDPA strip concentration to be reduced from 0.04 M to 0.004 M because HEDPA is not consumed by zirconium. Complete TRU stripping was also achieved in these laboratory tests with 0.004 M HEDPA. Data from the small-scale laboratory batch contact tests were used in the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) to evaluate the proposed flowsheet under counter-current conditions. GTM results indicate the raffinate will meet the Class A non-TRU limit of < 10 nCi/g in six extraction stages (O/A = 1), and quantitative actinide recovery will be achieved with the 0.004 M HEDPA in six strip stages (O/A = 1). Only 6.6 % of the initial zirconium concentration is anticipated to be recovered with the actinides, indicating the four scrub stages (O/A = 3) efficiently removes zirconium from the TRUEX solvent. In addition to recommending an improved TRUEX flowsheet for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant, this work has shown that small reductions in zirconium extraction drastically improves flowsheet performance. These small changes in zirconium extraction can be accomplished by modifying the calcine dissolution parameters. Therefore, further calcine dissolution testing followed by TRUEX testing with the resulting feed solutions is also recommended.

  18. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (PAllium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  19. Microwave Sintering of W-15Cu Ultrafine Composite Powder Prepared by Spray Drying & Calcining-continuous Reduction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Jingping; SHI Xiaoliang; WANG Shuwei; YANG Xingyong; ZHANG Qiaoxin; WANG Yufu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of microwave sintering and conventional H2 sintering on the microstructure and properties of W-l5Cu alloy using ultrafine W-15Cu composite powder fabricated by spray drying & calcining-continuous reduction technology were investigated. In comparison to the conventional H2 sintering processing, microwave sintefing to W-15Cu can be achieved at lower sintefing temperature and shorter sintering time. Furthermore, higher performances in microwave sintered compacts were obtained, but high microwave sintering temperature or long microwave sintering time could result in coarser microstructures.

  20. Electrochemical characterization for lithium vanadium phosphate with different calcination temperatures prepared by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongchao [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Shengping, E-mail: spwang@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tao, Du; Dai, Yu [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Jingxian [ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C (LVP/C) composite materials were synthesized via a sol–gel method with oxalic acid as the chelating agent and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the supplementary carbon source. The oxalic acid and PEG serve as double carbon sources. This study focused on the effect of different calcination temperatures on the electrochemical properties of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The diffraction peaks for all of the samples are well indexed to monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with a P2{sub 1}/n space group. The TGA data indicate that the residual carbon content of LVP/C-700 is the highest (i.e., 2.31 wt.%), and as the calcination temperature increased, the residual carbon content of the material gradually decreased. SEM and TEM analyses indicated that the LVP particles that were calcined at 700 °C exhibit a uniform particle size distribution and the carbon coating exhibited a complete and orderly moderate thickness. The LVP/C-700 material exhibits the best electrochemical performance in the voltage range of 3.0 to 4.3 V and 0.1 C where the initial discharge capacity can reach 128.98 mAh g{sup −} {sup 1}. Even after 200 cycles, the discharge capacity was 119.31 mAh g{sup −} {sup 1}, and the capacity retention rate was 92.49%. - Highlights: • Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite materials have been synthesized via a sol–gel method with double carbon sources. • The different calcination temperatures affect the grain growth and crystallinity of the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials. • The LVP/C-700 material exhibites the largest lithium ion diffusivity and electronic conductivity.

  1. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Structural Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of Ceria Nanoparticles Synthesized Employing Chitosan as Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B. Sifontes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceria nanoparticles were synthesized employing chitosan as template and thermal treatment at different temperatures (350, 650, and 960°C. The effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and photocatalytic activity of ceria nanopowder was also tested. Degradation of an azo dye, Congo Red (CR as a model aqueous pollutant, was investigated by means of photocatalysis of ceria nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. The influence of catalyst amount, initial CR concentrations, and degradation reaction kinetics were studied. The results were compared with commercial CeO2 at the same degradation conditions.

  2. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  3. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  4. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  5. Valorization of an industrial waste (sludge as an artificial pozzolan in cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ceramic products. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization was carried out in order to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution. In order to evaluate its pozzolanic character, the industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (from 650°C to 1000°C. The pozzolanic activity was evaluated by physico-chemical and mechanical methods. Pozzolanicity measurement by conductivity, Frattini and Chapelle Test revealed the existence of pozzolanic properties of calcined samples. The best pozzolanic reactivity was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C. We noticed a decrease in the reactivity of the samples calcined from 850°C. In addition, analysis by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that sludge recrystallization begins at a temperature of 850°C. Pozzolanicity index of the thermally treated samples was determined by measuring the mechanical resistance of mortar specimens previously kept in a saturated lime solution for 28 days. The best pozzolanic activity index was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C (109.1%. The study of mechanical performances and resistance to chemical attacks of mortars incorporating sludge (calcined at 800°C with different percentages and at various ages showed an improvement of mechanical and chemical resistance compared to the control mortar (100% cement . This work is a contribution to the research for new supplying sources of raw materials and additives in the field of construction. It presents a proposition of a promising solution for the valorization of waste material as an additive instead of being discharged into open air dumps causing a major environmental problem.

  6. Foreign travel report: Visits to UK, Belgium, Germany, and France to benchmark European spent fuel and waste management technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    The ICPP WINCO Spent Fuel and Waste Management Development Program recently was funded by DOE-EM to develop new technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels, sodium-bearing liquid waste, and calcine to a form suitable for disposal. European organizations are heavily involved, in some cases on an industrial scale in areas of waste management, including spent fuel disposal and HLW vitrification. The purpose of this trip was to acquire first-hand European efforts in handling of spent reactor fuel and nuclear waste management, including their processing and technical capabilities as well as their future planning. Even though some differences exist in European and U.S. DOE waste compositions and regulations, many aspects of the European technologies may be applicable to the U.S. efforts, and several areas offer potential for technical collaboration.

  7. Effect of Calcinated Oyster Shell Powder on Growth, Yield, Spawn Run, and Primordial Formation of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.

  8. Photocatalytic Activity and Photocurrent Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Influenced by Calcination Temperature and Tube Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Zhang, Min; Yan, Guotian; Yang, Jianjun

    2012-06-01

    In this article, titanium oxide nanotube arrays (TiO2-NTAs) were fabricated by anodic oxidation in an ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte solution containing 0.25 wt.% NH4F. By varying anodized time and annealed temperature, the obtained nanotube arrays behaved different photocatalytic (PC) activities and photocurrent properties. These samples were characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). It was indicated in SEM images that TiO2 nanotube manifests highly ordered structure which, however, has been completely destroyed when the temperature comes to 800°C. XRD manifested that TiO2 nanotubes with various kinds of length all possessed anatase crystallite when annealed at 500°C; meanwhile, with certain length, TiO2-NTAs annealed at series calcination temperature range of 300-600°C also presented anatase crystallite, which is gradually enhanced with the increment of temperature. At 700°C, mixed structure was observed which was made up of proportions of overwhelming anatase and toothful rutile. Methyl blue (MB) degradation and photocurrent measurement testified that TiO2-NTAs under 4 h oxidation and 3 h of 600°C calcination manifested the highest activity and photocurrent density.

  9. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Qian, Zhong Ji; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 µm, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  10. Continuous production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil and methanol using a column reactor packed with calcined sodium silicate base catalyst☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Gui; Sichen Chen; Zhi Yun

    2016-01-01

    Sodium silicate and that calcined at 400 °C for 2 h were used to catalyze the transesterification of cottonseed oil with methanol. Calcined sodium silicate (CSS) catalyst exhibited much higher catalytic activity and stability. A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.9%was achieved at methanol/oil mole ratio of 12:1, reaction temperature 65 °C, reaction time 3.0 h, and CSS/oil mass ratio of 2 wt%. After 7 consecutive reactions without any treatment, biodiesel yield reduced to 82.5%. Considering technological and economic feasibility, CSS base catalyst supported onθrings was prepared for continuous transesterification. The maximum yield was 99.1%under optimum conditions (reaction temperature 55 °C, methanol velocity 1 ml·min−1, oil velocity 3 ml·min−1, and 5 tower sec-tions). These results indicate that this new continuous biodiesel production process and apparatus present a great potential for industrial application in biodiesel.

  11. Sorption Removal of Pb(Ⅱ) from Solution by Uncalcined and Calcined MgAl-Layered Double Hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Shu-Qin; HOU, Wan-Guo

    2007-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) with a Mg/Al molar ratio of 1∶1 was synthesized by using a co-precipitation method and its calcined product (CLDH) was obtained by calcination of the MgAl-LDH at 500 ℃. The sorption removal of Pb2+ from solution was investigated, finding that both LDH and CLDH show good sorption ability and they could be used as a new type of environmental sorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from water. The sorption kinetics and the sorption isotherms of Pb2+ on both LDH and CLDH can be described by the pseudo-second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm, respectively, under the studied conditions. The sorption amounts of Pb2+ on LDH and CLDH are independent of pH in a pH range of about 3-10. The presence of NaNO3 may inhibit the sorption of Pb2+ on LDH while hardly affect that on CLDH. The sorption mechanism of Pb2+ on LDH and CLDH may be attributed to the surface precipitation and the surface complex adsorption. The surface complex adsorption may be further distinguished to the chemical binding adsorption forming the inner-sphere surface complexes and the electrostatic binding adsorption forming the outer-sphere surface complexes. The sorption mechanism of Pb2+ on LDH may be attributed to the surface precipitation and the electrostatic binding adsorption, while that on CLDH may be attributed to the surface precipitation and the chemical binding adsorption.

  12. Effect of Different Calcination Temperatures on the Structural and Photocatalytic Performance of Bi-TiO2/SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new novel material Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 was synthesized by an easy wet impregnation method. A combination of XRD, XPS, Raman, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, TEM, and solid state UV-Vis spectroscopy has been used to characterize the Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 material. It was found that SBA-15 retained the ordered hexagonal mesostructure after incorporation of TiO2 and Bi. The photodecomposition of rhodamine B (RhB in aqueous medium was selected to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 under visible light irradiation (λ≥420 nm. The experiment results indicated that Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO2 and Bi2O3. The influences of calcination temperature were studied. It strongly influenced the activity of the samples. The sample calcined at 550°C shows the highest photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of RhB under visible light. The catalyst preserved almost its initial photocatalytic activity after six reuses.

  13. Reaction process of monazite and bastnaesite mixed rare earth minerals calcined by CaO-NaCl-CaCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The decomposition reactions of monazite and bastnaesite mixed rare earth minerals calcined by CaO-NaCl-CaCl2 were studied by means of TG-DTA and XRD. The results show that the process of the minerals decomposed by CaO involves two steps.The first step occurs in the temperature range of 425-540 ℃, and the main reactions are bastnaesite decomposition, i.e. REOF reacts with CaO to produce RE2O3 and CaF2, and Ce2O3 is oxidized to CeO2. During this step, CaCO3 is formed at about 500 ℃. The second step takes place in the temperature range of 610-700 ℃, and the reactions are monazite decomposition into RE2O3,Ca5F(PO4)3 and Ca3(PO4)2 by CaO and CaF2. In this process, the decomposition ability is improved because CaO from CaCO3decomposing has high chemical activity. In calcining process, the new formed Ca5F(PO4)3 restrains fluorine that can escape in form of gaseous compound. The decomposition ratio of the mixed rare earth minerals reaches 90.8% at 700 ℃.

  14. Effect of Grain and Calcinations Kaolin Additives on Some Mechanical and Physical properties on Low DensityPolyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanaib Y. Shnean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a composite material was prepared from Low-density polyethylene (LDPE with different weight percent of grain and calcinations kaolin at temperature of (850oC using single screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between (190-200oC. Some of mechanical and physical properties such as tensile strength, tensile strength at break, Young modulus, and elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fraction of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the modulus of elasticity, elongation at break, shore hardness and impact strength; on other hand, it decreases the tensile strength and tensile strength at a break. Absorption test was carried out in water at different immersion times and different composite .The results of absorption show that it obeys Fick’s law and after the addition of kaolin the amount of absorption decrease. Calcinations kaolin filler produces better mechanical properties , than grain kaolin fillers.

  15. Effects of Calcination Temperature and Acid-Base Properties on Mixed Potential Ammonia Sensors Modified by Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Shimizu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal oxides on the sensing properties were examined. The selective sensing of ammonia was achieved by modification of the sensing electrode using MoO3, Bi2O3 and V2O5, while the use of WO3, Nb2O5 and MgO was not effective. The melting points of the former group were below 820 °C, while those of the latter group were higher than 1,000 °C. Among the former group, the selective sensing of ammonia was strongly dependent on the calcination temperature, which was optimum around melting point of the corresponding metal oxides. The good spreading of the metal oxides on the electrode is suggested to be one of the important factors. In the former group, the relative response of ammonia to propene was in the order of MoO3 > Bi2O3 > V2O5, which agreed well with the acidity of the metal oxides. The importance of the acidic properties of metal oxides for ammonia sensing was clarified.

  16. Relevance of the Physicochemical Properties of Calcined Quail Eggshell (CaO as a Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marques Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CaO solid derived from natural quail eggshell was calcined and employed as catalyst to produce biodiesel via transesterification of sunflower oil. The natural quail eggshell was calcined at 900°C for 3 h, in order to modify the calcium carbonate present in its structure in CaO, the activity phase of the catalyst. Both precursor and catalyst were characterized using Hammett indicators method, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196°C, and distribution particle size. The maximum biodiesel production was of 99.00 ± 0.02 wt.% obtained in the following transesterification reaction conditions: XMR (sunflower oil/methanol molar ratio of 1 : 10.5 mol : mol, XCAT (catalyst loading of 2 wt.%, XTIME (reaction time of 2 h, stirring rate of 1000 rpm, and temperature of 60°C.

  17. Effect of calcinated oyster shell powder on growth, yield, spawn run, and primordial formation of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-03-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca) absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.

  18. Heavy metal removal and speciation transformation through the calcination treatment of phosphorus-enriched sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rundong; Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Yanlong; Wang, Weiyun; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the heavy metal (Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni) control problem during the thermochemical recovery of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge (SS), P-enriched sewage sludge ash (PSSA) was calcined at 1100°C. The effect of organic chlorinating agent (PVC) and inorganic chlorinating agent (MgCl2) on the fixed rate of P removal and the speciation transformation of heavy metal was studied. The removal of heavy metals Cd, Pb, As, Zn, and Cr exhibited an increasing tendency with the addition of chlorinating agent (PVC). However, an obvious peak under 100gCl/kg of PSSA appeared for Cu, owing to the presence of carbon and hydrogen in PVC. MgCl2 was found to be more effective than PVC in the removal of most heavy metals, such that up to 98.9% of Cu and 97.3% of Zn was effectively removed. Analyses of heavy metal forms showed that Pb and Zn occurred in the residue fraction after calcination. Meanwhile, the residue fraction of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Cu exhibited a decreasing tendency with the increase in the added chlorinating agent (MgCl2). Losses of P from PSSA were around 16.6% without the addition of chlorinating agent, which were greatly reduced to around 7.7% (PVC) and to only 1.7% (MgCl2).

  19. Effects of calcination temperature and acid-base properties on mixed potential ammonia sensors modified by metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsuma, Atsushi; Katagiri, Makoto; Kakimoto, Shiro; Sugaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal oxides on the sensing properties were examined. The selective sensing of ammonia was achieved by modification of the sensing electrode using MoO(3), Bi(2)O(3) and V(2)O(5), while the use of WO(3,) Nb(2)O(5) and MgO was not effective. The melting points of the former group were below 820 °C, while those of the latter group were higher than 1,000 °C. Among the former group, the selective sensing of ammonia was strongly dependent on the calcination temperature, which was optimum around melting point of the corresponding metal oxides. The good spreading of the metal oxides on the electrode is suggested to be one of the important factors. In the former group, the relative response of ammonia to propene was in the order of MoO(3) > Bi(2)O(3) > V(2)O(5), which agreed well with the acidity of the metal oxides. The importance of the acidic properties of metal oxides for ammonia sensing was clarified.

  20. An interdisciplinary physical-chemical approach for characterization of arsenic in a calciner residue dump in Cornwall (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Arcon, Iztok; Glass, Hylke-Jan

    2006-02-01

    During the later stages of hard-rock mining in Cornwall, UK, widespread processing and refining of arsenic in purpose-built calciners resulted in severe, localized contamination of soils with arsenic. Several physical-chemical techniques were applied to characterize arsenic in a calciner residue dump: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), sequential extraction combined with hyphenated speciation methods, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) methods such as XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure). Arsenic was predominantly present in pentavalent form, bound to amorphous or poorly-crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe (probably alpha-hematite). A small amount of a non-classified crystalline iron arsenate phase was found, viz. Fe2(As(AsO4)3). There was also evidence for the presence of some arsenate bound to quartz (alpha-SiO2). The overall results make us believe that the normally assumed relative safety, from a mobility point of view, is questionable since only a small fraction of arsenic is found in a crystalline iron arsenate form.

  1. Effect of calcination temperatures on the electrochemical performances of nickel oxide/reduction graphene oxide (NiO/RGO) composites synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Guan, Hongtao; Dong, Chengjun; Xiao, Xuechun; Wang, Yude

    2016-11-01

    A series of NiO/RGO composites based on NiO nanoparticles anchored on layered RGO surfaces were proposed by the same hydrothermal method combined with different calcination temperatures (250, 300, 400 and 500 °C). The effects of calcination temperatures on the capacitive behaviors have been discussed by investigating the components, morphologies, surface conditions of the NiO/RGO composites. The specific capacitance values of NiO/RGO composites calcined at 250, 300, 400 and 500 °C are 950, 553, 375 and 205 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g and the corresponding capacitance retention are 91.3%, 83.9%, 71.9% and 67.3% after 1000 cycles at the current density of 10 A/g. The results suggest the calcination temperature plays an important role in the electrochemical performances of NiO/RGO composites and the electrochemical performances were deteriorated with the increasing calcination temperatures.

  2. Effect of calcination temperature on physical parameters and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); State Laboratory of Silica Materials and Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhu, H.-Y., E-mail: zhuhuayue@126.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, H.-H. [State Laboratory of Silica Materials and Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yao, J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Fu, Y.-Q. [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Z.-Y. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Xu, Y.-M., E-mail: xuym@css.zju.edu.cn [State Laboratory of Silica Materials and Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared using CS/PVA hydrogel beads as a template. • The titania spheres prepared was mesoporous structure. • The photocatalytic activity of the mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was highest. - Abstract: Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared by modified sol–gel method using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template. Effects of calcination temperature on physical parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres prepared was also evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a model molecule under UV irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature, average crystallite size and pore size increased. In contrast, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface areas, porosity and pore volumes steadily decreased. Results of characterization proved that prepared titania spheres with highly organized pores were mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was more effective than those calcined at other temperatures, which were attributed to the porous structure, large BET surface area, crystalline, and smaller crystallite size. This work may provide new insights into the preparation of novel mesoporous titania spheres and further practical applications in the treatment of wastewater.

  3. Effect of calcination temperature on structure and performance of Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst for CO2 reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanbing Zhang; Jiankang Wang; Xiaolai Wang

    2008-01-01

    The influence of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic behavior of Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst, for CO2 reforming of methane to synthesis gas under atmospheric pressure, was investigated. The results showed that the Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst calcined at 700 ℃ had high and stable activity while the catalysts calcined at 550 and 850 ℃ had low and un-stable activity. Depending on the calcination temperature, one, two, or three of the following Ni-contalning species, NiO,Ni2.44Ti0.72Si0.07O4, and NiTiO3 were identified by combining the temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Their reducibility decreased in the sequence: NiO>Ni2.44Ti0.72Si0.07O4>NiTiO3. It suggests that high and stable activities observed over the Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst calcined at 700 ℃ were induced by the formation of Ni2.44Ti0.72Si0.07O4 and smaller NiO species crystallite size.

  4. 浅谈回转床煅烧炉结构及其特点%Shallow Talk on Rotary Hearth Calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊英红

    2014-01-01

    It introduces the main components of rotary hearth calciner made by NFC ( Shenyang) Metallurgi-cal Machinery Co . , Ltd . , and briefly describes the use of calsining . And then it detailedly introduces rota-ry hearth calciner system and the development process and characteristics . It compares the rotary hearth calciner with the rotary calcination kiln and briefly analyzes the futural development direction of rotary hearth calciner .%介绍了沈冶金公司承制的回转床煅烧炉的主要组成部分,并对煅烧的用途进行简单描述,对回转床煅烧炉的发展历程及回转床煅烧炉系统及特点进行了较详细的介绍;最后将回转床煅烧炉与煅烧回转窑进行了比较并且对未来发展方向进行简要分析。

  5. Influence of calcination temperature on the structure and morphology of HAp bioceramics; Influencia da temperatura de calcinacao na estrutura e morfologia de bioceramica de HAp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, C.M.L.; Santos, P.T.A.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of calcination temperature on the structure and morphology of samples of hydroxyapatite (HAp) synthesized by the wet method. For hydroxyapatite was used as precursor solutions of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid 1M solution of calcium hydroxide was stirred and heated to 80 ° C and then dropwise with a solution of phosphoric acid. After the liquid was evaporated without an oven at 110 ° C and sieved. The sample of PA as synthesized was submitted to calcination at 900 °C and 1100 °C / 2 hours. The samples as synthesized and after calcination were characterized by XRD, XRF, FTIR, SEM. The XRD showed the presence of phase hydroxyapatite for samples without calcining and both calcination temperatures studied. FTIR spectra showed bands group and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Through the SEM micrograph, there is the formation of agglomerates in the form of porous flakes approximately spherical shape. (author)

  6. Influence of calcination temperature on selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军燕; 宋忠贤; 宁平; 张秋林; 刘昕; 李昊; 黄真真

    2015-01-01

    A series of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 were prepared by hydro-thermal method. The influence of calcination temperature on the catalytic activity, microstructure, surface acidity and redox behavior of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst was investigated using various characterization methods. It was found that the CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst calcined at 600 ºC showed the best catalytic performance and excellent N2 selectivity, and yielded more than 90% NO conversion in a wide temperature range of 250–500 ºC with a space velocity (GHSV) of 60000 h–1. As the calcination temperature was increased from 400 to 600 ºC, the NO conversion obviously increased, but decreased at higher calcination temperature. The results implied that the higher surface area, the strongest synergistic interaction, the superior redox property and the highly dispersed or amorphous WO3 species contributed to the excellent SCR activity of the CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst calcined at 600 ºC.

  7. Effect of calcination temperature on the morphology and electrochemical properties of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhang Xiaogang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China)], E-mail: azhangxg@163.com

    2009-07-01

    A simple approach to synthesize Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} in mass production by using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) as a precipitator via hydrothermal treatment has been developed. The samples were calcinated at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 deg. C and characterized by XRD and SEM. The structure became agglomerative and collapsed with an increase in calcination temperature. Evaluation of the electrochemical performance in combination with SEM and BET analysis suggests that there is an optimum calcination temperature for Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. It is found that the retention capacity of well crystallized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres has a higher specific surface area at 300 deg. C and is almost above 94% after the 5th cycle at different current densities of 40 and 60 mA g{sup -1}, which shows good long-life stability and favorable electrochemical behaviors. Using EIS analysis, we demonstrated that lithium-ion conduction inside the SEI layers and charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface became hindered with an increased calcination temperature, which was in good agreement with the electrochemical behaviors of three Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} electrodes. It is proposed that drastic capacity fading and the variation of resistive components (SEI layers and charge transfer) can be influenced by morphologies due to the calcination temperature.

  8. Technology Optimization Research of Calcining Asbestos Tailings with Ammonium Sulfate%石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姝抒; 宋贝; 胡志波; 牛保军; 郑水林

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos tailings were preprocessed by ball-milling and calcining. This paper studied the influence of calcination temperature, calcination time and milling time on the roasting effect of asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate. The result showed that the optimum conditions were that calcination temperature was 500℃, calcination time was 1 h, milling time was 18 min. Through being preprocessed, the leaching ratio of MgO was up from 70.03%to 95.29%.%对石棉尾矿进行预先煅烧和研磨处理,研究了煅烧温度、煅烧时间和研磨时间对石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧效果的影响,得到最佳的预处理条件:煅烧温度为500℃,煅烧时间为1 h,研磨时间为18 min。经过预处理后,石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧氧化镁溶出率从70.03%提高到95.29%。

  9. Source terms for radioactive gaseous effluents from a model high-level waste solidification facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1976-11-01

    The model high-level waste solidification facility (WSF) is envisaged as being similar to the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) being constructed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory but with provisions for incorporating the calcine into a glass. The decontamination factor (DF) is estimated to be one for tritium, 100 for iodine, and 5.0 x 10/sup 8/ for ruthenium. The DFs for other nuclides are in the range of mid to high 10/sup 9/. The volatile radionuclide of primary concern in waste solidification is ruthenium (in particular, /sup 106/Ru). With an estimated DF of 5.0 x 10/sup 8/, the /sup 106/Ru expected to be released from the WSF amounts to 3.4, 2.9, and 0.091 mCi/day for immediate solidification, a freshly filled waste tank (189 days), and five years of tank storage, respectively. The FSAR of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Separations Facility implies that 4.6 mCi/day of /sup 106/Ru might be released from the stack of the separations facility and states that such a release meets all state and Federal standards and specifications.

  10. Preferential oxidation of CO in excess H2 over CeO2/CuO catalyst: Effect of calcination temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiming Gao; Ming Zhou; Hao Deng; Yong Yue

    2012-01-01

    Different from the classical configuration CuO/CeO2 catalyst,the inverse configuration CeO2/CuO catalyst (atomic ratio of Ce/Cu=10/100)was prepared by impregnation method.Five calcination temperatures were selected to investigate the interaction between CeO2 and CuO support.It is found that as calcination temperature increased from 500 to 900 ℃,sintering of CeO2 particles on the support occurred together with the diffusion of a portion of Ce4+ ions into CuO crystals,forming solid solution.Formation of interface complex Ce-O-Cu was suggested by TPR measurements.The catalyst calcined at 700℃ gives the highest activity for preferential oxidation of CO in excess H2 stream.

  11. Effect of support calcination temperature on the Ru-Ce-B/ZrO_2 catalysts for benzene selective hydrogenation to cyclohexene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jianhua; LI Lichao

    2011-01-01

    The effect of support calcination temperature on the benzene selective hydrogenation performance of the Ru-Ce-B/ZrO2 catalysts was investigated.It was found that with increasing calcination temperature,the surface area decreased,on the contrary,the pore size and the amount of monoclinic phase increased.With increasing support calcination temperature,the activity of the catalyst roughly decreased and cyclohexene selectivity increased.The activity decreased due to the decrease of the surface areas.The increase of the cyclohexene selectivity was correlated not only with the decrease of the surface areas but also with the increase of monoclinic phases,rich in surface hydroxyl,and the enlarged pore size of zirconia.This suggests the monoclinic zirconia with a medium surface area,rather than a big one,and a mesoporous structure,even including some macropores,is an ideal support of the catalyst for benzene selective hydrogenation.

  12. HYDROESTERIFICATION OF ACETYLENE WITH METHYL FORMATE TO METHYL ACRYLATE OVER A NiO/Al203 CATALYST: EFFECTS OF NiO LOADING AND CALCINATION TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xinhan; Yang Xiangui; Zhang Jiaqi; Liu Zhaotie

    2001-01-01

    Hydroesterification of acetylene with methyl formate (MF) was studied over a series of nickel-supported catalysts with NiO loading varing from 0.8 wt% to 18.7 wt% and calcination temperature ranging from 623 K to 873 K. The catalyst was studied by TPR, XPS, XRD and BET. The interactions between impregnated Ni2+ and alumina during catalyst preparation produced different kinds of nickel species such as NiO crystallites and NiAl2O4-like species, and their distributions varied with NiO loading and calcination temperature, which leads to different activities of catalyst in hydroesterification of acetylene with methyl formate. Experimental results indicated that 10wt% NiO/Al2O3 calcined at 773 K is suitable for the hydroesterification of acetylene with methyl formate.

  13. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    binder is formed through an acid-base reaction between calcined magnesium oxide (MgO; a base) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}; an acid) in aqueous solution. The reaction product sets at room temperature to form a highly crystalline material. During the reaction, the hazardous and radioactive contaminants also react with KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} to form highly insoluble phosphates. In this data package, physical property and waste acceptance data for Ceramicrete waste forms fabricated with wastes having compositions that were similar to those expected for secondary waste effluents, as well as secondary waste effluent simulants from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant were reviewed. With the exception of one secondary waste form formulation (25FA+25 W+1B.A. fabricated with the mixed simulant did not meet the compressive strength requirement), all the Ceramicrete waste forms that were reviewed met or exceeded Integrated Disposal Facility waste acceptance criteria.

  14. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  15. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  16. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  18. Transesterification of edible, non-edible and used cooking oils for biodiesel production using calcined layered double hydroxides as reusable base catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sivashunmugam; Antonyraj, Churchil A; Kannan, S

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from edible, non-edible and used cooking oils with different fatty acid contents by transesterification with methanol using calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as solid base catalysts. Among the catalysts, calcined CaAl2-LDH (hydrocalumite) showed the highest activity with >90% yield of FAME using low methanol:oil molar ratio (catalyzed process for production of biodiesel in high yields from a wide variety of triglyceride oils including used oils is possible using optimized conditions.

  19. Study on X-ray diffraction and finger print of Calcined Borax%煅硼砂X射线衍射指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠; 张倩; 周平; 王伯涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish fingerprint of Calcined Borax, and to provide a new method for evaluating the quality of Calcined Borax. Methods: Adopting X-ray diffraction techniques to analyze Calcined Borax qualitatively and comparing the semblance of the public peaks. Results: Obtaining X-ray diffraction patterns of 8 samples about Calcined Borax, the geometric and topological characteristics of 7 samples is consistent. Using the X-ray diffraction patterns of that 7 samples obtain X-ray diffraction fingerprint of Calcined Borax. And accord to the fingerprints and the intensity of each characteristic peak in X-ray diffraction patterns of Calcined Borax to calculate the similarity of different samples which use the cosine law and the correlation coefficient method. We found that similarity of common peaks in different samples of X-ray diffraction pattern is high, which is consistent with the results of the cluster analysis. Conclusion: For analysis of calcined borax it has good specificity and feasible by X-ray diffraction fingerprint and it can be used to distinguish and evaluate Calcined Borax.%目的:建立中药煅硼砂X射线衍射指纹图谱,为煅硼砂质量评价提供新方法.方法:采用X射线衍射技术对煅硼砂样品进行定性分析,并对各样品共有峰进行相似度分析.结果:获得了8个煅硼砂样品的X射线衍射图谱,其中7个样品衍射图谱几何拓扑特征基本一致;利用该7批煅硼砂样品X衍射图谱得到煅硼砂的X射线衍射指纹图谱;并以指纹图谱为对照,根据煅硼砂X射线衍射图谱中各特征峰峰高强度,以夹角余弦法和相关系数法计算各样品X射线衍射图谱的相似度,发现不同样品X射线衍射图谱共有峰相似度均较高,与聚类分析结果一致.结论:X射线衍射指纹图谱分析方法专属性强,准确可靠,可实现对煅硼砂的鉴别和质量评价.

  20. Effect of different alcohols, gelatinizing times, calcination and microwave on characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Mahmoud; Mozaffari, Masoud; Esmaeili, Sahar

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were synthesized by means of TiCl4 as precursor. Effects of alcohol type, calcination, gelatinizing time and microwave exposure on the particle size, morphology, crystallinity and particle phase are studied using XRD patterns and SEM images. Results showed that alcohols such as ethanol increased the particle size; calcination increased the particle size and improved the crystallinity of particles. Microwave exposure of particles resulted in smaller particles; adding water increased the impact of microwave. Effect of microwave exposure in rutile phase formation is also observed during this study.

  1. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  2. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  3. Deployed Force Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Granath J., Baky A., Thhyselius L., (2004). Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming...Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming article In this paper different waste

  4. Effectiveness factors for a commercial steam reforming (Ni) catalyst and for a calcined dolomite used downstream biomass gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1996-12-31

    A commercial steam reforming catalyst from BASF, the G1-25 S one, and a calcined dolomite, Norte-1, from Cantabria-Spain, have been used, once crushed and sieved to different particle fractions between 1.0 and 4.0 mm. The materials have been tested downstream small pilot biomass gasifiers, bubbling fluidized bed type, gasifying with air and with steam. The Thiele modulus and the effectiveness factor have been calculated at temperatures of 750-850 deg C. It is experimentally shown that diffusion control plays an important part when particle size is larger than ca. 0.5 mm. This has to be taken into account when comparing the quality of the solids for tar elimination. (author) (5 refs.)

  5. Thermal and catalytic cracking of ethylene in presence of CaO, MgO, zeolite and calcined dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taralas, G.; Sjoestroem, K.; Jaeraas, S.; Bjoernbom, E. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1993-12-31

    The subject of the present work is to study the effect of catalysts such as calcined dolomite (CaO.MgO), CaO (quicklime), MgO and Zeolite (EKZ-4) on the cracking of ethylene in the presence and absence of steam. N-heptane, toluene, naphthalene, thiophene have been some suitable model compounds for studies of the thermal and catalytic decomposition of tar. Previous results showed that the reaction scheme of the thermal decomposition of n-heptane was consistent with the high yield of ethylene observed in thermal decomposition of n-heptane. The effect of the reactor wall and the ferric impurities in the dolomite are also subjects of the research in this study. The results may also throw some additional light on the nature of the gas-phase thermal and catalytic reactions occurring in the use of dolomite as tar cracking catalysts. 28 refs

  6. New ceramic membranes from calcinated clay; Nouveaux supports membranaires a base de chamotte d'argile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moudden, N.; El Ghazouali, A.; Rakib, S.; Sghyar, M.; Rafiq, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. des Materiaux et Protection de L' environnement, Fes Atlas (Morocco); Larbot, A.; Cot, L. [Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes Membranaires, UMR 5635-CNRS, ENSCM UM, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to obtain porous tubular ceramic membranes from natural material. The clay powders were calcinated in air at 900 deg C for two hours. The resulting powders mixed with certain organic additives could be extruded to fabricate a porous tubular configuration with highly uniform porous structures. The mean pore diameter, measured by mercury porosimetry, is equal to 9 {mu}m and the porosity is 38% (heat treatment at 1130 deg C for two hours). Many ceramic membrane manufactures have used this type of large-pore membrane as supports for finer-pore membranes (micro-filtration or ultrafiltration). Porous membranes possess very good mechanical strength and negligible flow resistance for the membrane/support, while containing pores which allow a high degree of permeation. (authors)

  7. Hydrothermal conversion of FAU zeolite into LEV zeolite in the presence of non-calcined seed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiki, Ayako; Honda, Koutaro; Fujimoto, Ayumi; Shibata, Shohei; Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2011-06-01

    Hydrothermal conversion of Faujasite-type (FAU) zeolite into Levynite (LEV) zeolite without the use of an organic structure-directing agent (OSDA) was successfully achieved in the presence of non-calcined seed crystals. The interzeolite conversion depended strongly upon the alkalinity (OH -/SiO 2) of the starting gel, the Si/Al ratio of the starting FAU zeolite and the type of alkaline metal employed. Successful conversion of FAU zeolites into pure LEV zeolite was achieved only for FAU zeolites with Si/Al ratios in the range of 19-26, under highly alkaline conditions (OH -/SiO 2=0.6) by using NaOH as an alkali source. Although the yield of LEV zeolite prepared by this method was lower (18-26%) than that of the conventional hydrothermal synthesis with the use of SDA, the obtained LEV zeolite exhibited a unique core/shell structure.

  8. 循环率对循环流化床分解炉性能的影响%Effect of recirculation ratio on the operation of CFB calciners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 徐德龙; 冯绍航; 陈延信

    2005-01-01

    流化床反应器在水泥工业用于生料的预分解.为了提高物料分解率,开发出一种新型的循环流化床反应器并已用于水泥生产.这种循环流化床反应器中的固气比要高于传统的预分解反应器.在建立物料氧化钙平衡的基础上,建立了关于物料循环率和碳酸盐分解率之间相互关系的数学模型.模型的计算结果与现场测试结果吻合很好.此外还提出了分解炉热稳定性的概念,并给出了相应热稳定系数的表达式.结果证明:使用循环流化床分解炉可有效改进固体物料的最终分解率.当操作温度一定(850℃)时,循环率每增加100%,入窑物料的终分解率可提高8%~9%.外循环方案有助于改善分解炉的热稳定性并降低分解炉的操作温度;在终分解率不变的情况下,物料循环率每增加100%,分解炉的操作温度可降低30~50℃.%Fluidized bed reactors have been used as calciners in cement industry for calcination of cement raw meal.Aiming at enhancing calcining rate, a new kind of circulating fluidized bed(CFB) reactor was developed and applied in cement plants. Inside this kind of CFB reactor, the mass ratio of solid to gas (S/G) was much higher than traditional one. Based on the balance of calcium oxide material, a mathematical model concerning the relationship between recirculation ratio of material and calcining rate of carbonate was developed. The computing results by using such relationship showed reasonable agreement with experiments. The concept of thermal stability of calciner was put forwarded, and the corresponding mathematical expression of thermal stability coefficient was determined. It was proved that application of CFB calciner improved the final calcination degree of solid material. At fixed operating temperature (850 ℃), the calcining rate of the carbonate into rotary kiln may be enhanced by 8%~9% with 100%increase of recirculation ratio. Meanwhile application of external re

  9. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  10. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  11. Investigation of the possibility of using hydrogranulation in reprocessing radioactive wastes of radiochemical production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revyakin, V.; Borisov, L.M. [All Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    Radio-chemical production facilities are constantly accumulating liquid radioactive wastes (still residues as the result of evaporation of extraction and adsorption solutions etc.) which are a complex multicomponent mixtures. The wastes are frequently stored for extended periods of time while awaiting disposition and in some cases, and this is much worse, they are released into the environment. In this report, I would like to draw your attention to some results we have obtained from investigations aimed at simplifying handing of such wastes by the precipitation of hard to dissolve metal hydroxides, the flocculation of the above into granules with the help of surface-active agents (in this case a polyacrylamide - PAA), quickly precipitated and easily filtered. The precipitate may be quickly dried and calcinated, if necessary, and transformed into a dense oxide sinter. In other words it may be transformed into a material convenient for storage or burial.

  12. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite from fish bones waste using reflux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanto, A.; Kosasih, E.; Aripin, D.; Hasratiningsih, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the fabrication of hydroxyapatites, which were synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method. The fish bone wastes collected from the restaurant were brushed and boiled at 100°C for 10 minutes to remove debris and fat. After drying, the fish bones were crushed, and ball milled into a fine powder. The fish bone wastes were then processed by refluxing using KOH and H3PO4 solutions. The samples were calcined at 900°C and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The XRD pattern of samples after treatment revealed that the peak of hydroxyapatite was observed and the bands of OH- and PO4 3- were observed by FT-IR. The scanning electron microscope evaluation of sample showed the entangled crystal and porous structure of hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method.

  13. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  14. Effect of calcination temperature on physical parameters and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, R.; Zhu, H.-Y.; Chen, H.-H.; Yao, J.; Fu, Y.-Q.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Xu, Y.-M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared by modified sol-gel method using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template. Effects of calcination temperature on physical parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres prepared was also evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a model molecule under UV irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature, average crystallite size and pore size increased. In contrast, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, porosity and pore volumes steadily decreased. Results of characterization proved that prepared titania spheres with highly organized pores were mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was more effective than those calcined at other temperatures, which were attributed to the porous structure, large BET surface area, crystalline, and smaller crystallite size. This work may provide new insights into the preparation of novel mesoporous titania spheres and further practical applications in the treatment of wastewater.

  15. Influence of calcination temperature on the morphology and energy storage properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures directly grown over carbon cloth substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2013-09-23

    Nanostructured and mesoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowire in flower-like arrangements have been directly grown over flexible carbon cloth collectors using solvothermal synthesis for supercapacitor applications. Changes in the morphology and porosity of the nanowire assemblies have been induced by manipulating the calcination temperature (200–300 °C) of the one-dimensional (1-D) structures, resulting in significant impact on their surface area and pseudocapacitive properties. As the calcination temperature increases from 200 to 250 °C, the flower morphology gradually modifies to the point where the electrolyte could access almost all the nanowires over the entire sample volume, resulting in an increase in specific capacitance from 334 to 605 Fg−1, depending on the nanowire electrode morphology. The 300 °C calcination results in the breakdown of the mesoporous morphology and decreases the efficiency of electrolyte diffusion, resulting in a drop in pseudocapacitance after 300 °C. A peak energy density of 44 Wh kg−1 has been obtained at a power density of 20 kW kg−1 for the 250 °C calcined sample.

  16. Influence of lithium precursors and calcination atmospheres on graphene sheets-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Jingjing; Zhang, Chunming; He, Yu-Shi; Liao, Xiao-Zhen; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2015-07-01

    The influence of Li precursors and calcination atmospheres on the reaction mechanisms, physical properties and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets (GS)-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO/GS) has been systematically investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and mass spectrometry (MS) results demonstrate the lithium precursor containing carboxyl anion such as lithium acetate (LiAc) and Li2CO3 interact with oxygen groups of graphene oxide (GO) by strong hydrogen bonds to restrict the morphology and the phase formation of products. We also notice from the thermogravimetry (TG) and MS results that the consumption of GS is proportional to oxygen content of lithium precursor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that the product calcined in reducing atmosphere possess smaller electrochemical polarization due to more reduced Ti3+ on the surface of the product. The LTO/GS sample with LiOH as Li precursor calcined in diluted hydrogen atmosphere show the best electrochemical performance with a capacity of 134.4 mAh g-1 at 10C discharge rate and very stable cycling life with a 98.6% capacity retention after 800 cycles at 40C rate. This study not only provides an optimization of Li precursor and calcination condition for LTO/GS anode material, but also guides any future one-step syntheses of lithium composite materials with GO participation.

  17. Effect of Calcination Temperatures and Mo Modification on Nanocrystalline (γ-χ-Al2O3 Catalysts for Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharmmanoon Inmanee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed gamma and chi crystalline phase alumina (M-Al catalysts prepared by the solvothermal method were investigated for catalytic ethanol dehydration. The effects of calcination temperatures and Mo modification were elucidated. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD. The catalytic activity was tested for ethylene production by dehydration reaction of ethanol in gas phase at atmospheric pressure and temperature between 200°C and 400°C. It was found that the calcination temperatures and Mo modification have effects on acidity of the catalysts. The increase in calcination temperature resulted in decreased acidity, while the Mo modification on the mixed phase alumina catalyst yielded increased acidity, especially in medium to strong acids. In this study, the catalytic activity of ethanol dehydration to ethylene apparently depends on the medium to strong acid. The mixed phase alumina catalyst calcined at 600°C (M-Al-600 exhibits the complete ethanol conversion having ethylene yield of 98.8% (at 350°C and the Mo-modified catalysts promoted dehydrogenation reaction to acetaldehyde. This can be attributed to the enhancement of medium to strong acid with metal sites of catalyst.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Ag@ZnO nanostructures for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B: influence of calcination temperature and Ag content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjiao; Zhao, Zhenting; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Han, Zhitao; Lian, Kun; Hu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Hydrangea-like Ag@ZnO nanostructures were synthesized utilizing aqueous solution method, followed by calcination at different temperatures in air. The crystal structure, surface morphology and chemical state of synthesized nanostructures were analyzed. The results showed that hydrangea-like Ag@ZnO architectures exhibited the diameters in the range of 1.54-3.54 μm and decorated with Ag nanoparticles approximately 15 nm. The photocatalytic experiments were conducted on the as-prepared Ag@ZnO samples for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B after calcinations from 400 to 900 °C. The measured results demonstrate that both the calcination temperature and the content of Ag can significant influence the photocatalytic activities. Moreover, the 0.5 mol% Ag@ZnO exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity under the optimum calcination temperature of 700 °C. This study indicates that the as-prepared Ag@ZnO nanostructures have promising potential applications in the fields such as photocatalysis, solar energy conversion and sensing detection.

  19. CO and C3H8 total oxidation over Pd/La-Al2O3 catalysts:Effect of calcination temperature and hydrothermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仁美; 邢丰; 王树元; 鲁继青; 金凌云; 罗孟飞

    2014-01-01

    A series of Pd/La-Al2O3 (PLA) catalysts with La-Al2O3 (LA) support calcined at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1050 ºC) were prepared using an incipient wetness impregnation method. The activity of the fresh and hydrothermally aged PLA catalysts were tested for total oxidation of CO and C3H8. The activity of the fresh PLA catalysts for CO and C3H8 oxidation increased with increasing calcination temperature of the support, while the activities of the aged catalysts declined and became essentially the same. CO chemisorption results revealed that the suppressed activities of the aged catalysts were mainly due to the decline of palla-dium dispersion. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CO oxidation increased with increasing reduction ability of the catalysts, with a fresh catalyst calcined at 1050 ºC having the highest value (0.048 s-1). However, the TOF of C3H8 total oxidation was affected by not only the redox properties of catalysts but also the size of Pd particle, and large Pd particles possessed higher TOF value of C3H8 oxi-dation, with the highest value (0.125 s-1) being obtained on an aged catalyst calcined at 500 ºC.

  20. Effect of doped SiO2 and calcinations temperature on phase transformation of TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Niyomwas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of calcinations temperature and SiO2 addition on phase transformation,crystallite size, and photocatalytic activity of SiO2/TiO2 thin films by using indigo carmine as an indicator. Thecomposite particles were prepared by sol-gel method via calcinations at a temperature range of 300-700oC for 2 h, and thecomposite thin films were prepared by means of spin coating. The microstructure and crystallite size of pure TiO2 and SiO2/TiO2 composite powders were characterized by using XRD, SEM and DTA. It was found that anatase structures wereformed at a calcinations temperature range of 300-600oC and mixed phases of anatase and rutile were observed at a temperatureof 700oC. Crystallite size of pure TiO2 tends to increase with an increase in calcinations temperature. Doped SiO2in the TiO2 has an effect on crystal phases and crystallite size of the composite powders and thin films, resulting in thechange of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

  1. Preparation of Calcined Zirconia-Carbon Composite from Metal Organic Frameworks and Its Application to Adsorption of Crystal Violet and Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia-carbon (ZC composites were prepared via calcination of Zr-based metal organic frameworks, UiO-66 and amino-functionalized UiO-66, under N2 atmosphere. The prepared composites were characterized using a series of instrumental analyses. The surface area of the ZC composites increased with the increase of calcination temperature, with the formation of a graphite oxide phase observed at 900 °C. The composites were used for adsorptive removal of a dye (crystal violet, CV and a pharmaceutical and personal care product (salicylic acid, SA. The increase of the calcination temperature resulted in enhanced adsorption capability of the composites toward CV. The composite calcined at 900 °C exhibited a maximum uptake of 243 mg·g−1, which was much greater than that by a commercial activated carbon. The composite was also effective in SA adsorption (102 mg·g−1, and N-functionalization of the composite further enhanced its adsorption capability (109 mg·g−1. CV adsorption was weakly influenced by solution pH, but was more dependent on the surface area and pore volume of the ZC composite. Meanwhile, SA adsorption showed strong pH dependence, which implies an active role of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process. Base-base repulsion and hydrogen bonding are also suggested to influence the adsorption of CV and SA, especially for the N-functionalized composite.

  2. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  3. Study on process parameters for activating fly ash with alkali by calcination%加碱煅烧活化粉煤灰工艺参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勇勇; 周勇敏; 张苏伊

    2012-01-01

    The calcination process for activating fly ash with Na2CO3 as accessory ingredient was investigated.The concenta-tions of Si and A1 in the fly ash activated under different calcination conditions (calcination temperature and calcination time), that dissolved in the sodium hydroxide solution were measured by titering process.The phase composition of fly ash obtained under different calcination conditions (mass ratio of fly ash and sodium carbonate ) was characterized by XRD.The best process parameters were obtained as follows: calcination temperature was 875 X. .holding time was 1.5 h,and mass ratio of fly ash and sodium carbonate was 1:0.87.The products after calcination were mainly made up of soluble NaAlSiO4 and Na2SiO3,and the quartz and mullitein in the raw fly ash both almost disappeared.Therefore, the fly ash was activated adequately.%研究了以碳酸钠为助剂活化粉煤灰的煅烧工艺.采用滴定法测定不同煅烧条件(煅烧温度和煅烧时间)所得活化粉煤灰溶解在氢氧化钠溶液中的硅、铝浓度,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)表征不同煅烧条件(灰碱质量比)所得活化粉煤灰的物相组成,得出粉煤灰较佳煅烧工艺参数:煅烧温度为875℃,保温时间为1.5 h,粉煤灰与碳酸钠的质量比为1∶0.87.煅烧后的产物主要以可溶性的硅铝酸钠(NaAlSiO4)和硅酸钠(Na2SiO3)为主,原粉煤灰中的石英、莫来石基本消失,粉煤灰得到充分活化.

  4. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Barnes; D. D. Taylor; S. C. Ashworth; J. B. Bosley; D. R. Haefner

    1999-10-01

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated.

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  6. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  7. Hardness evaluation of PMMA reinforced with two different calcinations temperatures of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasratiningsih, Z.; Takarini, V.; Cahyanto, A.; Faza, Y.; Asri, L. A. T. W.; Purwasasmita, B. S.

    2017-02-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one of the materials used for the temporary crown while making fixed partial dentures. Unfortunately, it has low mechanical properties. This study aim’s to improve PMMA hardness by adding ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system in two different calcination temperatures. Thirty-two disc form samples with 8mm diameter x 3mm thickness were made from two category-filler based that had been previously evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Each category was divided into six groups of three respectively from a controlled and different concentrations of 7(A), 9(B), 11(C), 13(D), and 15(E) weight % of reinforced filler system, then tested with Vickers Hardness Tester. Filler particles that calcined at 550° can increase to 700° consist of fine crystalline and amorphous phases; however, the sample shows the highest hardness about 20,19 VHN even though the increase is only 7,5% compared to control. Meanwhile, the sample that calcined at 700°C exhibiting the highest hardness about 15,66 VHN corresponds to sample D, it has increased 25% compared to the control. This is correlated with microstructure result that has more growth crystalline particles. The results were analyzed by ANOVA which determined were not statistically significantly different (p<0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the 13% reinforced ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system calcined at 700°C shows the highest hardness increase compare to calcination temperature 550-700°C. Although it is not significantly different.

  8. Facile synthesis of both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Effect of synthetic temperature and calcination on morphology, crystallite size and crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Post-graduate Institute of Science, P.O. Box: 25, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Premalal, E.V.A. [Department of Materials Science, Shizuoka University, Johoku, Naka-ku Hamamatsu, 432-8011 (Japan); Herath, H.M.T.U. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Mahalingam, S.; Edirisinghe, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Rajapakse, R.P.V.J. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.M.G., E-mail: rmgr@pdn.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Post-graduate Institute of Science, P.O. Box: 25, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka)

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, that mimic natural HA, are widely used as biocompatible coatings on prostheses to repair and substitute human bones. In this study, HA nanoparticles are prepared by precipitating them from a precursor solution containing calcium sucrate and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, at a Ca/P mole ratio of 1.67:1, at temperatures, ranging from 10 °C to 95 °C. A set of products, prepared at different temperatures, is analyzed for their crystallinity, crystallite size, morphology, thermal stability and composition, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques, while the other set is analyzed after calcining the respective products, soon after their synthesis, for 3 h, at 700 °C. The as-prepared products, after 2 h of drying, without any calcination, are not crystalline, but they grow very slowly into needle-like morphologies, as they are ripened with time. The percentage crystallinity of the final products increases from 15% to 52%, with increasing the preparative temperature. The calcined samples always produce spherical nanoparticles of essentially the same diameter, between 90 nm and 100 nm, which does not change due to aging and preparative temperatures. Therefore, the same method can be utilized to synthesize both spherical and needle-like nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, with well-defined sizes and shapes. The ability to use readily available cheap raw materials, for the synthesis of such well-defined crystallites of hydroxyapatite, is an added advantage of this method, which may be explored further for the scaling up of the procedures to suit to industrial scale synthesis of such hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized using a simple precipitation method. • Both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized. • The prepared

  9. Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for CO methanation: Effect of Al2O3 supports calcined at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajian; Gao; Chunmiao; Jia; Jing; Li; Meiju; Zhang; Fangna; Gu; Guangwen; Xu; Ziyi; Zhong; Fabing; Su

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between phase structures and surface acidity of Al2O3 supports calcined at different temperatures and the catalytic performance of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts in the production of synthetic natural gas(SNG) via CO methanation was systematically investigated. A series of 10 wt% NiO/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the conventional impregnation method, and the phase structures and surface acidity of Al2O3 supports were adjusted by calcining the commercial γ-Al2O3 at different temperatures(600–1200 C). CO methanation reaction was carried out in the temperature range of 300–600 C at different weight hourly space velocities(WHSV = 30000 and 120000 mL·g-1h-1) and pressures(0.1 and 3.0 MPa). It was found that high calcination temperature not only led to the growth in Ni particle size, but also weakened the interaction between Ni nanoparticles and Al2O3 supports due to the rapid decrease of the specific surface area and acidity of Al2O3 supports. Interestingly, Ni catalysts supported on Al2O3 calcined at 1200 C(Ni/Al2O3-1200) exhibited the best catalytic activity for CO methanation under different reaction conditions. Lifetime reaction tests also indicated that Ni/Al2O3-1200 was the most active and stable catalyst compared with the other three catalysts, whose supports were calcined at lower temperatures(600, 800 and 1000 C). These findings would therefore be helpful to develop Ni/Al2O3 methanation catalyst for SNG production.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

    2011-09-22

    its stability may be rate dependent, therefore limiting the activity of the waste for which it can be employed. Overall, these preliminary results indicate good radiation damage tolerance for the crystalline ceramic materials. The PCT results showed that, for all of the waste forms tested, the normalized release values for most of the elements measured, including all of the lanthanides and noble metals, were either very small or below the instrument detection limits. Elevated normalized release values were measured only for Cs, Mo, and Rb. It is difficult to draw further conclusions from these data until a benchmark material is developed for the PCT with this type of waste form. Calcined, simulated CS/LN/TM High Mo waste without additives had relatively low normalized release values for Cs, Mo, and Rb. A review of the chemical composition data for this sample showed that these elements were well retained after the calcination. Therefore, it will be useful to further characterize the calcined material to determine what form these elements are in after calcining. This, along with single phase studies on Cs containing crystal structures such as hollandite, should provide insight into the most ideal phases to incorporate these elements to produce a durable waste form.

  11. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  12. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  13. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  15. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  16. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  17. Synthesis of microporous material faujasite-type from kaolin waste; Sintese de material microporoso do tipo faujasita a partir de rejeito de caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, E.A.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R., E-mail: edemarino@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Materias-Primas Particuladas e Solidos nao Metalicos; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Fac. de Geologia; Neves, R.F. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Fac. de Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Zeolite with structure faujasite was synthesized using kaolin waste from kaolin processing industries for paper coating as predominant source of silicon and aluminum; the starting material was characterized by XRF, XRD, DTA/TG, SEM, and products obtained by XRD and SEM. Synthesis in hydrothermal conditions occurred on autoclave and time-temperature effects, as well as the relationship Si/Al were considered. The results show that the methodology developed with the waste of calcined kaolin reacting at 90 deg C for 20 hours in an alkaline medium, in the presence of an additional source of silica was obtained zeolite Y as single phase present in the product. (author)

  18. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the

  19. In Situ IR Characterization of CO Interacting with Rh Nanoparticles Obtained by Calcination and Reduction of Hydrotalcite-Type Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Basile

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supported Rh nanoparticles obtained by reduction in hydrogen of severely calcined Rh/Mg/Al hydrotalcite-type (HT phases have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO [both at room temperature (r.t. and nominal liquid nitrogen temperature] and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The effect of reducing temperature has been investigated, showing that Rh crystal size increases from 1.4 nm to 1.8 nm when the reduction temperature increases from 750°C to 950°C. The crystal growth favours the formation of bridged CO species and linear monocarbonyl species with respect to gem-dicarbonyl species; when CO adsorbs at r.t., CO disproportionation occurs on Rh and it accompanies the formation of RhI(CO2. The role of interlayer anions in the HT precursors to affect the properties of the final materials has been also investigated considering samples prepared from silicate-instead of carbonate-containing precursors. In this case, formation of RhI(CO2 and CO disproportionation do not occur, and this evidence is discussed in terms of support effect.

  20. Palm oil biodiesel synthesized with potassium loaded calcined hydrotalcite and effect of biodiesel blend on elastomer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakarnpruk, Wimonrat; Porntangjitlikit, Suriya [Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-07-15

    Biodiesel was prepared from palm oil by transesterification with methanol in the presence of 1.5%K loaded-calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Fatty acid methyl esters content of 96.9% and methyl ester yield of 86.6% were achieved using a 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at 100{sup o}C for 6 h and 7 wt% catalyst. The biodiesel was characterized and its impact on elastomer properties was evaluated. The compatibility of B10 diesel blend (10% biodiesel) with six types of elastomers commonly found in fuel systems (NBR, HNBR, NBR/PVC, acrylic rubber, co-polymer FKM, and terpolymer FKM) were investigated. The physical properties of elastomers after immersion in tested fuels (for 22, 670, and 1008 h at 100{sup o}C) were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). These include swelling (mass change and volume change), hardness, tensile and elongation, as well as the dynamic mechanical property. The results showed that properties of NBR, NBR/PVC and acrylic rubber were affected more than other elastomers. This is due to the absorption and dissolving of biodiesel by rubber in these samples. Co-polymer FKM and terpolymer FKM which are fluoroelastomers show little property change. (author)

  1. Hydration mechanism and leaching behavior of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-08-15

    A deep investigation on the hydration mechanism of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials was conducted from viewpoints of hydration products and hydration heat analysis. As a main hydration product, the microstructure of C-A-S-H gel was observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the C-A-S-H gel is composed of amorphous regions and nanocrystalline regions. Most of regions in the C-A-S-H gel are amorphous with continuous distribution, and the nanocrystalline regions on scale of ∼5nm are dispersed irregularly within the amorphous regions. The hydration heat of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials is much lower than that of the ordinary Portland cement. A hydration model was proposed for this kind of cementitious materials, and the hydration process mainly consists of four stages which are dissolution of materials, formation of C-A-S-H gels and ettringite, cementation of hydration products, and polycondensation of C-A-S-H gels. There are no strict boundaries among these four basic stages, and they proceed crossing each other. Moreover, the leaching toxicity tests were also performed to prove that the developed red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable.

  2. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  3. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  5. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE USING INDUSTRIAL WASTE – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present in India, about 960 million metric tons of solid was te is being generated annually as byproducts during industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural and other processes. Advances in solid waste management resulted in alter native construction materials as a substitute to traditional materials like bricks, blocks, tiles, aggregates, ceramics, cement, lime, soil, timber and paint. To safeguard th e environment, efforts are being made for recycling different wastes and to utilize th em in value added applications. The cement industries have been making significan t progress in reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 emissions through improvements in process technology and enhancements in process efficiency, but further improvements ar e limited because CO 2 production is inherent to the basic process of calcinations of limestone. In the past two decades, various investigations have been conducted on industri al wastes like flyash, blast furnace slag, Silica fume, rice husks and other industria l waste materials to act as cement replacements .This paper consist of a review extensively conducted on publications related to utilization of waste materials as cemen t replacement with an intention to develop a process so as to produce an eco-friendly concrete having similar or higher strength and thus simultaneously providing a remedy t o environmental hazards resulting from waste material disposal.

  7. Steam reforming of tar derived from lignin over pompom-like potassium-promoted iron-based catalysts formed on calcined scallop shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guoqing; Kaewpanha, Malinee; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhu, Ai-Min; Kasai, Yutaka; Kakuta, Seiji; Kusakabe, Katsuki; Abudula, Abuliti

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the improvement effect of potassium (K) on the catalytic activity of iron-loaded calcined scallop shell (CS) for the steam reforming tar derived from biomass, various K precursors were applied for the catalyst preparation. It is found that pompom-like iron-based particles with a mesoporous structure were easily formed on the surface of calcined scallop shell (CS) when K2CO3 was used as K precursor while no such kind of microsphere was formed when other kinds of K precursors such as KOH and KNO3 were applied. The optimum K-loading amount for the preparation of this catalyst was investigated. Based on the experimental results obtained, a mechanism for the formation of these microspheres was proposed. This pompom-like potassium-promoted iron-based catalyst showed a better catalytic activity and reusability for the steam reforming of tar derived from lignin.

  8. Preparation and application of acidified/calcined red mud catalyst for catalytic degradation of butyl xanthate in Fenton-like process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Luhua; Wei, Guangtao; Wang, Yizhi; Li, Zhongmin; Zhang, Linye; Zhao, Shukai; Zhou, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Acidified/calcined red mud (ACRM), a novel catalyst used in Fenton-like process, was prepared by acidification and calcination of red mud (RM). Catalyst characterization showed that iron phase of ACRM was mainly α-Fe2O3 and ACRM was a porous material with rough surface and loose structure. Degradation of butyl xanthate in Fenton-like process catalyzed by ACRM was investigated. Butyl xanthate was effectively degraded, and the degradation of butyl xanthate was well fitted by second order kinetic model. ACRM had an excellent long-term stability in a Fenton-like process. The possible mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production and butyl xanthate degradation in a Fenton-like process catalyzed by ACRM were presented.

  9. 全氟物改性煅白的防吸湿机理%Anti-moisture mechanism of calcined dolomite modified by perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓波; 李明照; 王国卫; 梁一然; 张耀斌; 毛嘉; 任川兮

    2015-01-01

    对煅白表面锚固偶氮二氰基戊酸引发全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯(FM)聚合而制备的防吸湿煅白进行研究,利用 XPS、IR、DSC、TG、SEM 物理吸收和接触角测量等方法对改性前后煅白的结构、比表面积、形貌和疏水接触角等进行表征,并分析改性后煅白吸湿性降低的原因和机理。结果表明:煅白表面发生了偶联、锚固及聚合反应。锚固引发剂的煅白引发FM原位分散聚合而制得防吸湿煅白,其吸湿率随FM质量分数的增加而降低,当FM质量分数达到7%时,吸湿率不再下降,改性后煅白1 h的吸湿率由1.39%下降到0.017%;聚全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯(PFM)的接枝率为0.5%、接枝效率为26.6%,煅白表面出现一层连续而完整的全氟聚合物膜,其厚度约为8 nm。%4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (ACPA) was anchored onto the surface of calcined dolomite and radical graft polymerization of perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate (FM) from the modified calcined dolomite through dispersion polymerization were investigated. The structure, specific surface area, morphology and hydrophobic contact angle of calcined dolomite surface were characterised by XPS, IR, DSC, TG, SEM, physical absorption and contact angle measurement, and the reason and mechanism on the decreasing the moisture absorption rate of calcined dolomite after the modification were studied. The results show that the coupling, anchoring and polymerization reactions happen on the surface of calcined dolomite. Poly (Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate) (PFM) is effectively grafted onto calcined dolomite through the initiation of anchored ACPA during in-situ dispersion polymerization. It shows that the moisture absorption rate of calcined dolomite decreases with increasing of the mass fraction of FM. When the mass fraction of FM is 7%, The moisture absorption rate decreases from 1.39% to 0.017% after modification for 1 h. The grafting rate and efficiency of PFA are 0.5% and

  10. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  11. Preparation of nanosized barium zirconate powder by thermal decomposition of urea in an aqueous solution containing barium and zirconium, and by calcination of the precipitate

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Frédéric; Robertz, B.; Rulmont, André; Cloots, Rudi

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of barium zirconate was initiated by urea induced homogeneous precipitation followed by a "low temperature" thermal treatment. The kinetic of the reaction and the optimum urea/cation ratio have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction and Inductive Coupled Plasma analyses. It has been demonstrated that an amorphous zirconium hydrated oxide starts to precipitate followed by the precipitation of barium carbonate. A calcination at 1200 degreesC during 2 h gives rise to the for...

  12. Effect of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders prepared by co-precipitation of TiCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudoyono, Gatut; Ichzan, Nur; Zharvan, Vicran; Daniyati, Rizqa; Santoso, Hadi; Indarto, Bachtera; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Zainuri, Mochamad; Darminto

    2016-04-01

    The adsorption of basic dye methylene blue (MB) onto titanium dioxide (titania) powder that were prepared by coprecipitation method of TiCl3 and NH4OH as iniatial material with different calcination temperature was studied to examine the photocatalytic activity. Synthesis process carried out by the solution pH was adjusted to be 8. Effect of calcination temperature on the titania powder were characterized with Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of TG and XRD showed that the NH4Cl decomposed between 235-372°C. The XRD result showed that the anatase TiO2 only contained a single phase when the calcination temperature of the precursor at 800°C, and over which it began to grow rutile phase. The influence of synthesis condition on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powder was determined by the photodegradation of MB dye under UV light.

  13. The influence of coating solution and calcination condition on the durability of Ir1-xSnxO2/Ti anodes for oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Zenta; Kashima, Ryo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Fukuyama, Shinnosuke; Izumiya, Koichi; Kumagai, Naokazu; Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-12-01

    For oxygen formation without forming chlorine in seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production we have been using the anode consisting of three layers of MnO2-type multiple oxide catalyst, intermediate layer and titanium substrate. The intermediate layer was used for prevention of oxidation of the titanium substrate during anodic polarization for oxygen evolution and was prepared by calcination of butanol solutions of H2IrCl6 and SnCl4 coated on titanium. The protectiveness of Ir1-xSnxO2 layer formed was directly examined using Ir1-xSnxO2/Ti anodes in H2SO4 solution changing the preparation conditions of the layer. When the sum of Ir4+ and Sn4+ was 0.1 M, the highest protectiveness was observed at 0.06 M Sn4+. Although an increase in calcination temperature led to the formation of Ir1-x-ySnxTiyO2 triple oxide with a slightly lower catalytic activity for oxygen evolution, the anode calcined at 450 °C showed the highest protectiveness.

  14. Effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and catalytic activity in oxidation reactions of LaNiO3 perovskite prepared by Pechini method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Rida; M.A.Pe(n)a; E.Sastre; A.Martínez-Arias

    2012-01-01

    The study presented the preparation of the perovskite oxide LaNiO3 by the complex citrate method,paying particular attention to evolution of its formation from the amorphous precursor with varied calcination temperatures.The products obtained after heat treatment under air between 200 and 800 ℃ were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),SBET measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The results showed the formation of a single phase with perovskite structure from ca.550 ℃.Tests on the two catalytic oxidation reactions of C3H6 and CO over the system calcined between mentioned temperatures were examined on the basis of characterization results and showed that optimum catalytic properties for such reactions were achieved for the perovskite calcined at 600 ℃.In turn,correlations between redox and catalytic properties were established on the basis of thermogravimetric temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis.

  15. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity in TiO2 Thin Film Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Mothi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Sol-Gel derived precursor by Spin Coating technique at different calcination temperatures. Structural identity of the prepared films was con- firmed by powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Morphology of the films was monitored using Atomic force microscopy and it was observed that calcination temperature of 400 °C favored TiO2 nano- fibers. Photocatalytic activity of the films was checked by observing the degradation of herbicide Atrazine in UV region and the percentage of degradation was analyzed by HPLC method. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st November 2013; Revised: 18th March 2014; Accepted: 29th June 2014How to Cite: Mothi, K.M., Soumya, G., Sugunan, S. (2014. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity in TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 175-181. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5733.175-181Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5733.175-181

  16. 磷石膏制备复相磷石膏煅烧工艺研究%Research on calcining process of duplex gypsum using phosphogypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清臣; 杨敏

    2013-01-01

    The calcining process of duplex gypsum using phosphogypsum was studied.the results show that holding time and heating rate have an greater influence on the ratio of hemihydrate and anhydrite after phosphogypsum calcination,so dulex phosphogypsum with different ratio of hemihydrate and anhydrite can be prepared by controling holding time and heating rate during phosphogypsum calcination.compare with one-phase gypsum,duplex phosphogypsum possess better early strength and late strength.%  对磷石膏制备的复相石膏煅烧工艺进行了研究。结果表明:保温时间和升温速率对两种石膏的烧成比例影响较大。获得不同半水-无水比例的复相磷石膏体系可以通过控制升温速率和保温时间来实现。复相磷石膏与单相石膏比较,具有较好的早期强度和后期强度。

  17. Determination of the Structure of Vitrified Hydroceramic/CBC Waste Form Glasses Manufactured from DOE Reprocessing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheetz, B.E.; White, W. B.; Chesleigh, M.; Portanova, A.; Olanrewaju, J.

    2005-05-31

    The selection of a glass-making option for the solidification of nuclear waste has dominated DOE waste form programs since the early 1980's. Both West Valley and Savannah River are routinely manufacturing glass logs from the high level waste inventory in tank sludges. However, for some wastes, direct conversion to glass is clearly not the optimum strategy for immobilization. INEEL, for example, has approximately 4400 m{sup 3} of calcined high level waste with an activity that produces approximately 45 watts/m{sup 3}, a rather low concentration of radioactive constituents. For these wastes, there is value in seeking alternatives to glass. An alternative approach has been developed and the efficacy of the process demonstrated that offers a significant savings in both human health and safety exposures and also a lower cost relative to the vitrification option. The alternative approach utilizes the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the highly alkaline waste with the addition of aluminosilicate admixtures in the appropriate proportions to form zeolites. The process is one in which a chemically bonded ceramic is produced. The driving force for reaction is derived from the chemical system itself at very modest temperatures and yet forms predominantly crystalline phases. Because the chemically bonded ceramic requires an aqueous medium to serve as a vehicle for the chemical reaction, the proposed zeolite-containing waste form can more adequately be described as a hydroceramic. The hydrated crystalline materials are then subject to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which partially melts the material to form a glass ceramic. The scientific advantages of the hydroceramic/CBC approach are: (1) Low temperature processing; (2) High waste loading and thus only modest volumetric bulking from the addition of admixtures; (3) Ability to immobilize sodium; (4) Ability to handle low levels of nitrate (2-3% NO{sub 3}{sup -}); (5) The flexibility of a vitrifiable waste; and (6) A process

  18. [Preparation of porous ceramics based on waste ceramics and its Ni2+ adsorption characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Li; Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Shi, Ce; Shang, Ling-Ling; Ma, Rui; Dong, Wan-Li

    2013-07-01

    The preparation conditions of porous ceramics were determined by SEM, XRD and FT-IR characterizations as well as the nickel removal ability of porous ceramics to be: the mass fraction w of sesbania powder doped was 4%, and the calcination temperature was 800 degrees C. SEM and pore structure characterization illustrated that calcination caused changes in the structure and morphology of waste ceramics. With the increase of calcination temperature, the specific surface area and pore volume decreased, while the aperture increased. EDS analyses showed that the main elements of both the original waste porcelain powder and the porous ceramics were Si, Al and O. The SEM, XRD and FT-IR characterization of porous ceramics illustrated that the structure of porous ceramics was stable before and after adsorption. The series of experiments of Ni2+ adsorption using these porous ceramics showed that when the dosage of porous ceramics was 10 g x L(-1), the adsorption time was 60 min, the pH value was 6.32, and the concentration of nickel-containing wastewater was below 100 mg x L(-1), the Ni2+ removal of wastewater reached 89.7%. Besides, the porous ceramics showed higher removal efficiency on nickel in the wastewater. The Ni(2+)-containing wastewater was processed by the porous ceramics prepared, and the adsorption dynamics and adsorption isotherms of Ni2+ in wastewater by porous ceramics were investigated. The research results showed that the Ni2+ adsorption process of porous ceramics was in accordance with the quasi second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.999 9), with Q(e) of 9.09 mg x g(-1). The adsorption process can be described by the Freundlich equation and Langmuir equation, and when the temperature increased from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C, the maximum adsorption capacity Q(m) increased from 14.49 mg x g(-1) to 15.38 mg x g(-1).

  19. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... risks associated with household hazardous wastes, it is important that people always monitor the use, storage, and ...

  20. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination%Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白素丽; 黄承都; 吕静; 李振花

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N2-physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500~C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/Si02 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO2 catalyst.

  1. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  2. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  3. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  4. Process optimization in postcombustion CO{sub 2}-capture by means of repowering and reversible carbonation/calcination cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis M. Romeo; Juan C. Abanades; Juan C. Ballesteros; Antonio Valero; Jesus M. Escosa; Antonio Gimenez; Cristobal Cortes; Jara Pano [Centro de Investigacion Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Coal is the major power generation fuel for electricity production. Many countries are heavily dependent on coal, that contributes to about 30% of the European power generation and plays an important role in the European generation industry. The existing coal power plants must be operative to provide energy and take advantage of local resources, but it is necessary to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions in a feasible manner. It means without introducing excessive economic penalty or reducing their capacity and efficiency. In order to achieve this objective two strategies are highlighted, increase power plant efficiency and capture CO{sub 2} emissions. Increasing power plant efficiency is one of the less expensive ways to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions however it is neither an easy task for existing power plant nor efficiency improvements are large enough to achieve important CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. One of the best methods to significantly increase plant efficiency and also energy production from an economic standpoint is repowering. On the other hand, it is generally accepted that postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture is one of the best suitable technologies for existing coal power plants. It is also well-know that one of the most important gaps in postcombustion capture is the necessity of achieve a process optimization for large-scale power plants. One of these technologies involves the separation of CO{sub 2} from high temperature flue gases using the reversible carbonation reaction of CaO and the calcination of CaCO{sub 3}. In order to achieve a significant abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions without excessive penalty in power plant efficiency, generating capacity and with CO{sub 2} capture cost below 25 EUR/Ton CO{sub 2}, this paper proposes a new, feasible approach to join these two concepts by an optimal integration of the processes within an existing power plant. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  6. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  7. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  8. The effect of heating on mineral composition and grain size distribution of flux calcined porcelanites from the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin, southwestern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Raja; Tlili, Ali; Jamoussi, Fakher

    2016-12-01

    The porcelanite rock of Ypresian phosphatic series of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin (south-western Tunisia), is composed mainly of opal CT, and presents a variable percentage of carbonates and fibrous clays. This rock is treated with flux calcination at different temperatures in order to prepare a specific filter aid for cleaning melting sulfur which can be used for the production of sulfuric acid. This work presents the effect of heating on the mineralogy and grain size distribution of carbonate-rich porcelanite (Tm1) and clay-rich porcelanite (Gh) compared to flux calcined silica-rich porcelanite (CHM3) and diatomaceous filtration aids. The porcelanite samples used in this work come from three localities of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin: Kef El Ghis (Gh), Tamarza (Tm1) and Mides (CHM3). Flux calcination at 1000 °C provokes a mineralogical transformation on carbonate-rich porcelanite samples. The opal CT transforms to opal C and becomes neater and more stable. The Thermal treatment of porcelanite (Tm1) incites also the apparition of new peaks of wollastonite. However, the structural change of opal CT to opal C by heat treatment is blocked for flux calcination of clay-rich porcelanite. The opal CT of fluxing clay-rich porcelanite becomes more ordered without significant change to opal C. The difference between fluxing carbonate-rich porcelanite (Tm1) and fluxing clay-rich porcelanite (Gh) appears also with granulometric distribution histogram of the tow heated samples. All raw samples have unimodal granulometric distribution (1-100 μm). After calcination with alkaline flux at 1000 °C fluxing carbonate-rich porcelanite displays bimodal granulometric distribution and a new mode appears systematically, between 0.1 μm and 1 μm. This occurs for fluxing silica-riche porcelanite and diatomaceous filtration aids as well and corresponds to the opal C formed after heat treatment. Whereas fluxing clay-rich porcelanite present trimodal granulometric distribution and a third mode

  9. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Sahar, E-mail: dollyriri@yahoo.com [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt); King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Hanna, Adly [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  10. Role of Mg{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}CO{sub 3} on the physical–chemical properties and cyclic CO{sub 2} capture performance of dolomite by two-step calcination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ke; Han, Dongtai, E-mail: handongtai@cumt.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopfcumt@163.com; Hu, Xiumeng; Yin, Zeguang; Wu, Di

    2015-08-20

    Highlights: • Two-step calcination treated dolomite sorbent was prepared and characterized. • An intermediate phase (Mg{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}CO{sub 3}) was observed by TG and XRD results. • Mg-calcite hindered the de-mixing of Ca and Mg. • Smaller grains, larger specific surface area and pore volume were obtained. • This favorable structure resulted in a high and stable CO{sub 2} capture performance. - Abstract: Two-step calcination (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} atmospheres) was used to modify the microstructure of natural dolomite for high-temperature CO{sub 2} capture. Two other one-step calcinations (CO{sub 2} or N{sub 2} atmosphere) were provided for comparison. Different morphological characterizations (thermal decomposition, phase composition, morphology, and nitrogen adsorption) were performed, followed by an analysis of 30 carbonation/calcination cycles in a fixed bed reactor. During primary calcination in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere, an intermediate phase (Mg{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}CO{sub 3}) was observed by TG and XRD results, which hindered the de-mixing of CaO and MgO in the secondary calcination in a N{sub 2} atmosphere. Therefore, two-step calcination produced smaller grains (CaO: 45.2 nm; MgO: 32.6 nm), larger specific surface area (21.08 m{sup 2}/g) and pore volume (0.082 cm{sup 3}/g) and uniform distribution of CaO and MgO, which resulted in a higher and more stable uptake of CO{sub 2} compared to the results from one-step calcinations.

  11. 钒渣无焙烧浸出液中钒铁萃取分离%Separation Between Vanadium and Iron in Acid Leaching Solution of Converter Vanadium Slag Without Calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 张廷安; 吕国志; 刘卓林

    2015-01-01

    In view of a new process of leaching the converter vanadium slags with titanium dioxide waste acid under the pressure without calcination proposed by our research group,V extraction from the solution which using waste acid leaching vanadium slag was studied using P204 as the extraction agent.The results showed that the reduction of ferric iron into ferrous iron by Na2 SO3 as a pretreatment reducing agent prevented ferric irons co-extracted into the leaching liquid.Under the optimal technological condition:at room temperature,leaching solution original pH of 2.5,the volume ratio of the aqueous phase to oil phase of 1 ∶3 and the shaking time of 4 min,the extraction rate of V is more than 98.61 %,and the separation factor between V and Fe is up to 135.3 using the 20%P204 with 10%TBP synergistic extraction system.%利用本课题组提出的钛白废酸无焙烧加压浸出钒渣提钒的新技术,以 P204为萃取剂从废酸浸出钒渣的浸出液中进行了提钒研究.实验结果表明:采用亚硫酸钠为浸出液预处理还原剂,将浸出液中三价铁还原成二价铁,从而防止三价铁的共萃;常温条件下,当浸出液初始 pH =2.5、水相与有机相体积比为1∶3,震荡时间为4 min 时,采用有机相组成为20%P204及10%TBP 协同萃取体系,钒的萃取率可达98.61%以上,钒铁的分离系数可达135.3.

  12. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  13. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  14. 固定床煅烧炉中载铯亚铁氰化钛钾的热分解研究%Thermal Decomposition of Potassium Titanium Hexacyanoferrate (Ⅱ) Loaded with Cesium in a Fixed Bed Calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯孝贵; 景山; 吴秋林; 陈靖; 宋崇立

    2007-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate(Ⅱ) (KTiFC) loaded with cesium (referred to as Used Exchanget,or UE) was studied at different flow rate of air in a fixed bed calciner.The calcination process consisted of four stages:ambient temperature-180℃ (stage Ⅰ),180-250℃ (stage Ⅱ),250-400℃ (stage Ⅲ),and constant 400℃ (stage Ⅳ).The most intense reaction occurred in stage Ⅱ.The rate of thermal decomposition was controlled,depending on the O2 flux,by O2 or CN concentration in different stages.Results from differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed that the calcination reaction of the anhydrous UE was exotlaemic, with an approximate heat output of 4.6kJ·g-1,which was so large to cause the possible agglomeration of calcined residues.The agglomeration could be avoided by enhancing heat transfer and controlling the O2 flux.It was found that there was no cyanides in the calcined residues and no CN-bearing gases such as HCN and (CN)2 in the off-gas.It seemed that the catalytic oxidation furnace behind the fixed bed calciner could be cancelled.

  15. Influence of calcination temperature on Cd{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: Structural, thermal and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Ch.Venkata, E-mail: cvrphy@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); PrabhakarVattikuti, S.V. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ravikumar, R.V.S.S.N. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, AP 522510 (India); Moon, Sang Jun, E-mail: nanobiomems@dgist.ac.kr [Cybernetics Laboratory, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jaesool, E-mail: jshim@ynu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesis using the chemical method. The as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles are calcinated at 300 °C and 600 °C respectively. The samples are studied using; Powder XRD, SEM with EDX, TEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in order to study the calcination temperature effect on structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The magnetic properties, like saturation magnetization and coercivity increases with increasing the calcination temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the transition from amulti-domain to a single-domain nature. The absorption bands observed at 588 cm{sup −1} (ν{sub 1}) and 440 cm{sup −1} (ν{sub 2}) are attributed to the vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes. The TG-DTA curves reveal the thermal stability of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The calcination temperature influences the magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystalline size. - Highlights: • Cd{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation. • The magnetization, coercivity values increases with increasing the calcination temperature. • The calcination temperature influences the magnetic properties and crystallite size. • The FTIR spectra results confirmed the vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes.

  16. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  17. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  18. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Morcali M.H.; Yucel O.; Aydin A.; Derin B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal) was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet) were investigated in detail. It was demonstrate...

  19. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Hangun-Balkir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12 : 1 (alcohol : oil molar ratio with 1 wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65°C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards.

  20. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  1. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  2. 煅烧高岭土的比表面积与吸油性能%Specific Surface Area and Oil Adsorption of Calcinated Kaolin Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 陈洁渝; 周春宇; 雷新荣

    2013-01-01

    A washed kaolin clay was calcinated in the temperature range from 600 ℃ to 1 000 ℃. The microscopic morphology, the phase, the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and BET nitrogen adsorption measurement, respectively. The relationship between oil absorption and specific surface area was analyzed. The results show that the oil adsorption of calcinated kaolin clay with the smallest average pore size at 750 ℃ is the greatest (i.e., 80.272 g/100 g). The oil adsorption of calcinated kaolin clay became greater due to the larger specific surface area and the presence of the more concentrated micropore and mesopore in the pore distribution at the calcining temperature of < 800 ℃. The microporous occlusion of the kaolin clay occurred when calcinated at 800 ℃, causing the more concentrated mesopore and macropore in the pore distribution. As a result, the oil absorption reduced. The oil absorption of the calcinated kaolin clay was closely related to the specific surface area and the more concentrated micropore in the pore distribution.%以水洗高岭土为原料,在600~1 000℃,以50℃为间隔取点煅烧.通过场发射扫描电镜观察产品的微观形貌、X射线衍射仪分析产品的物相,并用BET物理吸附仪表征产品的比表面积和孔径分布,根据煅烧高岭土的微观形貌、物相组成、吸脱附等温线等,分析其比表面积与吸油性能的关系.结果表明:750℃的煅烧高岭土吸油值最高,为80.272 g/100g,此时煅烧高岭土的比表面积最大,孔径分布集中于微孔和中孔,平均孔径最小.煅烧温度低于800℃时,煅烧高岭土的孔径分布较集中于微孔和中孔,比表面积较大,吸油值较高;煅烧温度升高至800℃以后,高岭土发生烧结导致微孔闭塞,孔径分布向中孔和大孔集中,比表面积减小,吸油值较低.因而煅烧高岭土的吸油性

  3. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  4. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Oxygen Vacancies and Catalytic Performance Towards CO Oxidation of Co3O4 Nanoparticles Supported on SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-bing Li; Zhi-quan Jiang; Kun Qian; Wei-xin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation were prepared by conventional incipient wetness impregnation followed by calcination at various temperatures.Their structures were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD),laser Raman spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy.Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy only detect the existence of Co3O4 crystallites in all catalysts.However,XPS results indicate that excess Co2+ ions are present on the surface of Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 as compared with bulk Co3O4.Meanwhile,TPR results suggest the presence of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2,and XAFS results demonstrate that Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 contains excess Co2+.Increasing calcination temperature results in oxidation of excess Co2+and the decrease of the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies,consequently the formation of stoichiometric Co3O4 on supported catalysts.Among all Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts,Co3O4(200)/SiO2 exhibits the best catalytic performance towards CO oxidation,demonstrating that excess Co2+ and surface oxygen vacancies can enhance the catalytic activity of Co3O4 towards CO oxidation.These results nicely demonstrate the effect of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic performance towards CO oxidation of silicasupported Co3O4 catalysts and highlight the important role of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4.

  5. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Oxygen Vacancies and Catalytic Performance Towards CO Oxidation of Co3O4 Nanoparticles Supported on SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-bing; Jiang, Zhi-quan; Qian, Kun; Huang, Wei-xin

    2012-02-01

    Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation were prepared by conventional incipient wetness impregnation followed by calcination at various temperatures. Their structures were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy only detect the existence of Co3O4 crystallites in all catalysts. However, XPS results indicate that excess Co2+ ions are present on the surface of Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 as compared with bulk Co3O4. Meanwhile, TPR results suggest the presence of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2, and XAFS results demonstrate that Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 contains excess Co2+. Increasing calcination temperature results in oxidation of excess Co2+ and the decrease of the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies, consequently the formation of stoichiometric Co3O4 on supported catalysts. Among all Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts, Co3O4(200)/SiO2 exhibits the best catalytic performance towards CO oxidation, demonstrating that excess Co2+ and surface oxygen vacancies can enhance the catalytic activity of Co3O4 towards CO oxidation. These results nicely demonstrate the effect of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic performance towards CO oxidation of silica-supported Co3O4 catalysts and highlight the important role of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4.

  6. Effect of calcination temperature on the structure and visible-light photocatalytic activities of (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X. F.; Xue, X. X.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Li, X.; Niu, M. C.; Gao, X. Y.; Yang, Y. T.

    2015-03-01

    The (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples (NSC-TiO2) were synthesized by the sol-gel method combining with the high energy ball milling method calcined at the different temperature (400-700 °C), employing butyl titanate as the titanium source and thiourea as the doping agent. The structures of NSC-TiO2 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities were checked through the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the (N, S and C) co-doping and the calcination temperature played important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. According to XPS spectra, sulfur was mainly attributed to the Tisbnd Osbnd S bond; nitrogen was ascribed to the Tisbnd Osbnd N and Tisbnd N bonds; carbon was assigned to the Tisbnd Osbnd C bond in the NSC-TiO2 samples. (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples calcinated at 500 °C exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples under visible light irradiation, which can be attributed to the synergic effect of its enhancing crystallization of anatase and (N, S and C) co-doping.

  7. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Structure and O2 Desorption Properties of CexPr1-xO2-δ Mixed Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zonglan; Shi Jun; Bu Yafan; Zhao Pengying; Wang Zhan

    2007-01-01

    A series of CexPr1-xO2-δ (x=0,0.5,0.9,1.0) mixed oxide calcined at different temperatures were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by Raman, XRD and O2-TPD techniques. When x=0.9, only a cubic phase CeO2 is observed. When x=0.5, the compound was combined by Pr6O11 and CeO2 mixed oxides. For CexPr1-xO2-δ (x=0.5,0.9) samples 465cm-1 Raman peak is attributed to the Raman active F2g mode of Ceo2. The broad peak at about 570cm-1 can be linked to lattice defects resulting in oxygen vacancies. The crystallite size of the samples increased as increasing the calcined temperature. But the increased value of Ce0.9Pr0.1O2-δ and Ce0.5Pr0.5O2-δ is smaller than single CeO2 and Pr6O11 obviously. It reveals that the insertion of Pr atom into the ceria lattice could enhance the sintering resistance and thermal stability of the mixed oxides. Calcination temperatures had great effect on the peak intensity for CeO2 but less effect on Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-δ in Raman spectra, and it may be caused by the colors transformation of the mixed oxidfs. The result of O2-TPD experiment indicates that the formation of solid solution has elevation the stabilization and thermal stability of the mixed oxides.

  8. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  9. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  10. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  11. The Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan, Low-Cao Steel Slag and Granite Dust On the Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    James Sarfo-Ansah; Eugene Atiemo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of low CaO steel slag, calcined clay and granite dust on the alkali-silica reaction was investigated over a period of 35 days under accelerated curing conditions. The mineral admixtures were used to replace varying portions of high alkali Portland limestone cement up to an admixture content of 25% in order to study their effect on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Portland limestone cement used for the study had a total Na2Oeq of 4.32. XRD analysis of hydrated mortar...

  12. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  13. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  14. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  15. E-waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Hieronymi, Klaus; Williams, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of electronic waste, e-waste, management is changing dramatically. Besides a rapidly increasing world population, globalization is driving the demand for products, resulting in rising prices for many materials. Absolute scarcity looms for some special resources such as indium. Used electronic products and recyclable materials are increasingly crisscrossing the globe. This is creating both - opportunities and challenges for e-waste management. This focuses on the current and future trends, technologies and regulations for reusable and recyclable e-waste worldwide.

  16. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  17. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  18. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  19. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  20. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  1. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  2. 煅烧工艺制度对轻烧白云石活性度的影响%Effect of calcining process and system on reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    The effect of calcining processes on the reactivity three kinds of soft-burnt dolomites is studied through calcining test and observation of microstructure. It is concluded as follows : ( 1 ) soaking time is 90 minutes,, there is a trend in which the reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite is increased first with the calcining temperature uprising and then decreased. At 1 050℃ the reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite reaches the highest value; (2) for some calcining temperature, there is a period of calcining time to make soft-burnt lime have a highest reactivity value ; (3) the grain size of the dolomite tobe calcined has influence on the reactivity of the calcined product; (4) the microstructure of the raw dolomite has great influence on the reactivity of the calcined product, generally the raw dolomite with coarse and big crystals is easy to obtain the calcined product with higher reactivity.%通过煅烧实验和显微结构观察,研究了煅烧工艺对三种自云石轻烧后活性度的影响,得出如下结论:(1)保温时间为90min,随煅烧温度提高轻烧白云石的活性呈现先升高、后降低的趋势,在1050℃活性度达到最高点。(2)对应某煅烧温度存在一个煅烧时间使轻烧白云石活性最高。(3)白云石的煅烧颗粒尺寸影响煅烧产物活性度。(4)白云石原矿的显微结构对煅烧产物活性度有很大影响,一般晶粒粗大的原矿易得到活性较高的煅烧产物。

  3. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  4. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  5. Morphological Changes of Limestone Sorbent Particles during Carbonation/Calcination Looping Cycles in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Reactivation with Steam

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Y.

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation and calcination looping cycles were carried out on four limestones in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The CO2 carrying capacity of a limestone particle decays very quickly in the first 10 cycles, reducing to about 20% of its original uptake capacity after 10 cycles for the four limestones studied in this work, and it decreases further to 6-12% after 50 cycles. A new steam reactivation method was applied on the spent sorbent to recover the loss of reactivity. The steam reactivation of multi-cycled samples was conducted at atmospheric pressure. Steam reactivation for 5 min at 130 °C of particles that had undergone 10 cycles resulted in an immediate increase (by 45-60% points) in carrying capacity. The morphological changes of limestone particles during the cycling and steam reactivation were studied using both an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diameters of limestone particles shrank by about 2-7% after 10 carbonation/calcination cycles, and the particle diameters swelled significantly (12-22% increase) after steam reactivation. These size changes are important for studies of attrition and mathematical modeling of carbonation. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. The Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen Dopant and Calcination Temperature on the Visible-Light-Induced Photoactivity of N-Doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nitrogen content and calcinations temperature on the N-doped TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method was investigated. The phase and structure, chemical state, optical properties, and surface area/pore distribution of N-doped TiO2 were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area. Finding showed that the photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was greatly enhanced compared to pure TiO2 under visible irradiation. N dopants could retard the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. Namely, N-doping effect is attributed to the anatase phase stabilization. The results showed nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the interstitial positions of the TiO2 lattice. Ethylene was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of samples under visible-light illumination. The results suggested good anatase crystallization, smaller particle size, and larger surface are beneficial for photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared with ammonia to titanium isopropoxide molar ratio of 2.0 and calcinated at 400°C showed the best photocatalytic ability.

  7. To study the effect of calcinations durations and temperature on optical and structural properties of MgO-CuO nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Praveen, Sharma, Ashwani; Parmar, R.; Dahiya, S.; Kishor, N.

    2016-05-01

    The MgO-CuO nanocomposites has been synthesized by a sol-gel techniques based on precursor polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In this work appropriate concentration of cupric nitrate, Magnisium nitrate and PVA are mixed with 50:50 ethanol water followed by heated to 80°C to form a homogeneous gel solution. The obtained gel was slowly heated at 100°C to evaporate the solvent to form a hard homogeneous gel. The hard gel was calcinated at temperature 600°C for 4 hrs and 6 hrs thereafter, crushed the material in agate-motar so that it is converted into fine powder form. The prepared nanocomposites have been characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM etc. The size of MgO-CuO nanocomposites heated at 600°C for 4 hours and 6 hours evaluated by Debye Scherrer formula are 17.1 nm and 21.2 nm respectively and results show that Size of MgO-CuO nanocomposites increases with increase of calcinations durations. IR spectra is also used to determine purity of samples. Absorption spectra confirm the synthesis of nanomaterials. SEM images give the indication of morphology of the nanocomposites.

  8. Influence of Zn/Fe Molar Ratio on Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO and ZnFe2O4 Nanocrystal as Calcined Products of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method has been used to synthesize layered double hydroxide (Zn-Fe-LDH nanostructure at different Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural properties of samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. LDH samples were calcined at 600°C to produce mixed oxides (ZnO and ZnFe2O4. The crystallite size of mixed oxide was found in the nanometer scale (18.1 nm for ZnFe2O4 and 43.3 nm for ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of the calcination products was investigated using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of calcined LDHs were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The calcined samples showed a paramagnetic behavior for all Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The effect of molar ratio on magnetic susceptibility of the calcined samples was also studied.

  9. Particle morphology and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder calcined conventionally and by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagesan, S., E-mail: kanagu1980@gmail.com [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, M. [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Jesurani, S. [Department of Physics, Jeyaraj Annapackium College for Women, Periyakulam 625601, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalaivani, T. [Center for material science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Ismail, I.; Shafie, M.S.E. [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} by sol-gel technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization temperature is reduced to 900 Degree-Sign C due to the addition of D-Fructose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of conventional and microwave calcined samples are reported. - Abstract: Barium strontium hexaferrite (Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-BSF) has been prepared by sol-gel process involving use of D-Fructose as a fuel. The prepared precursor was calcined in two different calcinations techniques conventional and microwave furnace. X-ray powder diffraction studies confirmed the formation of single phase Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. HR-SEM results show the morphology of the particles is hexagonal structures in platelet form. The average particle size of conventionally calcined BSF powder is 100-250 nm and that of microwave calcined powder is 30-100 nm. The broad hysteresis loop reveals that powder is well crystallized and exhibits hard magnetic properties.

  10. Study on preparation of food grade sodium trimetaphosophate by multi-step calcination%分段煅烧法制备食品级三偏磷酸钠试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国生; 郭玲

    2016-01-01

    High purty food grade sodium trimetaphosophate was prepared by multi-step calcination from anhy-drous sodium dihydrogen phosphate. The optimal calcination method was determined by multi-step calcination ex-periment in different conditions,and the reaction mechanism of calcination was analyzed.It was found that high pur-ty food grade products can be prepared from sodium dihydrogen phosphate by the optimal calcination method, the content of sodium trimetaphosphate in products can reach more than 99.5%.%以无水NaH2PO4为原料,通过分段煅烧制备出了高纯度食品级Na3(PO3)3。通过设计在不同条件下的分段煅烧试验,确定了较优煅烧方法,并对其反应机理进行了分析。试验表明,以无水NaH2PO4为原料,采用较优煅烧方法可以制得高纯度食品级产品,产品中三偏磷酸钠的含量可达99.5%以上。

  11. Waste statistics 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Reports to the ISAG (Information System for Waste and Recycling) for 2001 cover 402 Danish waste treatment plants owned by 295 enterprises. The total waste generation in 2001 amounted to 12,768,000 tonnes, which is 2% less than in 2000. Reductions are primarily due to the fact that sludge for mineralization is included with a dry matter content of 20% compared to 1,5% in previous statistics. This means that sludge amounts have been reduced by 808,886 tonnes. The overall rate of recycling amounted to 63%, which is 1% less than the overall recycling target of 64% for 2004. Since sludge has a high recycling rate, the reduction in sludge amounts of 808,886 tonnes has also caused the total recycling rate to fall. Waste amounts incinerated accounted for 25%, which is 1% more than the overall target of 24% for incineration in 2004. Waste going to landfill amounted to 10%, which is better than the overall landfill target for 2004 of a maximum of 12% for landfilling. Targets for treatment of waste from the different sectors, however, are still not complied with, since too little waste from households and the service sector is recycled, and too much waste from industry is led to landfill. (BA)

  12. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  13. The Waste Makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2005-01-01

    The throw-away spirit or the spirit of wastefulness has become part of American life and consumption (消费)only keeps rising. Besides, according to the economists, we depend so much on this wasting and buying that people will probably be encouraged to consume even more in the years to come if the US economy is to prosper(兴隆).

  14. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  15. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  16. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  17. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  18. Waste statistics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The 2003 reporting to the ISAG comprises 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. In 2002, reports covered 407 plants owned by 296 enterprises. Waste generation in 2003 is compared to targets from 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following can be said to summarise waste generation in 2003: 1) In 2003, total reported waste arisings amounted to 12,835,000 tonnes, which is 270,000 tonnes, or 2 per cent, less than in 2002. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2003 were 11,597,000 tonnes, which is a 2 per cent increase from 2002. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2003 amounted to 7,814,000 tonnes, which is 19,000 tonnes, or 1 per cent, less than in 2002. In other words, there has been a fall in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. 4) The overall rate of recycling amounted to 66 per cent, which is one percentage point above the overall recycling target of 65 per cent for 2008. In 2002 the total rate of recycling was 64 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2002. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point below the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. In 2002, 9 per cent was led to landfill. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being led to landfill. (au)

  19. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  20. Recovering Y and Eu from Waste Phosphors Using Chlorination Roasting—Water Leaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovering Y and Eu from waste phosphors using chlorination roasting followed by a water leaching process was investigated in this study. Firstly, by chlorination roasting and water leaching, Y and Eu elements present in waste phosphors were efficiently extracted into a leach solution. Secondly, the majority of the impurities in the solution can be removed by adjusting the pH to 4.5 using a Na2S and NH3·H2O solution. Thirdly, the rare earths can be precipitated afterwards by adding a H2C2O4 solution and adjusting the pH to 2.0. Then rare earth oxides (REOs can be obtained after calcining at 800 °C for 1 h. The characterization study of the waste phosphors and the rare earth oxide products was performed by XRD, XRF, and SEM-EDS analysis to determine the phase and morphological features. Influences of the factors, such as roasting temperatures and time, the addition of ammonium chloride on the roasting of waste phosphors, as well as the pH and the amount of oxalates on the precipitation of Y and Eu, were investigated. The maximum grade (99.84% of mixed rare earth oxides and recovery rate (87.35% of Y and Eu were obtained at the optimized conditions.

  1. Structures, Mixed Types - Residual Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Residual Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Residual Waste Program. Residual waste is waste generated at an industrial,...

  2. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Efeito da argila calcinada sobre a durabilidade de argamassas reforçadas com fibras curtas de sisal Effect of calcined clay on aging of sisal short fiber reinforced mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Farias Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo uso de fibras vegetais como reforço de matrizes, à base de cimento, tem crescido em todo o mundo nos últimos anos, sendo limitado pela baixa durabilidade das fibras no meio alcalino. Com o tempo, as fibras podem mineralizar devido à migração de hidróxido de cálcio (CH da matriz para o lúmen e paredes das fibro-células. Procurou-se consumir, no presente estudo, o CH livre utilizando-se resíduo de tijolo moído e metacaulinita em substituição parcial, de 20 e 40% em peso, do cimento portland. Compósitos com fibras de sisal e matrizes cimento-pozolana foram submetidos a ensaios de resistência a flexão, após 28 dias de cura em água, 135 e 180 dias de envelhecimento natural e após 94 ciclos de molhagem e secagem. Os resultados indicaram que é possível consumir todo o CH da matriz, o que resultou na manutenção da tenacidade inicial do compósito e no aumento da sua resistência a flexão após exposição natural ou ciclos de molhagem e secagem.In the last few years a growing interest in the use of sisal fibers as reinforcement in cement based composites has been observed. However, the main concern for its use is related with the durability of the fibers in the alkaline water of concrete as they can mineralize due to the migration of calcium hydroxide to the fiber lumen and cell walls. In this study, the alkalinity of the matrix was reduced using metakaolin and crushed waste calcined clay bricks as cement replacement. The percentage of cement replacement ranged from 20 to 40% on weight basis. Flexural tests were carried out in the composites after 28 days of cure in water, 135 and 180 days of ageing in the open air and after 94 cycles of wetting and drying. These results indicated that the mixture with cement replacement consumed all calcium hydroxide and kept the toughness over time.

  4. The Effect of Calcination Temperatures on the Activity of CaO and CaO/SiO2 Heterogeneous Catalyst for Transesterification of Rubber Seed Oil in the Presence of Coconut Oil as A Co-Reactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamisah D. Pandiangan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the potential of conversion of rubber seed oil into biodiesel. A series experiments was conducted using CaO and CaO/SiO2 as catalyst and coconut oil as co-reactant, with the main purpose to assess the effect of calcination temperatures on the performance of the catalysts. The results obtained demonstrate that the use of coconut oil as co-reactant significantly promoted conversion of fatty acids in rubber seed oil into their corresponding methylesters. It was also found that the catalytic activity of both CaO and CaO/SiO2 was significantly influenced by calcination temperatures and at the same temperature, CaO/SiO2 exhibited higher activity than unsupported CaO. The highest yield was achieved using CaO/SiO2catalyst subjected to calcination at 800 oC

  5. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  6. Vermicomposting of food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of food waste recycling concept can be an interesting option to reduce the use of landfill. This strategy is more environmental friendly, cheap and fast if proper management to treat the food waste is applied. Nowadays, the concept of recycling is not well practice among the community. In this study, vermicomposting is introduced as an alternative of the food waste recycling. Vermicomposting consists of the use of earthworms to break down the food waste. In this vermicomposting treatment, the nightcrawler earthworm are used to treat the food waste. The food will be collected from UTHM cafe. The experiment consist of peat soil as a base, earthworms and the food waste. The pH number and moisture content of each container were controlled at 7.0 to 7.2 and 60 to 80 % to maintain the favorable environment condition for the earthworms. The weight of the sample will be measured in three days time after exposure to the earthworm. The vermicomposting study was taken about two weeks time. After the treatment, the soil sample are tested for nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, and Potassium (K concentration. Based on the result obtained, it shows that vermicomposting will reduce the weight of treatment sample and the concentration of N, P, and K for the soil is greater than the chemical fertilizer. Therefore, vermicomposting is a promising  alternative treatment of food waste as it is more ecofriendly.

  7. Thermal properties of natural nanostructured hydroxyapatite extracted from fish bone waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, T. M.; Nogueira, E. S.; Weinand, W. R.; Lima, W. M.; Steimacher, A.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2007-04-01

    In a previous study, natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) from the bones of Brazilian river fish was calcined at 900 °C (4-12 h), and optical characterization using the near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy technique enabled the establishment of 8 h as the best calcination time for nanostructure stabilization when milled in a high-energy milling device [T. M. Coelho, E. S. Nogueira, W. R. Weinand, W. M. Lima, A. Steimacher, A. N. Medina, M. L. Baesso, and A. C. Bento, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094312 (2006)]. The fish wastes used were from species such as pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans), jaú (Paulicea lutkeni), and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). In this study, the characterization of the thermal properties of the same natural HAp is discussed for samples milled from 0 to 32 h, with nanostructures from 80 to 24 nm. The powders were pressed into disks at 350 MPa and sintered for 4 h at 1000 °C. Thermophysical parameters were obtained by thermal wave interferometry and nonadiabatic relaxation calorimetry. Results for thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity showed that the parameters increase with milling time, although they present a transition (a plateau) in the interval from 8 to 16 h. Two different slopes were observed and this was interpreted as being due to the size of the crystallites, which fall rapidly, dropping from 80 nm to near 22 nm when milling time is increased from 0 to 16 h, and forming agglomerates up to 32 h.

  8. Improvement, characterization and use of waste corn cob ash in cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmaneechot, P.; Nochaiya, T.; Julphunthong, P.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates the development of waste corn cob ash as supplementary cement replacement materials. The study focused on the effects of heat treatment on chemical composition, physical properties and engineering properties of corn cob ash. The results suggest corn cob ash that was heat treated at 600°C for 4 h shows percentage of SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 around 72%, which can be classified as Class N calcined natural pozzolan, as prescribed by ASTM C618. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the amorphous silica phase increased with increasing calcining temperatures. The water requirement, initial setting time and final setting time of specimens increased with increasing replacement percentage of raw or treated corn cob ash. The morta cubes which used 20% of treated corn cob ash replaced cement showed 103% of the 28 days compressive strength as compared to reference samples. The corn cob ash that was treated at 600°C for 4 h samples shows slightly higher effectiveness for improving the splitting tensile strength and compressive strength of concrete when compared to the untreated corn cob ash.

  9. Phase evolution of vanadium oxides obtained through temperature programmed calcinations of ammonium vanadate in hydrogen atmosphere and their humidity sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akande, A.A. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); University of Limpopo, Department of Physics, P/Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727 (South Africa); Linganiso, E.C.; Dhonge, B.P. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Rammutla, K.E. [University of Limpopo, Department of Physics, P/Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727 (South Africa); Machatine, A.; Prinsloo, L.; Kunert, H. [School of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B.W., E-mail: bmwakikunga@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2015-02-01

    The possibility of obtaining vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) [wherein the vanadium ionic state is 4{sup +}] from a precursor of ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}) bearing the ion V{sup 5+} is investigated. The reduction is carried out by calcining the NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} powders in similar concentrations of H{sub 2} flow at varying temperatures. The resulting powders have been studied by several techniques including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, TEM, BET and DSC. It is found that remnants of bright yellow V{sup 5+} still exist up to calcination temperatures of 100 °C after which the sky-blue VO{sub 2} dominates at calcination temperatures of 150 °C–250 °C. There is a population surge of metastable dark-blue V{sub 6}O{sub 13} (where V is in between V{sup 4+} and V{sup 5+} ionic states) between 250 °C and 300 °C. However above 350 °C the material reverts to the stable V{sup 5+} in the yellow–orange V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. XPS/EDS and VSM confirm the order of appearance to be VO{sub 2}(150 °C) → V{sub 6}O{sub 13}(200 °C) → V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (350 °C). - Highlights: • Validated the theoretical mass losses at each temperature of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} with TGA. • Confirmed mechanisms of formation of various stoichiometries of VO{sub x} from NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. • Determined the evolution of VO{sub 2}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with temperature. • Phase diagram of VO{sub 2}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} by VSM, XPS/EDS, XRD and Raman spectra. • Comparative response of VO{sub 2}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to humidity.

  10. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  11. Gas generation during waste treatment of acidic solutions from the dissolution of irradiated LEU targets for 99Mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakel, Allen J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conner, Cliff [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program is to limit the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors by substituting low-enriched uranium (LEU) wherever possible. The work reported here documents our work to develop the calcining technologies and processes that will be needed for 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. The primary concern with the conversion to LEU from HEU targets is that it would result in a five- to six-fold increase in the total uranium. This increase results in more liquid waste from the process. We have been working to minimize the increase in liquid waste and to minimize the impact of any change in liquid waste. Direct calcination of uranium-rich nitric acid solutions generates NO2 gas and UO3 solid. We have proposed two processes for treating the liquid waste from a Modified Cintichem Process with a LEU foil. One is an optimized direct calcination process that is similar to the process currently in use. The other is a uranyl oxalate precipitation process. The specific goal of the work reported here was to characterize and compare the chemical reactions that occur during these two processes. In particular, the amounts and compositions of the gaseous and solid products were of interest. A series of experiments was carried out to show the effects of temperature and the redox potential of the reaction atmosphere. The primary products of the direct calcination process were mixtures of U3O8 and UO3 solids and NO2 gas. The primary products of the oxalate precipitation process were mixtures of U3O8 and UO2 solid and CO2 gas. Higher temperature and a reducing atmosphere tended to favor quadrivalent over hexavalent uranium in the solid product. These data will help producers to decide between the two processes. In addition, the data can be used to design

  12. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  13. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  14. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  15. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  16. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  17. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  18. Climate Change and Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the life cycle of goods, including ways to reduce our carbon footprint. This page also includes statistics on greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of waste.

  19. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  20. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  1. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier fracti...... fractions under 'household waste', it has provided an important incentive for separate collection....

  2. Synthesis of h- and α-MoO3 by Refluxing and Calcination Combination: Phase and Morphology Transformation, Photocatalysis, and Photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannipa Wongkrua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal molybdenum oxide (h-MoO3 nano- and microrods were successfully synthesized by refluxing of (NH46Mo7O24·4H2O solutions with the pH 1 at 90°C for 1, 3, 5, and 7 h and were further transformed into orthorhombic molybdenum oxide (α-MoO3 microplates by calcination at 450°C for 6 h. These selected products were used to determine the degradation of methylene blue dye under 35 W xenon lamp for 0–180 min, due to the photocatalysis and photosensitization processes. In this research, catalytic activity of the metastable h-MoO3 has higher efficiency than that of the thermodynamically stable α-MoO3. Their phase and morphology transformation was also explained according to the experimental results.

  3. Enhanced Removal of Arsenic and Antimony in the Mining Site by Calcined γ-Fe2O3/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) and Antimony (Sb) have been recognized as harmful contaminants in aquatic environment due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Especially, the contamination of arsenic in the mining areas is considered as a serious emerging environmental issue in Korea. Due to the hazardous effect of arsenic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulated maximum contamination level of arsenic to 10 μg/L in drinking water. The harmful effect on human health by excessive intake of antimony was also reported by previous studies, and severe contamination level (100 - 7,000 μg/L) of antimony reported in surface and groundwater of abandoned mining area in China and Slovakia. Therefore, US EPA regulated maximum contaminants level of antimony in drinking water to 6 μg/L. In order to remove anionic contaminants in drinking water, various type of nanomaterials have been developed. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is the artificial anionic clay that is based on the layered structure of positively charged brucite-like layers with interlayers of anions. The LDH is one of the promising nanomaterials for the removal of anionic contaminants because it has high selectivity for arsenic, phosphate, chromium and antimony. However, the biggest problem of LDH for wastewater treatment is that the particles cannot be easily separated after the removal of contaminants. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) supported LDH nanocomposite (γ-Fe2O3/LDH) was investigated to enhance magnetic particle recovery and removal efficiency for arsenic and antimony. The calcined γ-Fe2O3/LDH nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the crystallographic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and layered structure of LDH were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The nano-sized γ-Fe2O3 (30 to 50 nm) was stably attached on the surface of LDH (100 to 150 nm) and O1s spectrum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) explained that there are both physical and

  4. Synthesis, sustained release properties of magnetically functionalized organic-inorganic materials: Amoxicillin anions intercalated magnetic layered double hydroxides via calcined precursors at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Guangchun; Li, Zhanshuang; Yang, Piaoping; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Tianfu; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2009-09-01

    Zinc-aluminum-carbonate-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-CO 3-LDHs), loaded with magnetic substrates (Fe 3O 4), were prepared for sustained drug-targeting delivery. From the X-ray diffraction results, it was found that the magnetic substrates were successfully incorporated with LDHs and highly dispersed in the hydrotalcite structure. After intercalation with an antibiotic drug (amoxicillin) by using a calcinations-reconstruction method, the basal spacing of layered double hydroxides increased from 7.51 Å to 12.35 Å, indicating that amoxicillin was successfully intercalated into the interlay space of LDHs as a monolayer. Furthermore, in vitro drug release experiments in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) showed sustained release profiles with amoxicillin as a model drug. Magnetic measurements revealed that the composite possessed paramagnetic properties at room temperature.

  5. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  6. Controlled synthesis of MoO{sub 3} microcrystals by subsequent calcination of hydrothermally grown pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} nanorod hybrids and their photodecomposition properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, S., E-mail: raja2001s@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeontong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Nataraj, D., E-mail: de.natraj2011@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Khyzhun, O.Y. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, UA-03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Djaoued, Yahia; Robichaud, Jacques [Laboratoire de Micro-spectroscopies Raman et FTIR, Université de Moncton-Campus de Shippagan, 218 boul. J.-D. Gauthier, Shippagan, NB E8S 1P6 (Canada); Kim, Chang-Koo [Department of Chemical Engineering and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeontong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    We present our results on successful synthesis of pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} nanorod hybrids by using pyrazine and MoO{sub 3} nanorods. On the first stage, MoO{sub 3} nanorods were grown hydrothermally and, on the second stage, their mixture with pyrazine was again involved in a hydrothermal reaction to produce organic–inorganic hybrids. To understand the growth mechanism of the hybrids we varied time and temperature of the hydrothermal process. Intercalation of pyrazine was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy methods. Upon calcinations, pyrazine was deintercalated, i.e. removed from the MoO{sub 3} hybrid system, and the MoO{sub 3} nanorods were found to bind together resulting in formation of MoO{sub 3} microslabs with increased surface area. Photodecomposition performance of the MoO{sub 3} nanorods, pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} hybrids and MoO{sub 3} microcrystals was studied against Procion Red MX-5B textile dye. A high photodecomposition performance was found to decrease when going from MoO{sub 3} nanorods to MoO{sub 3} microcrystal and, further, to pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} hybrids. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • High aspect ratio MoO{sub 3} nanorods were prepared through a new hydrothermal method. • Hybrids of pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} were formed by intercalating pyrazine into MoO{sub 3} nanorods. • Intercalation of pyrazine was confirmed in X-ray spectroscopic analysis. • After calcinations, MoO{sub 3} crystal was retained by binding MoO{sub 3} nanorods together. • High photodegradation performance was noticed from MoO{sub 3} nanorods.

  7. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Eeffect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Madhavrao Kemdeo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 12 wt % molybdena was deposited over 1:1 silica zirconia mixed oxide support and the resultant catalyst was calcined between the 500 to 700 oC range of temperature. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, NH3-TPD and pyridine adsorbed FT-IR techniques.  Nitration of toluene was studied as a model reaction over the prepared catalysts and parameters like effect of reaction temperature, effect of various solvents, catalyst reusability are studied. It was found that conversion of toluene varies with the presence of Brönsted acid sites over the catalyst surface and para-nitrotoulene selectivity is associated with pore size of the catalyst. Over the same catalysts, nitration was extended for some other aromatics. Avoid of sulfuric acid in the present process is an interesting concern in view of green chemistry. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedKeywords: MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2; SO2-ZrO2; NH3-TPD; Nitration; ortho-nitro tolueneReceived: 19th May 2012, Revised: 24th May 2012, Accepted: 26th May 2012[How to Cite: S.M. Kemdeo. (2012. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Effect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 92-104. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/3521] | View in 

  8. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  9. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    Not all the nuclear waste destined for Yucca Mountain is in the form of spent fuel. Some of it will be radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons. This so-called defense waste exists mainly as corrosive liquids and sludge in underground tanks. An essential task of the U.S. high-level radioactive waste program is to process these defense wastes into a solid material--called a waste form. An ideal waste form would be extremely durable and unreactive with other repository materials. It would be simple to fabricate remotely so that it could be safely transported to a repository for permanent storage. What's more, the material should be able to tolerate exposure to intense radiation without degradation. And to minimize waste volume, the material must be able to contain high concentrations of radionuclides. The material most likely to be used for immobilization of radioactive waste is glass. Glasses are produced by rapid cooling of high-temperature liquids such that the liquid-like non-periodic structure is preserved at lower temperatures. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for thermodynamically stable crystalline phases (mineral species) to form. In spite of their thermodynamic instability, glasses can persist for millions of years. An alternate to glass is a ceramic waste form--an assemblage of mineral-like crystalline solids that incorporate radionuclides into their structures. The crystalline phases are thermodynamically stable at the temperature of their synthesis; ceramics therefore tend to be more durable than glasses. Ceramic waste forms are fabricated at temperatures below their melting points and so avoid the danger of handling molten radioactive liquid--a danger that exists with incorporation of waste in glasses. The waste form provides a repository's first line of defense against release of radionuclides. It, along with the canister, is the barrier in the repository over which we have the most control. When a waste

  10. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  11. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  12. Effect of Waste Brick as Mineral Admixture on the Mechanical Performance of Cemented Paste Backfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külekçi, Gökhan; Erçikdi, Bayram; Aliyazicioğlu, Şener

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the replacement and addition of granulated waste brick (WB) to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in a cemented paste backfill (CPB) of sulphide tailings. The addition and OPC rate is about 15-45% and 7% in weight respectively. Pozzolanic activity tests indicated the fineness of WB samples being the major factor of pozzolanic activity instead of chemical composition. All CPB samples displayed the required strength and durability when WB was used as an additive to OPC. On the other hand, a binder dosage of >7wt % was needed to apply the required 28-day strength of ≥ 0.7 MPa when the OPC was replaced by 15-45 wt% WB samples. The durability of CPB samples is closely inter-related with the calcination temperatures and glass phase content of WB.

  13. Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunge, Sneha; Thakre, Dilip; Kamble, Sanjay; Labhsetwar, Nitin; Rayalu, Sadhana

    2012-10-30

    A new alumina supported carbon composite material called "Eggshell Composite" (EC) was synthesized from eggshell waste as calcium source for selective fluoride adsorption from water. The effect of various synthesis parameters like eggshell (ES): Eggshell membrane (ESM) ratio, aluminium loading, mixing time and calcinations temperature to optimize the synthesis conditions for selective fluoride removal has been studied. It was observed that the synthesis parameters have significant influence on development of EC and in turn on fluoride removal capacity. EC synthesized was characterized for elemental composition, morphology, functionality and textural properties. Results showed that EC obtained from eggshell modified with alumina precursor is more selective and efficient for fluoride removal. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm were used to obtain ultimate fluoride removal capacity. The calcium and alumina species in EC shows synergistic effect in fluoride adsorption process. Fluoride sorption studies were carried out in synthetic, groundwater and wastewater. EC proved to be a potential, indigenous and economic adsorbent for fluoride removal.

  14. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  15. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  16. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6). WESF is an interim status other storage-miscellaneous storage unit. WESF stores mixed waste consisting of radioactive cesium and strontium salts. WESF is located in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  17. High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite%煤系高岭土高温煅烧单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔等

    2011-01-01

    研究了煤系高岭土高温煅烧生成单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件-煅烧温度、保温时间和物料粒度.结果表明:煤系高岭土经1 530℃保温8 h或者1 550℃保温0.5~3 h煅烧后均可以获得单晶相莫来石产品,且粒度对单晶相产品的获得没有大的影响;在1 550℃煅烧时,随保温时间的延长,莫来石晶粒长大,玻璃相从连续的网络结构变成不连续的网络结构.%High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite was researched,such as calcining temperature, soaking time, and particle size of starting material. The results show that single crystal mullite can be obtained after calcining coal series kaolin at 1 530 ℃ for 8 h or 1 550 ℃ for 0.53 h,and the particle size of kaolin has no obviously influence on the product;when calcining at 1 550 ℃,as soaking time prolongs, the crystal grain grows, glass phase turns from continuous network to discrete network.

  18. Effect of Different Calcination Temperatures and Post Annealing on the Properties of Acetic Acid Based Sol-Gel (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian Wiegand; Stefan Flege; Olaf Baake; Wolfgang Ensinger

    2013-01-01

    (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) lead free thin films were synthesized by means of an acetic acid based sol-gel process on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates.Na-acetate,K-acetate and Nb-pentaethoxide were used as metal precursors and acetic acid as the solvent.The effect of different calcination temperatures on the properties of the NKN films was investigated by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,leakage current and hysteresis measurements.Low calcination temperatures led to low currents at high electric fields whereas high calcination temperatures led to low currents at low electric fields.Based on these findings calcination at low temperature was combined with a post annealing treatment.Low leakage currents of 4 × 10-4 A/cm2 at 150 kV/cm and 2Pr and 2Ec values of 28 μC/cm2 and 150 kV/cm,respectively,could be obtained.All films were single phase NKN with random crystal orientations and no crack or pore formation was visible on the surface.

  19. Multivariate optimization of process parameters in the synthesis of calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH for defluoridation using 3(3) factorial, central composite and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Gupta, Ashok K; Sulaiman, Ayoob

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively.

  20. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  2. Recovery of silica from electronic waste for the synthesis of cubic MCM-48 and its application in preparing ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieves using a green approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Tzong-Horng

    2012-07-01

    The electronics industry is one of the world's fastest growing manufacturing industries. However, e-waste has become a serious pollution problem. This study reports the recovery of e-waste for preparing valuable MCM-48 and ordered mesoporous carbon for the first time. Specifically, this study adopts an alkali-extracted method to obtain sodium silicate precursors from electronic packaging resin ash. The influence of synthesis variables such as gelation pH, neutral/cationic surfactant ratio, hydrothermal treatment temperature, and calcination temperature on the mesophase of MCM-48 materials is investigated. Experimental results confirm that well-ordered cubic MCM-48 materials were synthesized in strongly acidic and strongly basic media. The resulting mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 1,317 m2/g, mean pore size of about 3.0 nm, and a high purity of 99.87 wt%. Ordered mesoporous carbon with high surface area (1,715 m2/g) and uniform pore size of CMK-1 type was successfully prepared by impregnating MCM-48 template using the resin waste. The carbon structure was sensitive to the sulfuric acid concentration and carbonization temperature. Converting e-waste into MCM-48 materials not only eliminates the disposal problem of e-waste, but also transforms industrial waste into a useful nanomaterial.

  3. Simulated high-level waste-basalt interaction experiments. First interim progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Scheetz, B.E.; Komarneni, S.; Barnes, M.; Smith, C.A.; Lewis, J.F.; Smith, D.K.

    1978-03-24

    Reconnaissance experiments have shown that waste/basalt interactions are of real importance in understanding all aspects of total containment of radionuclides in a basalt repository. It has been shown that the reprocessed waste forms, calcine and glass, are relatively more reactive than the more crystalline waste forms, spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) and supercalcine. These experiments have established the direction of future research. The remainder of the program will be concerned with longer-duration and more-detailed experiments whose emphasis will be on understanding the mechanisms of reaction. Long-duration and in-depth experiments are being initiated to establish kinetic relationships and get a better feel as to whether or not we are approaching equilibrium in our shorter-duration reconnaissance experiments. In some cases, especially at higher temperatures, it appears that we are approaching a steady-state wherein products are no longer changing. This, however, might be a metastable state. Experiments with cesium compounds thought to be present in SURF (Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/), a simple cesium source (CsOH), labradorite, and ground water have shown that pollucite forms and, as a result, fixes 86 to 99% of the cesium (depending upon the amount of basalt present.

  4. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... listed or characteristic hazardous waste. Finally, it is important to note that some facilities petitioned EPA to ...

  5. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  6. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  7. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  8. Korean Waste Management Law and Waste Disposal Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Soil Treatment Tanks) 69 Article 8. (Interim Measures on Report of Recycler or Reuser of Industrial Waste) 69 Article 9. (Interim Measures on Permit...recycling and reuse (hereinafter referred to as a "recycler and reuser of industrial waste"), pursuant to Article 23.2. of the Law, shall submit a "Filing... reuser of industrial waste, pursuant to Article 45.2., shall submit a "Modification of Recycle or Reuse of Industrial Waste" (Form No. 17), to the

  9. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  10. Tomography finds waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

  11. PLASTIC WASTE CONVERSION TO LIQUID FUELS OVER MODIFIED-RESIDUAL CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYSTS: MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK – GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The plastic waste utilization can be addressed toward different valuable products. A promising technology for the utilization is by converting it to fuels. Simultaneous modeling and optimization representing effect of reactor temperature, catalyst calcinations temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio toward performance of liquid fuel production was studied over modified catalyst waste. The optimization was performed to find optimal operating conditions (reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio that maximize the liquid fuel product. A Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA method was used for the modeling and optimization, respectively. The variable interaction between the reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, as well as plastic/catalyst ratio is presented in surface plots. From the GC-MS characterization, the liquid fuels product was mainly composed of C4 to C13 hydrocarbons.KONVERSI LIMBAH PLASTIK MENJADI BAHAN BAKAR CAIR DENGAN METODE PERENGKAHAN KATALITIK MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS BEKAS YANG TERMODIFIKASI: PEMODELAN DAN OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN GABUNGAN METODE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK DAN GENETIC ALGORITHM. Pemanfaatan limbah plastik dapat dilakukan untuk menghasilkan produk yang lebih bernilai tinggi. Salah satu teknologi yang menjanjikan adalah dengan mengkonversikannya menjadi bahan bakar. Permodelan, simulasi dan optimisasi simultan yang menggambarkan efek dari suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis terhadap kinerja produksi bahan bakar cair telah dipelajari menggunakan katalis bekas termodifikasi Optimisasi ini ditujukan untuk mencari kondisi operasi optimum (suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis yang memaksimalkan produk bahan bakar cair. Metode Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA telah digunakan untuk permodelan dan optimisasi simultan tersebut. Inetraksi antar variabel

  12. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  13. UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  14. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  15. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  16. UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  17. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  18. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  19. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  20. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.